Publisher: Sage Publications   (Total: 1085 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1085 Journals sorted alphabetically
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Abstracts in Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Academic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Accounting History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Radiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.754, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Radiologica Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.939, CiteScore: 2)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 346, SJR: 1.397, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 0)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 2)
Adult Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 134, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Tumor Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.108, CiteScore: 0)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Affilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
Agrarian South : J. of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Alexandria : The J. of National and Intl. Library and Information Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
AlterNative : An Intl. J. of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Alternative Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.351, CiteScore: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Educational Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215, SJR: 2.913, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Cosmetic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.646, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.65, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.972, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199, SJR: 3.949, CiteScore: 6)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.313, CiteScore: 1)
American Review of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.062, CiteScore: 2)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311, SJR: 6.333, CiteScore: 6)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, CiteScore: 2)
Animation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.634, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.096, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.225, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of the ICRP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.341, CiteScore: 7)
Anthropological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.635, CiteScore: 2)
Antyajaa : Indian J. of Women and Social Change     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.17, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 2)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Media Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Management Research and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 1)
Asian and Pacific Migration J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 105, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Management Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
ASN Neuro     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.534, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.519, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.433, CiteScore: 1)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.801, CiteScore: 2)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 532, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian J. of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.497, CiteScore: 1)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 1.739, CiteScore: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.877, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bible Translator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biblical Theology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Research for Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarkers in Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioscope: South Asian Screen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 3)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Neuroscience Advances     Open Access  
Breast Cancer : Basic and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.823, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Music Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
British J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Politics and Intl. Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
British J.ism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 1)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Business Perspectives and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cahiers Élisabéthains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
California Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.209, CiteScore: 4)
Canadian J. of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.007, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Nursing Research (CJNR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 0.626, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.769, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists J. / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Control     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Growth and Metastasis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.64, CiteScore: 1)
Capital and Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access  
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Cartilage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.889, CiteScore: 3)
Cell and Tissue Transplantation and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.023, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.581, CiteScore: 3)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Child Maltreatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
Child Neurology Open     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
China Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Christianity & Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chronic Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.672, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.808, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Stress     Open Access  
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.757, CiteScore: 1)
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Translational Neuroscience     Open Access  
Clinical Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.73, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Blood Disorders     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Ear, Nose and Throat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.776, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Trauma and Intensive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Nursing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.487, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.281, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.399, CiteScore: 2)
Clothing and Textiles Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Communication and the Public     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.458, CiteScore: 1)
Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.171, CiteScore: 3)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.451, CiteScore: 1)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233, SJR: 3.772, CiteScore: 3)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)
Competition and Regulation in Network Industries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.642, CiteScore: 2)
Conflict Management and Peace Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.441, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary Drug Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 2)
Contemporary Education Dialogue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary Review of the Middle East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Contemporary Sociology : A J. of Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Contemporary Voice of Dalit     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Contexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contributions to Indian Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 0)
Convergence The Intl. J. of Research into New Media Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.521, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Business & Society
Number of Followers: 12  
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 7 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0007-6503 - ISSN (Online) 1552-4205
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1085 journals]
  • Stakeholder Theory at the Crossroads
    • Authors: Jay B. Barney, Jeffrey S. Harrison
      First page: 203
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The stakeholder perspective has provided a rich forum for a variety of debates at the intersection of business and society. Scholars gathered for two consecutive years, first in North America, and then in Europe, to discuss the major issues surrounding what has come to be known as stakeholder theory, to attempt to find common ground, and to uncover areas in need of further inquiry. Those meetings led to a list of “tensions” and a call for papers for this special issue to help address them. In this article, we introduce the resulting articles and provide some brief commentary on their importance. We end with a few of our own observations about the stakeholder perspective and stakeholder research.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2020-02-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318796792
  • Tensions in Stakeholder Theory
    • Authors: R. Edward Freeman, Robert Phillips, Rajendra Sisodia
      First page: 213
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      A number of tensions have been suggested between stakeholder theory and strategic management (SM). Following a brief review of the histories of stakeholder theory and mainstream SM, we argue that many of the tensions are more apparent than real, representing different narratives about stakeholder theory, SM, business, and ethics. Part of the difference in these two theoretical positions is due to the fact that they seek to solve different problems. However, we suggest how there are areas of overlap, and we argue that some of the tensions may, instead, provide interesting ways to put the two areas of scholarship and practice together. We maintain that SM and stakeholder theory could mutually benefit from a more pragmatist philosophy.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2020-02-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318773750
  • When Do Powerful Stakeholders Give Managers the Latitude to Balance All
           Stakeholders’ Interests'

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Flore M. Bridoux, Pushpika Vishwanathan
      First page: 232
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Research in instrumental stakeholder theory often discusses the benefits of a stakeholder strategy that balances all stakeholders’ interests as if the firm’s managers were not constrained much in choosing a strategy. Yet, through their value appropriation behavior, stakeholders with high bargaining power can significantly constrain managers’ choices. Our objective is, therefore, to understand when powerful stakeholders give managers the latitude to balance all stakeholders’ interests, rather than forcing them to satisfy primarily their own interests. Building on enlightened self-interest and the justice literature, we identify five motivational drivers that help explain powerful stakeholders’ value appropriation behavior. We next explore the endogenous relationship between the stakeholder strategy adopted by the firm and its effect on powerful stakeholders’ value appropriation behavior. This article complements instrumental stakeholder theory by looking at powerful stakeholders’ motivation to exercise their bargaining power, and in so doing brings powerful stakeholders’ moral responsibility in the treatment of weak stakeholders to the forefront.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2020-02-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318775077
  • Revisiting Who, When, and Why Stakeholders Matter: Trust and Stakeholder
    • Authors: Bret Crane
      First page: 263
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      With limited resources and attention, managers have sought ways to categorize and prioritize stakeholders. The underlying assumption is that some stakeholders matter more than others. However, in the information age, stakeholders are increasingly interconnected, where a firm’s actions toward one stakeholder are visible to others and can affect members of the stakeholder ecosystem. Actions by a firm toward any of its stakeholders can signal its trustworthiness and determine to what degree other stakeholders will assume vulnerability and engage in future exchange relationships. In this conceptual article, I present a model of stakeholder connectedness and describe the conditions in which a firm’s actions toward one stakeholder can build or erode trust across stakeholders. This work contributes to current tensions in stakeholder theory by elucidating how the treatment of a single stakeholder, or a narrow group of stakeholders, can have cascading effects on a broader group of stakeholders.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2020-02-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318756983
  • Creating the World’s Deadliest Catch: The Process of Enrolling
           Stakeholders in an Uncertain Endeavor
    • Authors: Sharon A. Alvarez, Susan L. Young, Jennifer L. Woolley
      First page: 287
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      There is growing interest in the processes by which entrepreneurial opportunities are cocreated between entrepreneurs and their stakeholders. The longitudinal case study of de novo firm Wakefield Seafoods seeks to understand the underlying dynamics of phenomena that play out over time as stakeholders emerge and their contributions become essential to the opportunity formation process. The king crab data show that under conditions of uncertainty, characterized by incomplete or missing knowledge, entrepreneurial processes of experimentation, failure, and learning were effective in forming and exploiting an opportunity. Moreover, contrary to existing literature that either emphasizes heroic entrepreneurs or downplays their value, this article shows that both the vision of the entrepreneur and the stakeholder contributions are critical. This detailed examination of process data shows that the cumulative actions made by entrepreneurs in concert with their stakeholders formed an opportunity that coalesced into a new market.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2020-02-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318754866
  • Reimagining Profits and Stakeholder Capital to Address Tensions Among
    • Authors: David Hatherly, Ronald K. Mitchell, J. Robert Mitchell, Jae Hwan Lee
      First page: 322
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we use ideas from stakeholder capital maintenance theory to address tensions in allocating firm profits between stockholders and other stakeholders. We utilize a mediative thought experiment to conceptualize how multiple stakeholder interests might better be served, such that genuine firm profits (from new value creation) versus artificial firm profits (from non-wealth-producing transfers) may be identified and incentivized. We thereby examine how such accounting transfers can be envisioned as stakeholder capital to be maintained for the benefit of both the firm and the economy. We present examples to illustrate the hypothetical model proposed and its implications.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2020-02-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317745637
  • The Influence of External and Internal Stakeholder Pressures on the
           Implementation of Upstream Environmental Supply Chain Practices
    • Authors: Stephanie Graham
      First page: 351
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the independent and combined influences of internal and external antecedents to upstream environmental practices. Proactive environmental strategy is considered as an internal antecedent and competitive pressure as an external antecedent. Multiple hierarchical regression analysis is used to test the hypothesized relationships using data from a sample of 149 manufacturing companies located within the U.K. food industry. The results suggest that proactive strategy and competitive pressure exert both independent and combined influences on environmental supply chain practices. Proactive strategy appears to be a stronger driver of these practices, suggesting that internal stakeholders such as directors, managers, and employees may be more influential in the adoption of certain practices than external stakeholder pressures. This article builds upon the recent wave of research highlighting the potential for internal and external factors to generate a combined influence on the adoption of environmental practices within companies and their supply chains.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2020-02-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317745636
  • National Culture and Women Managers: Evidence From Microfinance
           Institutions Around the World
    • Authors: Ernest Gyapong, Godfred Adjapong Afrifa
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      We investigate the effect of national culture on women manager appointments. We argue that culture influences women manager appointments through their effects on managerial decision-making. Using firm-level data on 2,456 microfinance institutions (MFIs) across 61 countries, we document that fewer women managers are appointed in societies high on individualism and uncertainty avoidance. On the contrary, high power distance societies are positively associated with the appointment of women managers. We demonstrate that a greater number of women nonmanagers reduces (increases) the appointment of women managers in high individualistic (uncertainty avoidance) cultures. Our findings challenge the “one-size-fit-all” approach adopted by policy makers around the world to increase women manager appointments. Our results are robust to endogeneity.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-09-24T04:57:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319876101
  • Toward a Value-Sensitive Absorptive Capacity Framework: Navigating
           Intervalue and Intravalue Conflicts to Answer the Societal Call for Health

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Jilde Garst, Vincent Blok, Oana Branzei, Léon Jansen, Onno S. W. F. Omta
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The majority of studies on absorptive capacity (AC) underscore the importance of absorbing technological knowledge from other firms to create economic value. However, to preserve moral legitimacy and create social value, firms must also discern and adapt to (shifts in) societal values. A comparative case study of eight firms in the food industry reveals how organizations prioritize and operationalize the societal value health in product innovation while navigating inter- and intravalue conflicts. The value-sensitive framework induced in this article extends AC by explaining how technically savvy, economic value–creating firms diverge in their receptivity, articulation, and reflexivity of societal values.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-09-20T01:44:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319876108
  • Business and Human Trafficking: A Social Connection and Political
           Responsibility Model
    • Authors: Harry J. Van Buren, Judith Schrempf-Stirling, Michelle Westermann-Behaylo
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Human trafficking is one of the most lucrative international criminal activities and is widespread across a variety of industries. The response to human trafficking in corporate supply chains has been dominated by analyses of due diligence obligations. Existing scholarship, however, has cast doubt on the effectiveness of corporate due diligence in addressing human trafficking, because human trafficking is the outcome of macro-level social structures that are created by and consist of multiple actors, including business. The outsourcing and sub-contracting model provides incentives throughout the global supply chain to sub-contract further to reduce the cost of labor, which has led to human trafficking remaining a pervasive problem. Business responsibility for human trafficking derives from the fact that business decisions and strategies enable the conditions that allow for human trafficking to occur within their supply chains. To address human trafficking, we propose a social connection and political responsibility model, based on Iris Marion Young’s analysis of social connection and structural injustice, that is holistic, forward-looking, and outcomes-oriented. We differentiate between businesses with a strong connection to human trafficking and businesses with a weak connection, and within this distinction delineate different pathways that firms can take to meet their political responsibilities to address human trafficking. We conclude with implications for future research.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-09-16T05:22:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319872509
  • The Global Diffusion of Supply Chain Codes of Conduct: Market, Nonmarket,
           and Time-Dependent Effects
    • Authors: Thomas G. Altura, Anne T. Lawrence, Ronald M. Roman
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Why and how have supply chain codes of conduct diffused among lead firms around the globe' Prior research has drawn on both institutional and stakeholder theories to explain the adoption of codes, but no study has modeled adoption as a temporally dynamic process of diffusion. We propose that the drivers of adoption shift over time, from exclusively nonmarket to eventually market-based mechanisms as well. In an analysis of an original data set of more than 1,800 firms between the years 2006 and 2015, we find that strong nonmarket labor institutions in a firm’s home country are critical to initiating and sustaining the diffusion process. Market mechanisms, such as investor scrutiny and brand risk, emerge as important later. Contrary to prior research, we did not find a significant effect from nongovernmental organization (NGO) pressure. We conclude that markets for corporate social responsibility can and do arise, but only after they are effectuated by nonmarket institutions.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-09-09T11:16:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319873654
  • Legitimation Strategies as Valuable Signals in Nonfinancial Reporting'
           Effects on Investor Decision-Making
    • Authors: Rüdiger Hahn, Daniel Reimsbach, Peter Kotzian, Madeleine Feder, Barbara E. Weißenberger
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Companies disclosing negative aspects in sustainability reports often employ legitimation strategies to present mishaps in a favorable light. In incentivized experiments, we find that nonprofessional investors divest from companies with a negative sustainability-related incident, and that symbolic legitimation (which only evasively explains a negative incident) is not a strong enough signal to counter this divestment behavior. Even substantial legitimation (which reports on measures and behavioral change) mitigates the divestment decisions only if the company reports on concrete remediation actions in morally charged situations, such as social or environmental incidents. We elaborate these results in light of signaling and screening theory, and suggest the conceptual extension of “costly signals” to what we call “valuable signals.” We argue that valuable signals need be not only costly for the sender from an economic perspective but also perceived as appropriate by the receiver from a noneconomic perspective.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-08-31T06:18:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319872495
  • Stakeholder Engagement Strategies After an Exogenous Shock: How Philip
           Morris and R. J. Reynolds Adapted Differently to the 1998 Master
           Settlement Agreement
    • Authors: Jennifer J. Griffin, Yoo Na Youm, Ben Vivari
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study contributes to understanding stakeholder engagement strategies by examining competitive responses alongside sociopolitical implications after a major exogenous shock—the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) between the “Big Four” U.S. tobacco firms and 46 state attorneys general. We compare the different stakeholder engagement strategies of the two remaining U.S. tobacco manufacturers, Philip Morris (PM) and R. J. Reynolds (RJR), between 1998 and 2017. Implications for stakeholder theory from a relatively rare natural experiment highlight the importance of simultaneously managing multiple stakeholders, inclusive of domestic and international sociopolitical and value chain stakeholders over time, for sustained value creation. Although PM and RJR initially pursued heterogeneous strategies by re-configuring relationships with relevant stakeholders, each firm’s growth prospects for the first decade post-MSA were exacerbated by various stakeholders through withholding and selective engagement strategies. Implications for how multiple, simultaneous stakeholder relationships can serve as important resources for achieving or limiting sustained growth are discussed.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-08-27T09:24:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319870818
  • Governance in Areas of Limited Statehood: The NGOization of Palestine
    • Authors: Lama Arda, Subhabrata Bobby Banerjee
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we examine the shifting roles played by non-state actors in governing areas of limited statehood. In particular, we focus on the emergence of voluntary grassroots organizations in Palestine and describe how regimes of international development aid transformed these organizations into professional nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that created new forms of colonial control. Based on in-depth interviews with 145 NGO members and key stakeholders and a historical analysis of limited statehood in Palestine, we found that social relations became disembedded from the local context and re-embedded in new relations with international donor organizations resulting in a depoliticized public sphere. NGOization of the economy also resulted in new forms of exclusion and inclusion as well as contestations between a new class of urban middle-class professionals working in NGOs and the older generation of activists who were involved in grassroots organizations. Our findings have implications for business and human rights and governance in areas of limited statehood, in particular how private actors such as NGOs are able to exercise power in the economy.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-08-21T05:18:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319870825
  • (In)Effective Business Responsibility Engagements in Areas of Limited
           Statehood: Nigeria’s Oil Sector as a Case Study
    • Authors: Uchechukwu Nwoke
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In reality, most state actors—especially those in the developing world—are usually incapable of effectively governing all facets of their territory. This has necessitated the intervention of non-state actors (in this instance, corporations), who through their social responsibility engagements act as functional equivalents to state-driven government. Using empirical data, this article evaluates the “governance” interventions of corporations in the oil industry in Nigeria’s Delta region. While arguing that the area qualifies as an area of limited statehood, the article asserts that corporate social responsibility practices that are based on Western (neoliberal) approaches cannot contribute effectively to the sustainable development of host-communities. In this context, the article contends that since the social responsibility engagements of corporations in the Niger Delta (as in most developing countries) are influenced by a pro-West philosophy, the end result is a business responsibility engagement which is ineffective as a development strategy.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-08-20T05:00:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319869672
  • Bound to Fail' Exploring the Systemic Pathologies of CSR and Their
           Implications for CSR Research
    • Authors: Anselm Schneider
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Among critics of corporate social responsibility (CSR), there is growing concern that CSR is largely ineffective as a corrective to the shortcomings of capitalism, namely, the negative effects of business on society and the undersupply of public goods. At the same time, researchers suggest that despite the shortcomings of CSR, it is possible to make it more effective in a stepwise manner. To explain the frequent failures of current CSR practices and to explore the possibilities of remedying them, I examine the close relationship between CSR, the persistent expansion of capitalism, and the pressure that capitalism puts on companies to legitimize their business operations. My analysis shows that the failure of CSR to serve as a corrective to the problematic effects of capitalism is, in fact, an inevitable consequence of the problematic dynamics of the capitalist system. On this basis, I suggest that capitalism limits the possibilities of making CSR more effective, argue for change on the systemic level of capitalism, and explore the ways in which CSR research can contribute to this political endeavor.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-07-03T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319856616
  • Formalization of Firms’ Evaluation Processes in Cross-Sector
           Partnerships for Sustainability
    • Authors: Sylvia Feilhauer, Rüdiger Hahn
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Extant research underlines the critical challenge for firms to rigorously and consistently evaluate their growing number of cross-sector partnerships for sustainability and suggests formalizing evaluation processes by introducing formal practices. However, empirical research is scant and inconclusive. This study aims to develop an empirically grounded understanding of how firms formalize the evaluation processes of such partnerships and of what drives this formalization, to complement the so far mostly conceptual literature. We inductively analyzed 31 semi-structured interviews with 33 experts from firms and their partnering nonprofits and further secondary data on organizations’ partnerships. We contribute to the cross-sector partnership research by analyzing firms’ practices related to the formalization of the internal as well as the joint partnership evaluation process with nonprofits. We propose a conceptual framework to explain why firms implement different formal practices to reduce the dependency on individuals’ skills, experiences, or judgments in evaluating partnerships.
      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-06-20T05:31:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319856633
  • The Role of Female Directors in the Boardroom: Examining Their Impact on
           Competitive Dynamics
    • Authors: Kalin D. Kolev, Margaret Hughes-Morgan, Kathleen Rehbein
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-05-16T06:55:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319847477
  • CSR Communication Research: A Theoretical-cum-Methodological Perspective
           From Semiotics
    • Authors: Kemi C. Yekini, Kamil Omoteso, Emmanuel Adegbite
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-05-08T05:36:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319843623
  • Religion as a Macro Social Force Affecting Business: Concepts, Questions,
           and Future Research
    • Authors: Harry J. Van Buren, Jawad Syed, Raza Mir
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-05-04T04:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319845097
  • Aspirations and Corporate Lobbying in the Product Market
    • Authors: Jihyun Eun, Seung-Hyun Lee
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-04-27T04:48:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319843626
  • Cross-Sector Partnerships as Capitalism’s New Development Agents:
           Reconceiving Impact as Empowerment
    • Authors: Anne Vestergaard, Luisa Murphy, Mette Morsing, Thilde Langevang
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-04-24T05:35:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319845327
  • Bending the Rules or Changing Them' MNE Responses to Institutional
           Challenges in Transition Economies
    • Authors: Jisun Yu, Seung-Hyun Lee
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-04-17T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319843805
  • Is There Evidence for Export-Led Adoption of ISO 14001' A Review of
           the Literature Using Meta-Regression
    • Authors: Catherine Liston-Heyes, Anthony Heyes
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-03-15T10:53:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319825856
  • Do Sustainability Rating Schemes Capture Climate Goals'
    • Authors: Saphira A. C. Rekker, Jacquelyn E. Humphrey, Katherine R. O’Brien
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-03-07T06:18:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319825764
  • Does GRI Sustainability Reporting Pay Off' An Empirical Investigation
           of Publicly Listed Firms in China
    • Authors: Yang Yang, Guido Orzes, Fu Jia, Lujie Chen
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-03-01T06:06:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319831632
  • A Percolation-Like Process of Within-Organization Collective Corruption: A
           Computational Approach
    • Authors: Sang-Joon Kim, Jegoo Lee
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-02-23T06:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319831630
  • A Tidal Wave of Inevitable Data' Assetization in the Consumer Genomics
           Testing Industry
    • Authors: Susi Geiger, Nicole Gross
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-02-08T01:51:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319826307
  • Does Wealth Matter for Responsible Investment' Experimental Evidence
           on the Weighing of Financial and Moral Arguments
    • Authors: Trond Døskeland, Lars Jacob Tynes Pedersen
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-02-07T02:15:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319826231
  • Cross-Scale Systemic Resilience: Implications for Organization Studies
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Amanda Williams, Gail Whiteman, Steve Kennedy
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-02-07T02:14:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319825870
  • Assessing the Legitimacy of “Open” and “Closed” Data Partnerships
           for Sustainable Development
    • Authors: Andreas Rasche, Mette Morsing, Erik Wetter
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-02-06T01:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319825876
  • Progressive and Conservative Firms in Multistakeholder Initiatives:
           Tracing the Construction of Political CSR Identities Within the Accord on
           Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Kristin Huber, Maximilian J. L. Schormair
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      PubDate: 2019-02-04T06:18:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319825786
  • Socially Responsible Firms Outsource Less
    • Authors: Maria Jose Murcia, Rajat Panwar, Jorge Tarzijan
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Implementing corporate social responsibility (CSR) in supply chains is not a trivial task. In fact, many firms in recent years have publicly proclaimed that in order to keep their CSR commitments, they had to reduce reliance on external suppliers by vertically integrating their operations. Our aim in this article is to examine whether there is truly a relationship between a firm’s CSR performance and its level of vertical integration. Drawing on a multi-industry sample of 2,715 firm-year observations, and after addressing endogeneity concerns, we demonstrate that firms with higher CSR performance tend to vertically integrate more (or, outsource less). We also demonstrate that this tendency is weaker for firms that have higher degrees of asset specificity or international diversification. Our core conclusion is that CSR performance and outsourcing are at odds, but firms can reconcile this tension by deepening their collaborations with suppliers.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319898490
  • The Elephant in the Room: The Nascent Research Agenda on Corporations,
           Social Responsibility, and Capitalism
    • Authors: Frank G. A. de Bakker, Dirk Matten, Laura J. Spence, Christopher Wickert
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319898196
  • What Is “Authoritarian” About Authoritarian Capitalism' The Dual
           Erosion of the Private–Public Divide in State-Dominated Business Systems
    • Authors: Dorottya Sallai, Gerhard Schnyder
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The “return of the state” as an economic actor has left scholars at a lack of theoretical tools to capture the characteristics of state-dominated business systems. This is reflected in the fact that any type of state intervention in the economy is too easily qualified as a sign of “authoritarian capitalism,” which has led scholars to lump together countries as diverse as China, Singapore, and Norway under that heading. Rather than considering any type of state intervention in the economy as authoritarian, we propose a more sophisticated conceptualization, which distinguishes two boundaries between the public and the private domains and conceives of the “return of the state” as the erosion of one or both of them. This conceptualization allows us to clearly distinguish a shift from an ideal-typical market-based “regulatory capitalism” to “state capitalism” or “authoritarian capitalism,” respectively. We use interview data with business leaders in an extreme case of the return of the state to identify the nature of the mechanisms by which an authoritarian government erodes these private-public divides. We argue that a focus on these constitutive mechanisms of the erosion of private-public divides allows us to define “authoritarian capitalism” in a way that makes it a useful tool to understand contexts beyond the Chinese case in which it first emerged.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319898475
  • Condoning Corrupt Behavior at Work: What Roles Do Machiavellianism,
           On-the-Job Experience, and Neutralization Play'
    • Authors: Christian Hauser, Aram Simonyan, Arndt Werner
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Corruption continues to be a considerable challenge for internationally active companies. In this article, we examine personal and socioenvironmental antecedents of corrupt behavior in organizations. In particular, we aim to illuminate the links between Machiavellianism, on-the-job experience with corrupt behavior at work, neutralization, and the attitude of business professionals toward corruption. The empirical analysis is based on the responses of 169 professionals. At first, a positive relationship between both Machiavellianism and on-the-job experience and the acceptance of corruption appears in the model. However, an in-depth mediation analysis shows that neutralization is the keystone linking both Machiavellianism and on-the-job experience to the likelihood to condone corruption. Based on these results, we offer avenues for further research and implications for practitioners.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319898474
  • Do Markets Punish or Reward Corporate Social Responsibility
    • Authors: Isabel-María García-Sánchez, Nazim Hussain, Sana-Akbar Khan, Jennifer Martínez-Ferrero
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyzes the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) decoupling and financial market outcomes. CSR decoupling refers to the gap between CSR disclosure and CSR performance. More specifically, we analyze the effect of CSR decoupling on analysts’ forecast errors, cost of capital, and access to finance. We also examine the moderating effect of forecast errors on relationships between CSR decoupling and cost of capital and access to finance. For a sample of U.S. firms consisting of 7,681 firm-year observations for the period 2006–2015, our empirical evidence supports the idea that a wider gap results in higher analysts’ forecast errors, a greater cost of capital, and reduced access to finance. In addition, our results show that forecast errors enhance the effect of the CSR decoupling on cost of capital and access to financial resources. We also note that external monitoring, in the form of greater analysts’ coverage, reduces CSR decoupling.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319898839
  • A Natural Resource Dependence Perspective of the Firm: How and Why Firms
           Manage Natural Resource Scarcity
    • Authors: Peter Tashman
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Although natural resource scarcity is a pressing issue for many organizations, it has received little attention in management research. Drawing on resource dependence theory, this article theorizes how organizations manage uncertainty from their dependence on scarce natural resources. For this end, it explains how socio-ecological processes involving anthropogenic impacts on ecosystem services cause this form of uncertainty. It then proposes that organizations develop wide-ranging responses to such uncertainty, depending on their predominant institutional logics, from protecting and restoring ecosystems that provision critical natural resources to further developing those ecosystems for optimal resource yields at the risk of degrading them. The article adds to the limited existing research on the unique challenges of managing natural resource scarcity and extends resource dependence theory by accounting for socio-ecological dynamics that create uncertainty regarding natural resources.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319898811
  • Modern Slavery Is an Enabling Condition of Global Neoliberal Capitalism:
           Commentary on Modern Slavery in Business
    • Authors: Bobby Banerjee
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319898478
  • Does Benefit Corporation Status Matter to Investors' An Exploratory
           Study of Investor Perceptions and Decisions
    • Authors: Lauren A. Cooper, Jill Weber
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      We investigate whether the disclosure of a firm’s decision to organize as a benefit corporation (BC) rather than a traditional C corporation (CC) influences investors. We survey 136 investors and 57 MBA students and find that they expect BCs to attain higher future corporate social responsibility (CSR) than CCs even when both have equal CSR ratings. Approximately one third of our sample prefers to invest in BCs when CCs have greater financial returns, indicating a willingness by some investors to sacrifice personal financial gain for social good. Our results suggest that investors weight the information contained in BC disclosures as reliable and value-relevant in their investment decisions. We extend the CSR disclosure literature by indicating how investors weight this new type of CSR information, which may affect how BCs fare as publicly traded companies.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319898462
  • The Organizational Dynamics of Compliance With the UK Modern Slavery Act
           in the Food and Tobacco Sector
    • Authors: David Monciardini, Nadia Bernaz, Alexandra Andhov
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Empirical studies indicate that business compliance with the UK Modern Slavery Act is disappointing, but they struggle to make sense of this phenomenon. This article offers a novel framework to understand how business organizations construct the meaning of compliance with the UK Modern Slavery Act. Our analysis builds on the endogeneity of law theory developed by Edelman. Empirically, our study is based on the analysis of the modern slavery statements of 10 FTSE 100 (Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index) companies in the food and tobacco sector, backed by interviews with business, civil society, and public officers. We offer a dynamic model that draws attention to the role of compliance professionals in framing ambiguous rules and devising a variety of organizational responses to modern slavery law. Contrary to extant research that tends to praise organizations for going “beyond compliance”, our study underlines the risks of managerialization of modern slavery law, whereby merely symbolic structures come to be associated with legal compliance, even when they are ineffective at tackling modern slavery.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650319898195
  • Stakeholder Identification and Salience After 20 Years: Progress,
           Problems, and Prospects
    • Authors: Donna J. Wood, Ronald K. Mitchell, Bradley R. Agle, Logan M. Bryan
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      To contribute to the continuing challenge of explaining how managers identify stakeholders and assess their salience, in this article, we chronicle the history, assess the impact, and evaluate the possibilities opened by Mitchell, Agle, and Wood (MAW-1997). We do so through two types of qualitative analysis, and also through utilizing a quantitative network analysis tool. The first qualitative analysis categorizes the major contributions of the most influential papers succeeding MAW-1997; the second identifies and compares the relevant issues with MAW-1997 at the time of initial publication and today. We apply main path analysis, a quantitative tool, to map how this scholarly domain has evolved. These three analyses robustly depict the impact of MAW-1997 and the ensuing scholarly conversation, and they enable us to illustrate the current state and trajectory of stakeholder identification and salience scholarship. We close by discussing pressing topics related to the broader body of stakeholder theory literature.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318816522
  • Management Education and Earth System Science: Transformation as if
           Planetary Boundaries Mattered
    • Authors: Mark G. Edwards, Jose M. Alcaraz, Sarah E. Cornell
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Earth system science (ESS) has identified worrying trends in the human impact on fundamental planetary systems. In this conceptual article, we discuss the implications of this research for business schools and management education (ME). We argue that ESS findings raise significant concerns about the relationship between business and nature and, consequently, a radical reframing is required to embed economic and social activity within the global sustainability of natural systems. This has transformative implications for ME. To illustrate this reframing, we apply the ESS lenses of social-ecological interdependence, multiscalar relations, environmental governance, and environmental values to the ME functional domains of institutional purpose, social context and engagement, pedagogical practice, curricular design, and research focus. Our work contributes to the literature on business education for sustainability and the business-society-nature nexus. We explore and apply key ESS findings and concepts, discuss normative implications of these ideas, and offer guidance on transformational pathways for business schools and ME.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318816513
  • Power of Paradox: Grassroots Organizations’ Legitimacy Strategies
           Over Time
    • Authors: Rashedur Chowdhury, Arno Kourula, Marjo Siltaoja
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Fringe stakeholders with limited resources, such as grassroots organizations (GROs), are often ignored in business and society literature. We develop a conceptual framework and a set of propositions detailing how GROs strategically gain legitimacy and influence over time. We argue that GROs encounter specific paradoxes over the emergence, development, and resolution of an issue, and they address these paradoxes using cognitive, moral, and pragmatic legitimacy strategies. While cognitive and moral strategies tend to be used consistently, the flexible and paradoxical use of pragmatic strategies has important consequences, both for GROs’ legitimacy and for their potential influence over powerful organizations associated with them. We enrich our framework with the help of two illustrative cases and discuss the implications of the framework for GROs’ legitimacy strategies in business and society literature.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318816954
  • The Effect of Local Stakeholder Pressures on Responsive and Strategic CSR
    • Authors: Yang Pok Rhee, Chansoo Park, Bui Petersen
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study identifies the relationship between local stakeholder pressures and Korean foreign subsidiaries’ corporate social responsibility (CSR). Analyzing the survey data of 177 Korean foreign subsidiaries yielded two important findings. First, local primary stakeholders have a positive impact on responsive CSR activities, but have no influence on strategic CSR activities. Second, local secondary stakeholders in host countries have a strong influence on both responsive and strategic CSR activities. Secondary stakeholders have more influence on strategic than on responsive CSR activities. This article suggests a change in managerial philosophy toward primary and secondary stakeholders, which may have important implications for multinational enterprises (MNEs) in achieving greater success with the design of their CSR activities.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318816454
  • When Does Corporate Social Performance Pay for International Firms'
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Alan Muller
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      How does corporate social performance (CSP) affect financial performance as the firm expands internationally' To address this question, I integrate arguments from the International Business (IB) literature and the literature on CSP to propose that the costs and benefits associated with CSP are unevenly distributed across the range of internationalization. Specifically, I argue that the costs of CSP outweigh the benefits at low levels of internationalization, while the benefits outweigh the costs at high levels of internationalization, leading to a moderated, U-shaped relationship. In addition, I disentangle CSP’s effects further by distinguishing between “do-good” CSP and “do-no-harm” CSP, which have been theorized to evoke different stakeholder perceptions and attributions and can thus be expected to harbor different performance effects across the range of internationalization. Analysis of a panel of 1,056 U.S.-based international firms over the period 1995-2012 lends support to these arguments.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318816957
  • Institutional-Political Scenarios for Anthropocene Society
    • Authors: Andrew J. Hoffman, P. Devereaux Jennings
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Natural scientists have proposed that humankind has entered a new geologic epoch. Termed the “Anthropocene,” this new reality revolves around the central role of human activity in multiple Earth ecosystems. That challenge requires a rethinking of social science explanations of organization and environment relationships. In this article, we discuss the need to politicize institutional theory as a means understanding “Anthropocene Society,” and in turn what that resultant society means for the Anthropocene in the natural environment. We modify the constitutive elements of institutional orders and a set of main change mechanisms to explore three scenarios around which future Anthropocene Societies might be built—Collapsing Systems, Market Rules, and Cultural Re-Enlightenment. Simultaneously, we use observations from the Anthropocene to expose limitations in present institutional theory and propose extensions to remedy them. Overall, this article challenges organizational scholars to consider a new paradigm under which research in environmental sustainability and social sustainability takes place.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318816468
  • The Transformational Change Challenge of Memes: The Case of Marriage
           Equality in the United States
    • Authors: Sandra Waddock, Steve Waddell, Paul S. Gray
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the role of changing memes in large systems change toward marriage equality—popularly referred to as same-sex marriage—in the United States. Using an abbreviated case history of the transformation, the article particularly explores the shifting memes or core units of culture, in this case, word phrases associated with marriage equality over time, influencing the social change process. Using both the case history and the empirical work on memes, the article identifies nine lessons to support others tackling large systems change challenges.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318816440
  • National Income Inequality and International Business Expansion
    • Authors: Nathaniel C. Lupton, Guoliang Frank Jiang, Luis F. Escobar, Alfredo Jiménez
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      We examine the extent to which host country income inequality influences multinational enterprises’ (MNE) expansion strategy for foreign production investment, depending on their specific strategic objectives. Applying a transaction cost framework, we predict that national income inequality has an inverted U-shaped relationship with foreign production investment. As inequality increases, MNEs accrue lower transaction costs arising from interactions with various local actors, leading to higher probability of investment. As income inequality increases further, its effect on location attractiveness will become negative, as its attraction effect is increasingly offset by additional monitoring, bargaining, and security costs owing to the more fractious nature of high inequality societies. In addition, we suggest that the impact of income inequality is contingent on investment objectives: The inverted U-shaped relationship is stronger for efficiency-seeking investment but weaker for market-seeking and competence-enhancing investments. We find substantial support for our hypotheses through an analysis of 27 years (1986-2012) of data on Japanese MNEs’ overseas production entries.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318816493
  • The Effects of Financial Crisis on the Organizational Reputation of Banks:
           An Empirical Analysis of Newspaper Articles
    • Authors: Mario R. Englert, Christopher Koch, Jens Wüstemann
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The recent financial crisis has triggered an intense debate about the role of banks in society, presumably changing the criteria used in the evaluation of organizations. Against this backdrop, we investigate the changing role of banks’ organizational features in shaping different dimensions of banks’ organizational reputation. Using the media as an important evaluator, we measure the reputational dimension of visibility based on the frequency of newspaper articles and the reputational dimension of favorability based on the sentiment of newspaper articles. Drawing on social judgment research for developing our hypotheses, we expect that organizational features such as financial performance and familiarity become more important determinants of organizational reputation in times of crisis. Our results support this expectation, suggesting stronger effects of these organizational features on the visibility and favorability of banks during a crisis. These findings provide novel empirical evidence on how the importance of drivers of organizational reputation changes in times of crisis and highlight areas for managerial attention.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318816512
  • Can Entrepreneurial Initiative Blunt the Economic Inequality–Growth
           Curse' Evidence From 92 Countries
    • Authors: Pankaj C. Patel, Jonathan P. Doh, Sutirtha Bagchi
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the growing interest in understanding the effects of income inequality on economic growth, the influence of entrepreneurship-related institutional constraints on the inequality–growth association remains less understood. Drawing on an institutional constraints perspective in the context of startup entry regulation and credit constraints, we propose that under increasing income inequality, ease of startup or access to credit from the financial sector is positively associated with per capita economic growth. In a sample of 92 countries, robust to alternate specifications, we find support for our hypotheses. Our findings contribute to the debates about the income inequality–growth nexus and imply potential policy interventions in the form of lower startup regulations and domestic credit provision from the financial sector to enhance economic growth under increasing economic inequality.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318797103
  • The Influence of the Government on Corporate Environmental Reporting in
           China: An Authoritarian Capitalism Perspective
    • Authors: Hui Situ, Carol A. Tilt, Pi-Shen Seet
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study uses panel data to investigate the different roles of the Chinese government in influencing companies’ decision making about corporate environmental reporting (CER) via a two-stage process. The results show that the Chinese government appears to mainly influence the decision whether to disclose or not, but has limited influence on how much firms disclose. The results also show that the traditional model of authoritarian capitalism (under which state-owned enterprises [SOEs] are the major governance arrangement) is transforming into a new model. In the new model of authoritarian capitalism, the Chinese government uses newer, more sophisticated tools to manage both state-owned and non–state-owned companies. In addition, these new governance arrangements appear to be more efficient than the traditional model. The findings of this study have implications for both the Chinese government and for Chinese companies, as well as making important contributions to the literature and knowledge of CER in China.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318789694
  • Being Responsible: How Managers Aim to Implement Corporate Social
    • Authors: Michael Hunoldt, Simon Oertel, Anne Galander
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Focusing on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) implementation process, we analyze how institutional complexity that arises from tensions between social and environmental elements and economic and technical concerns is managed by CSR managers. We further question how these micro-level processes interact with organizational-level processes over time. Our research is a 24-month qualitative process study in which we followed CSR managers. The study’s results allow us to distinguish between four strategies that CSR managers use to promote CSR implementation and to cope with tensions. Our results further indicate that organizational characteristics influence the intensity with which these strategies are applied and that the intensity of strategy application affects organizational behavior in the course of time. Through the discussion of these findings, our study contributes to the research on micro-level processes that occur in response to complex institutional demands as well as to the development of a comprehensive, multilevel approach to CSR implementation.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318777738
  • Time and Business Sustainability: Socially Responsible Investing in Swiss
           Banks and Insurance Companies
    • Authors: David Risi
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Business sustainability aims to combine market logic with social welfare logic. In literature, it is commonly assumed that sustainability and the social welfare logic associated with it are characterized by a long-term orientation. However, this assumption is problematic because this principle may not apply in certain contexts. This qualitative study challenges this assumption and focuses on the mechanisms by which time affects the adoption of sustainability practices in the context of socially responsible investing (SRI) practices in Swiss banks and insurance companies. The article provides insights into the mechanisms associated with different time horizons and investigates their effects on the adoption of SRI in financial intermediaries. It also shows how the dimension of time shapes interactions between the two institutional logics underlying SRI in business organizations through specific mechanisms.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318777721
  • How Minority Religion Can Shape Corporate Capitalism: An Emergentist
           Account and Empirical Illustration
    • Authors: Brandon Vaidyanathan
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Theories of how religion shapes business tend to focus on dominant religious institutions. What happens in the case of minority religions, where the alignment of religion with other dominant institutions may be weak at best' To answer this question, I first develop an emergentist account of religion, explaining how macro-level conditioning shapes meso- and micro-level interactions in religious contexts, leading to either structural change or stasis in business contexts. I illustrate this account by examining how Roman Catholicism as a minority religion shapes corporate capitalism in two cities: Bangalore, India, and Dubai, UAE. Drawing on in-depth interviews (N=200) and 12 months of participant observation, I show how countervailing mechanisms create both assets and liabilities for Catholic professionals’ success in workplaces, contributing to morphostasis rather than change. I argue that such processes cannot be adequately understood without specifying their “macrofoundations,” and identify corresponding macro-level influences at global and local levels. By specifying such macro-micro linkages, this article improves our understanding of how religion shapes business.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318775104
  • The Partial Organization of Networked Corruption
    • Authors: Kyoung-Hee Yu, Su-Dol Kang, Carl Rhodes
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article uses the concept of partial organization to examine how organizing principles can facilitate the effective operation of networked forms of corruption. We analyze the case study of a corruption network in the South Korean maritime industry in terms of how it operated by selectively appropriating practices normally associated with formal bureaucratic organizations. Our findings show that organizational elements built into the corruption network enabled coordination of corruption activities and served to distort and override practices within member organizations. The network was primarily organized through the hierarchical organization of a bounded and controlled set of members and, to a lesser extent, through processes of monitoring and sanctions. Given its clandestine nature, the network avoided the use of explicit rules to govern behavior, instead relying on habituated routines to ensure consistent and predictable action from members. We find that organizational elements were rescinded when the corruption network was exposed after the sinking of a passenger ferry, the Sewol. By rolling back its hierarchical organization and reverting to core relationships, the corruption network sought to preserve its center. The article illustrates the explanatory value of studying how the activities of corruption networks are enabled and adapt to existential challenges through partial organization.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318775024
  • The Impact of Cause Portfolio Focus and Contribution Amount on Stakeholder
    • Authors: Meike Eilert, Stefanie Robinson
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      When companies engage in corporate philanthropy, they can donate to a number of causes supporting a variety of issues, thus establishing cause portfolios. This research examines how the focus of a cause portfolio affects company evaluations. Results from an experiment show that when a company donates a small amount of money, consumers have lower evaluations of a company when the cause portfolio is focused (i.e., supports one issue) versus diverse (i.e., supports many issues). This is because the focused (vs. diverse) portfolio is perceived to have a weaker impact to society. We provide additional evidence of this effect using a data set of Fortune 500 companies’ foundations, showing that cause portfolios are more likely to result in lower stakeholder evaluations when focused (vs. diverse). Again, we find that donation amount alleviates the difference between focused and diverse portfolios. The findings hold important implications for the company’s management of cause portfolios.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318761858
  • Who Do They Think They Are' Identity as an Antecedent of Social
           Activism by Institutional Shareholders
    • Authors: Katarina Sikavica, Elise Perrault, Kathleen Rehbein
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Shareholder activists increasingly pressure corporations on social policy issues; yet, extant research provides little understanding of who these activists are and how they choose their corporate targets. In this article, we adopt an activist-centered approach and rely on hybrid organizational identity theory to determine, in a two-phase analysis, how shareholder activists define their economic and social identities and whether these identities are associated with specific target characteristics and tactical strategies. Our findings form the premise of a typology of institutional shareholder activists that is empirically derived and takes into account the wide range of hybrid organizational identities that shareholders exhibit. With a sample of 735 social policy shareholder proposals filed by 104 institutional shareholders in the 2009-2010 period, our study presents one of the first empirical tests examining the heterogeneity of identities within the broad stakeholder category of “social shareholder activists.” Our empirical evidence demonstrates that these shareholders’ mix of economic and social identities is systematically related to their targets’ characteristics and tactical strategies. The implications of our new typology for research on shareholder activism and the value of our findings for managers conclude this article.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318762752
  • When Is There a Sustainability Case for CSR' Pathways to Environmental
           and Social Performance Improvements
    • Authors: Minna Halme, Jukka Rintamäki, Jette Steen Knudsen, Leena Lankoski, Mika Kuisma
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Little is known about when corporate social responsibility (CSR) leads to a sustainability case (i.e., to improvements in environmental and social performance). Building on various forms of decoupling, we develop a theoretical framework for examining pathways from institutional pressures through CSR management to sustainability performance. To empirically identify such pathways, we apply fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to an extensive dataset from 19 large companies. We discover that different pathways are associated with environmental and social performance (non)improvements, and that pathways to success and failure are for the most part not symmetrical. We identify two pathways to improved environmental performance: an exogenous and an endogenous one. We find two pathways to improved social performance that both involve integrating social responsibility into the core business. Pathways to nonimprovements are multiple, suggesting that failure can occur in a number of ways, while there are only a few pathways to sustainability performance improvements.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318755648
  • CSR Communication and Environmental Issue Networks in Virtual Space: A
           Cross-National Study
    • Authors: Aimei Yang, Wenlin Liu
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Nowadays, a significant portion of corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication takes place online. The current article attends to an essential, yet often overlooked element of online CSR communication: cross-sectoral hyperlink networks. The article argues that corporations build cross-sectoral hyperlink networks with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as a form of CSR communication to manage social issues. Using social network analysis, this article analyzes the hyperlink network data between 136 corporations and 94 international NGOs. Findings show that corporations’ cross-sectoral ties serve as a communication strategy to respond to salient issues and manage issues that are relevant to these corporations. NGOs’ tenure and network dynamics are also found to significantly affect the number of cross-sectoral ties built with corporations.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318763565
  • A Complexity Theory Framework of Issue Movement
    • Authors: Cedric E. Dawkins, James R. Barker
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This research draws on complexity theory to provide an alternative conceptualization of issue management. We use six dynamics of complexity drawn from complex adaptive systems—equipoise, turbulence, sensitive conditions, bifurcation, attractor emergence, and symmetry breaking—to develop a metaphorical framework that describes what occurs during various periods of issue activity and what propels issues from one period of activity to another. We illustrate the framework with a case study of the pharmaceutical industry response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. The article concludes with a discussion of the additional affordances this framework provides to extend and compliment issue life cycle models.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318762404
  • The Just World Fallacy as a Challenge to the Business-As-Community Thesis
    • Authors: Matthew Sinnicks
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The notion that business organizations are akin to Aristotelian political communities has been a central feature of research into virtue ethics in business. In this article, I begin by outlining this “community thesis” and go on to argue that psychological research into the “just world fallacy” presents it with a significant challenge. The just world fallacy undermines our ability to implement an Aristotelian conception of justice, to each as he or she is due, and imperils the relational equality required for shared participation in communities. In the final section, I offer a description of what Aristotelian community might look like within organizations, and some suggestions about how it may be possible to resist the challenge posed by the just world fallacy.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318759486
  • How Scandals Act as Catalysts of Fringe Stakeholders’ Contentious
           Actions Against Multinational Corporations
    • Authors: Thibault Daudigeos, Thomas Roulet, Bertrand Valiorgue
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we build on the stakeholder-politics literature to investigate how corporate scandals transform political contexts and give impetus to the contentious movements of fringe stakeholders against multinational corporations (MNCs). Based on Adut’s scandal theory, we flesh out three scandal-related processes that directly affect political-opportunity structures (POSs) and the generation of social movements against MNCs: convergence of contention toward a single target, publicization of deviant practices, and contagion to other organizations. These processes reduce the obstacles to collective actions by fringe stakeholders by pushing corporate elites to be more sensitive to their claims, by decreasing MNCs’ capability to repress contentious movements, by forcing the targeted MNCs to formalize a policy to monitor and eradicate the controversial practices, and by helping fringe stakeholders find internal and external allies to support their claims. This conceptual model of scandals as catalysts of contentious actions contributes to a better understanding of stakeholder politics by unveiling the role of the political context in the coordination of fringe stakeholders.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318756982
  • Nation Branding as Sustainability Governance: A Comparative Case Analysis
    • Authors: Meri Frig, Ville-Pekka Sorsa
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The role of governments in business and society research has remained underexplored, and recent studies have called for further investigations of mechanisms of government intervention. In response to this call, this article studies how nation branding communication can govern businesses toward sustainability by providing qualifications for sustainable business, legitimizing these qualifications, and attaching national aspirations to business conduct that meets these qualifications. A comparative exploratory analysis of the nation branding materials of Denmark and Finland shows that while the two nations qualify business sustainability in similar ways, differences exist in the legitimization of business sustainability and the national aspirations attached to sustainable business conduct. Both countries emphasize principles of efficiency and renewability in their sustainability qualifications. However, while Finland clearly seeks to attract firms to the local business environment to increase exports and improve the local economy, Denmark ascribes more heterogeneous value to sustainable business.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318758322
  • Is Insider Control Good for Environmental Performance' Evidence From
           Dual-Class Firms
    • Authors: Paul Seaborn, Tricia D. Olsen, Jason Howell
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Corporate environmental performance has become a key focus of business leaders, policy makers, and scholars alike. Today, scholarship on environmental practice increasingly highlights how various aspects of corporate governance can influence environmental performance. However, the prior literature is inconclusive as to whether ownership by insiders (officers and directors) will have positive or negative environmental effects and whether insider voting control or equity control is more salient to environmental outcomes. This article leverages a unique empirical data set of dual-class firms, where insiders have voting rights disproportionate to their equity rights, to shed light on this question. We find that, on average, dual-class firms underperform their single-class peers on environmental measures and that the discrepancy comes from dual-class firms where insiders have more voting control, relative to their equity stake. While small increases in voting control are associated with improved environmental performance, too much (relative to insiders’ equity stake) worsens firms’ environmental performance. Insider equity control alone has no impact on environmental outcomes. Our findings have important implications for agency theory and environmental scholarship by identifying contingencies on the impact of voting and equity-based incentives. This research casts doubt on the idea that providing insiders with significant voting control will aid environmental performance.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317749221
  • The Strategic Management of Government Affairs in Brussels
    • Authors: David Coen, Matia Vannoni
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the strategic management of government affairs in companies active in the EU. The article relies on a unique large-N dataset on the functioning and staffing of EU government affairs. The analysis shows that companies delegate government affairs functions to in-house managers with specific competences, who stay in office for long periods and who have an extensive knowledge of the core competences of the company, thanks to their educational background and work experience in the private sector. These findings suggest that how companies strategically manage and staff government affairs in Brussels rests on the distinct structure of business–government relations in the EU, which are based on the exchange of technical information and the establishment of credibility and long-run trust arrangements.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650318755083
  • Examining the Link Between Religion and Corporate Governance: Insights
           From Nigeria
    • Authors: Franklin Nakpodia, Philip J. Shrives, M. Karim Sorour
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines whether the degree of religiosity in an institutional environment can stimulate the emergence of a robust corporate governance system. This study utilizes the Nigerian business environment as its context and embraces a qualitative interpretivist research approach. This approach permitted the engagement of a qualitative content analysis (QCA) methodology to generate insights from interviewees. Findings from the study indicate that despite the high religiosity among Nigerians, religion has not stimulated the desired corporate governance system in Nigeria. The primary explanation for this outcome is the presence of rational ordering over religious preferences thus highlighting the fact that religion, as presently understood and practiced by stakeholders, is inconsistent with the principles underpinning good corporate governance.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317745852
  • Theorizing Business and Local Peacebuilding Through the “Footprints of
           Peace” Coffee Project in Rural Colombia

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Jason Miklian, Juan Pablo Medina Bickel
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Despite emerging study of business initiatives that attempt to support local peace and development, we still have significant knowledge gaps on their effectiveness and efficiency. This article builds theory on business engagements for peace through exploration of the Footprints for Peace (FOP) peacebuilding project by the Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia (FNC). FOP was a business-peace initiative that attempted to improve the lives of vulnerable populations in conflict-affected regions. Through 70 stakeholder interviews, we show how FOP operationalized local peace and development in four conflict-affected departments of Colombia, and examine FNC’s motivations for and effectiveness of its peacebuilding activities. Our main finding is that FOP’s success supported several existing theories on business engagement in peace both in terms of peacebuilding by business and for local economic and societal development, providing evidence in support of development–business collaborations and local peacebuilding by business under certain targeted circumstances. We relate these findings to existing literature, highlighting where existing business-peace theory is supported, where FOP challenged assumptions, and where it illuminated new research gaps. These findings serve to take business-peace theory forward and improve our understandings of what can constitute success for business-peace initiatives in Colombia and possibly other conflict-affected regions.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317749441
  • Individual Values and SME Environmental Engagement
    • Authors: Anja Schaefer, Sarah Williams, Richard Blundel
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      We study the values on which managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) draw when constructing their personal and organizational-level engagement with environmental issues, particularly climate change. Values play an important mediating role in business environmental engagement, but relatively little research has been conducted on individual values in smaller organizations. Using the Schwartz Value System (SVS) as a framework for a qualitative analysis, we identify four “ideal-types” of SME managers and provide rich descriptions of the ways in which values shape their constructions of environmental engagement. In contrast to previous research, which is framed around a binary divide between self-enhancing and self-transcending values, our typology distinguishes between individuals drawing primarily on Power or on Achievement values and indicates how a combination of Achievement and Benevolence values is particularly significant in shaping environmental engagement. This demonstrates the theoretical usefulness of focusing on a complete range of values. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317750134
  • Religion and CSR: An Islamic “Political” Model of Corporate
    • Authors: Maurice J. Murphy, Jan M. Smolarski
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the political perspective of corporate social responsibility from the standpoint of normative Islam. We argue that large firms within Muslim majority countries have the moral obligation to assist governments in addressing challenges related to sustainable socioeconomic development and in advancing human rights. In substantiating our argument, we draw upon the Islamic business ethics, stakeholder theory, and corporate governance literatures, as well as the concepts of Maqasid al Shariah (the objectives of Islamic law) and fard al ‘ayn (obligation upon all individuals within society) versus fard al kifayah (obligation upon some individuals within society) to introduce a normative model elucidating critical Islamic precepts. Finally, we propose an Islamic “political” corporate governance framework, which democratizes firm decision making by embedding “core” stakeholders, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and Shariah scholars in the corporate board, thereby enhancing the ability of businesses to respond to stakeholder concerns and priorities, while mitigating interstakeholder and intraboard power asymmetries.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317749222
  • Nonconformance With Regulatory Codes in the Nonprofit Sector:
           Accountability and the Discursive Coupling of Means and Ends
    • Authors: Penny Dick, Tracey Coule
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Means–ends decoupling has recently been suggested as one consequence of the problems organizations face in trying to comply with institutional rules in contexts of institutional complexity. Such decoupling is characterized by the adoption, implementation, and scrutiny of particular codes of practice, which tend not to deliver the outcomes they were developed to produce. Recent scholarship focusing on this issue has suggested that such decoupling is a consequence of the trade-off organizations need to make between compliance and goal achievement, most especially when the latter is difficult to evaluate. Although recent scholarship has suggested that this tension might be mitigated by the activities of developers of compliance rules, in this article, we explore how actors internal to organizations, in this case, two charitable organizations, mitigate this tension via nonconformance with particular codes. We focus on how the process of accounting for nonconformance results in the discursive coupling of means and ends as actors creatively develop vocabularies of motive, which respond to anticipated social criticism.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317748638
  • Corporate Politics in the Public Sphere: Corporate Citizenspeak in a Mass
           Media Policy Contest
    • Authors: Daniel Nyberg, John Murray
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article connects the previously isolated literatures on corporate citizenship and corporate political activity to explain how firms construct political influence in the public sphere. The public engagement of firms as political actors is explored empirically through a discursive analysis of a public debate between the mining industry and the Australian government over a proposed tax. The findings show how the mining industry acted as a corporate citizen concerned about the common good. This, in turn, legitimized corporate political activity, which undermined deliberation about the common good. The findings explain how the public sphere is refeudalized through corporate manipulation of deliberative processes via what we term corporate citizenspeak—simultaneously speaking as corporate citizens and for individual citizens. Corporate citizenspeak illustrates the duplicitous engagement of firms as political actors, claiming political legitimacy while subverting deliberative norms. This contributes to the theoretical development of corporations as political actors by explaining how corporate interests are aggregated to represent the common good and how corporate political activity is employed to dominate the public sphere. This has important implications for understanding how corporations undermine democratic principles.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317746176
  • Religious Ethics: An Antidote for Religious Nationalism
    • Authors: Prabhir Vishnu Poruthiyil
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Social movements driven by a combination of religious nationalism and economic fundamentalism are globally grabbing the levers of political, economic, and intellectual control. The consequence is a policy climate premised on polarization in which inequality and destruction of the natural environment are condoned. This creates demands on key academic institutions like business schools, with stakeholders who are complicit in the sustenance of these social movements. Scholars in these schools have an opportunity to respond through curricula that facilitate reflection on the ideological preferences of such groups under their influence. However, stakeholders influenced by religious nationalism tend to reject the premises of liberal secular vocabulary as elitist or alien and hence suspicious. This article considers a teaching strategy to instill values of equality and respect for nature among the stakeholders by grounding curriculums in the tenets of the same religion valorized by the social movements. The consequences of such a strategy is discussed through its application to the business curriculums taught in India, where a regressive social movement with totalitarian pretensions—Hindutva—combined with neoliberalism has secured unparalleled power. Elements of this strategy could inform educators in other democratic societies facing similar challenges.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317745635
  • Islamic Governance, National Governance, and Bank Risk Management and
           Disclosure in MENA Countries

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Ahmed A. Elamer, Collins G. Ntim, Hussein A. Abdou
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      We examine the relationships among religious governance, especially Islamic governance quality (IGQ), national governance quality (NGQ), and risk management and disclosure practices (RDPs), and consequently ascertain whether NGQ has a moderating influence on the IGQ–RDPs nexus. Using one of the largest data sets relating to Islamic banks from 10 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries from 2006 to 2013, our findings are threefold. First, we find that RDPs are higher in banks with higher IGQ. Second, we find that RDPs are higher in banks from countries with higher NGQ. Finally, we find that NGQ has a moderating effect on the IGQ–RDPs nexus. Our findings are robust to alternative RDP measures and estimation techniques. These results imply that the quality of disclosure depends on the nature of the macro-social-level factors, such as religion that have remained largely unexplored in business and society research, and, therefore, have important implications for policy makers.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317746108
  • The Potential for Plurality and Prevalence of the Religious Institutional
    • Authors: Ali A. Gümüsay
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Religion is a significant social force on organizational practice yet has been relatively underexamined in organization theory. In this article, I assert that the institutional logics perspective is especially conducive to examine the macrolevel role of religion for organizations. The notion of the religious logic offers conceptual means to explain the significance of religion, its interrelationship with other institutional orders, and embeddedness into and impact across interinstitutional systems. I argue for intrainstitutional logic plurality and show that specifically the intrareligious logic plurality has been rather disregarded with a relative focus on Christianity and a geographical focus on “the West.” Next, I propose the concept of interinstitutional logic prevalence and show that the religious logic in particular may act as a metalogic due to its potential for uniqueness, ultimacy, and ubiquity. Through illustrations from Islamic Finance and Entrepreneurship, I exemplify implications of logic plurality and prevalence for organizations and societies.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317745634
  • Impact of Religion-Based Caste System on the Dynamics of Indian Trade
           Unions: Evidence From Two State-Owned Organizations in North India
    • Authors: Jatin Pandey, Biju Varkkey
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Religion and its envisaged structures have both macro- and micro-level implications for business. Of the many stratification schemas prevalent in India, two macro-social stratification schemas are important at the workplace: caste, which has been an age-old, religion-mandated, closed social stratification prevalent in Hinduism that had led to inequality in the society, and trade union, which is a relatively new and optional open workplace stratification that empowers workers and fosters equality. This study tries to decipher whether these two structures influence each other; if yes how and why do they influence each other (the tensions and contradictions that may happen between them), and whether the influence is uniform for all members. We conducted in-depth interviews with 43 trade union members, three trade union leaders of two state-owned organizations in North India. Initially, we found that caste does not have any superficial effect on the relationship between union members. However, a deeper analysis reveals that roots of this social reality reflect in the social and workplace exchanges between union members, and affect their social identity and loyalty. In the discussion we present a model of twin loyalties between union and caste. From the institutional logic perspective, we also delineate the caste and trade union perspective, and show how there is a change in trade union identity because of the influence of caste-based logic. Our findings have implications for industrial democracy, worker representation, and union effectiveness.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317745867
  • Examining the Contingency Value of Certification on Regulatory Burden in a
           Transitional Economy
    • Authors: Hailiang Zou, Guoyou Qi, Xuemei Xie, Xiaohua Meng
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In transitional economies, the governing central authorities impose heavy regulatory burdens on firms, which results in great costs for business in terms of time, resources, and other constraints. However, quality assurance through decentralized institutions (such as private certified management standards) is rapidly becoming more prevalent. This study examines the contingent implications that such decentralized institutions have for centralized regulation by focusing on the relationship between international certifications and regulatory burdens. As two prominent features of the institutional environment in emerging economies, the threat of competition from the informal sector and corruption may influence the relationship between international certifications and regulatory burdens. These features are therefore examined in terms of their moderating roles. The study draws on institutional and signaling theories to interpret data from a survey conducted by the World Bank in China in 2012. The empirical results show that international certification is negatively associated with regulatory burdens. This relationship is strengthened by the threat of competition from the informal sector, but mitigated by a corrupt business environment. Our study contributes to the institutional literature and to research on international certifications, and it has implications for both business management and governmental policy.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317726078
  • Exploring Practitioners’ Meaning of “Ethics,” “Compliance,” and
           “Corporate Social Responsibility” Practices: A Communities of Practice
    • Authors: Angeli Weller
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Companies seeking to effectively manage the ethical dimensions of their business have created formal and informal practices, including those with the labels “ethics and compliance” and “corporate social responsibility” (CSR). However, there is little research describing how practitioners who create and implement these practices understand their meaning and relationship. Leveraging a communities of practice theoretical perspective, this qualitative study proposes that these practices can be studied as artifacts of managerial learning. Thematic analysis of interviews with senior managers suggests that practices have diverse meaning, with only informal relationships between them in most cases. Theoretically, this research offers a new lens through which to view compliance and CSR practices as socially negotiated, contextual, and dynamic. Practically, it suggests that there may be new opportunities for learning if managers create practices through an intentional exploration of shared meaning.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317719263
  • The Business-Led Globalization of CSR: Channels of Diffusion From the
           United States Into Venezuela and Britain, 1962-1981
    • Authors: Rami Kaplan, Daniel Kinderman
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The global spread of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices is widely explained in institutional-isomorphic terms: Corporations worldwide adopt CSR in reaction to isomorphic pressures exerted on them by a pro-CSR global environment, including normative calls for CSR, activist targeting, civil regulation frameworks, and educational activities. By contrast, this article considers the proactive agency of corporations in CSR diffusion, which is informed by nonmarket strategies that seek to instrumentally reshape the political and social environment of corporations. Applying a “channels-of-diffusion” perspective, we show that in the initial phase of CSR’s transnational diffusion—as exemplified by the cases of Venezuela (1962-1967) and Britain (1977-1981)—CSR traveled through learning exchanges between business elite “exporters” and “importers” whose engagement in diffusion addressed crisis-enhanced political threats and opportunities in the receiving country. The focal agents established national CSR business associations, which disseminated among local corporations CSR practices adapted to confront the challenges at hand. We identify the features of such “business-led cross-national diffusions of CSR”; formulate propositions regarding their conditions, dynamics, and effects; and suggest that further research of this mode of diffusion would advance a more nuanced and balanced understanding of CSR’s globalization.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317717958
  • How Do Individuals Judge Organizational Legitimacy' Effects of
           Attributed Motives and Credibility on Organizational Legitimacy
    • Authors: Johannes Jahn, Melanie Eichhorn, Rolf Brühl
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This experimental study examines individuals’ legitimacy judgments. We develop a model that demonstrates the role of attributed motives and corporate credibility for the evaluation of organizational legitimacy and test this model with an experimental vignette study. Our results show that when a corporate activity creates benefits for the firm—in addition to social benefits—individuals attribute more extrinsic motives. Extrinsic motives are ascribed when a corporation is perceived as being driven by external rewards as opposed to an altruistic commitment to a social cause. Extrinsic motives negatively affect corporate credibility and organizational legitimacy judgments. This article contributes to a better understanding of the complex process of organizational legitimacy judgment by shedding light on the individual’s perspective and expounding the relationship between attributed motives, corporate credibility, and organizational legitimacy.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317717959
  • Nonmarket Signals: Investment in Corporate Political Activity and the
           Performance of Initial Public Offerings
    • Authors: Bruce C. Rudy, Jason Cavich
      Abstract: Business & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Research on firm initial public offering (IPO) performance has primarily utilized an economics of information perspective, which assumes that publicly available information is incorporated into a stock’s price when it is issued. However, the valuation process associated with IPOs remains manifest with considerable uncertainty for the prospective investor. This study argues that corporate political activity undertaken prior to the firm’s IPO acts as a signal to investors, reducing the uncertainty the market places on the value of the firm’s equity. Utilizing a sample of 180 IPOs, we show that the more a firm invests in corporate political activity prior to its IPO, the better its IPO performance. These findings provide evidence that corporate political activity acts as a nonmarket signal, influencing investor behavior by reducing the information asymmetries between investors and the target firm.
      Citation: Business & Society
      DOI: 10.1177/0007650317717263
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