Publisher: Sage Publications   (Total: 1086 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1086 Journals sorted alphabetically
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Abstracts in Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Academic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Accounting History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Radiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.754, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Radiologica Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.939, CiteScore: 2)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 351, SJR: 1.397, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 0)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 2)
Adult Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 137, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Tumor Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.108, CiteScore: 0)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Affilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
Agrarian South : J. of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Alexandria : The J. of National and Intl. Library and Information Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Allergy & Rhinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AlterNative : An Intl. J. of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Alternative Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.351, CiteScore: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Educational Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221, SJR: 2.913, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Cosmetic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.646, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.65, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.972, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 3.949, CiteScore: 6)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.313, CiteScore: 1)
American Review of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.062, CiteScore: 2)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 317, SJR: 6.333, CiteScore: 6)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, CiteScore: 2)
Animation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.634, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.096, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.225, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of the ICRP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.341, CiteScore: 7)
Anthropological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.635, CiteScore: 2)
Antyajaa : Indian J. of Women and Social Change     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.17, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 2)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Media Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Management Research and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 1)
Asian and Pacific Migration J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 108, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian J. of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Management Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
ASN Neuro     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.534, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.519, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.433, CiteScore: 1)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.801, CiteScore: 2)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 527, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian J. of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.497, CiteScore: 1)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 329, SJR: 1.739, CiteScore: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.877, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bible Translator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biblical Theology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Research for Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarkers in Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioscope: South Asian Screen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 3)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Neuroscience Advances     Open Access  
Breast Cancer : Basic and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.823, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Music Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
British J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Politics and Intl. Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
British J.ism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BRQ Business Review Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 1)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Business Perspectives and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cahiers Élisabéthains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
California Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.209, CiteScore: 4)
Canadian J. of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.007, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Nursing Research (CJNR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140, SJR: 0.626, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.769, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists J. / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Control     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Growth and Metastasis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.64, CiteScore: 1)
Capital and Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access  
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Cartilage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.889, CiteScore: 3)
Cell and Tissue Transplantation and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.023, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.581, CiteScore: 3)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Child Maltreatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
Child Neurology Open     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
China Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chronic Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.672, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.808, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Stress     Open Access  
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.757, CiteScore: 1)
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Translational Neuroscience     Open Access  
Clinical Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.73, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Blood Disorders     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Ear, Nose and Throat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.776, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Trauma and Intensive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Nursing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.487, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.281, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.399, CiteScore: 2)
Clothing and Textiles Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Communication and the Public     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.458, CiteScore: 1)
Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.171, CiteScore: 3)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.451, CiteScore: 1)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 3.772, CiteScore: 3)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)
Competition and Regulation in Network Industries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.642, CiteScore: 2)
Conflict Management and Peace Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.441, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary Drug Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 2)
Contemporary Education Dialogue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary Review of the Middle East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Contemporary Sociology : A J. of Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Contemporary Voice of Dalit     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Contexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contributions to Indian Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Adaptive Behavior
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.288
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 9  
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 1059-7123 - ISSN (Online) 1741-2633
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1086 journals]
  • PedestriANS: a bipedal robot with adaptive morphology
    • Authors: Huthaifa Ahmad, Yoshihiro Nakata, Yutaka Nakamura, Hiroshi Ishiguro
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      In diverse situations, humans produce natural and adaptable bipedal locomotion by cooperatively manipulating the interactions among the different parts of their bodies and the environment. Therefore, to realize a robot with adaptable behavior, it should be enabled to adjust its morphology accordingly in response to environmental changes. From this perspective, this study introduces the development of a bipedal robot with adaptive morphology. By implementing an actuator network system (ANS), the robot is able to manipulate the physical characteristics of its legs and the way they interact with each other. Two experiments have been conducted: main and supplementary experiments. The main experiment examined how effective is adjusting the robot’s morphology on changing the robot’s behavior. The experiment was conducted on different ground materials and under different connection patterns between the robot’s legs. During the experiment, the robot’s behavior was evaluated in reference to four aspects: walking style, stability, speed, and moving direction. The supplementary experiment took the results of the main experiment and used it to improve the robot’s behavior during locomotion. The robot was enabled to automatically switch between the different connection patterns of the ANS, which in turn changed the interaction between the robot’s legs and generated a more suitable dynamics for the surrounding environment.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2020-02-19T08:56:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712320905177
  • Uni- and bidirectional pedestrian flows through zigzag corridor in a
           tourism area: a field study
    • Authors: Xiaolian Li, Rui Ye, Zhiming Fang, Yihua Xu, Beihua Cong, Xin Han
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Nowadays, the famous tourist attractions are becoming more and more popular for people from all over the world. Thus, to ensure the safety of tourists is a tough task in such crowded area. The study of pedestrian’s characteristics in crowd movement is essential for safety management. In this article, both uni- and bidirectional observational experiments were conducted to quantitatively analyze the movement properties of pedestrians in a zigzag corridor which is located in a tourism area named Yuyuan business district in Shanghai. Several phenomena have been found during the tourists’ movement process: congestion at boundary, competing and bypassing behavior, and flow gap. As indicated by the transit time of pedestrians in both uni- and bidirectional scenarios, pedestrians in bidirectional pattern (>10 s) spend more time on going through the corridor than that in unidirectional one (
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2020-02-07T09:13:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712320902236
  • Development of body-based spatial knowledge through mental imagery in an
           artificial agent
    • Authors: Bruno Lara, Wilmer Gaona, Esaú Escobar, José Manuel Pardo, Jorge Hermosillo-Valadez
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Distance perception for mobile agents is of great importance for safe navigation in unknown environments. Traditional methods make use of analytical solutions. Yet, according to some research hypothesis, distance perception is not the result of mathematical calculations, but an emergent consequence of an association process, where visual and tactile information acquire a central role. Designing models closer to natural cognition poses paramount challenges to artificial intelligence (AI), which call for a review of some of the foundations of current methods. Our work is framed in the embodied cognition paradigm, which highlights the importance of the body for the development of cognitive processes. We provide theoretical grounds and empirical evidence for an artificial account of distance perception through a multimodal association process. By learning multimodal sensorimotor schemes, an agent is capable of perceiving affordances related to distance perception without any non-body-based geometric knowledge. We let an agent interact with an environment cluttered with objects, while learning multimodal sensorimotor associations. The learned spatial relations are thoroughly characterized to show how the model depends on the agent’s specific sensorimotor capabilities. The system is tested in a passability experiment and a navigation task, showing the agent anticipates undesired situations using the learned model predictions.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T04:55:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319895604
  • Majority rule dynamics between a double coalition and a third opinion:
           coalition profit models and majority coalition ties
    • Authors: Felipe Gayosso Martínez, Alexander Balankin
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the opinion dynamics of a double coalition opinion against a third opinion under majority rule updates on odd fixed size connected groups. For this purpose, coalition benefit criteria and three opinion formation models which extend the 2-state majority rule model on lattices are introduced. The proposed models focus on the coalition profit of its constituent coalition opinions and cover the possible final scenarios from coalition alliance perspective: either minor opinion or major opinion is favored, or dynamics do not favor to any coalition opinion. Opinion exchanges take place on a torus embedded lattice network of a 3-state system having in consideration tie configurations and two rules to break them: either by random choice or leaving ties unaltered. Models were analyzed in the statistical mechanics spirit through Monte Carlo simulations without node replacement. Estimations for coalition benefits, the growth of coalition ties, and consensus probabilities are reported. The loss of coalition strengths due to coalition ties and its indecision is indicated. In particular, the logistic decay of consensus probability is due to the logistic adaptive growth of coalition ties. Scaling behaviors for consensus time and coalition ties in terms of network size are suggested. The results of numerical simulations are discussed in the context of social influence and social dynamics.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T04:53:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319895486
  • On the utility of dreaming: A general model for how learning in artificial
           agents can benefit from data hallucination
    • Authors: David Windridge, Henrik Svensson, Serge Thill
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      We consider the benefits of dream mechanisms – that is, the ability to simulate new experiences based on past ones – in a machine learning context. Specifically, we are interested in learning for artificial agents that act in the world, and operationalize “dreaming” as a mechanism by which such an agent can use its own model of the learning environment to generate new hypotheses and training data.We first show that it is not necessarily a given that such a data-hallucination process is useful, since it can easily lead to a training set dominated by spurious imagined data until an ill-defined convergence point is reached. We then analyse a notably successful implementation of a machine learning-based dreaming mechanism by Ha and Schmidhuber (Ha, D., & Schmidhuber, J. (2018). World models. arXiv e-prints, arXiv:1803.10122). On that basis, we then develop a general framework by which an agent can generate simulated data to learn from in a manner that is beneficial to the agent. This, we argue, then forms a general method for an operationalized dream-like mechanism.We finish by demonstrating the general conditions under which such mechanisms can be useful in machine learning, wherein the implicit simulator inference and extrapolation involved in dreaming act without reinforcing inference error even when inference is incomplete.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2020-01-08T10:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319896489
  • Constrained representation learning for recurrent policy optimisation
           under uncertainty
    • Authors: Viet-Hung Dang, Ngo Anh Vien, TaeChoong Chung
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Learning to make decisions in partially observable environments is a notorious problem that requires a complex representation of controllers. In most work, the controllers are designed as a non-linear mapping from a sequence of temporal observations to actions. These problems can, in principle, be formulated as a partially observable Markov decision process whose policy can be parameterised through the use of recurrent neural networks. In this paper, we will propose an alternative framework that (a) uses the Long-Short-Term-Memory (LSTM) Encoder-Decoder framework to learn an internal state representation for historical observations and then (b) integrates it into existing recurrent policy models to improve the task performance. The LSTM Encoder encodes a history of observations as input into a representation of internal states. The LSTM Decoder can perform two alternative decoding tasks: predicting the same input observation sequence or predicting future observation sequences. The first proposed decoder acts like an auto-encoder that will guide and constrain the learning of a useful internal state for the policy optimisation task. The second proposed decoder decodes the learnt internal state by the encoder to predict future observation sequences. This idea makes the network act like a non-linear predictive state representation model. Both these decoding parts, which introduce constraints to policy representation, will help guide both the policy optimisation problem and latent state representation learning. The integration of representation learning and policy optimisation aims to help learn more complex policies and improve the performance of policy learning tasks.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-12-30T08:27:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319891641
  • Active materials: minimal models of cognition'
    • Authors: Patrick McGivern
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Work on minimal cognition raises a variety of questions concerning the boundaries of cognition. Many discussions of minimal cognition assume that the domain of minimal cognition is a subset of the domain of the living. In this article, I consider whether non-living ‘active materials’ ought to be included as instances of minimal cognition. I argue that seeing such cases as ‘minimal models’ of (minimal) cognition requires recognising them as members of a class of systems sharing the same basic features and exhibiting the same general patterns of behaviour. Minimal cognition in this sense is a very inclusive concept: rather than specifying some threshold level of cognition or a type of cognition found only in very simple systems, it is a concept of cognition associated with very minimal criteria that pick out only the most essential requirements for a system to exhibit cognitive behaviour.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-12-27T08:06:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319891742
  • Approaching minimal cognition: introduction to the special issue
    • Authors: Nick Brancazio, Miguel Segundo-Ortin, Patrick McGivern
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      This special issue highlights the growing interdisciplinary interest in minimal cognition, bringing together a number of philosophers and scientists interested in investigating where, how, and why cognition arises. In what follows, we introduce the topic of minimal cognition by giving a brief look at debates and discussions about the lower bounds of cognition, minimally cognitive behaviors, and the possibility of life-mind continuity. Afterwards, we offer a short summary of each of the contributions to this issue. In the spirit of the Minimal Cognition conferences at the University of Wollongong at which the contributors participated, we hope this special issue will enrich the current state of minimal cognition research by putting a number of different disciplines and approaches into conversation.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-12-18T11:34:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319891620
  • Dynamic-free robust adaptive intelligent fault-tolerant controller design
           with prescribed performance for stable motion of quadruped robots
    • Authors: Yousef Farid, Vahid Johari Majd, Abbas Ehsani-Seresht
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, a robust adaptive intelligent fault-tolerant controller with prescribed performance is proposed for an uncertain quadruped robot with actuator fault. The control system comprised of three terms: (1) a full-state feedback controller which includes the prescribed performance function, (2) an adaptive intelligent wavelet-based Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy network (TSFN), and (3) a robust control term. The proposed controller does not utilize the robot dynamic model. A wavelet-based TSFN is utilized to approximate adaptively the lumped nonlinear terms, parameter uncertainties, and defective torque signal. The wavelet block acts as a feature extractor, reduces the number of fuzzy rules, and also acts as a normalization function. The parameters of TSFN are tuned online by an adaptive law based on Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed controller guarantees the desired specification such as minimum speed of convergence, maximum steady-state error, overshoot concerning the position tracking error, and also bounded closed-loop signals. Numerical simulations on MATLAB/SimMechanics environment demonstrate the stable walking of the quadruped robot in the presence of the actuator faults and parameter uncertainties.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-12-16T06:55:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319890692
  • Closed-loop dynamic computations for adaptive behavior (articles based on
           SAB2018 conference)
    • Authors: Poramate Manoonpong, Xiaofeng Xiong, Jørgen Christian Larsen
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      The Special Issue contains the selected articles presented at the 15th International Conference on the Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (SAB 2018). The conference took place during August 2018 in Frankfurt, Germany. The articles introduce different aspects of closed-loop dynamic computations for adaptive behavior in artificial agents. The aspects cover a range of adaptive behavior research from morphological computation to brain-body-environment interactions, nature-inspired special perception, and closed-loop online learning. SAB is a biennial conference; its next incarnation will be during September 2020, in Paris. If the papers in this issue inspire you, please consider submitting your work to the 2020 conference—who knows, next time it may be your paper in the Special Issue.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-11-27T10:23:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319888814
  • A novel adaptive second-order sliding mode controller for autonomous
           underwater vehicles
    • Authors: Rupam Gupta Roy, Dibyendu Ghoshal
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Navigating, directing, and controlling autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are demanding and considered complicated compared to the autonomous surface-level performance. In such vehicles, the motion can be controlled depending on the estimation of indefinite hydrodynamic forces and the disturbances that occurs in this vehicle in the underwater background. In this article, Gray Wolf optimization (GWO) is performed along with the second-order sliding mode control (GW-SoSMC) approach for controlling the yaw angle in AUV. The main purpose of the article is to reduce the error that occurs in the system between the controlled signal and desired signal corresponding to yaw angle. Using this proposed model, both the occurrence of chattering and the controlling performance of AUV system can be diminished. Moreover, the proposed model is compared with the existing approaches like, FireFly-SoSMC (FF-SoSMC), Genetic Algorithm-SoSMC (GA-SoSMC), Gray Wolf-SMC (GW-SMC), Group search optimization-SoSMC (GSO-SoSMC) and Artificial Bee Colony-SoSMC (ABC-SoSMC). From the simulation results, it shows that the performance of the implemented technique in terms of steady-state response, error analysis, yaw angle analysis, and controller response is enhanced while comparing with the existing approaches.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-10-21T10:34:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319882105
  • Emotion as an emergent phenomenon of the neurocomputational energy
           regulation mechanism of a cognitive agent in a decision-making task
    • Authors: Murat Kirtay, Lorenzo Vannucci, Ugo Albanese, Cecilia Laschi, Erhan Oztop, Egidio Falotico
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Biological agents need to complete perception-action cycles to perform various cognitive and biological tasks such as maximizing their wellbeing and their chances of genetic continuation. However, the processes performed in these cycles come at a cost. Such costs force the agent to evaluate a tradeoff between the optimality of the decision making and the time and computational effort required to make it. Several cognitive mechanisms that play critical roles in managing this tradeoff have been identified. These mechanisms include adaptation, learning, memory, attention, and planning. One of the often overlooked outcomes of these cognitive mechanisms, in spite of the critical effect that they may have on the perception-action cycle of organisms, is “emotion.” In this study, we hold that emotion can be considered as an emergent phenomenon of a plausible neurocomputational energy regulation mechanism, which generates an internal reward signal to minimize the neural energy consumption of a sequence of actions (decisions), where each action triggers a visual memory recall process. To realize an optimal action selection over a sequence of actions in a visual recalling task, we adopted a model-free reinforcement learning framework, in which the reward signal—that is, the cost—was based on the iteration steps of the convergence state of an associative memory network. The proposed mechanism has been implemented in simulation and on a robotic platform: the iCub humanoid robot. The results show that the computational energy regulation mechanism enables the agent to modulate its behavior to minimize the required neurocomputational energy in performing the visual recalling task.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-10-14T06:26:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319880649
  • Power spectral parameter variations after transcranial direct current
           stimulation in a bimanual coordination task
    • Authors: Atefeh Azarpaikan, HamidReza Taherii Torbati, Mehdi Sohrabi, Reza Boostani, Majid Ghoshuni
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can shift neuronal membrane excitability by applying a weak slow electric current to the brain through the scalp. Attendant electroencephalography (EEG) can provide valuable information about the tDCS mechanisms. This study investigated the effects of anodal tDCS on parietal cortex and cerebellum activity to reveal possible modulation of spontaneous oscillatory brain activity. Timing of the tDCS priming protocol in relation to the intervention especially with respect to bimanual coordination task was also studied. EEG activity was measured in 120 healthy participants before and after sessions of anodal stimulation of the parietal cortex and cerebellum to detect the tDCS-induced alterations. Variations of the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) power bands were analyzed using a MATLAB program. The results showed that anodal parietal and cerebellar tDCS cause changes in brain wave frequencies. They also showed an increase in alpha, beta, and SMR power bands during stimulation sessions for during stimulation parietal group (p ≤ .01). Also, theta, alpha, beta, and SMR power bands were increased in during stimulation cerebellum group in stimulation sessions and 48 h later (p ≤ .01). Moreover, the results revealed that the tDCS intervention led to a variety of activations in some areas of the brain. Altogether, the cerebellar tDCS during motor task had a significant improvement in off-line learning.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-10-14T06:24:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319879971
  • Self-domesticated by violence to be peaceful. And violent
    • Authors: Dan Řezníček
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-10-03T11:22:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319878887
  • Evolutionary active vision system: from 2D to 3D
    • Authors: Olalekan Lanihun, Bernie Tiddeman, Patricia Shaw, Elio Tuci
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Biological vision incorporates intelligent cooperation between the sensory and the motor systems, which is facilitated by the development of motor skills that help to shape visual information that is relevant to a specific vision task. In this article, we seek to explore an approach to active vision inspired by biological systems, which uses limited constraints for motor strategies through progressive adaptation via an evolutionary method. This type of approach gives freedom to artificial systems in the discovery of eye-movement strategies that may be useful to solve a given vision task but are not known to us. In the experiment sections of this article, we use this type of evolutionary active vision system for more complex natural images in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environments. To further improve the results, we experiment with the use of pre-processing the visual input with both the uniform local binary patterns (ULBP) and the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) for classification tasks in the 2D and 3D environments. The 3D experiments include application of the active vision system to object categorisation and indoor versus outdoor environment classification. Our experiments are conducted on the iCub humanoid robot simulator platform.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-10-03T11:18:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319874475
  • The persistent enigma of motivation: a commentary on Nathaniel Barrett’s
           “On the nature and origins of cognition as a form of motivated
    • Authors: Pamela Lyon
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Barrett is to be applauded for attempting to build a case for motivated activity as “reasons that act as causes.” Had he stuck to the plan he set out at the beginning of his essay, and assiduously worked on clarifying the very difficult issues involved in this extremely ambitious venture, he would have had an excellent foundation for further development. Unfortunately, he fell into some conceptual and methodological traps that have claimed many. This commentary aims to suggest some ways forward.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-09-17T06:09:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319873897
  • Of what is “minimal cognition” the half-baked version'
    • Authors: Pamela Lyon
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      “Minimal cognition” is used in certain sectors of the cognitive sciences to make a kind of ontological claim that may be unique in the biological sciences: that a function operating in organisms living today is not a fully fledged version of that function (the nature of which remains unspecified), but, rather, exhibits the minimal requirements for whatever it is, properly conceived. Evidence suggests that elsewhere in the life sciences, deployment of minimizing qualifiers relative to a biological function appears largely restricted to two scenarios: first, attenuated functioning and, second, evolution of the function, real or synthetic. The article argues that “minimal cognition” and “proto-cognitive” were introduced at the turn of this century by cognitive researchers seeking to learn directly from evolved behavior, ecology and physiology. A terminological straitjacket imposed on the central object of cognitive science at its beginning necessitated the move. An alternative terminology is proposed, based on a phyletically neutral definition of cognition as a biological function; a candidate mechanism is explored; and a bacterial example presented. On this story, cognition is like respiration: ubiquitously present, from unicellular life to blue whales and every form of life in between, and for similar reasons: staying alive requires it.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-09-06T08:11:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319871360
  • Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with a virtual
           reality exercise on balance in a patient with multiple sclerosis: a case
    • Authors: Glaucio Carneiro Costa, André Issao Kunitake, Paulo Roberto Fonseca Junior, Ângela Cristina Ledur, Cíntia Elord Júlio, Gabriela Santos Pereira, João Carlos Ferrari Corrêa, Fernanda Ishida Correa
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      To investigate the effects of training with videogame (VG) combined with transcranial direct current (tDCS) stimulation on balance, fatigue, and quality of life in an individual with multiple sclerosis.A 51-year-old male patient reported a history of progressive loss of muscle strength in the left lower limb from 37 years of age. Equilibrium, fatigue, and quality of life were evaluated before and after two treatment protocols, with the 14-day interval between them: Protocol 1: VG + sham tDCS (five consecutive sessions) and Protocol 2: VG + tDCS active (five consecutive sessions). Each session lasted 20 min, with 2 mA intensity.After Protocol 1, the patient presented improvement in balance, fatigue, and quality of life, but these improvements were not maintained in the follow-up evaluation. After Protocol 2, an improvement in balance was not clinically important and the results of the low post-intervention and follow-up were found in relation to fatigue and quality of life.The most promising clinical changes were found when the VG was combined with the sham tDCS compared to the combination of VG and active tDCS.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-09-05T12:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319873912
  • The importance of memory for the success of cooperation under ecological
    • Authors: David Naves Sousa, Luís Correia, Leonel Garcia-Marques
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      While cooperation maximizes collective welfare, selfishness maximizes short-term individual benefits. Why should any organism cooperate' Selfishness seems to be favored by natural selection. While this presents a classical dilemma in many fields, cooperation is observed at all levels of biological organization. By preserving the common good, cooperation may guarantee better survival chances for all. Evolution and maintenance of cooperation are possible by a combination of multiple mechanisms including reciprocity, which in primates and particularly in humans is largely dependent on memory and the ability to exchange social information, a function of language. In this article, we present a multi-agent model developed with the aim of evaluating the importance of memory in cognitive and social adaptations for cooperation based on reciprocity when populations are under ecological stress. We show that in a society under ecological pressure, the reciprocity network permitted by collaborative memory promotes cooperation.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-09-04T08:11:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319872518
  • A robust policy bootstrapping algorithm for multi-objective reinforcement
           learning in non-stationary environments
    • Authors: Sherif Abdelfattah, Kathryn Kasmarik, Jiankun Hu
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Multi-objective Markov decision processes are a special kind of multi-objective optimization problem that involves sequential decision making while satisfying the Markov property of stochastic processes. Multi-objective reinforcement learning methods address this kind of problem by fusing the reinforcement learning paradigm with multi-objective optimization techniques. One major drawback of these methods is the lack of adaptability to non-stationary dynamics in the environment. This is because they adopt optimization procedures that assume stationarity in order to evolve a coverage set of policies that can solve the problem. This article introduces a developmental optimization approach that can evolve the policy coverage set while exploring the preference space over the defined objectives in an online manner. We propose a novel multi-objective reinforcement learning algorithm that can robustly evolve a convex coverage set of policies in an online manner in non-stationary environments. We compare the proposed algorithm with two state-of-the-art multi-objective reinforcement learning algorithms in stationary and non-stationary environments. Results showed that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms the existing algorithms in non-stationary environments while achieving comparable results in stationary environments.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-08-16T05:16:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319869313
  • Decentralized control mechanism for body–limb coordination in
           quadruped running
    • Authors: Akira Fukuhara, Yukihiro Koizumi, Shura Suzuki, Takeshi Kano, Akio Ishiguro
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      As a mechanism for survival, quadrupeds have obtained skills involving coordination between limbs and the body (i.e. body–limb coordination), providing fast and adaptive locomotion compared with motion using only limbs. Several bio-inspired robotics studies have resulted in the development of legged robots that utilize a flexible spine, similar to cheetahs. However, the control principle of body–limb coordination has not been established to date. From the perspective of a decentralized control scheme, a minimal body–limb coordination mechanism is proposed in this study, in which body parts aid each other via a sensory feedback mechanism. The two-dimensional simulation and hardware experiments reveal that bilateral sensory feedback between limbs and body is essential for the robot to adaptively generate a body–limb coordination pattern and achieve faster locomotion speed than that by only limbs in efficient manner.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-08-06T08:47:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319865180
  • On the simplicity of simple heuristics
    • Authors: Gašper Štukelj
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Recent evidence suggests that the take-the-best heuristic—flagship of “fast and frugal heuristics” research program—might in fact not be as frugal as tallying, which is considered to be a more complex strategy. Characterizing a simple decision strategy has always seemed straightforward, and the debate around the simplicity of the take-the-best heuristic is mostly concerned with a proper specification of the heuristic. I argue that the predominate conceptions of “simplicity” and “frugality” need to be revised. To this end, a number of recent behavioral and neuroscientific results are discussed. The example of take-the-best heuristic serves as an entry point to a foundational debate on bounded agency. I argue that the fast and frugal heuristics needs to question some of its legacy from the classical AI research. For example, the assumption that the bottleneck of decision-making process is information processing due to its serial nature. These commitments are hard to reconcile with the modern neuroscientific view of a human decision-maker. In addition, I discuss an overlooked source of uncertainty, namely neural noise, and compare a generic heuristic model to a similar neural algorithm.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-08-06T08:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319861589
  • Steering a middle course between intentionality and representation: some
           remarks about John Stewart’s enactive stance
    • Authors: Pierre Steiner
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      John Stewart commits himself to the defence of a demanding version of enaction. Among its many original features, John’s version of enaction includes a questionable form of anti-representationalism, and leaves room for the Varelian idea that intentionality is a biological property. This stance anticipates contemporary endorsements in 4E cognition of intentionality as a non-representational and non-contentful property. Once it is deprived of its representational tinsels, intentionality appears to us again as a property of object-directedness. Nevertheless, is the autopoietic model of intentionality as object-directedness coherent and convincing' And do we need intentionality when we describe the meaningful relations between organisms and their environments' The article seeks to answer to these questions.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-07-29T04:53:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319865741
  • An investigation into serotonergic and environmental interventions against
           depression in a simulated delayed reward paradigm
    • Authors: Bernd Porr, Alice Miller, Alex Trew
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      The disruption of the serotonergic (5HT) system has been implicated in causing major depression and the standard view is that a lack of serotonin is to blame for the resulting symptoms. Consequently, pharmacological interventions aim to increase serotonin concentration in its target areas or stimulating excitatory 5HT receptors. A standard approach is to use serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) which cause a higher accumulation of serotonin. Another approach is to stimulate excitatory serotonin receptors with psychedelic drugs. This article compares these two approaches by first setting up a system-level limbic system model of the relevant brain areas and then modelling a delayed reward paradigm which is known to be disrupted by a lack of 5HT. Central to our model is how serotonin changes the response characteristics of decision-making neurons where low levels of 5HT allow small signals to pass through, whereas high levels of 5HT create a barrier for smaller signals but amplifying the larger ones. We show with both standard behavioural simulations and model checking that SSRIs perform significantly better against interventions with psychedelics. However, psychedelics might work better in other paradigms where a high level of exploration is beneficial to obtain rewards.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-07-26T08:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319864278
  • Drawing problems: thought in action
    • Authors: Roberto Casati
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      I investigate some aspects of the structure of the production of drawings by developing a practice-based phenomenology articulated around some “drawing problems.” The examples I chose cluster around decision making in drawing from life. I make a case for a propositional, explicit judgment-based action structure that makes it possible to accommodate some typical practices used in addressing drawing problems. I further hint to by-products (e.g. attention modulation) and “surrounding practices” (e.g. communication during the observation of a drawing activity) that find a plausible explanation in the propositional account of drawing.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-07-24T03:35:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319861551
  • A tale of two densities: active inference is enactive inference
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Maxwell JD Ramstead, Michael D Kirchhoff, Karl J Friston
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this article is to clarify how best to interpret some of the central constructs that underwrite the free-energy principle (FEP) – and its corollary, active inference – in theoretical neuroscience and biology: namely, the role that generative models and variational densities play in this theory. We argue that these constructs have been systematically misrepresented in the literature, because of the conflation between the FEP and active inference, on the one hand, and distinct (albeit closely related) Bayesian formulations, centred on the brain – variously known as predictive processing, predictive coding or the prediction error minimisation framework. More specifically, we examine two contrasting interpretations of these models: a structural representationalist interpretation and an enactive interpretation. We argue that the structural representationalist interpretation of generative and recognition models does not do justice to the role that these constructs play in active inference under the FEP. We propose an enactive interpretation of active inference – what might be called enactive inference. In active inference under the FEP, the generative and recognition models are best cast as realising inference and control – the self-organising, belief-guided selection of action policies – and do not have the properties ascribed by structural representationalists.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-07-22T05:27:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319862774
  • Safe reinforcement learning using risk mapping by similarity
    • Authors: Jonathan Serrano-Cuevas, Eduardo F Morales, Pablo Hernández-Leal
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Reinforcement learning (RL) has been used to successfully solve sequential decision problem. However, considering risk at the same time as the learning process is an open research problem. In this work, we are interested in the type of risk that can lead to a catastrophic state. Related works that aim to deal with risk propose complex models. In contrast, we follow a simple, yet effective, idea: similar states might lead to similar risk. Using this idea, we propose risk mapping by similarity (RMS), an algorithm for discrete scenarios which infers the risk of newly discovered states by analyzing how similar they are to previously known risky states. In general terms, the RMS algorithm transfers the knowledge gathered by the agent regarding the risk to newly discovered states. We contribute with a new approach to consider risk based on similarity and with RMS, which is simple and generalizable as long as the premise similar states yield similar risk holds. RMS is not an RL algorithm, but a method to generate a risk-aware reward shaping signal that can be used with a RL algorithm to generate risk-aware policies.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-07-19T04:57:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319859650
  • Extremal properties and self-preserving behavior
    • Authors: Nathaniel Barrett
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      In this reply to the commentaries of Lyon and Swenson, I clarify the arguments of my article, “On the nature and origins of cognition as a form of motivated activity.” In particular, I focus on the nature of self-preserving behavior, considered not only as a basic and universal form of cognitive behavior but also as a key example of cognition as form of motivated activity. I clarify that my approach affirms the importance of self-preserving behavior but questions the widespread assumption that this and other varieties of motivated behavior can be explained as the product of homeostatic mechanisms. I suggest that extremal properties can not only do a better job of explaining homeostasis-like behaviors, but they can also be extended to other kinds of motivated behavior that are not homeostasis-like. Finally, I emphasize the explanatory promise of extremal properties with respect to fundamental questions about the emergence of order in living and nonliving systems.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-07-18T04:57:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319863043
  • Adaptation of learning agents through artificial perception
    • Authors: Mirza Ramicic, Andrea Bonarini
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      The process of online reinforcement learning also creates a stream of experiences that an agent can store to re-learn from them. In this work, we introduce a concept of artificial perception affecting the dynamics of experience memory replay, which induces a secondary goal-directed drive that complements the main goal defined by the reinforcement function. The different perception dynamics are capable of inducing different “personality” types able to govern the agent behavior, possibly enabling it to exhibit an improved performance over an environment with specific characteristics. Experimental results show that different personalities show different performance levels when facing environment variations, therefore, showcasing the influence of artificial perception in agent’s adaptation.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-07-16T06:17:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319863059
  • Evaluating Cultural Transmission in Bronze Age burial rites of Central,
           Northern and Northwestern Europe using radiocarbon data
    • Authors: Clemens Schmid
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      European Bronze Age archaeology traditionally focusses on two major dimensions to categorise burials – although there is an immense variability of attendant phenomena within this spectrum – flat graves versus burial mounds and cremation versus inhumation. These traits are an indispensable ingredient for common archaeological narratives of sociocultural interaction and cultural evolution. This article presents a quantitative reconstruction of the general trends in the distribution of Bronze Age burial traditions based on bulk radiocarbon data and employs the resulting time series for the estimation of macro-regional cultural distance. Despite the relatively small amount of input data, the trend reconstruction fits to established archaeological observations for prehistoric Europe. The comparison of cultural and spatial distance leads to the remarkable result of no significant permanent correlation, which indicates that the spread of the relevant aspects of burial traditions cannot be explained with simple diffusion models. Instead, a more complex process of cultural transmission has to be considered.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-07-16T06:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319860842
  • Simondon and enaction: the articulation of life, subjectivity, and
    • Authors: Emilien Dereclenne
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Clear similarities may be found between enaction and Simondon’s philosophy of individuation. In this article, and in the wake of recent research in the field of enaction, I argue that Simondon’s work is relevant to our understanding of the articulation between life, subjectivity, and technics. In line with John Stewart, I define enaction as the dynamic relation whereby living organisms and their environment co-emerge, a process in which technics is revealed as “anthropologically constitutive.” I show that this process is truly enlightened by Simondon’s theory of imagination and invention.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-07-12T09:05:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319861915
  • Bittorio revisited: structural coupling in the Game of Life
    • Authors: Randall D Beer
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      The notion of structural coupling plays a central role in Maturana and Varela’s biology of cognition framework and strongly influenced Varela’s subsequent enactive elaboration of this framework. Building upon previous work using a glider in the Game of Life (GoL) cellular automaton as a toy model of a minimal autopoietic system with which to concretely explore these theoretical frameworks, this article presents an analysis of structural coupling between a glider and its environment. Specifically, for sufficiently small GoL universes, we completely characterize the nonautonomous dynamics of both a glider and its environment in terms of interaction graphs, derive the set of possible glider lives determined by the mutual constraints between these interaction graphs, and show how such lives are embedded in the state transition graph of the entire GoL universe.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-07-11T05:12:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319859907
  • Armed with information: chemical self-recognition in the octopus
    • Authors: Sidney Carls-Diamante
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Of the modalities through which self-recognition is believed to be implemented, philosophical literature on the subject is most familiar with vision and interoception. However, they are not the only ones: chemoreception is another modality that biologists have found to be a contributor to self-recognition in numerous species, of which arthropods are notable. This article aims to help address the gap between philosophical and biological literature by presenting the octopus as an example of a creature in which peripheral chemoreceptive processes appear to be a significant component of self-recognition. Building on the findings of Nesher et al. that chemical compounds in octopus skin interfere with the behaviour of its suckers, this article proffers an account of how chemoreception may contribute to self-recognition in octopuses.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-07-10T06:07:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319862253
  • From motor to visually guided bimanual affordance learning
    • Authors: Martí Sánchez-Fibla, Sébastien Forestier, Clément Moulin-Frier, Jordi-Ysard Puigbò, Paul FMJ Verschure
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      The mechanisms of how the brain orchestrates multi-limb joint action have yet to be elucidated and few computational sensorimotor (SM) learning approaches have dealt with the problem of acquiring bimanual affordances. We propose a series of bidirectional (forward/inverse) SM maps and its associated learning processes that generalize from uni- to bimanual interaction (and affordances) naturally, reinforcing the motor equivalence property. The SM maps range from a SM nature to a solely sensory one: full body control, delta SM control (through small action changes), delta sensory co-variation (how body-related perceptual cues covariate with object-related ones). We make several contributions on how these SM maps are learned: (1) Context and Behavior-Based Babbling: generalizing goal babbling to the interleaving of absolute and local goals including guidance of reflexive behaviors; (2) Event-Based Learning: learning steps are driven by visual, haptic events; and (3) Affordance Gradients: the vectorial field gradients in which an object can be manipulated. Our modeling of bimanual affordances is in line with current robotic research in forward visuomotor mappings and visual servoing, enforces the motor equivalence property, and is also consistent with neurophysiological findings like the multiplicative encoding scheme.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-07-03T06:56:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319855836
  • The fourth law of thermodynamics (LMEP) and cognition from first
           principles: commentary on Barrett’s “On the nature and origins of
           cognition as a form of motivated activity”
    • Authors: Rod Swenson
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Nat Barrett’s “On the nature and origins of cognition as a form of motivated activity” puts a well-focused light on the central problems, plaguing the core of enactivist, or 4E cognitive theories and points to LMEP (the Law of Maximum Entropy Production or the fourth law of thermodynamics) and the thermodynamic groundwork Micheal Turvey and I presented a little less than three decades ago as the pathway in. Here, I offer some brief remarks supporting his efforts as well as some clarifying points following from work done in the ensuing years. We are now at a point where we can dissolve the problems Barrett so cogently identifies and get us to a nomologically grounded theory of embodied, embedded, enactive, and extended cognition, a robust alternative to the failed computationalist model, from first principles.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-06-25T05:21:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319856536
  • Neurath’s boat and the Sally-Anne test: Life, Cognition, Matter and
    • Authors: Inman Harvey
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Making sense of the world around us is likened to the task of staying afloat on a stormy sea while rebuilding our craft of ideas and concepts as we go. This metaphor is pursued through successive stages of cognitive development, and more sophisticated appreciation of multiple perspectives; from pre-theoretical to folk science to the theoretical, from individual to social to inter-subjective agreement. This inescapably generates reflections on the relationships between embodied and situated Life and Cognition.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-06-19T06:29:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319856882
  • Towards rich motion skills with the lightweight quadruped robot Serval
    • Authors: Peter Eckert, Anja EM Schmerbauch, Tomislav Horvat, Katja Söhnel, Martin S Fischer, Hartmut Witte, Auke J Ijspeert
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Bio-inspired robotic designs introducing and benefiting from morphological aspects present in animals allowed the generation of fast, robust, and energy-efficient locomotion. We used engineering tools and interdisciplinary knowledge transferred from biology to build low-cost robots, able to achieve a certain level of versatility. Serval, a compliant quadruped robot with actuated spine and high range of motion in all joints, was developed to address the question of what mechatronic complexity is needed to achieve rich motion skills. In our experiments, the robot presented a high level of versatility (number of skills) at medium speed, with a minimal control effort and, in this article, no usage of its spine. Implementing a basic kinematics-duplication from dogs, we found strengths to emphasize, weaknesses to correct, and made Serval ready for future attempts to achieve more agile locomotion. In particular, we investigated the following skills: walk, trot, gallop, bound (crouched), sidestep, turn with a radius, ascend slopes including flat ground transition, perform single and double step-downs, fall, trot over bumpy terrain, lie/sit down, and stand up.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-06-10T08:28:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319853227
  • Forward propagation closed loop learning
    • Authors: Bernd Porr, Paul Miller
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-05-31T09:38:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319851070
  • Adapting to environmental dynamics with an artificial circadian system
    • Authors: Matthew J O’Brien, Ronald C Arkin
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-05-14T10:40:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319846854
  • Behavioural variety of a node-based sensorimotor-to-motor map
    • Authors: Felix MG Woolford, Matthew D Egbert
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-04-10T07:12:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319839061
  • Systems or bodies' On how (not) to embody autopoiesis
    • Authors: Anne Sophie Meincke
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T11:10:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319841301
  • On complex archaeologies: conceptualizing social complexity and its
           potential for archaeology
    • Authors: Dries Daems
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-02-01T10:19:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319826539
  • Who needs a brain' Slime moulds, behavioural ecology and minimal
    • Authors: Jules Smith-Ferguson, Madeleine Beekman
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-01-30T09:15:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319826537
  • Lessons from a virtual slime: marginal mechanisms, minimal cognition and
           radical enactivism
    • Authors: Lachlan Douglas Walmsley
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-01-23T08:58:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712318824544
  • On the nature and origins of cognition as a form of motivated activity
    • Authors: Nathaniel Barrett
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-01-23T08:56:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712318824325
  • Cultural complexity and complexity evolution
    • Authors: Dwight Read, Claes Andersson
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-01-21T05:39:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712318822298
  • Are living beings extended autopoietic systems' An embodied reply
    • Authors: Mario Villalobos, Pablo Razeto-Barry
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-01-22T12:40:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712318823723
  • Reflections in relation to the article of Villalobos and Razeto
    • Authors: Humberto Maturana Romesín
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-04-17T04:50:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319841740
  • Lost in words
    • Authors: Randall D Beer
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Villalobos and Razeto-Barry’s target article highlights a debate about the role of spatial boundaries in autopoiesis that has been simmering for some time. I argue that, ultimately, controversies such as this are best resolved not by verbal argument, but rather in the context of actual mathematically formulated theories of biological individuality. Finally, I briefly review some initial efforts in this direction as they relate to the question of boundaries.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-08-06T08:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319867907
  • The necessity of extended autopoiesis
    • Authors: Nathaniel Virgo
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T11:01:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319841557
  • The broad scope of enactivism
    • Authors: Amanda Corris, Anthony Chemero
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-04-22T09:00:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319843268
  • Steering away from multiple realization
    • Authors: Anco Peeters
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-03-28T10:10:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319839056
  • Cohesiveness is not an adequate theory of general individuation and it
           does not account for living individuals
    • Authors: David C Ayala
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-03-11T08:53:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319833912
  • Entrenchment implies that physiological and developmental processes are
           not organism-bound but still organism-centric
    • Authors: Davide Vecchi
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-03-26T12:51:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319838801
  • Deriving the bodily grounding of living beings with molecular autopoiesis
    • Authors: Eran Agmon
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-02-20T05:04:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319830645
  • Why do we build the wall'
    • Authors: Ezequiel A Di Paolo
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-03-02T08:42:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319834884
  • Habeas corpus: the ins and outs of autopoiesis
    • Authors: Inman Harvey
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-03-21T10:29:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319836401
  • Two challenges to the embodied version of the autopoietic theory
    • Authors: María Jimena Clavel Vázquez
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T11:04:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319839641
  • Slimes and cyborgs: stretching the boundaries of life
    • Authors: Mark Miller, Kathryn Nave
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-04-15T07:11:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319843267
  • Putting Autopoietic Bodies Under Pressure
    • Authors: Mog Stapleton
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-03-28T10:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319840277
  • Dissipative systems and living bodies
    • Authors: Nathaniel F Barrett
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-04-10T07:14:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319841306
  • Why living bodies could be dead weight
    • Authors: Simon McGregor
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T07:05:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319838211
  • Living beings as autopoietic bodies
    • Authors: Mario Villalobos
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      In the target article, it was claimed that the enactive extended interpretation of the autopoietic theory (AT) of living beings is incorrect, and an embodied reformulation of AT (EAT) was put forward to remedy and prevent such an interpretation. In this general reply, I want to clarify the motivation, reach, philosophical commitments, and theoretical status of EAT. I do this, mainly, by explicating the notions of body and autopoiesis, and by reconstructing EAT, not as a conceptual definition of life but as a theoretical identity statement of living beings as a natural kind.
      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-10-14T06:22:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319879747
  • Corrigendum to Living architecture: workshop report from the European
           Conference on Artificial Life, Lyon, France, 4 September 2017
    • First page: 59
      Abstract: Adaptive Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Adaptive Behavior
      PubDate: 2019-09-27T10:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1059712319881913
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