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Publisher: Sage Publications   (Total: 1079 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1079 Journals sorted alphabetically
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Abstracts in Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Academic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Accounting History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Radiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.754, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Radiologica Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.939, CiteScore: 2)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 333, SJR: 1.397, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 0)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 2)
Adult Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 131, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Tumor Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.108, CiteScore: 0)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Affilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
Agrarian South : J. of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Alexandria : The J. of National and Intl. Library and Information Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
AlterNative : An Intl. J. of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Alternative Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.351, CiteScore: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Educational Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197, SJR: 2.913, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Cosmetic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.646, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.65, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.777, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.972, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184, SJR: 3.949, CiteScore: 6)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.313, CiteScore: 1)
American Review of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.062, CiteScore: 2)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295, SJR: 6.333, CiteScore: 6)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, CiteScore: 2)
Animation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.634, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.096, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.225, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of the ICRP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.341, CiteScore: 7)
Anthropological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.635, CiteScore: 2)
Antyajaa : Indian J. of Women and Social Change     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.17, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 2)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Media Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Management Research and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 1)
Asian and Pacific Migration J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 99, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Management Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
ASN Neuro     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.534, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.519, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.433, CiteScore: 1)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.801, CiteScore: 2)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 518, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian J. of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.497, CiteScore: 1)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 1.739, CiteScore: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.877, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Bible Translator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Biblical Theology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Research for Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarkers in Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioscope: South Asian Screen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 3)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Breast Cancer : Basic and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.823, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Music Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
British J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Politics and Intl. Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
British J.ism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 1)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Business Perspectives and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers Élisabéthains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
California Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.209, CiteScore: 4)
Canadian J. of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.007, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Nursing Research (CJNR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123, SJR: 0.626, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.769, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists J. / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Growth and Metastasis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.64, CiteScore: 1)
Capital and Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access  
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Cartilage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.889, CiteScore: 3)
Cell and Tissue Transplantation and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.023, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.581, CiteScore: 3)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Child Maltreatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
Child Neurology Open     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
China Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Christianity & Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chronic Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.672, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.808, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Stress     Open Access  
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.757, CiteScore: 1)
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.73, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Blood Disorders     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Ear, Nose and Throat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.776, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Trauma and Intensive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Nursing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.487, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.281, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.399, CiteScore: 2)
Clothing and Textiles Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Communication and the Public     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.458, CiteScore: 1)
Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.171, CiteScore: 3)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.451, CiteScore: 1)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 3.772, CiteScore: 3)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)
Competition and Regulation in Network Industries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.642, CiteScore: 2)
Conflict Management and Peace Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.441, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary Drug Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 2)
Contemporary Education Dialogue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary Review of the Middle East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Contemporary Sociology : A J. of Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Contemporary Voice of Dalit     Full-text available via subscription  
Contexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contributions to Indian Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 0)
Convergence The Intl. J. of Research into New Media Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.521, CiteScore: 1)
Cooperation and Conflict     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.945, CiteScore: 2)
Cornell Hospitality Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.198, CiteScore: 2)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Structural Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.599
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 46  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1369-4332 - ISSN (Online) 2048-4011
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1079 journals]
  • A hybrid ant lion optimizer with improved Nelder–Mead algorithm for
           structural damage detection by improving weighted trace lasso
           regularization
    • Authors: Chengbin Chen, Ling Yu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Structural damage detection is the kernel technique in deploying structural health monitoring. The structural damage–detection technique using heuristic algorithms has been developed at an astounding pace over the past years. However, some existing structural damage–detection methods are prone to easily fall into the local optimum and to be unstable when they are applied to complex structures. In order to make full use of advantages of heuristic algorithms and overcome abovementioned shortcomings, a hybrid algorithm, which combines the ant lion optimizer with an improved Nelder–Mead algorithm, is proposed to solve the constrained optimization problem of complex structural damage detection. First, an objective function is established for damage identification using structural modal parameters, that is, frequencies and mode shapes. The solution to the objective function is accurately attained by a newly improved weighted trace lasso which can improve the computing performance and stability of procedure and reduce randomness of weighted coefficients. After assessing the computing performance of the proposed hybrid algorithm using three classical mathematical benchmark functions, two structural damage–detection numerical simulations and a laboratory verification are then conducted to fully assess the structural damage–detection capability of the proposed method. Meanwhile, the equivalent element stiffness-reduction model is introduced to estimate the real damage severities of cracks which are created in laboratory structures and to compare with the structural damage–detection results by the proposed method. The illustrated results show that the proposed hybrid algorithm can locate damage and quantify damage severity more accurately and stably with a good robustness to noise.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-16T06:42:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219872434
       
  • Investigation on the behaviors of Tou–Kung sets in historic timber
           structures
    • Authors: Jianyang Xue, Linlin Ma, Xiaoyang Dong, Xin Zhang, Xicheng Zhang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To investigate the structural performance of Tou–Kung, two 1/3.52-scaled models of Tou–Kung were designed and tested subjected to vertical loading and quasi-static loading. Also, the finite element models of intact Tou–Kung and tilting Tou–Kung were established. Based on the validation of experimental results and finite element models, numerical simulation analysis of the models was carried out to study the influence of tilting angle on the behaviors of Tou–Kung. It is shown that the failure modes of the models were the compressive fracture of Da-Tou under vertical load, the shear failure of the dowel at Da-Tou, and the slipping between Da-Tou and Pingban-Fang subjected to lateral cyclic loads. The relationship of vertical load and vertical displacement was obtained and analyzed, and the vertical initial stiffness and bearing capacity of the models descended with the increase in tilting angle. The hysteretic loops of the tilting models subjected to cyclic loads are asymmetrical in positive and negative loading, and the asymmetrical degrees of the curves are much significant with a larger tilting angle of the models. With the increase in tilting angle, the lateral stiffness and ultimate load increased in positive loading, and both of them decreased in negative loading due to the tilting of the models. Also, the equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the models decreases with a larger tilting angle of Tou–Kung.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-16T06:42:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219872439
       
  • Buffeting response of a composite cable-stayed bridge in a trumpet-shaped
           mountain pass
    • Authors: Zheng-feng Shen, Jia-wu Li, Guang-zhong Gao, Xiao-feng Xue
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research showed that wind characteristics were influenced by terrain. To accurately calculate the wind-induced bridge response, this article presented a comprehensive investigation of the wind characteristics of a trumpet-shaped mountain pass by long-term monitoring. Basic strong wind characteristics such as the wind rose, turbulence intensities, turbulence length scales, turbulence spectra and normalized cross-spectrum were discussed using 10 min intervals. Due to the different types of terrain on the two sides of the bridge site, this article attempted to reflect the influence of the terrain on the wind characteristics in different wind directions. The scatter plots of wind characteristics were presented directly on the terrain map. The effects of the turbulence characteristics, mean wind speed and aerodynamic admittance function on buffeting response of the composite cable-stayed bridge were discussed by the multimode coupled frequency domain. The results show that the wind profile is extremely twisted. The larger turbulent integral scale and the lower turbulence intensity appear in the direction along the river. The effect of the mean wind speed on the buffeting response is greater than that of the fluctuating wind characteristics. The aerodynamic admittance function proposed by Holmes has the largest reduction in buffeting response.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-16T06:40:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219873984
       
  • Accurate determination of reference wind speed and reference static
           pressure in wind tunnel tests
    • Authors: YC He, JCK Cheung, QS Li, JY Fu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The reference wind speed and reference static pressure are two key parameters for determining the testing results of wind tunnel experiments. Traditionally, the values of these parameters can be determined using direct measurement methods. However, such methods may suffer from less accuracy and inconvenience of operations. This article documents an indirect measurement method which, compared to the traditional methods, has the merits of higher accuracy and greater operational convenience. Examples are presented to demonstrate the main procedures of the method and typical findings by using the method in a boundary layer wind tunnel.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-16T06:39:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219875302
       
  • Application of adaptive sliding mode control (sigma adaption method) for
           an uncertain three-story benchmark structure
    • Authors: Javad Katebi, Jafar Jangara
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study develops the application of adaptive sliding mode control to earthquake-excited uncertain structures. Adaptive sliding mode control is useful as it only requires the boundness feature of uncertainties and disturbances to determine control gain (and not the amplitude of bounds). Moreover, the amplitude of chattering effect, the main drawback of sliding mode control, attenuates while stability and robustness are preserved. For this purpose, two adaptive-gain control algorithms are considered. In addition, a time-varying boundary layer is considered to increase the accuracy. In order to examine the feasibility of the applied method, a three-story benchmark structure is considered. Furthermore, performance indexes are used to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptive sliding mode control in comparison to sliding mode control and fuzzy sliding mode control. Comparison of the simulation results in accordance to performance indexes demonstrates that adaptive sliding mode control not only attenuates the amplitude of control effort (i.e. chattering amplitude) but also makes the control of the maximum response of the structure applying adaptive sliding mode control more convenient. It is shown that displacement and drift performance indexes of adaptive sliding mode control are equal to or less than ones of sliding mode control, while root mean square of the control effort of adaptive sliding mode control is attenuated around 50%.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-16T06:38:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219875306
       
  • Efficient evaluation of bridge deformation for running safety of railway
           vehicles using simplified models
    • Authors: Zhibin Jin, Ligang Yuan, Shiling Pei
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The running safety of high-speed trains over bridges is a great concern in bridge design. Typically, the running safety of vehicles is evaluated by vehicle–track simulations that are computationally expensive and unfamiliar to bridge designers. This study investigates simplified vehicle–track models for assessing the running safety of vehicles on deformed bridges. Four types of simplified vehicle models along with four types of simplified wheel–track models are investigated. The predicted wheel–rail forces are compared with those simulated by the detailed vehicle–track program. In these simulations, typical bridge deformations are taken as excitations to the dynamic system. It is found that omitting the rail vibration leads to large wheel–rail response errors. The wheel–rail constraint model gives similar wheel–rail responses to those obtained by the Hertz contact model. A vehicle–track model with five degrees-of-freedom is adequate for assessing wheel–rail forces. Furthermore, an analytical solution to the wheel–rail forces running over an angular rotation was obtained. These simplified vehicle–track models provide an efficient way to assess the running safety of vehicles on deformed bridges when using probabilistic or optimal analyses that require a large number of simulations.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-13T10:31:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219875304
       
  • Chaotic enhanced colliding bodies optimization algorithm for structural
           reliability analysis
    • Authors: Jiaming Cheng, Wei Zhao
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      It is of extreme importance to assess the failure probability and safety level of structural system in structural design. Nowadays, many researchers presented several approaches for structural reliability analysis, such as the first-order reliability method, Monte Carlo simulation, and the meta-heuristic algorithm. The meta-heuristic algorithm is not only efficient to solve global optimization problems but also shown to be an effective tool for structural reliability analysis. A recent meta-heuristic optimization approach, enhanced colliding bodies optimization, has emerged as a relatively simple implementation with a fast convergence speed. Chaos theory is characterized by its ergodicity, pseudo-randomness, and irregularity. This article thus presents a novel approach introducing chaotic maps into the enhanced colliding bodies optimization algorithm to promote the performance of convergence, named as chaotic enhanced colliding bodies optimization algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses chaotic maps to change the generation pattern of particles and improve convergence characteristics. A procedure based on the effective use of the represented chaotic enhanced colliding bodies optimization is then applied in structural reliability analysis. A variety of numerical and structural problems are tested in this article to demonstrate that the given method actually improves the performance of enhanced colliding bodies optimization in convergence as well as the accuracy for reliability analysis compared with the other methods existing in the literature.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-13T10:29:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219875295
       
  • A review on dynamic substructuring methods for model updating and damage
           detection of large-scale structures
    • Authors: Shun Weng, Hongping Zhu, Yong Xia, Jiajing Li, Wei Tian
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Substructuring methods possess many merits in model updating and damage identification of large-scale structures. With substructuring methods, a global structure is divided into a number of independent substructures. Only the substructures are repeatedly analyzed and the re-analysis of the global structure is thereby avoided. This article reviews widely used dynamic substructuring methods for model updating and damage identification of large-scale structures. These methods can be categorized into forward and inverse substructuring approaches. The former is a conventional process that assembles the vibration properties of each substructure to obtain the vibration properties of the global structure. The latter, on the contrary, disassembles the vibration properties of the global structure into those of the substructures. In each category, both frequency and time domain methods have been developed and will be reviewed.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-10T07:15:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219872429
       
  • Analysis of in situ bridge columns with exposed caisson foundations in a
           gravel stratum under lateral loading
    • Authors: Jiunn-Shyang Chiou, Cheng-Chang Tsai
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, three in situ laterally loaded tests on bridge columns with caisson foundations in gravels were numerically explored. The three tests differed in the application position of lateral loads and the exposed length of the foundations. The analysis model used beam–column elements with distributed plastic hinges to simulate the column and a six-component Winkler beam model to simulate the foundation. The lateral stiffness of the foundation with combined moment and horizontal loading and a large exposed length was the smallest. Although the foundations were situated in a gravel stratum, the caisson with a large exposed length underwent significant foundation flexibility and nonlinearity; however, with increasing lateral loading, the influences of foundation flexibility and nonlinearity on the lateral displacement of the columns were reduced because column yielding limited the load transfer to the foundation. The horizontal soil reactions in front of the foundation and the side horizontal shear soil reactions along the caisson shaft provided major resistances to lateral loading (horizontal load and overturning moment). With increasing foundation exposure, the contribution of the base soil reactions increased, but the contribution of the side horizontal soil reactions decreased accordingly. The side vertical shear soil reactions and base normal soil reactions contributed moment resistance to reduce the foundation displacement and rotation and thus promoted the overall lateral capacity of the caisson foundations although they did not provide direct counterbalances to horizontal loads.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-04T08:14:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219872441
       
  • An efficient discrete optimization algorithm for performance-based design
           optimization of steel frames
    • Authors: Xingfeng Wang, Qing Zhang, Xianrong Qin, Yuantao Sun
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Performance-based design optimization of steel frames, with element sections selected from standard sections, is a computationally intensive task. In this article, an efficient discrete optimization algorithm is proposed for performance-based design optimization of steel frames. The computational efficiency is improved by searching in a sensible manner, guided by the deformation information of structural elements. To include all standard sections in the design space, the cross-sectional area (Area) and moment of inertia (Ix) are selected as the design variables. Based on different relationships between Area and Ix, a twofold strategy is put forward, which includes a quick exploration and an elaborate exploitation. For comparison, a similar algorithm is also proposed, using Area as the only design variable. A fixed relationship between Area and other sectional properties is used. Two numerical examples are presented to minimize the structural weight while satisfying performance constraints. The results indicate that the proposed discrete algorithm can achieve lighter structural designs than the area-only algorithm. Furthermore, the convergence history proves that a high computational efficiency can be realized by using the proposed algorithm.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-04T08:14:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219872440
       
  • A novel rapid screening method for health monitoring of building
           structures from earthquake records
    • Authors: Ging-Long Lin, Jer-Fu Wang, Chi-Chang Lin, Jim Lin
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study presents a rapid screening method for health monitoring of building structures based on earthquake records. Compared with conventional damage detection techniques, the rapid screening system with few sensors is more attractive and cost-effective in assessing the global behaviors of a building structure. Only two tri-axial accelerometers are required for a building. One is mounted at the ground level, and another one is mounted at the top floor. First, the relative displacement of top floor to ground is calculated by on-line integration. Then, the diagram of absolute acceleration versus relative displacement of top floor is used to determine the pseudo stiffness of the whole building by linear regression. The decrease of pseudo stiffness denotes the occurrence and degree of damage in the building. A novel real-time damage technique is also proposed to detect nonlinear behavior of a building. A five-story shear-type building under earthquake excitations was illustrated for sensitivity analysis of pseudo stiffness considering different damage cases. Shaking-table-test data of a three-story benchmark building were used to verify the accuracy of the proposed damage assessment technique. In addition, the proposed method was also applied to evaluate a new eight-story residential building equipped with accelerometers in Taipei, Taiwan. Finally, the acceleration response records of a real building, which experienced moderate damages caused by the main shock of 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake (ML = 7.3), were considered to examine the applicability of the proposed method to generate a real-time damage indicator for a building with nonlinear behavior. All of the results show that the proposed method is reliable and effective for rapid diagnosis of building health.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-04T08:13:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219869720
       
  • Experimental studies on the vortex-induced forces of a 4:1 rectangular
           cylinder and two typical bridge girders
    • Authors: Ming Li, Yanguo Sun, Yongfu Lei, Mingshui Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wind tunnel tests were performed on a 4:1 rectangular (REC) cylinder, a trapezoidal (TRA) girder, and a typical streamlined (STR) box girder to investigate the vortex-induced forces and their spanwise correlations. First, using the free vibration technique, the vortex-induced vibration responses and the Strouhal number were investigated at different Scruton numbers and attack angles. Then, the mean and standard deviations of the vortex-induced pressure coefficients of the three models were analyzed through simultaneous pressure measurements. The power spectral density and the spanwise correlation of vortex-induced pressures at some typical points were also studied. Finally, the spanwise correlations of vortex-induced forces acting on the three models in the cases of different vibration amplitudes and attack angles were investigated. The results show that the attack angle has a significant effect on the vortex-induced pressure distributions for the three types of girders. The second frequency components of the vortex-induced pressure occur near the trailing edge of the upper surface for the three types of sections. The correlation of vortex-induced force decreases with the increase in the oscillation amplitude for the REC model, but becomes larger for the TRA and STR models. With the increase in the attack angle, the spanwise correlations of vortex-induced forces on the three sections become weaker, especially for the REC model.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-30T08:54:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219873985
       
  • Experimental study on bolted and anchored beam-to-column joints of
           prefabricated concrete frames
    • Authors: Xizhi Zhang, Jiashu Hao, Dongchao Duan, Shengbo Xu, Shaohua Zhang, Houxin Yu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A new type of beam-to-column joint used in prefabricated concrete frames was proposed in this study. In this joint, the longitudinal bars at the top of the beam are anchored to the column using straight thread sleeves, and the bars at the bottom are welded to the steel fastener that is bolted to the column. Cyclic loading tests of three specimens, namely, two beam–column joints of this type and a cast-in-place beam–column joint, were conducted to study the seismic behavior and feasibility of this type of joint. The difference between the two prefabricated joints is the shape of the holes on the end plate. Failure modes of the specimens were observed and analyzed. The hysteretic curves, bearing capacities, stiffness degeneration, ductility, and energy-dissipating capacities of the specimens were compared and studied. Test results indicated that all beam–column joints exhibited beam hinge failure. No slippage was observed between the concrete and horizontal plates of the steel fasteners used in the new type of joint. The bearing capacity and initial stiffness of both prefabricated specimens compared with the cast-in-place ones were increased. The steel fastener could increase the distance between the plastic hinge and the side surface of the column while enlarging the length of the plastic hinge. The trend of energy dissipation and stiffness degeneration of the specimens were similar, and the ductility coefficient ranged from 2.7 to 4.91. The displacement angles of the joints exceeded 1/50 before the failure of the specimens. The mechanical behavior of both prefabricated joints was similar, but the joint with U-shaped holes on the end plate was convenient to create.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-29T12:34:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219872432
       
  • Experimental evaluation of eccentric rotational channel-type damping
           system for vibration control of building structures
    • Authors: Hyeong-Gook Kim, Kil-Hee Kim
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A theoretical and experimental investigation of an eccentric rotational channel-type damping system is presented. The proposed damping system can incorporate any type of existing passive dampers and provide a wider field of view to residents compared with existing damping systems. Furthermore, the efficiency of the proposed damping system can be magnified by modifying the geometry of the channel-type secondary system. Cyclic loading and free vibration tests of a full-scale test model with steel dampers were conducted to investigate the validity of the suggested simple behavior prediction model and the vibration characteristics of the proposed damping system. The experimental results were in good agreement with the numerical analysis. The results of numerical prediction studies on a single degree of freedom system with the proposed damping system also showed the effect of the eccentric rotational channel-type damping system on seismic response reduction.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-28T07:06:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219870566
       
  • Fiber-reinforced polymer plates for strengthening web opening in steel
           I-beams under cyclic loading
    • Authors: Suzan AA Mustafa, Ebtsam Fathy, Mostafa S Rizk
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article is interested in finding the most appropriate strengthening scheme for web opening in steel I-beam under cyclic loading. Different opening shapes and locations were strengthened using two different fiber-reinforced polymer plates: carbon fiber–reinforced polymer and basalt fiber–reinforced polymer. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model was adopted using ANSYS program. The results showed that the high strength of carbon fiber–reinforced polymer plates helped the steel beam to recover its original strength; however, noticeable reduction was observed in beam ductility and in the number of inelastic excursions that took place before failure. Moreover, remarkable difference in stress concentration existed at the position of the carbon fiber–reinforced polymer plate edges. Under cyclic loading, fiber-reinforced polymer composites with low modulus of elasticity such as basalt fiber–reinforced polymer managed to eliminate these deficiencies using longer strengthening length. The most appropriate strengthening length and scheme for each opening case were outlined.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-27T06:17:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219868073
       
  • The durability of seawater sea-sand concrete beams reinforced with metal
           bars or non-metal bars in the ocean environment
    • Authors: Zhiqiang Dong, Gang Wu, Xiao-Ling Zhao, Hong Zhu, Jin-Long Lian
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, the flexural durability of three types of seawater sea-sand concrete beams that were fully reinforced with steel bars, 304 stainless steel bars, or fiber-reinforced polymer bars were comparatively tested. Beam specimens were conditioned in a 40°C seawater wet–dry cycling environment and a 50°C seawater immersion environment for up to 9 months with an interval of 3 months. The test results showed that in the absence of an additional current (even if the temperature is elevated), the flexural properties of the seawater sea-sand concrete beams reinforced with steel bars and stainless steel bars after 9 months of conditioning did not show any degradation trends. However, for the carbon fiber–reinforced polymer bar–reinforced beams (top bars and stirrups are both basalt fiber–reinforced polymer bars) conditioned in the high-temperature and high-humidity environment considered, the failure modes changed from concrete crushing in the pure bending section to concrete crushing at loading points in the shear span with a maximum reduction of 30% in the ultimate load-carrying capacity. In addition, the crack distribution of conditioned carbon fiber–reinforced polymer bar–reinforced beams became sparse, and the crack width increased significantly, with a maximum of 2.2 times. In addition, obvious sudden load drops were observed in the tested load–displacement curves.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-24T10:21:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219870580
       
  • Inductance effect of passive electromagnetic dampers on building-damper
           system subjected to near-fault earthquakes
    • Authors: Wei Guo, Xiaoli Wu, Xinna Wei, Yao Cui, Dan Bu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The passive electromagnetic damper was commonly simplified into the linear viscous model in numerical analysis, while this simplification may produce large error when the damper inductance is obvious. In this article, an optimal passive electromagnetic damper with good performance and economy characteristic is proposed by parameter optimization, where the damping density is set as the optimization objective. The hysteresis behavior of the passive electromagnetic damper is verified, and by neglecting the inductance effect, the passive electromagnetic damper can be simplified into the linear viscous model in some cases, but actually the inductance effect is obvious under the high-frequency excitation. Subsequently, the effect of inductance on seismic performance of building damper system under the near-fault earthquake is investigated by comparing the simplified linear viscous model and the accurate passive electromagnetic model. The passive electromagnetic damper was supplemented in a 9-story building, and the analysis of the accurate passive electromagnetic model was carried out by the co-simulation of MATLAB and OpenSees based on the client–server technology. It concludes that the inductance effect is obvious and causes large error when the building damper system is subjected to the near-fault earthquake, and the energy dissipation performance described by the linear viscous model is overestimated.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-24T10:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219870579
       
  • Behavior of large-scale connections between circular concrete-filled steel
           tubular columns and H-section steel beams
    • Authors: Yuanlong Yang, Xianggang Liu, Jun Zhang, Jiepeng Liu, Wei Cheng
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Three large-scale connections between circular concrete-filled steel tubular columns and H-section steel beams were tested. The specimens include one connection with T-shaped stiffeners under static load and two connections, respectively, with T-shaped stiffeners and diaphragms (including interior and exterior diaphragms) under cyclic loads. During the test, the experimental phenomena were observed. The static properties of strength and ductility are calculated for static connection based on load–displacement curves, while the seismic properties of strength, ductility, and energy dissipation are analyzed for seismic connections based on hysteretic load–displacement curves. Combining experimental phenomena, mechanical properties, and stress development, the beam-hinge failure mode can be identified for all specimens. The measured beam strengths of specimens are compared with those predicted by the current AISC-360, EC4, and GB 50017-2017 codes. The study results show that all connections are reliable. A finite element model, established and verified with the experimental results, is used to perform parametric analysis. Furthermore, design suggestions of T-shaped stiffeners and diaphragms are proposed based on a parametric analysis.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-24T10:19:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219870567
       
  • Wind-induced response analysis of wind turbine tubular towers with
           consideration of rotating effect of blades
    • Authors: Tao Huo, Lewei Tong
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study discusses the wind-induced response of existing pitch-controlled 1.25 MW wind turbine structures, with a particular focus on the influence of the blade-rotation effect, cross-wind loads of the tubular tower and the wind direction, and compares numerical responses with the measured dynamic responses. An integrated finite-element model consisting of blades, a nacelle, a tower and a foundation is established. The aerodynamic loads exerted on the rotating blades and the aerodynamic loads acting on the tubular tower are then obtained. A wind-induced response calculation method of the wind turbine structures corresponding to different wind speeds and wind directions is established for performing a wind-induced response analysis. Finally, comparisons between the measured responses and the corresponding numerical response results are performed to verify the accuracy of the proposed wind-induced response calculation method. The results indicate that neglecting the cross-wind aerodynamic loads of large-scale wind turbine structures can lead to unsafe design. The wind direction has different influences on the along-wind and cross-wind dynamic responses. The statistical values of the measured dynamic responses are slightly greater than those of the numerical analysis results, but the magnitudes of the responses are the same. Therefore, the proposed wind-induced response calculation method for wind turbine structures is feasible and reasonable. It can be used to conduct the fatigue life prediction of wind turbine tubular towers in future research which is an important issue in the structural design of wind turbine tubular tower structures.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-22T07:20:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219865815
       
  • Interfacial stresses in reinforced concrete cantilever members
           strengthened with fibre-reinforced polymer laminates
    • Authors: Xue-jun He, Chao-Yang Zhou, Yi Wang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Fibre-reinforced polymers have been increasingly used to strengthen reinforced concrete structures. However, premature brittle debonding failures may occur at the ends of externally bonded fibre-reinforced polymer laminates due to interfacial stress concentrations caused by stiffness imbalances. Although many studies exist on fibre-reinforced polymer-strengthened simply supported beams and slabs, the interfacial stress distributions in fibre-reinforced polymer-strengthened cantilever members are very different from those in simply supported members. Based on the assumptions of linear elasticity, deformation compatibility and static equilibrium conditions, the interfacial stresses in fibre-reinforced polymer-strengthened reinforced concrete cantilever members under arbitrary linear distributed loads were analysed. In particular, closed-form solutions were obtained to calculate the interfacial stresses under either a uniformly distributed load or a single concentrated load located at the overhanging end of the cantilever member. Existing test results on cantilever slabs strengthened by carbon fibre–reinforced polymer sheets were used to verify the model. According to the parametric analysis, the maximum interfacial stresses can be reduced by decreasing the fibre-reinforced polymer thickness, increasing the fibre-reinforced polymer bonding length and increasing the adhesive layer thickness, and by using less rigid fibre-reinforced polymer laminates with high tensile strengths. These results are useful for engineers seeking to optimize strengthening design parameters and implement reliable debonding prevention measures.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-17T06:33:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219868933
       
  • Experimental investigation of prefabricated steel-truss waffle slab under
           flexural loading
    • Authors: Qun Xie, Song Xue, Zhen-hua Liang, Ming-qiang Lin
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A novel type of prefabricated steel-truss waffle slab has been proposed in this article, and compared with traditional waffle slab, there are several typical characteristics of this floor system, including welded steel wire mesh laid in top concrete wythe, orthogonal steel trusses used to reinforce concrete ribs, and foamed concrete blocks filled among the ribs with the purpose of heat insulation and fire resistance. A special template system is adopted for the installation and concrete cast of prefabricated steel-truss waffle slab. All steel segments in prefabricated steel-truss waffle slab are precast and then assembled to form steel system in site. In order to investigate the structural behavior of prefabricated steel-truss waffle slab, two full-scale specimens with different aspect ratio have been experimentally studied under flexural load. The results obtained from the tests have been discussed and analyzed in the context of ultimate flexural load, cracking pattern and failure mode, load–deflection relationship, and load–strain relationship. The experimental results showed that the ultimate load-bearing capacity of prefabricated steel-truss waffle slab has greatly been influenced by the punching shear failure at the rib joints. Three crack types, such as flexural cracks, tensile cracks, and interface cracks, have been exhibited in the final failure of prefabricated steel-truss waffle slab. The deflection development at slab center has presented a four-stage behavior. The significant effect of aspect ratio has also been verified by strain analysis. A computer program has been developed according to the modified structural design method proposed in this article, and the comparison indicated a good agreement between experimental data and theoretical results.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-14T08:58:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219868928
       
  • Development and full-scale validation of high-fidelity data acquisition on
           a next-generation wireless smart sensor platform
    • Authors: Yuguang Fu, Kirill Mechitov, Tu Hoang, Jong R Kim, Deuck Hang Lee, Billie F Spencer
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Although wireless smart sensor platforms have been available over a decade, only a limited number of full-scale wireless smart sensor–based structural health monitoring implementations have been realized. Most wireless smart sensor platforms that are validated in full-scale implementations have now become obsolete and are no longer commercially available. While wireless sensing capabilities have grown, presenting significant opportunities, obstacles to wide application of wireless smart sensor for structural health monitoring exist both in terms of hardware and software. This article assesses the efficacy of the Xnode, a new wireless platform whose development has been driven by structural health monitoring requirements, as well as lessons learned from several full-scale wireless smart sensor deployments. The capabilities of the platform are evaluated in comparison with other commercial wireless smart sensors, in terms of hardware, software, and mechanical design. Extensive laboratory and field testing is employed to validate its performance on three aspects: fidelity of data acquisition, reliability of wireless communication, and efficiency of power management. Test results demonstrate the capabilities of the Xnode to support full-scale, high-fidelity data acquisition for civil infrastructure. In addition, the new sensor platform provides several significant benefits to extend the use of wireless smart sensors to a broader class of structural health monitoring applications, such as sudden event monitoring and real-time and control applications.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-14T08:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219866093
       
  • Shaking table test on seismic performances of newly designed joints for
           mountain tunnels crossing faults
    • Authors: Gaoming Yan, Bo Gao, Yusheng Shen, Qing Zheng, Kaixiang Fan, Haifeng Huang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The zones where tunnels pass through faults are considered to be severely damaged during earthquakes. Site investigation of tunnels crossing faults revealed that there were different types of damage patterns after earthquakes. This article proposed a new seismic design concept of “guiding” and “yielding.” Two types of joints, multilevel brittle-flexible joint and flexible joint, were based on this concept and were investigated in this study. A series of shaking table tests were conducted on reduced scale tunnel models under two steps of the loading process, fault movement and subsequent seismic excitation with increasing intensities. The results showed that both types of joints clearly reduced the seismic responses of the tunnel lining. The idealized behavior—step-like deformation—appeared along the longitudinal direction of the tunnel in the two tests. No shear failure of the tunnel linings was found, and the longitudinal cracks in the crown, arch springing, and invert were common in the tests. The multilevel brittle-flexible joint was verified to be more appropriate for tunnels subject to massive earthquakes.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-12T08:34:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219868932
       
  • Development and mechanical evaluation of a new interlocking earth masonry
           block
    • Authors: Hongwang Ma, Qi Ma, Prakash Gaire
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      An innovative interlocking compressed earth block, called interlocking compressed earth block developed at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, was developed for structural masonry. The locking mechanism of the interlocking compressed earth block developed at Shanghai Jiao Tong University completely depends on the grout in the vertical holes. Therefore, there is no gap between the interlocking key and the blocks, which increases the wall stability and reduces the block manufacturing costs. Experimental studies on the mechanical behavior of the unit (the block) and the masonry (prism constructed with a dry interface) were performed in accordance with the related standards. Soil samples from the northern Gansu Province of China were collected and studied. Small cylindrical samples were tested to determine the compressive and splitting tensile strength. Subsequently, the compressive strength of the prisms with three dry-stack blocks and the shear behavior of the masonry through the triplet test were investigated. The results show that the compressive and shear strengths meet the related standards. This work may provide a valuable structural system for low-cost, eco-friendly dwelling in developing countries.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-09T06:03:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219868931
       
  • Comparison of wind characteristics at different heights of deep-cut canyon
           based on field measurement
    • Authors: Jingyu Zhang, Mingjin Zhang, Yongle Li, Chen Fang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The typical U-shaped deep-cut canyon is widely distributed in the western mountainous areas of China, especially in Sichuan province and Yunnan province. The deep-cut canyon has the characteristics of the high drop in elevation, high-temperature difference, and complex wind environment. A 50 m high meteorological mast with a total of eight anemometers was erected in such topography, and a long-span suspension bridge will be constructed in the area where the meteorological mast is located. Based on the long-term monitor data, the wind characteristic parameters including average and fluctuating wind characteristics and coherence between different heights are investigated. The results are as follows. The dominant wind direction which depends on the topography is north–south. The attack angle of wind is mainly less than zero, and its probability distribution obeys the hypothetical Gaussian distribution. Both the increases in height of anemometer and in wind speed reduce the dispersion of the attack angle of wind. The gust factor has a similar change law of attack angle of wind. Turbulence intensities are affected by the height of the anemometer and the wind speed, and they are different from the recommended value of China Codes. In terms of turbulence integral length scale, the value increases with an increase in the height of the anemometer in the same component. The largest value occurs in the longitudinal direction and the smallest occurs in the vertical direction at the same level. The coherence between any two locations is relatively strong, and the longitudinal component is stronger than others. The measured wind power spectrum for longitudinal, lateral, and vertical wind in deep-cut canyon fits the von Kármán model better.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-09T06:02:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219868074
       
  • Assessment of the use of fiberglass-reinforced foam concrete in high-speed
           railway bridge approach involving foundation cost comparison
    • Authors: Kai-Wen Liu, Fei Yue, Qian Su, Chuanbin Zhou, Zhipeng Xiong, Yi He
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In view of the limited use of foam concrete for backfilling high-speed railway bridge approach and no publication considering the associated foundation treatment cost, this article presents a series of laboratory tests to study the mechanical properties of fiberglass-reinforced foam concrete with different contents of fiberglass, whereby the optimal values of target density and fiberglass content for fiberglass-reinforced foam concrete are obtained. A numerical model is developed to investigate the performance of bridge approach filled with fiberglass-reinforced foam concrete under different levels of foundation treatment in comparison with the control group with traditional backfills (combination of graded crushed stone and cement). Results indicate that the application of fiberglass-reinforced foam concrete to fill high-speed railway bridge approach can significantly improve the bridge approach performance (decreasing the horizontal displacement and ground surface settlement, respectively, by 58% and 21% than the control group) and cut down the foundation treatment cost by 19% concurrently.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-08T06:45:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219867622
       
  • Optimization for vertical stabilizers on flutter stability of streamlined
           box girders with mountainous environment
    • Authors: Junjie Guo, Haojun Tang, Yongle Li, Lianhuo Wu, Zewen Wang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wind environment in mountainous areas is very different from that in coastal and plain areas. Strong winds always show large angles of attack, affecting the flutter stability of long-span bridges which is one of the most important design factors. The central vertical stabilizer has been demonstrated to be an effective aerodynamic measure to improve the flutter stability, and this article optimizes the stabilizer to improve its applicability in mountainous areas. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are first performed to analyze the effects of stabilizers with different positions and forms on the flutter stability of an ideal box girder, and the aerodynamic mechanism is discussed based on the static and the dynamic flow fields, respectively. Wind tunnel tests are then carried out to test the critical flutter wind speed of a real box girder equipped with different stabilizers, and the change in its flutter stability is further analyzed. The results show that the vertical stabilizer with appropriate positions and heights can improve the participation level of structural heaving vibration, and thereby increases the flutter stability. At large angles of attack, the big vortex on the leading edge which may drive the bridge to flutter instability is gradually weakened with the increase in stabilizer’s height. Compared with a single stabilizer, double vertical stabilizers, in the midst of which exists a negative pressure region, could achieve better effects.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-07T07:05:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219868077
       
  • Experimental study on panel zone behavior of diaphragm-through connections
           to concrete-filled tube columns
    • Authors: Liao Wu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In order to verify the accuracy of the panel zone shear capacity calculation method of diaphragm-through connections which were proposed in previous research, the low cycle repeated load tests of six cross-shaped specimens were carried out. The seismic performance of the panel zone’s stress distribution, failure mode, hysteresis curve, and skeleton curve are comprehensively studied and analyzed. The results showed that the steel tube web and core concrete were mainly participating to bear the horizontal shear force, and the “steel frame” composed of the steel tube flange and through-diaphragm was negligible for the shear resistance; the core concrete strut calculated width and height were all one-fourth of the height and width of the panel zone. The test results are in good agreement with the results of the calculation method, which indicated that the calculation method proposed in the previous research results had good accuracy and applicability, and would use for the panel zone shear capacity calculated in the connections design.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-06T08:55:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219866090
       
  • Cyclic performance of circular concrete-filled steel tubular members with
           initial gap between tube and concrete core
    • Authors: Fei-Yu Liao, Wei-Jie Zhang, Hao Han
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      It is common that initial gaps exist between the steel tube and the core concrete in concrete-filled steel tubular structural members, which might affect the performance of the structure. This article aims to study the effects of the gaps on the cyclic behaviour of circular concrete-filled steel tubular members. A total of 24 concrete-filled steel tubular specimens were tested under constant axial load and cyclically lateral loads, where the main testing parameters included the types of gap, the gap ratio, the axial load level and the steel ratio. The failure mode, lateral load versus lateral displacement hysteretic curve and load versus displacement envelope curve of concrete-filled steel tubular specimens with pre-designed gaps were experimentally investigated and compared with those of the reference ones without any gap. The effects of gaps on the ultimate strength, ductility and dissipated energy of the concrete-filled steel tubular members were quantitatively evaluated according to the test results. The influence of gaps on circular concrete-filled steel tubes under different loading conditions, such as axial compressive loading, pure bending, eccentrically compressive loading and cyclic lateral loading, was also compared and discussed.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-06T08:54:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219866291
       
  • Rigid–flexible coupled dynamic response of steel–concrete bridges on
           expressways considering vehicle–road–bridge interaction
    • Authors: Enli Chen, Xia Zhang, Gaolei Wang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Steel–concrete bridges on highways are now widely used, and their dynamic coupling effect is more prominent under heavy vehicles. At present, for the study of vehicle–bridge coupling, it is difficult to reflect the mechanical response characteristics of the bridge pavement because the bridge pavement (road) is often considered as a load. In order to get closer to reality, we use the whole vehicle model and the bridge model to realize the dynamic coupling of highway vehicle–bridge. Moreover, the vehicle model can take into account tire characteristics, such as various linear and nonlinear suspension characteristics, and tire–ground contact characteristics. So, a new vehicle–road–bridge interaction method with higher computational efficiency is proposed. This method can be used not only to analyze the overall mechanical response of bridge structure such as deflection and stress but also to analyze the dynamic characteristics of driving vehicles and the coupling force between tires and pavement and then to analyze the dynamic deformation and stress of asphalt pavement layers on the bridge. First, according to the construction drawings of a steel–concrete bridge on a highway and a Dongfeng brand three-axle vehicle, a vehicle–road–bridge interaction rigid–flexible coupling model was established. Second, the correctness and effectiveness of the vehicle–road–bridge interaction model were verified by field testing. Finally, the dynamic response of the vehicle–road–bridge interaction rigid–flexible coupling model was analyzed.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-31T09:40:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219866092
       
  • Reliability evaluation of reinforced concrete columns designed by Eurocode
           for wind-dominated combination considering random loads eccentricity
    • Authors: Youbao Jiang, Suixiang Peng, Michael Beer, Lei Wang, Jianren Zhang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      With the capacity models in the 2004 edition of the European Committee for Standardization’s Standard Design of Concrete Structures, a more realistic limit state function is obtained for reinforced concrete columns with random loads eccentricity. Using this function, the applicability of the code-based design factors is discussed. Taking the wind-dominated combination as an example, the probabilistic distribution of loads eccentricity and the statistics of column resistance are analyzed for representative cases. The analysis indicates that the possible loads eccentricity is scattered over a large range, and the probabilistic model of column resistance varies from case to case, which is largely different from the resistance model assumed in previous reliability calibration. With Monte Carlo simulation, the column reliability and the contributions of both tension failure and compression failure to the total failure probability are calculated and obtained for different cases. The results show that the fixed loads eccentricity criterion underestimates differences in the reliability of columns for different loads eccentricity cases and overestimates the column reliability in some tension failure cases. Furthermore, it is found that the tension failure mode contributes most to the total failure probability for not only some columns designed to fail in tension failure but also for some columns designed to fail in compression failure. To attain a robust design, a group of optimum wind load factors varying with cases is recommended. The new calibration results prove that the recommended wind local factors can achieve a better goal.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-31T09:40:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219866089
       
  • Simple adaptive control to attenuate bridge’s seismic responses
           considering parametric variations
    • Authors: Rachel W Soares, Luciana R Barroso, Omar AS Al-Fahdawi
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Parametric variations occur throughout a bridge’s service life as a result of temperature variations, cracking, localized damage, and fatigue. Existing bridge’s parameters are difficult to estimate precisely and implemented control schemes may perform unsatisfactorily depending on how sensitive they are to parametric change. In this study, an adaptive control approach is developed utilizing the simple adaptive control algorithm and designed aiming to mitigate seismic responses of bridges considering realistic implementation. Adaptive control is a viable alternative to control bridge structures as it is able to calculate control gains that vary over time based on sensed responses, sustaining performance in face of parametric variations. The proposed approach allows the choice of a model reference of significantly low order and it does not require full-state feedback or the use of observers. The effectiveness and robustness of the control approach are investigated when controlling a seismically excited two-span highway bridge considering systematic parametric variations. Evaluation of relevant performance criteria indicates that the adaptive scheme is effective in reducing seismic responses and sustains well the overall performance when systematic parametric variations are introduced. The proposed approach requires a small and reasonable number of sensors to present effectiveness and performs satisfactorily even when in the presence of measurement noise.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-29T09:26:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219866293
       
  • Experimental and numerical investigation on failure behavior of ring
           joints in precast concrete shear walls
    • Authors: Jian Zhou, Xudong Zhi, Feng Fan, Anliang Jiao, Hongliang Qian
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Precast shear wall structures have been widely used due to their outstanding features, and the joints between precast members play a critical role in complete structures, specifically for vertical joints. The ring joint is a new connection method used for the vertical connection. Few studies and related regulations were traced; therefore more detailed studies are required. In order to study the anchoring performance and failure behavior, an experimental model was designed and tested under monotonic axial loading, taking the composite height of ring rebars, concrete specifications, diameter of the horizontal rebars, relative position of the ring rebars, diameter of the ring rebars, and number of horizontal rebars into consideration. The failure phenomena were observed and the data were collected. The failure pattern, bearing capacity, yield ratio, displacement ductility coefficient, and other performance parameters were analyzed. The study indicated that the failure patterns are divided into ring rebar pull-out and ring rebar fracture. Increasing the composite height of the ring rebar, the concrete specifications and the number of horizontal rebars could improve the bearing performance, and the contribution of the horizontal rebar diameter was limited, and interlocking ring rebars arranged uniformly are not optimal. In the case of joint failure, the yield ratio is relatively small and the displacement ductility coefficient is larger, which shows the bearing capacity reserve is better. A numerical model was established to analyze the internal behavior, and the results were in good agreement with the experimental results, important for us to understand the failure behavior. Design recommendations will promote its application.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-29T09:26:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219864296
       
  • Flexural behaviour of a new lightweight glass fibre-reinforced
           polymer–metal string bridge with a box-truss composite girder
    • Authors: Haifeng Mao, Dongdong Zhang, Li Chen, Qilin Zhao, Xiaoping Su, Jiaxin Yuan
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A new glass fibre-reinforced polymer–metal structure with a string box-truss girder was designed as a vehicular emergency bridge. The glass fibre-reinforced polymer–metal emergency bridge is intended to be lightweight, structurally sound, with a long span and modular feasibility, and associated with a faster construction bridging system. In this study, the detailed conceptual design of the new bridge is described first. A large-scale static bending loading test was carried out on a fabricated bridge to examine its actual flexural performance under the serviceability limit state. The experimental emergency bridge exhibited a satisfactory overall stiffness and loading-carrying capacity in terms of its intended applications. Its linear-elastic flexural behaviour implies that the structural design of such a unique emergency bridge subjected to positive flexural moment is stiffness-driven instead of strength-driven. Furthermore, structural computational models, including three-dimensional finite element models and a simplified analytical planar model, were constructed and validated by comparing with the experimental results. The elicited comparisons indicated that the realistic nodal stiffness of the hybrid pre-tightened teeth connection and its adjacent steel planar gusset plates ought to be considered in numerical and analytical modelling. Correspondingly, during the preliminary design phase and calculations, the flexural behaviour of this unique emergency bridge can be predicted using the validated numerical and simplified analytical models.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-27T09:14:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219866088
       
  • A scenario-based methodology for determining fire resistance ratings of
           irregular steel structures
    • Authors: Behrouz Behnam
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates the response of irregular steel structures under natural fires. As the severity and duration of natural fires depend on many factors, a probabilistic-based approach known as two-level factorial design is used, whereby possible fire scenarios are considered based on the minimum and maximum values of the involved factors. Two seven-story regular steel structures with three span lengths of 5500 and 7000 mm are designed to meet a 2.0-hr fire resistance rating based on the ISO834 fire. Two types of irregularities, setback and soft story, are then imposed on the regular structures to make them irregular. The regular and irregular structures are then exposed to the fire scenarios (32 in total) to evaluate their fire resistance ratings. The results show that while the regular structures are able to meet the required fire resistance rating under all of the fire scenarios, this is not the case for the irregular structures. It is shown that the reduction in the fire resistance ratings of the setback and the soft-story structures can be as low as 45% and 33% that of the required fire resistance ratings, respectively. Also, the setback irregular structures tend to collapse laterally, hence endangering the safety of adjacent buildings. To address the above deficiencies, it is proposed here that the maximum surface temperature on the structural members should be limited to 415°C–460°C. Alternatively, providing a 20%–25% increase in the insulation thickness can provide the required safety margin as dictated by fire codes.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-27T09:14:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219864457
       
  • Behaviour of cold-formed steel built-up battened columns composed of four
           lipped angles: Tests and numerical validation
    • Authors: M Anbarasu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article mainly investigates the behaviour and strength of built-up battened box column composed of lipped angles under axial compression. Ten specimens were fabricated and tested under pinned with warping-restrained end condition including two different cross-section dimensions of columns with five different geometric lengths. Three material tensile coupon tests were conducted to obtain the material properties of the steel used for fabricating the test specimens. The overall initial geometric imperfections were measured. The plate slenderness, member slenderness, chord slenderness and slenderness of batten plates may affect the compression behaviour of cold-formed steel built-up battened box columns and were accordingly investigated. It was found that the chord slenderness significantly affects the compressive strength of the built-up columns. Test results, including the compression resistances, the load versus displacement responses and the deformed shapes were presented. The test strengths were compared with the design strengths predicted using the North American Specifications (AISI-S100:2016), EuroCode (EN1993-1-3:2006) and design equations proposed by EI Aghoury et al. The design strengths predictions by these two design standards were unconservative, with EI Aghoury et al.’s standard performing better. Finite-element models were developed and verified against the test results.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-26T09:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219865696
       
  • Mechanical behavior of laminated bamboo lumber dowel-type connection
    • Authors: Jiannan Li, Aiping Zhou
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Bamboo is a kind of green material with high specific strength, while the hollow tubular structure makes it rather hard to be utilized in structure. Glue and hot-pressing processes make laminated bamboo lumber rectangular cross section and with high strength properties. The dowel-type connection can be used in I-joist instead of the costly adhesive, while the behaviors of which are extremely complicated. European yield model is confirmed to be an effective method to estimate loading capacity of connection and is adopted by various standard and design codes. This article focused on a kind of connection innovatively with laminated bamboo lumber dowel. The embedment tests were carried out to study the embedment strength of laminated bamboo lumber members. Connection tests under lateral load were conducted to investigate the performance and loading capacity. Finally, theoretical results determined by design rules in current codes were compared with experimental results
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-26T09:16:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219866091
       
  • Experimental behaviour of concrete-filled steel tubes under cyclic axial
           compression
    • Authors: Vui Van Cao, Quoc Dinh Le, Phuoc Trong Nguyen
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study experimentally investigated the behaviour of concrete-filled steel tubes under cyclic axial compression. A total of 42 concrete-filled steel tube specimens of two groups were tested to failure. In each group, 18 specimens were subjected to three cyclic axial loading histories while three specimens were subjected to monotonic loading for comparison. The results indicated that concrete-filled steel tube specimens under cyclic axial compression failed in the form of buckling and still kept their form which was similar to the failure of specimens under monotonic loading. Effect of cyclic axial loading slightly reduced (approximately 2%–3%) the maximum stress but it increased 25% of the strain corresponding to the maximum stress. Loading and unloading moduli in post-peak stress phase were, respectively, about 70% and 85% higher than initial moduli because better interaction and confinement were resulted from the initial loading cycle. In addition, the absorbed energy exhibited a heavy dependence on strain and confinement while it was insignificantly affected by cyclic loading histories. Details and application of obtained experimental results are reported in this article.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-26T09:15:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219866107
       
  • Seismic energy response analysis of equipment-structure system via
           real-time dynamic substructuring shaking table testing
    • Authors: Jihong Bi, Lanfang Luo, Nan Jiang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Dynamic equations are presented that have been deduced for a real-time dynamic substructuring shaking table test of an equipment-structure system, based on the branch mode substructure method. The equipment is adopted as the experimental substructure, which is loaded by the shaking table, while the structure is adopted as the numerical substructure. Real-time data communication occurs between the two substructures during the test. A real-time seismic energy calculation method was proposed for the calculation of energy responses, both in the experimental substructure and the numerical substructure. Taking a representative four-story steel frame/equipment model, real-time dynamic substructuring shaking table tests and overall model tests were executed. The proposed real-time dynamic substructuring shaking table testing method was verified by comparing the test results with shaking table test results for the overall model. The energy responses of each component in the equipment-structure system, using different connection types, also were studied. Changes in the connection types can lead to changes in the energy responses of the equipment-structure system, especially with respect to the equipment. The choice of the connection for the equipment-structure coupled system should take into account the operational performance objective of the equipment.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-23T08:30:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219864458
       
  • Experimental and numerical analysis on fire behaviour of loaded
           cross-laminated timber panels
    • Authors: Yuexiang Wang, Jin Zhang, Fang Mei, Jianan Liao, Weibin Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Cross-laminated timber is a relatively new engineered timber material that can be used in the design and construction of modern timber buildings. A key factor that raises concerns in the wide application of cross-laminated timber is the uncertainty of its fire performance. This article describes experimental and numerical investigations on the fire behaviour of loaded cross-laminated timber panels manufactured with Canadian hemlock. A total of 10 cross-laminated timber panels with different number and thickness of layers were tested under ambient and standard fire conditions to investigate the flexural capacity at ambient temperature, and temperature distribution, charring rate, fire resistance, mid-span deflection under fire exposure. Three-dimensional finite element model was developed using the Hashin criterion and cohesive elements to predict the failure of wood and adhesive, respectively. The thermal model implicitly considers the rapidly increased temperature of inner fresh timber after the protective charred layers have fallen off. The numerical model was validated with the results obtained from experimental tests and was found to have the ability to simulate the fire behaviour of loaded cross-laminated timber panels in reasonable accuracy.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-19T04:58:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219864459
       
  • Hybrid simulation of a structure to tsunami loading
    • Authors: Bahareh Forouzan, Dilshan SP Amarsinghe Baragamage, Koushyar Shaloudegi, Narutoshi Nakata, Weiming Wu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A new hybrid simulation technique has been developed to assess the behavior of a structure under hydrodynamic loading. It integrates the computational fluid dynamics and structural hybrid simulation and couples the fluid loading and structural response at each simulation step. The conventional displacement-based and recently developed force-based hybrid simulation approaches are adopted in the structural analysis. The concept, procedure, and required components of the proposed hybrid simulation are introduced in this article. The proposed hybrid simulation has been numerically and physically tested in case of a coastal building impacted by a tsunami wave. It is demonstrated that the force error in the displacement-based approach is significantly larger than that in the force-based approach. The force-based approach allows for a more realistic and reliable structural assessment under tsunami loading.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-19T04:58:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219857847
       
  • New proposed drift limit states for box-type structural systems
           considering local and global damage indices
    • Authors: Vahid Mohsenian, Alireza Mortezaei
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The maximum displacement responses under the seismic motions are usually considered as an indicator for damage evaluation. It is obvious that appropriate selection of drifts corresponding to various damage levels plays an important role in safety and economy of a design project. Despite the extensive use of the box-type structural system in mass construction and housing industry, there is no special design requirement for this structural system. Due to three-dimensional behavior and interaction of intersecting walls and slabs, it is expected that this system presents different seismic performance in comparison to the conventional shear wall buildings. This study evaluates the overall and story failure mechanism as well as global and local damage indices in this structural system. Maximum allowable drift ratios of 0.45%, 0.65%, and 0.8% are suggested for the immediate occupancy, life safety, and collapse prevention levels, respectively. Moreover, a damage index based on the maximum relative inter-story drifts is proposed to assess the failure in the height domain. According to the assessments, the story and global failure occurring due to considerable damages in main load bearing elements reveals high importance of local damage indices in box-type structural system. Based on the results, it is concluded that the proposed maximum values for drifts in different standards and codes are not reliable. Considering the shear-control behavior and depending on the expected performance levels, the proposed local damage indices are considered as accurate control indicators for box-type structural system.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-17T05:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219863299
       
  • Deflection distribution estimation of the main arch of arch bridges based
           on long-gauge fiber optic sensing technology
    • Authors: Qingqing Zhang, Tongfei Sun, Jing Wang, Qianlong Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Deflection of the main arch of arch bridges is one of the main indices for supporting the alignment after construction and evaluating the structural performance. The existing sensing technology and analysis method for deflection monitoring have developed, but it is still difficult to monitor the deflection of the main arch of a long-span arch bridge with great height difference between measuring points. On the contrary, in recent years, with the outstanding advantages of fiber optic sensing technologies, a long-gauge fiber Bragg grating sensing technology has been used in structural health monitoring due to its characteristics, including reflecting the macro and micro information and being connected into network. For these reasons, the long-gauge fiber Bragg grating sensing technology is proposed to develop a method to monitor the deflection of the main arch of arch bridges. A curvature load method for deflection distribution estimation using strain measurements is proposed. It deduces the expression of the complex relation between the strain and the deformation on the main arch element and then separates the coupled strain on the element through the specific sensor layout. A series of simulation tests of the deck arch bridge, half-through bridge, and through arch bridge was conducted. It is concluded that the proposed method can not only be applied to these long-span arch bridges but also can identify the static and dynamic deflections of the main arch effectively.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-17T05:02:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219862433
       
  • Experimental behaviour of hollow reinforced concrete members with inner
           octagonal steel tube under lateral impact
    • Authors: Hui Zhao, Rui Wang, Chuanchuan Hou, Dongjie Zhang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This work investigated the impact performance of hollow reinforced concrete members with inner octagonal steel tube. Experiments on 13 specimens subjected to low-velocity drop weight impact are presented in this article, covering key parameters such as the impact height, boundary condition, axial load ratio and thickness of the inner tube. The dynamic processes, failure patterns, impact force and mid-span deflection histories, and residual mid-span deflections were obtained from the experiments. Flexure-shear was observed as the main failure pattern for all the specimens under impact. It was found that all the key parameters considered had influences on the impact performance of hollow reinforced concrete specimens with inner octagonal steel tube. Effects of these parameters on the impact performance of hollow reinforced concrete members were discussed.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-16T06:21:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219858700
       
  • Modal identification for superstructure using virtual impulse response
    • Authors: Chun-Xu Qu, Ting-Hua Yi, Hong-Nan Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In civil engineering, structural modes are identified with the assumption of stationary white noise, which cannot be satisfied in practical engineering. This article proposes a new method, which contains the virtual impulse response and eigensystem realization algorithm. The formulation of virtual impulse response is derived from the inverse Fourier transform of the ratio of the cross-power to auto-power spectral density functions of the measurement responses, which is based on the concept of frequency response function. During the formulation derivation, a single point excitation is only considered. Frequency response function would not change with different excitations and responses, which means that the excitation cannot influence frequency response function. The impulse response is pointed out to only represent the behavior of superstructure. After obtaining impulse responses, eigensystem realization algorithm is then performed to identify the modes of superstructure. The proposed method is validated by a numerical example. The results show that virtual impulse response can have much better free decayed behavior than natural excitation technique and identify very precise modal parameters for superstructure.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-12T09:14:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219862951
       
  • Displacement monitoring method based on laser projection to eliminate the
           effect of rotation angle
    • Authors: Peng Liu, Chengcheng Liu, Lixiao Zhang, Xuefeng Zhao
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Currently, laser technology has become increasingly mature. Semiconductor lasers have the characteristics of small size, long indication distance, long life, and low cost. Therefore, many studies regard them as the launching devices of monitoring system and fix them at the monitoring points of structures to reflect the displacements of the monitoring points through the spots produced by them. However, this method also exhibits a drawback, that is, this method can only be applied to the case where only displacement is generated at the monitoring point and no rotation angle is generated. If the rotation occurs at the monitoring point, the spot displacement is caused by the coupling effect of the displacement and rotation angle at the monitoring point, which will affect the monitoring results significantly. In this article, a method is proposed to decouple the effect of the displacement and angle and eliminate the influence of the angle sufficiently, by projecting the laser spots onto two screens. This method can significantly improve the application scope of the monitoring system and provide the possibility for its application in practical engineering.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-12T09:10:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219858724
       
  • Experimental investigation of the protective effect of wind barriers on
           high-speed railway bridge in inland strong wind area
    • Authors: Wanmin Ren, Qingsong Duan, Cunming Ma, Haili Liao, Qiusheng Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to investigate the wind protective effect of wind barriers on the Lanzhou–Xinjiang high-speed railway using wind tunnel tests. Wind barriers with different heights and porosities were analyzed. Two girders, that is, a box-girder and a trough-girder, each with 1:30 and 1:8 scales were experimentally investigated. The results suggest that the protective effect of the wind barrier with a height of 4 m and porosity of 20% is better than the others. The influence of wind barriers on the aerodynamic characteristics of train vehicles and girders must be analyzed simultaneously. The aerostatic force coefficients of trains are approximately the same at different scales, and the Reynolds number effect could be neglected.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-11T05:15:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219862939
       
  • An analytical algorithm for the pylon saddle pushing stage and distance
           during the suspension bridge construction
    • Authors: Wen-ming Zhang, Kai-rui Qian, Gen-min Tian, Zhao Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      During the construction of suspension bridges, the stress state of the pylon (tower) is improved by pushing the pylon saddle by an appropriate distance at the proper time. An analytical algorithm for the assessment of the required timing and displacements for the pylon saddle pushing at particular construction stages is proposed and verified in this study. The timing calculation is based on the assessment of current hanger tensile forces at each construction stage and the pylon stress state, while the pushing distance/displacement is derived from the conditions of elevation difference closure and the conservation of unstrained length of the main cable segments. This algorithm was successfully applied during the construction of a particular suspension bridge in China with a main span of 730 m. The results obtained strongly indicate that the bending moment in the pylon bottom is contributed by both horizontal and vertical forces of the main cable. The horizontal constituent is dominant and its share gradually increases in the bridge construction process. In a suspension bridge with side spans of various lengths, the stresses in the pylon bottom on the side with a larger side span is more likely to exceed the limit. Therefore, the respective strength criterion controls the pylon saddle-pushing schedule. The proposed analytical algorithm is quite straightforward and is recommended for wider application.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-11T05:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219862436
       
  • Experimental study on the seismic behavior of precast concrete column with
           grouted corrugated sleeves and debonded longitudinal reinforcements
    • Authors: Jun Chen, Chenhui Zhao, Faxing Ding, Ping Xiang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The seismic performance and the influence of debonded longitudinal reinforcements at the footing on the precast concrete columns connected with the embedded grouted corrugated sleeve were investigated experimentally in this research. Low cyclic loading tests were carried out on eight bending columns and four shear columns, considering the designed parameters of the partial debonding of the longitudinal reinforcements above the column–foundation interface, the axial load index, and the strength of the stirrups. Experimental results indicate that the partial debonding of the longitudinal reinforcements heavily influenced the damage spreading of the bending columns, but does not affect the damages of the shear columns. Compared to the columns without debonded longitudinal reinforcements, the seismic behaviors in terms of the ductility and energy dissipation can be improved clearly by the partial debonding of the longitudinal reinforcements for bending columns, but there was no clear improvement for shear columns. In addition, with the decrease of the axial load index or the increase of the strength of the stirrups, the seismic behaviors of the precast columns with the partial debonding of the longitudinal reinforcements are improved largely.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-11T05:13:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219858451
       
  • Damage identification of bridge structure considering temperature
           
    • Authors: Minshui Huang, Yongzhi Lei, Shaoxi Cheng
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Structures are always exposed to environmental conditions such as varying temperatures and noises; as a consequence, the dynamic features of structures are changed accordingly. But the model-based methods, used to detect damage using optimization algorithms to get global optimal solution, are highly sensitive to environmental conditions, experimental noises, or numerical errors. While the mechanisms of optimization algorithms are limited by local optimal solution, their convergences are not always assured. In the study, a model-based damage-identification method considering temperature variations, comprised of particle swarm optimization and cuckoo search, is implemented to detect structural damage. First, to eliminate the influence of environmental temperature, temperature change is considered as a parameter of structural material elastic modulus. A function relationship is established between environmental temperature and the material elastic modulus, and an objective function composed of natural frequency, mode shape and modal strain energy with different weight coefficients is constructed. Second, the hybrid optimization algorithm, a combination of particle swarm optimization and cuckoo search, is proposed. Third, to solve the problem of optimization algorithm convergence, the optimization performance of the hybrid optimization algorithm is validated by utilizing four benchmark functions, and it is found that the performance of the hybrid optimization algorithm is the best. In order to test the performance of the three algorithms in damage identification, a numerical simply supported beam is adopted. The results show that the hybrid optimization algorithm can identify the damage location and severity under four different damage cases without considering temperature variations and two cases considering temperature variations. Finally, the hybrid optimization algorithm is introduced to test the damage-identification performance of I-40 Bridge, an actual steel–concrete composite bridge under temperature variations, whose results show that the hybrid optimization algorithm can preferably distinguish between real damages and temperature effects (temperature gradient included); its good robustness and engineering applicability are validated.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-10T06:08:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219861728
       
  • Buckling mechanism of cable-stiffened lattice shells with bolted
           connections
    • Authors: Xi Wang, Ruo-qiang Feng, Gui-rong Yan, Bao-chen Zhu, Feng-cheng Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The cable-stiffened lattice shell is a new structural system for its translucence and lighting. This article discusses the effect of the connections’ behavior and geometric imperfection on the structural stability and reveals the buckling mechanism of the cable-stiffened lattice shell. The spring stiffness for bolted connections of cable-stiffened lattice shells is deduced from the spring in series model. The buckling mechanism of cable-stiffened lattice shells with three types of joints have been studied based on the prototypical static experiments of bolted connections. The decrease of bolted connections’ stiffness would lead to the change in the displacement distribution for the lattice shell under its ultimate load. The buckling loads and initial structural stiffness of cable-stiffened lattice shells with shim-strengthened bolted joints are approximately 80% of those for cable-stiffened lattice shells with rigid joints. The result indicates that the buckling loads of cable-stiffened lattice shells with bolted connections decrease much more slowly than the decrease of bolted connections’ stiffness. The cable-stiffened lattice shell with SBP connections is more sensitive to the initial geometric imperfection. Finally, a formula has been proposed for estimating buckling loads of elliptic paraboloid cable-stiffened lattice shells with bolted connections.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-08T06:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219862098
       
  • Wind-induced internal pressures on large cooling towers
    • Authors: XX Cheng, G Wu, L Zhao, PF Li, YJ Ge
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Effects of wind-induced internal pressures on the cooling tower’s structural performances are as significant as those of wind-induced external pressures. However, comparing to wind-induced external pressures, limited research focuses on wind pressures on the internal surfaces of large cooling towers. To fill up the scientific void, numerical analyses, physical model tests, and analytical studies are undertaken in this article. It is demonstrated that the draught ventilation ratio (i.e. the total area of the openings on the stuffing layer divided by the area of the stuffing layer) is the dominant factor for wind-induced internal pressures on large cooling towers, and 15% draught ventilation ratio can be regarded as the most unfavorable case. Besides, it is revealed that the theoretical formulation of the internal pressure on a single-cell building with a dominant opening and background porosity proposed by some other researchers can be applied to the case of a cooling tower subjected to strong winds. Using the validated theoretical formulation, the geometry of a large cooling tower is optimized with regard to the most favorable wind-induced internal pressure. The findings of this article are helpful for improving the current Chinese Code that governs the design of cooling towers.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-08T06:46:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219861727
       
  • Shaking table tests of a single-span freestanding rocking bridge for
           seismic resilience and isolation
    • Authors: Xiu-Li Du, Yu-Long Zhou, Qiang Han, Zhen-Lei Jia
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Rocking philosophy has advantages to maintain a preferable post-earthquake serviceability as an alternative of seismic resistant systems. This article presents an experimental study on the seismic behavior of a rocking bridge with freestanding columns capped with a freely supported deck. A 1/10 scaled, single-span double-column freestanding bridge was constructed and tested on a shaking table. The experimental results showed that the bridge model could undergo large rocking with enough stability under earthquakes and presented excellent post-earthquake resilience after earthquakes with limited damage and negligible residual displacement. The rocking bridge model also exhibited expected isolation efficiency, which increases as the level of excitations becomes more severe. In addition, an analytical model based on multi-block rocking mechanisms was used to calculate the displacement response. Compared with the experimental results, this analytical model well predicts the peak displacement of the rocking bridge model.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-05T06:57:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219859410
       
  • Span-wise coherence of fluctuating forces on twin bridge decks and the
           turbulence effect
    • Authors: Jinlin Xia, Ke Li, Yaojun Ge
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Unlike the adequate researches on a single-box girder, the understanding of span-wise force correlation on twin decks is limited. A sectional model pressure testing of a widely slotted twin-box girder has been carried out in the background of a 5000-m-long bridge. Three grid configurations separated the effect of turbulence intensity and integral scale. Seven test sections were set on the model with totally 532 pressure taps. After the correction of pressure distortion, the correlation coefficients and integral scales of forces were compared on the leeward and the windward decks. Root coherence of lift was analyzed in detail at several separation distances. Pressure signals were used to explain why force coherence is stronger than flow and why “low frequency curve” phenomenon occurs. Considering the shortage of existing expressions, a simple but efficient form was proposed which can fit the coherence on the leeward, the windward, and the whole decks. The parameters in different flows can be reconstructed by linear functions which benefits new model’s application. In the final, the influences of turbulence intensity and integral scale on force coherence were illustrated.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-01T09:03:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219859467
       
  • Vibration-based Bayesian model updating of civil engineering structures
           applying Gaussian process metamodel
    • Authors: Hossein Moravej, Tommy H. T. Chan, Khac-Duy Nguyen, Andre Jesus
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Structural health monitoring plays a significant role in providing information regarding the performance of structures throughout their life spans. However, information that is directly extracted from monitored data is usually susceptible to uncertainties and not reliable enough to be used for structural investigations. Finite element model updating is an accredited framework that reliably identifies structural behavior. Recently, the modular Bayesian approach has emerged as a probabilistic technique in calibrating the finite element model of structures and comprehensively addressing uncertainties. However, few studies have investigated its performance on real structures. In this article, modular Bayesian approach is applied to calibrate the finite element model of a lab-scaled concrete box girder bridge. This study is the first to use the modular Bayesian approach to update the initial finite element model of a real structure for two states—undamaged and damaged conditions—in which the damaged state represents changes in structural parameters as a result of aging or overloading. The application of the modular Bayesian approach in the two states provides an opportunity to examine the performance of the approach with observed evidence. A discrepancy function is used to identify the deviation between the outputs of the experimental and numerical models. To alleviate computational burden, the numerical model and the model discrepancy function are replaced by Gaussian processes. Results indicate a significant reduction in the stiffness of concrete in the damaged state, which is identical to cracks observed on the body of the structure. The discrepancy function reaches satisfying ranges in both states, which implies that the properties of the structure are predicted accurately. Consequently, the proposed methodology contributes to a more reliable judgment about structural safety.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-01T08:51:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219858723
       
  • Identification of external forces via truncated response sparse
           decomposition under unknown initial conditions
    • Authors: Chudong Pan, Ling Yu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      When structural dynamic design for smart control and health monitoring is executed, imposed excitations on structures are one of most important issues in structural engineering. Identification of structural excitations, such as force reconstruction, moving force identification, and so on, has drawn increasing attentions in the last decades. Assumption of known initial conditions is a precondition for existing deterministic force reconstruction methods. However, initial conditions are often unknown and hard to be estimated. To address this problem, a novel truncated response sparse decomposition method is proposed for calculating the external forces under unknown initial conditions. The truncated response sparse decomposition involves two basic steps, that is, response sparse decomposition and force estimation. First, a collection of basis vectors is defined for expressing unknown forces. Unknown initial conditions are represented in modal space. Structural responses induced by both external forces and initial conditions are then normalized as potential response features to form an image dictionary, which is adapted to decompose the measured responses via sparse regularization. Second, the response features with lower decomposed amplitudes and small scaling factors are eliminated from the decomposed results. The remaining features are used for estimating the external forces. In order to assess the accuracy and the feasibility of the proposed force reconstruction method, some numerical simulations on a planar truss structure and a series of experimental studies are carried out. The illustrated results show the robustness and the applicability of the proposed method for addressing the force reconstruction problem under unknown initial conditions. Some related issues are discussed as well.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-28T09:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219859479
       
  • The shearing performance of a beam-column joint in a reinforced concrete
           frame subjected to bidirectional loading
    • Authors: Zhenbao Li, Yanwei Cui, Kun Song, Hua Ma, Zhenyun Tang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The anti-seismic capability of beam-column joints in reinforced concrete frame structures undergoing bidirectional loading may be lower than the designed capability for unidirectional earthquake action. To date, detailed calculation methods for the shear capability and shearing performance for joints in reinforced concrete frames subjected to bidirectional loading have not been reported. In this work, the shear mechanism of the beam-column joint in a reinforced concrete frame under bidirectional loading is analyzed. The study shows that when a synthetic shear force is imposed on the joint, the oblique compression zone comes into being at the corner of the joint, and the oblique compression strut is formed in the core area of the joint, which is different from the shear mechanism of the joint under unidirectional loading. A shear capacity calculation model is established based on the strut-and-tie model. Through the testing of reinforced concrete frame joints under bidirectional monotonous loading, the combined shear and deformation in the joint are obtained, the mechanical properties in each principal plane and in the combined shear action plane are analyzed, the shearing performance of the joints in a reinforced concrete frame under bidirectional loading is defined, and the shear contributions of hoop and column reinforcement are verified. The predicted values of the shear capability in this work are in good agreement with the reported experimental results.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-28T09:19:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219859475
       
  • Experimental and analytical investigation on the nonlinear behaviors of
           glulam moment-resisting joints composed of inclined self-tapping screws
           with steel side plates
    • Authors: Kohei Komatsu, Qicheng Teng, Zherui Li, Xiaolan Zhang, Zeli Que
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Glulam moment-resisting joint composed of inclined self-tapping screws with steel side plates were designed and its nonlinear moment-rotational skeleton curve was predicted by taking nonlinear load (P)–deformation (u) relationships of all moment-resisting components into considerations within step-wise linear calculation process. P-u relationships of all moment-resisting components were estimated by the fundamental shear joint tests or appropriate empirical relationships, and they were approximated by the tetra polygonal line curves or bi-linear curves. The extended Normalized Characteristic Loop model, which was originally developed for reinforced concrete construction, was applied to describe the hysteresis loops. For predicting failure load, the design equations for a mechanical joint loaded with inclination to the grain direction were applied. Three replications of T-shaped beam-column joint specimens were fabricated using Canadian spruce glulam beam and column. Connections of steel plates to glulam members were all composed of full-threaded inclined self-tapping screws. Static push-pull cyclic loading tests were conducted and observed behaviors were compared with step-wise linear analytical results. Agreements between predicted nonlinear behaviors and observed ones were good on the whole.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-28T09:17:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219858722
       
  • Modelling and analysis for a cylindrical net-shell deployable mechanism
    • Authors: Fei Lin, Chuanzhi Chen, Jinbao Chen, Meng Chen
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Existing cylindrical deployable structures have poor controllability of deployment or weak bearing capacity. In order to satisfy the application needs of cylindrical deployable structures in the space industry, a cylindrical net-shell deployable mechanism is established in this article. The proposed cylindrical net-shell deployable mechanism has a regular cuboid shape in the folded state and a truss structure in the deployed state, and it can fit cylindrical surface, parabolic cylindrical surface, sine cylindrical surface and so on. Furthermore, based on reciprocal screw theory and screw synthesis theory, the mobility of cylindrical net-shell deployable mechanism in the whole motion cycle is analysed by the proposed equivalent model method. Results show that the cylindrical net-shell deployable mechanism is a single-degree-of-freedom mechanism. Moreover, a prototype is manufactured, and its motion performance is tested. The experiment shows that the cylindrical net-shell deployable mechanism has a smooth motion performance, and the mobility analysis method for complex coupled mechanism in this study is valid. This study has a certain significance in expanding the application field of cylindrical shell structure.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-27T09:24:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219859400
       
  • Deep learning-based brace damage detection for concentrically braced frame
           structures under seismic loadings
    • Authors: Heng Liu, Yunfeng Zhang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Automated and robust damage detection tool is needed to enhance the resilience of civil infrastructures. In this article, a deep learning-based damage detection procedure using acceleration data is proposed as an automated post-hazard inspection tool for rapid structural condition assessment. The procedure is investigated with a focus on application in concentrically braced frame structure, a commonly used seismic force-resisting structural system with bracing as fuse members. A case study of six-story concentrically braced frame building was selected to numerically validate and demonstrate the proposed method. The deep learning model, a convolutional neural network, was trained and tested using numerically generated dataset from over 2000 sets of nonlinear seismic simulation, and an accuracy of over 90% was observed for bracing buckling damage detection in this case study. The results of the deep learning model were also discussed and extended to define other damage feature indices. This study shows that the proposed procedure is promising for rapid bracing condition inspection in concentrically braced frame structures after earthquakes.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-27T09:21:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219859389
       
  • Investigation of modal damping ratios for stay cables based on stochastic
           subspace identification with ambient vibration measurements
    • Authors: Chien-Chou Chen, Wen-Hwa Wu, Szu-Ting Yu, Gwolong Lai
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The stability assessment of stay cables based on the damping ratios of lower cable modes has attracted a large amount of research efforts. An accurate determination of those modal damping ratios is consequently required for the analysis or health monitoring of cable-stayed bridges. The aim of this study was to explore the challenge in accurately identifying the modal damping ratios of stay cable. The ambient vibration measurements collected from the stay cables of four cable-stayed bridges are investigated to cover different characteristics. A recently developed methodology based on stochastic subspace identification is adopted to determine the modal damping ratios of the cable. With the identified modal damping ratios for the stay cables of four bridges, comparison is made to examine the range of cable damping in different cable-stayed bridges and discuss the effects of several influence factors. It is found that the modal damping ratios for the stay cables of investigated bridges typically fall between 0% and 0.7%, close to the range from 0.05% to 0.5% reported by Post-Tensioning Institute. Moreover, it is also discovered that the modal damping ratio of the cable would decrease with increasing cable length if the energy dissipation mechanism of the cable principally comes from the anchorage device. In the cases where the middle free length section of the cable is filled with effective grouting materials, the modal damping ratio of the cable is not necessarily correlated with the cable length. Finally, the obtained results also indicate that the grouting material filled in the middle free length section of the cable defines the primary contribution to energy dissipation ranked by a descending order of ceresine wax, flexible polymer-modified cement and polyurethane foam.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-11T12:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219855900
       
  • A non-target structural displacement measurement method using advanced
           feature matching strategy
    • Authors: Chuan-Zhi Dong, F Necati Catbas
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Most of the existing vision-based displacement measurement methods require manual speckles or targets to improve the measurement performance in non-stationary imagery environments. To minimize the use of manual speckles and targets, feature points regarded as virtual markers can be utilized for non-target measurement. In this study, an advanced feature matching strategy is presented, which replaces the handcrafted descriptors with learned descriptors called Visual Geometry Group, of the University of Oxford descriptors to achieve better performance. The feasibility and performance of the proposed method is verified by comparative studies with a laboratory experiment on a two-span bridge model and then with a field application on a railway bridge. The proposed approach of integrated use of Scale Invariant Feature Transform and Visual Geometry Group improved the measurement accuracy by about 24% when compared with the commonly used existing feature matching-based displacement measurement method using Scale Invariant Feature Transform feature and descriptor.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-11T12:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219856171
       
  • Vehicle weight identification for a bridge with multi-T-girders based on
           load transverse distribution coefficient
    • Authors: Xiao-Han Zuo, Wen-Yu He, Wei-Xin Ren
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-10T08:26:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219854548
       
  • Displacement-based seismic design for buildings installed hysteretic
           dampers with hardening post-yielding stiffness
    • Authors: Gang Li, Li-Hua Zhu, Hong-Nan Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-04T08:02:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219852715
       
  • Structural crack detection using deep learning–based fully
           convolutional networks
    • Authors: Xiao-Wei Ye, Tao Jin, Peng-Yu Chen
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T11:25:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219836292
       
  • Densely distributed and real-time scour hole monitoring using
           piezoelectric rod sensors
    • Authors: Morgan L Funderburk, Shieh-Kung Huang, Chin-Hsiung Loh, Kenneth J Loh
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-03-05T10:21:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219831124
       
  • Critical properties of laminated rubber bearings including the effect of
           eccentric vertical loading
    • Authors: Fangyuan Zhou, Dongdong Wu, Lemu Zhou, Hongping Zhu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-02-26T06:33:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219831115
       
  • Investigations on the influence of spherical caps in the axial impact
           characteristics of press-formed cylindrical tubular structures
    • Authors: A Praveen Kumar, Annisa Jusuf, Sigit Puji Santosa, Tatacipta Dirgantara
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-01-25T10:35:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433218819576
       
  • Bayesian model updating of a 20-story office building utilizing
           operational modal analysis results
    • Authors: Heung Fai Lam, Jun Hu, Mujib Olamide Adeagbo
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-01-23T11:25:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433218825043
       
  • Performance of videogrammetric displacement monitoring technique under
           varying ambient temperature
    • Authors: HF Zhou, LJ Lu, ZY Li, YQ Ni
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-01-04T06:05:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433218822089
       
  • Design optimization of triple friction pendulums for base-isolated
           high-rise buildings
    • Authors: Yanqing Xu, Tong Guo, Ping Yan
      First page: 2727
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-27T03:35:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219849840
       
  • Vibration of cold-formed steel floors with a steel form deck and
           gypsum-based self-leveling underlayment
    • Authors: Yu Guan, Xuhong Zhou, Xinmei Yao, Yu Shi
      First page: 2741
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-28T06:11:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219849836
       
  • Evaluation on ultimate load-carrying capacity of concrete-filled steel
           tubular arch structure with preload
    • Authors: Fuyun Huang, Yulong Cui, Rui Dong, Jiangang Wei, Baochun Chen
      First page: 2755
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-29T11:38:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219850091
       
  • Experimental investigations of concrete-filled steel tubular columns
           confined with high-strength steel wire
    • Authors: Yang Wei, Xunyu Cheng, Gang Wu, Maojun Duan, Libin Wang
      First page: 2771
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-27T03:35:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219850645
       
  • Long-term field test of temperature gradients on the composite girder of a
           long-span cable-stayed bridge
    • Authors: Jiang Liu, Yongjian Liu, Lei Jiang, Ning Zhang
      First page: 2785
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-29T11:40:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219851300
       
  • Nonlinear buckling optimization technique to predict critical imperfection
           wavelength of combined liquid-filled steel conical tanks
    • Authors: Rainer J MacKay, Ayman M El Ansary
      First page: 2799
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-27T03:36:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219852042
       
  • Seismic performance of framed underground structures with self-centering
           energy-dissipation column base
    • Authors: Zhiyi Chen, Yu Zhou
      First page: 2809
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-29T11:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219852043
       
  • Deformation behavior of slab warping for longitudinal continuous rigid
           slab under temperature effect
    • Authors: Zui Chen, Jieling Xiao, Xueyi Liu, Hongpei Qin, Rongshan Yang
      First page: 2823
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-29T11:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219852053
       
  • Seismic collapse assessment of double-layer barrel vault roofs with
           double-layer vertical walls
    • Authors: Mohammad Kheirollahi, Karim Abedi, Mohammad Reza Chenaghlou
      First page: 2837
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-30T11:27:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219852056
       
  • Shear resistance of through-diaphragm connections between concrete-filled
           steel tubular column and H-shaped steel beam with tension field model
    • Authors: Bin Rong, Xu Ma, Ruoyu Zhang, Shuai Liu
      First page: 2853
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-31T09:44:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219852054
       
  • An analytical model for the rotational behavior of concrete segmental
           joints with gaskets
    • Authors: Fan Yang, Shengrong Cao, Qingbin Li
      First page: 2866
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-29T11:44:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219852566
       
  • Bolt loosening detection based on audio classification
    • Authors: Yang Zhang, Xuefeng Zhao, Xiaowei Sun, Wensheng Su, Zhigang Xue
      First page: 2882
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-05T11:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219852565
       
  • Equivalent constant-amplitude fatigue load method based on the energy
           equivalence principle
    • Authors: Ruofan Gao, Jie Li
      First page: 2892
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-05T11:06:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219852705
       
  • Faster multi-defect detection system in shield tunnel using combination of
           FCN and faster RCNN
    • Authors: Xinwen Gao, Ming Jian, Min Hu, Mohan Tanniru, Shuaiqing Li
      First page: 2907
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-28T06:10:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219849829
       
  • Study on mechanical properties of high damping viscoelastic dampers
    • Authors: Yun Chen, Chao Chen, Qianqian Ma, Huanjun Jiang, Zhiwei Wan
      First page: 2925
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The mechanical properties of the viscoelastic damper made of high damping rubber produced in China are investigated in order to provide the basis for its application. At first, the test on material properties of high damping rubber is conducted. The Mooney–Rivlin model, the Yeoh model and the Prony series are applied for simulating the nonlinear behavior of the high damping rubber with the aid of software ABAQUS. Then, three viscoelastic dampers with different sizes are tested under cyclic loading. The effects of strain amplitude and loading frequency on hysteretic behavior of dampers are analyzed. Viscoelastic dampers possess large deformation capability, stable energy-dissipation capacity and good fatigue-resisting property. The effect of strain amplitude is much more significant than loading frequency. The hysteretic behavior of the dampers is simulated by the Bouc–Wen model and the model of the equivalent stiffness and damping, respectively. The prediction results by using the Bouc–Wen model are in good agreement with the experimental results, which indicates that the Bouc–Wen model is applicable to simulate the mechanical properties of high damping viscoelastic dampers with a wide range of shear strain. As to the model of equivalent stiffness and damping, it has the advantages of clear concept and simple calculation. However, the good accuracy of prediction can be obtained only when the shear strain is not greater than 60%.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-21T08:49:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219853440
       
  • Influence of the track structure on the vertical dynamic interaction
           analysis of the low-to-medium-speed maglev train-bridge system
    • Authors: Dangxiong Wang, Xiaozhen Li, Lin Liang, Xiaowei Qiu
      First page: 2937
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The low-to-medium-speed maglev train is stably suspended near the rated suspension gap. The suspension force acts directly on the track and is transmitted to the bridge. The maglev track structure is novel, and the influence mechanism of the track structure on the coupled vibration of the maglev train-bridge system is unknown. Therefore, in this study, we propose vertical dynamic interaction models of the low-to-medium-speed maglev train-bridge system and the low-to-medium-speed maglev train-track-bridge system to analyse the influence mechanism of the maglev track structure on the vertical dynamic interaction of the low-to-medium-speed maglev train-bridge system. The vibration characteristics of the F-rail and the influence mechanism of the track structure on the dynamic responses of the bridge are discussed in detail. The study verifies that the local deformation of the F-rail is self-evident and cannot be ignored. In addition, the influence of the F-rail on the dynamic interaction of the maglev train-bridge system is mainly reflected in two aspects: first, the vibration of the bridge in the high-frequency band increases due to the high frequency and intensive local vibration of the F-rail itself. Second, the vibrations of the bridge and the F-rail in the low-frequency band increase due to the periodic irregularities caused by the local deformation of the F-rail. In this study, we consider the vertical dynamic interaction model of the low-to-medium-speed maglev train-track-bridge system.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-11T12:24:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219854550
       
  • Plastic hinge relocation in reinforced concrete beam–column joint using
           carbon fiber–reinforced polymer
    • Authors: Olaniyi Arowojolu, Ahmed Ibrahim, Muhammad K Rahman, Mohammed Al-Osta, Ali H Al-Gadhib
      First page: 2951
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Reinforced concrete buildings with moment-resisting frames comprising beam–column joints (without joint shear reinforcement) designed prior to introduction of seismic codes are shear deficient when subjected to seismic loading, thereby mostly fail in shear at the core of the beam–column joint. However, those designed to the new seismic codes may fail by flexural hinging at the interface of the beam–column joint due to the yielding of the beam reinforcement at the location of highest stress demand (usually the beam–column joint interface). The shear failure has been precluded through the provision of transverse reinforcement at the joint in new design and the use of carbon fiber–reinforced polymer retrofitting in old buildings. Plastic hinge formation at the interface of the beam–column joint is critical because of its penetration into the joint and its effect on bond deterioration. In this study, eight corner-external beam–column joint specimens of 1/3 scale of a typical moment-resisting frame, made without transverse reinforcement, were tested for monotonic and reversed cyclic test under displacement-controlled regime. The control specimens failed by flexural hinging at the beam–column joint interface. The experimental results have been validated using the finite element model. The specimens were retrofitted with unidirectional carbon fiber–reinforced polymer of different layers and different length. After retrofitting, the plastic hinge was relocated to the curtailment end of the carbon fiber–reinforced polymer. The relocation of the plastic hinge resulted in higher load capacity and ductility.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-11T12:24:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219855901
       
  • Effects of temperature and lead core heating on response of seismically
           isolated bridges under near-fault excitations
    • Authors: Hao Wang, Wen-Zhi Zheng, Jian Li, Yu-Qi Gao
      First page: 2966
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Seismic responses of bridges isolated by lead rubber bearings under near-fault excitations are presented in this article. A bilinear force-deformation model is employed to represent the hysteretic behaviors of lead rubber bearings. The joint effects of ambient temperature, initial displacement, and lead core heating on the responses of seismically isolated bridges are investigated. Nonlinear time history analyses are conducted with the employed hysteretic models of lead rubber bearings. Comparisons of the responses with and without the joint effects are performed, in terms of maximum isolator displacements, maximum isolator forces, and base forces of the piers. Results show that ambient temperature, initial displacement, and lead core heating have significant joint effects on the responses of seismically isolated bridges. When such joint effects are ignored at low temperatures, the maximum isolator displacements could be overestimated, whereas the maximum isolator forces and the base forces could be underestimated. However, as for ambient temperatures above 20°C, the maximum isolator displacements could be underestimated, whereas the maximum isolator forces and the base forces could be overestimated with small maximum isolator displacements and underestimated with large maximum isolator displacements.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-11T12:24:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219855914
       
  • Seismic strengthening of masonry walls using bamboo components
    • Authors: Qingfeng Xu, Xi Chen, Jian-Fei Chen, Kent A Harries, Lingzhu Chen, Zhuolin Wang
      First page: 2982
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Bamboo is a sustainable green material and has been gradually applied in the construction industry; however, little research on strengthening masonry structures with bamboo has been carried out. In this article, strengthening methods using bamboo were developed including bamboo grid reinforced cement mortar layer, externally bonded bamboo mats, additional confining horizontal bamboo reinforced concrete band beams, and bamboo strips placed in mortar joints. Ten masonry walls were designed including two reference walls. Experimental results showed that all the strengthening methods can improve certain aspects of the seismic performance of masonry walls. The shear strength, deformability, and energy dissipation capacity of masonry walls strengthened with bamboo grid reinforced cement mortar and externally bonded bamboo mats were the most improved. The limit states of tested walls were discussed. Strengthened masonry structures with bamboo components are promising methods and can be used especially in remote areas.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-15T06:51:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219855902
       
  • Shear behavior degradation and failure pattern of reinforced concrete beam
           with chloride-induced stirrup corrosion
    • Authors: Zhao-Hui Lu, Hai Li, Wengui Li, Yan-Gang Zhao, Zhuo Tang, Zhihui Sun
      First page: 2998
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Reinforcement corrosion exhibits an adverse effect on the shear strength of reinforced concrete structures. In order to investigate the effects of chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel on the shear behavior and failure pattern of reinforced concrete beams, a total of 24 reinforced concrete beams with different concrete strength grades and arrangements of stirrups were fabricated, among which 22 beams were subjected to accelerated corrosion to achieve different degrees of reinforcement corrosion. The failure pattern, crack propagation, load–displacement response, and ultimate strength of these beams were investigated under a standard four-point loading test in this study. Extensive comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of the concrete strength, shear span-to-depth ratio, and stirrup type on the shear behavior of the corroded reinforced concrete beams. The results show that increasing the stirrup yielding strength is more effective in improving the shear strength of corroded reinforced concrete beams than that of concrete compressive strength. In terms of three types of stirrups, the shear strength of the beams with deformed HRB-335 is least sensitive to stirrup corrosion, followed by the beams with smooth HPB-235 and the beams with deformed HRB-400. The effect of the different stirrups on the shear strength depends on the corrosion degree of stirrup and shear span-to-depth ratio of the beam. The predicted results of shear strength of corroded reinforced concrete beams by a proposed analytical model are well consistent with the experimental results.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-15T06:52:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219855917
       
  • Performance assessment of an earthquake-based optimally designed fluid
           viscous damper under blast loading
    • Authors: Hamed Dadkhah, Mohtasham Mohebbi
      First page: 3011
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Terrorist attacks and explosion devices are one of the growing worldwide threats which seriously threaten the safety of strategic structures. The aim of this study is assessing the performance of the linear fluid viscous damper optimally designed based on seismic loading under blast loading. To this end, the control system is first optimally designed under different earthquakes and the performance of the optimally designed fluid viscous damper is evaluated under different external blast scenarios. In order to design the optimal fluid viscous damper for seismic loading, the design problem is transformed into an optimization problem that the genetic algorithm has been used to solve the optimization problem and determine the optimal values of design variables. The fluid viscous damper configuration including size and distribution has been considered as the design variables and the design objective has been defined to keep the structure behavior in the elastic range with a minimum control cost. The optimization results show that the total added optimal damping is dependent on earthquake record, while in this case study the optimal distributions of the fluid viscous damper under earthquake records are not so different. The performance assessment of the earthquake-based optimally designed fluid viscous damper under blast loading shows its effectiveness in achieving the desired design objective. Therefore, in this case study, the fluid viscous damper designed for seismic loading can be considered as a well-designed control system under multi-hazard of blast and earthquake.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-18T12:06:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219855905
       
  • New research for the distortion of steel box girders with inner solid
           diaphragms
    • Authors: Yangzhi Ren, Bin Wang, Yinqi Li, Xuechun Liu
      First page: 3026
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Toward estimating accurately the distortional response of box girders, in this article, distortion of steel box girders strengthened with intermediate solid diaphragms under eccentric loads is analyzed by employing the so-called initial parameter method. A new model of high-order statically indeterminate structure was established with three orthogonal redundant forces acting at the junction between the girder and diaphragms. Emphasis is put onto the interaction between the girder and diaphragms, where a hypothetical bi-moment Bpi indicating all longitudinal redundant force components for diaphragm was proposed besides the moment Mpi for in-plane shear component. Simplified initial parameter method solutions for distortional angle and distortional warping stresses and displacements were derived based on the in-plane and out-of-plane compatibilities between the girder and diaphragms. Taking box girders with three and five intermediate diaphragms as an example, the proposed initial parameter method solutions have good agreement with the finite element analysis ones. Finally, distortional behavior under moving eccentric loads is investigated, resulting in a bowl-shaped curve for moment Mpi and an approximate trigonometric function for bi-moment Bpi. Results show that diaphragms have a stronger resistance on in-plane distortional shear for the loads in midspan than on ends. Plus, the thick diaphragm holds a stronger restraint on distortional warping deformations and stresses than the thin one.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-01T08:45:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219856754
       
  • Development and testing of precast concrete beam-to-column connections
           with high-strength hooked bars under cyclic loading
    • Authors: Hui Yang, Zhengxing Guo, Hang Yin, Dongzhi Guan, Sen Yang
      First page: 3042
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A traditional reinforcing detail—hooked bars anchored in the joint core—for the bottom bars in precast beams was improved by using small-diameter high-strength bars to reduce the steel congestion in the cast-in-place connection zone. Five full-scale beam-to-column connections, including a monolithic specimen, were tested under reversed cyclic loading. The primary test variables were the type of beam longitudinal bars, manner of roughening the inner surface of the precast U-shell, presence or absence of the small-diameter stirrups inside the U-shell, and height of the precast columns. An analysis of the strength, ductility, stiffness, and energy dissipation showed that the proposed connection exhibited a comparable, although slightly inferior, seismic performance relative to the monolithic connection. Among the precast specimens, the existence of additional stirrups slightly improved the total performance. The use of high-strength steel bars as beam top longitudinal bars further decreased the loading capacity and energy dissipation. The air bubble film technique used to roughen the interfaces ensured the structural integrity.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-20T06:54:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219857855
       
  • Study on the wind-field characteristics over a bridge site due to the
           shielding effects of mountains in a deep gorge via numerical simulation
    • Authors: Zhang Mingjin, Yu Jisheng, Zhang Jingyu, Wu Lianhuo, Li Yongle
      First page: 3055
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To investigate the shielding effects of mountains in front of a bridge on the wind field at the bridge site in an area with complex topography, a numerical simulation model of the bridge site, which is located in a deep cut V-shaped gorge, was conducted by a computational fluid dynamics method. In this study, taking the shielding effects of mountains in front of the bridge into consideration, the mean velocity, wind attack angle, wind profile, and wind direction angle under different flow cases were calculated and compared. The spatial distribution characteristics of the wind field in an area with complex topography considering shielding effects are presented. The calculation results indicate that the characteristics of the wind field near the mountain at the bridge site are affected by the mountain and the direction of the incoming flow. The shielding effects of the mountain on the eastern side of the bridge are very different under different flow directions. The wind load distribution along the girder is severely uneven in some cases due to a local cyclone existing around the girder. The conclusions of this study provide a basis for improved wind resistance designs of bridges.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-21T08:50:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219857859
       
  • Inelastic displacement spectra for Chinese highway bridges characterized
           by single-degree-of-freedom bilinear systems
    • Authors: Yi-feng Wu, Ai-qun Li, Hao Wang
      First page: 3066
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      As for the inelastic displacement demand of a single-degree-of-freedom system, previous studies usually focus on the strength reduction factor, R, or the inelastic displacement ratio, C. Only a little literature reports the direct statistical results of the mean inelastic displacement spectra, Sd. Based on 308 earthquake records selected from three types of site soil, differences between the direct mean Sd and the indirect ones that respectively derived from mean R and mean Cμ are investigated, in which Cμ refers to the constant ductility inelastic displacement ratio. It is found the indirect Sd will introduce errors for using mean R and mean Cμ, while the dispersion of the direct spectra need to be reduced before putting into practice. Two methods, the period normalized method and the spectra-matching method, are employed to address the dispersion problem, and the latter one that modified a record to make its acceleration response spectra compatible with the specified standard, Chinese highway bridge seismic design guidelines in this study, works with more acceptable performance. Finally, a comprehensive equation is proposed to characterize the spectra-matching mean Sd, the practicality and efficiency of the identified parameters in the equation are verified. It is advisable to use the proposed equation to assess the inelastic displacement demand of Chinese highway bridges characterized by single-degree-of-freedom bilinear system, and the procedures to obtain the displacement spectra can also be utilized for other corresponding researches.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-26T06:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219857845
       
  • Experimental study on torsional behavior of spatial main cable for a
           self-anchored suspension bridge
    • Authors: Chuanxi Li, You Li, Jun He
      First page: 3086
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In order to understand the torsional behavior of the spatial main cable between two saddles for a self-anchored suspension bridge during the transition process from construction state to completed state, a scaled model (1:15) was prepared and tested. First, the cable anchorage system and cable measurement device were designed. Then, a series of model tests under the conditions of different preloading angles and different tensioning forces for hangers were carried out. Finally, the regularity of the torsional properties was revealed on the basis of the measured twist angle of the main cable. The experimental study shows that the transverse pre-deflected angle of the cable clamp has a decisive influence on the torsional angle of the main cable sections near the cable clamp, but for the main cable sections far from the pre-deflected cable clamp, this influence can almost be negligible. The torsional angle changes linearly within adjacent cable clamps. When inclined angle of the hanger is larger than the pre-deflected angle of the cable clamp, the cable clamp will cause the main cable section to twist in the positive direction, otherwise, the result is reverse. With the increase in the hanger force, the direction of hanger force passes through the cross-sectional center of the main cable, resulting in an unchanged twisting angle. In addition, a three-dimensional finite element model of the test specimen was established and used to analyze the influence of pre-deflected angle of a cable clamp on the torsion angle of the main cable, the same results can be found in finite element analyses in comparison with the test results. Therefore, a reasonable pre-deflected angle of cable clamp can be determined by the finite element model in the primary design state before the construction stage.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-03T08:50:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219857840
       
  • Development and mechanical behaviour of ultra-high-performance seawater
           sea-sand concrete
    • Authors: Jin-Guang Teng, Yu Xiang, Tao Yu, Zhi Fang
      First page: 3100
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Ultra-high-performance concrete is typically defined as an advanced cementitious material that has a compressive strength of over 150 MPa and superior durability. This article presents the development of a new type of ultra-high-performance concrete, namely, ultra-high-performance seawater sea-sand concrete. The development of ultra-high-performance seawater sea-sand concrete addresses the challenges associated with the shortage of freshwater, river-sand and coarse aggregate in producing concrete for a marine construction project. When used together with corrosion-resistant fibre-reinforced polymer composites, the durability of the resulting structures (i.e. hybrid fibre-reinforced polymer–ultra-high-performance seawater sea-sand concrete structures) in a harsh environment can be expected to be outstanding. The ultra-high strength of ultra-high-performance seawater sea-sand concrete and the unique characteristics of fibre-reinforced polymer composites also offer tremendous opportunities for optimization towards new forms of high-performance structures. An experimental study is presented in this article to demonstrate the concept and feasibility of ultra-high-performance seawater sea-sand concrete: ultra-high-performance seawater sea-sand concrete samples with a 28-day cube compressive strength of over 180 MPa were successfully produced; the samples were made of seawater and sea-sand, but without steel fibres, and were cured at room temperature. The experimental programme also examined the effects of a number of relevant variables, including the types of sand, mixing water and curing water, among other parameters. The mini-slump spread, compressive strength and stress–strain curve of the specimens were measured to clarify the effects of experimental variables. The test results show that the use of seawater and sea-sand leads to a slight decrease in workability, density and modulus of elasticity; it is also likely to slightly increase the early strength but to slightly decrease the strengths at 7 days and above. Compared with freshwater curing, the seawater curing method results in a slight decrease in elastic modulus and compressive strength.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-03T08:54:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219858291
       
  • Study of the bond behaviour between basalt fibre-reinforced polymer
           bar/sheet and bamboo engineering materials
    • Authors: Qingfang Lv, Yi Ding, Ye Liu
      First page: 3121
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To improve practical application of modern bamboo structures, strengthening the bamboo engineering material is necessary to overcome insufficient stiffness. As an essential step in developing fibre-reinforced polymer–bamboo engineering material composite structures aimed at increasing the structural stiffness, the bonding behaviour at the interface of the fibre-reinforced polymer and bamboo engineering materials should be investigated in detail because currently there is a lack of research. In this article, bonding behaviour is studied between basalt fibre-reinforced polymer bar and bamboo engineering material including laminated and reconstituted bamboo and between basalt fibre-reinforced polymer sheets and laminated bamboo. Failure patterns are categorized, and the load–slip curves are discussed. Based on the failure pattern and strain variation, recommended bond lengths were proposed for the basalt fibre-reinforced polymer bar–bamboo engineering material and basalt fibre-reinforced polymer sheet–laminated bamboo composite specimens, respectively. In addition, a simplified three-phase bond–slip model was proposed for the basalt fibre-reinforced polymer bar–bamboo engineering material composite specimen.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-24T06:36:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219858725
       
  • A new energy dissipative cable bracing system
    • Authors: Saman Bagheri, Siamak S Shishvan, Majid Barghian, Behzad Baniahmad
      First page: 3134
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A special type of cable bracing system comprising a pre-stressed cable and a drum interacting via frictional contact is proposed for lateral resistance of structures, and an analytical solution for the response of this system is developed. The response of the system is highly non-linear due to the existence of frictional contact as well as geometrical effects and it consists of two phases: a linear phase before gross slipping with a relatively high stiffness followed by a non-linear phase with gradually increasing stiffness (i.e. hardening). However, the analytical solution is capable of capturing the whole response with a remarkable accuracy when compared to the finite element model of the system constructed for cross-validation. This analytical solution facilitates studying the effects of various parameters on the behaviour of the system, namely, the coefficient of friction, pre-strain and geometrical aspect ratio. These parameters can be arbitrarily set to achieve a desirable behaviour of the system. The proposed system is capable of undergoing large deformations with symmetrical and stable hysteretic behaviour. The effectiveness of the proposed device in reducing the seismic responses of a building frame is examined using a simplified numerical model.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-27T09:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433219858726
       
 
 
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