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Showing 1 - 200 of 893 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.207, CiteScore: 1)
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Agronómica     Open Access  
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Botanica Brasilica     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.325, CiteScore: 1)
Acta botánica mexicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.212, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Botánica Venezuelica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.28, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Literaria     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurológica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Nova     Open Access  
Acta Obstétrica e Ginecológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Paulista de Enfermagem     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Pediátrica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.25, CiteScore: 0)
Acta zoológica mexicana     Open Access  
Actas Odontológicas     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Human Rights Law J.     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.198, CiteScore: 1)
Afro-Asia     Open Access  
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.132, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Tropical     Open Access  
Aisthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Ajayu Órgano de Difusión Científica del Departamento de Psicología UCBSP     Open Access  
Alea : Estudos Neolatinos     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Aletheia : Revista de Desarrollo Humano, Educativo y Social Contemporáneo     Open Access  
Alfa : Revista de Linguística     Open Access  
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary J. of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
América Latina en la historia económica     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.134, CiteScore: 0)
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access  
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.157, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Social     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Análisis Economico     Open Access  
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.674, CiteScore: 1)
Anestesia Analgesia Reanimación     Open Access  
Anestesia en México     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access   (SJR: 0.386, CiteScore: 1)
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Antropología Social y Cultural en Uruguay     Open Access  
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Anuario de Historia Regional y de las Fronteras     Open Access  
Anuario de Letras : Lingüística y Filología     Open Access  
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - J. of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Neurociencias     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Pediatria del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access  
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos Españoles de Urología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.178, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access  
Argos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARQ     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.248, CiteScore: 0)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia     Open Access  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.518, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.448, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos Internacionais de Otorrinolaringologia     Open Access  
ARS     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atenea (Concepción)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.449, CiteScore: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Austral J. of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.164, CiteScore: 0)
Avances en Enfermería     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bakhtiniana : Revista de Estudos do Discurso     Open Access   (SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.137, CiteScore: 0)
Biosalud     Open Access  
Biota Neotropica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.188, CiteScore: 0)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 0)
Boletin Chileno de Parasitologia     Open Access  
Boletín Científico : Centro de Museos. Museo de Historia Natural     Open Access  
Boletín de Filología     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.291, CiteScore: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Boletin Mexicano de Derecho Comparado     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Business Review     Open Access  
Brazilian Dental J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.476, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. Geology     Open Access  
Brazilian J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.523, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.206, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Pain (BrJP)     Open Access  
Brazilian J. of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.802, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.178, CiteScore: 3)
Brazilian J. of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian Oral Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Political Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.532, CiteScore: 3)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Caderno de Estudos     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, CiteScore: 1)
Cadernos de Tradução     Open Access  
Cadernos Metrópole     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Nietzsche     Open Access  
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access   (SJR: 0.356, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caldasia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 0)
CERNE     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
CES Psicología     Open Access  
Chilean J. of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Chilean J. of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.377, CiteScore: 1)
Chungara (Arica) - Revista de Antropologia Chilena     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Educação (Bauru)     Open Access  
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 0)
Ciência da Informação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.383, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Investigación Agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia y Enfermeria - Revista Iberoamericana de Investigacion     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.414, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.166, CiteScore: 0)
Cirujano General     Open Access  
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CLEI Electronic J.     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access   (SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 0)
Clinics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
CoDAS     Open Access   (SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 0)
Cofin Habana     Open Access  
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Computación y Sistemas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 1)
Comuni@cción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comunicación y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 0)
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access  
Confines     Open Access  
Contaduría y Administración     Open Access   (SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Contexto Internacional     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Correo Científico Médico     Open Access  
Corrosão e Protecção de Materiais     Open Access  
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 1)
CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Contabilidad     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.154, CiteScore: 0)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (SJR: 0.115, CiteScore: 0)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American J. of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Publica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Medicina Forense     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access   (SJR: 0.423, CiteScore: 1)
Cuadernos del CENDES     Open Access   (SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 0)
Cuadernos.info     Open Access   (SJR: 0.38, CiteScore: 0)

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South African Journal of Surgery
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.162
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0038-2361 - ISSN (Online) 2078-5151
Published by SciELO Homepage  [893 journals]
  • College of Surgeons general surgery final examination

    •  
  • An audit of the outcomes of the College of Surgeons general surgery
           final examinations

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: An audit of the Fellowship of the College of Surgeons (FCS) of South Africa examination results has not been previously performed. The purpose of this study was to review and determine any predictors of outcome (pass or fail) METHODS: The results of the FCS(SA) final examinations from October 2005 to and including October 2014, were retrieved from the College of Medicine of South Africa database. The current format of the examinations consists of two written essay question papers, an objectively structured clinical examination (OSCE), two clinical cases and two oral examinations. These were retrospectively reviewed and analysed. Predictors of failure or success were determined. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period, 472 candidates attempted the examinations. A total of 388 (82%) candidates were successful in the written component of the examination and were subsequently invited to participate in the clinical component of the examinations. Overall, 296 (63%) candidates passed and 176 (37%) failed. There were 51 candidates who were invited to the oral examinations despite an average of less than 50% in the two papers, and 34 (67%) failed the overall examination. Similarly, 126 candidates were invited having failed one of the two papers of which 81 (64%) ultimately failed. A total of 49 candidates failed the OSCE, 82% of these candidates failed overall. There were strong correlations between the averages of the papers versus the orals (Spearman ρ = 0.51), the papers versus the cases (Spearman ρ = 0.50), and the papers versus the OSCE (Spearman ρ = 0.55). CONCLUSION: The written papers are the main determinant of invitation to the second part of the examination. Candidates with marginal scores in the written component had an overall failure rate of 67%. Failing one paper and passing the other, resulted in an overall failure rate of 64%. Failing the OSCE resulted in an overall 82% failure rate. With the high failure rate of candidates with marginal scores and with the inter-examination variability of the papers, it might be prudent to revisit both the process of invitation selection and the decision to continue with the long-form of the written component.
       
  • Compliance with the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for early
           resuscitation does not translate into improved outcomes in patients with
           surgical sepsis in South Africa

    • Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This project set out to audit our compliance with the 3-hour bundles of care for surgical sepsis and to interrogate how compliance or non-compliance impacts on the outcome of surgical sepsis in our institution. METHODS: All emergency surgical patients over the age of fifteen years were reviewed. All patients who fulfilled the ACCP/ SCCM criteria for sepsis or septic shock, with a documented surgical source of infection, were identified for review. RESULTS: A total of 677 septic patients with a documented surgical source of sepsis were included. Of the 677 patients, 53% (360/677) had intra-abdominal sepsis, 17% (116/677) had diabetic-related limb sepsis and the remaining 30% (201) had soft tissue infections. A total of 585 operative procedures were performed. Compliance with all components of the 3-hour bundle metrics was achieved in 379/677 patients (56%), and not achieved in 298/677 patients (44%). The only significant difference between the compliant and the non-compliant groups was respiratory rate greater than 22 breaths/minute (131 vs 71, p = 0.002) in the compliant cohort. Amongst the compliant cohort 77/379 patients (20%) required admission to ICU, whilst 41/298 patients (14%) in the non-compliant cohort required admission to ICU. This difference was statistically different (p = 0.026). There was no difference in the median length of hospital stay (6 days) between the two groups. Fifty-five patients in the compliant cohort died (15%), whilst 31 (10%) of the patients in the non-compliant cohort died. This difference was not statistically different (p = 0.111). CONCLUSION: Compliance with the SCC 3-hour bundle did not seem to improve mortality outcomes in our setting. This observation cannot be adequately explained with our current data and further work looking at management of surgical sepsis in our setting is required. Time to surgical source control is probably the single most important determinant of outcome in patients with surgical sepsis and other aspects of the care bundle are of secondary importance.
       
  • Admissions for post-discharge surgical site infection at a quaternary
           South African public sector hospital

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Reports of post-discharge admissions for surgical site infection (SSI) in African settings are lacking. This information could assist with allocating resources within hospitals, as well as developing targeted interventions aimed at reducing post-discharge SSI. The primary objective of this study was to determine trends in admissions for post-discharge SSI at a South African quaternary/teaching hospital. The secondary objective was to determine trends in mortality rates for these admissions METHODS: This was a retrospective review of adult admissions for post-discharge SSI at a quaternary/teaching South African hospital between 2006 and 2015. Admissions for post-discharge SSI were identified using the hospital administrative database and appropriate International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision codes. Mortality was determined from the discharge disposition for each admission. Data were analysed with simple regression and trend line statistics. The geospatial distribution of post-discharge SSI, based on the residential postal codes recorded on the hospital administrative database for each admission, was determined using the Power Map® software program RESULTS: There was no change in admissions for post-discharge SSI over the study period (p = 0.17). Mortality in elderly admissions declined during the study period (p = 0.03). Most admissions for post-discharge SSIs originated from urban areas. CONCLUSION: Despite the implementation of universal SSI prevention methods, admissions for post-discharge SSI remained consistent during the study period. Urban areas appeared to be more severely affected by post-discharge SSI than rural areas. Additional prevention methods for post-discharge SSI are required
       
  • Axillary lymph node dissection for patients with invasive breast cancer at
           Charlotte Maxeke and Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospitals

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The extent of axillary surgery correlates with its morbidity and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard of care in clinically node-negative (cN0) patients.This study aims to evaluate the application of SLNB and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and the associated risk factors for node-negative ALND in our units METHODS: We included female patients with primary breast cancer who underwent axillary surgery in the breast units at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital from March 2013 to March 2015. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with pathological node-negative (pN0) ALND RESULTS: 505 patients were included and 344 patients were staged clinically node-positive (68.1%), 161 (31.9%) were assessed as clinically node-negative and deemed eligible for SLNB. Sensitivity of clinical nodal staging was 85.9% with a positive predictive value of 76.5%. The majority of patients (313, 61.9%) underwent primary surgery while 192 (38.1%) underwent surgery after NACT. We performed 118 SLNBs and 387 ALNDs of which 97 were pathologically node-negative. Risk was not increased after NACT (OR 1.06, p = 0.790). We identified a significant risk in patients with triple-negative and HER-2 enriched subtypes compared to hormone receptor-positive patients (OR 3.05, 95% CI: 1.6-5.7, p = 0.001 and OR 2.25, 95% CI: 1.1-4.8, p = 0.035 CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of pN0 ALND was 25.06%. In our cohort a significantly higher risk was found in hormone receptor-negative tumours Preoperative nodal assessment needs to be optimised and include pathological confirmation. SLNB needs to be extended to patients after NACT despite resource-constraints.
       
  • Discrepancy in clinical outcomes of patients with gunshot wounds in car
           hijacking: a South African experience

    • Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Discrepancy in outcomes between urban and rural trauma patients is well known. We reviewed our institutional experience with the management of gunshot wounds (GSWs) in the specific setting of car hijacking and focused on clinical outcome between rural and urban patients. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted at a major trauma centre in South Africa over an 8-year period for all patients who presented with any form of GSWs in car hijacking settings. Specific clinical outcomes were compared between rural and urban patients. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients were included (74% male, mean age 34 years). Fifty-five per cent were injured in rural areas and the remaining 45% (45/101) were in the urban district. Mean time from injury to arrival at our trauma centre was 11 hours for rural and 4 hours for urban patients (p < 0.001). Seventy-six per cent (76/101) sustained GSWs to multiple body regions. Sixty-three of the 101 (62%) patients required one or more operative interventions. In individual logistic regressions adjusted for sex and number of regions injured, rural patients were 9 (95% CI: 1.9-44.4) and 7 (95% CI: 2.124.5) times more likely than urban patients to have morbidities or required admissions to intensive care respectively. The risk of death in rural patients was 36 (95% CI: 4.5-284.6) times higher than that of urban patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who sustained GSWs in carjacking incidents that occurred in rural areas are associated with significantly greater morbidity and mortality compared with their urban counterparts. Delay to definitive care is likely to be the significant contributory factor, and improvement in prehospital emergency medical service is likely to be beneficial in improving patient outcome.
       
  • Renal trauma in a Trauma Intensive Care Unit population

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: For the majority of renal injuries, non-operative management is the standard of care with nephrectomy reserved for those with severe trauma. This study in a dedicated Trauma Intensive Care Unit (TICU) population aimed to assess the outcomes of renal injuries and identify factors that predict the need for nephrectomy METHODS: Patients, older than 18 years, admitted to TICU from January 2007 to December 2014 who sustained renal injuries had data extracted from the prospectively collected Class Approved Trauma Registry (BCA207-09). Patients who underwent surgical intervention for the renal injury or received non-operative management were compared. The key variables analysed were: patient demographics, mechanism of injury, grade of renal injury, presenting haemoglobin, initial systolic blood pressure, Injury Severity Score and Renal Injury AAST Grade on CT scan in patients who did not necessarily require immediate surgery, or at surgery in those patients who needed emergency laparotomy RESULTS: There were 74 confirmed renal injuries. There were 42 low grade injuries (grade I-III) and 32 high grade injuries (5 grade IV and 27 grade V). Twenty-six (35%) had a nephrectomy: 24 with grade V injuries and 2 with grade IV injuries required nephrectomy. Six patients in the high injury grade arm had non-operative management. A low haemoglobin, low systolic blood pressure, higher injury severity score, and a high-grade renal injury, as well as increasing age were positive predictors for nephrectomy in trauma patients with renal injury CONCLUSION: Non-operative management is a viable option with favourable survival rates in lower grade injury; however, complications should be anticipated and managed accordingly. High grade injuries predict the need for surgery
       
  • Renal artery embolisation: indications and utilisation at Tygerberg
           Hospital

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the indications, efficacy and outcomes of endovascular renal artery embolisation (RAE) in the management of renal haemorrhage, specifically in cases of non-iatrogenic origin. METHODS: This is a retrospective case note review of 92 patients who underwent RAE in the period from August 1999 to August 2014 at Tygerberg Hospital. RESULTS: Renal artery embolisation was performed in a total of 92 patients. The indication was traumatic renal injury in 60 patients (65.2%), with mean age 28.2 years. The mechanism of injury was stabbing (55.4%), blunt trauma (7.6%) and gunshot (2.2%). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed pseudo-aneurysm in 32.6%, arteriovenous fistula in 19.6% and segmental artery injury in 13%. : 85% after one, 88.9% after a second attempt, with an overall success rate of 98.3% after two attempts. In 20 of the 92 patients (mean age 50.2 years) the indication was malignancy (21.7%). Other cases included iatrogenic haematuria (4.3%) and angiomyolipoma (3.3%). Embolisation was repeated in 16.3%, with eventual success rate of 93.8%. Post-embolisation syndrome was the most common complication, seen in 9.8% of all cases. Of the 9 patients who returned for follow-up with renogram imaging, 4 had a differential function of> 20% of the embolised kidney. CONCLUSION: Renal artery embolisation remains a very successful method of managing renal haemorrhage at this hospital, whether this results from trauma, malignancy, iatrogenic or other causes.
       
  • Correlation of white cell count and CRP in acute appendicitis in
           paediatric patients

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ten per cent of children who present with abdominal pain at an emergency department are diagnosed with acute appendicitis. The diagnosis of which relies on clinical acumen, but addition of tests such as measurement of the white cell count (WCC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are needed to decrease the morbidity associated with inappropriate surgical management. This study evaluates the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the WCC and CRP separately and when used in combination and evaluates whether an increased WCC and CRP are associated with complicated appendicitis METHODS: A retrospective record review of all paediatric patients who underwent appendicectomy between June 2010 and December 2016 was conducted. Demographic data, the WCC, CRP and histology results were reviewed RESULTS: 763 records were reviewed. The sensitivity and specificity of the WCC were 69.6% and 43.1% respectively and of the CRP were 95.4% and 24.5% respectively. The sensitivity was higher when both the CRP and WCC were elevated (97.47%). A normal WCC and CRP had a specificity of 98%, with an odds ratio of 8.69 of a patient not having appendicitis. There was a borderline significance between the WCC and the presence of acute appendicitis (p = 0.0494). The CRP was significant in patient with acute appendicitis (p < 0.0001). The WCC and CRP between uninflamed appendix specimens, uncomplicated appendicitis and complicated appendicitis was significant CONCLUSION: Both increasing CRP and WCC correlates with an increased likelihood of the presence of complicated appendicitis. The chance of a patient having appendicitis with both normal WCC and CRP is low
       
  • Scar wars

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Burn scars are common in the paediatric population. When involving the face, it diminishes quality of life. Ablative fractional laser (AFL) therapy is becoming the preferred choice for established scars due to its greater potential depth for thermal injury (4 mm), which leads to photothermolysis with subsequent neocollagenesis and collagen fibre realignment and remodelling. Combined with small z-plasties and topical steroids, it has been proven to: flatten and decrease the volume of scars, increase pliability and decrease pruritus and erythema. The purpose of the case series was to determine the clinical significance of a single session of AFL therapy, combined with small z-plasties and topical steroids on facial scars post burn injury. METHODS: Four cases of paediatric facial scarring post burns were selected to undergo a single treatment of AFL therapy, accompanied by small z-plasties and topical steroids. Modified Vancouver Scar Scores (MVSS) pre- and postoperatively at 3 and 6 months were evaluated RESULTS: Improvement of all components of the MVSS was achieved after 6 months, with major improvement in scar pliability and symptomatology. The mean MVSS improved from 14 (range 12-16) preoperatively to 5 and 5.5 respectively at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Non-parametric analysis with Friedman Two-Way ANOVA by Rank showed a statistical significance between the pre- and postoperative MVSS (p = 0.024) CONCLUSION: AFL should form an integral part of the burn scar armamentarium.
       
  • Knowledge and attitude of patients undergoing lower extremity amputation
           at RK Khan Hospital, Chatsworth

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Amputation is one of the oldest and most commonly performed surgical procedures. OBJECTIVE: To review the knowledge and attitude of patients undergoing lower extremity amputations and describe the associated causative factors. METHODOLOGY: A questionnaire-based prospective study assessing patients either preoperatively or immediately postoperatively regarding their knowledge and attitudes toward lower extremity amputation was conducted between November 2016 and April 2017. Extracted data was captured into an Excel spreadsheet and imported into SPSS for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Sixty-three amputations were performed with males accounting for 56% of the study population. The majority were in the age group of 61-70 years (33%). The commonest indication for amputation was complication of diabetes mellitus or diabetes foot sepsis (65%). Below-knee amputation (BKA) was the most frequently performed procedure and accounted for 56% of all amputations. Seventy per cent of the participants had formal education and 60% knew that their condition could lead to an amputation, but only approximately 10% visited the foot clinic before their major amputation despite the service being available at RK Khan Hospital. Smoking was the commonest habit associated with amputation. CONCLUSION: Complications of diabetic mellitus are the most common indication for lower extremity amputation. A high percentage of patients knew their co-morbid condition could lead to limb loss but failed to seek medical assistance until late in their disease process.
       
  • Tuberculous prostatitis: a condition not confined to the
           immunocompromised

    • Abstract: Tuberculous (TB) prostatitis is rare; usually occurring in immunocompromised men. It can mimic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), chronic prostatitis or prostate cancer. This report in an immunocompetent 72-year-old man adds to the clinical spectrum of the five prior reported cases. A low threshold for prostatic biopsy led to a histological evaluation and subsequent microbiological confirmation of TB. This attests to the value of such an approach in arriving at the correct diagnosis and the institution of appropriate anti-tuberculous therapy even amongst immune-competent men.
       
  • Malignant neuroendocrine tumour in an adult female diagnosed with
           Currarino syndrome

    • Abstract: Currarino syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant condition of caudal anomalies, usually diagnosed in childhood. Adult presentation is rare and malignant transformation of the associated presacral mass even more so. We report a case of a 60-year-old female diagnosed with a malignant neuroendocrine tumour in the presacral mass in Currarino syndrome and describe the surgical management and pathological findings.
       
  • South African guidelines for receptor radioligand therapy (RLT) with
           Lu-177-PSMA in prostate cancer

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in South Africa, as it is in the rest of the world. In African men, however, prostate cancer tends to follow a more aggressive course when compared to their European counterparts. This is attributed to a plethora of diverse factors of which an underlying genetic component has been shown to be an important aspect. Such differences highlight the need for individualised therapy and for local guidelines. The aim of this guideline is to aid nuclear physicians and other clinicians who manage patients with prostate cancer in the correct identification and treatment of patients who are likely to benefit from receptor radioligand therapy. RECOMMENDATIONS: There are a multitude of treatment modalities available for the treatment of prostate cancer and these therapies may be required at various time points during the course of the disease in any individual patient. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial in deciding which therapy, or combination of therapies, would be most advantageous at particular time points. The multidisciplinary team should include a urologist, oncologist and nuclear medicine physician as a minimum, and should ideally also involve a palliative/pain specialist, a dietician and a psychologist. CONCLUSION: Treatment with 177Lu-PSMA has emerged as a promising systemic modality, which involves the delivery of targeted radiation therapy in the form of β-particles to sites of tumour tissue. Therapy is provided on an outpatient basis, is well tolerated with relatively few side effects and has a positive effect on overall survival and quality of life. At present, it is used mostly in the setting of advanced, castrate-resistant cancer. Patients are selected (amongst other criteria) based on the prior PSMA-based SPECT/PET/CT imaging (99mTc-,68Ga- or 18F-PSMA), which should demonstrate sufficient receptor expression in order to consider PSMA-based targeted radionuclide therapy. Such imaging of an intended target prior to its therapeutic targeting is known as a theranostic approach.
       
 
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