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Publisher: Sage Publications   (Total: 1087 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1087 Journals sorted alphabetically
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Abstracts in Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Academic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Accounting History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Radiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.754, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Radiologica Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.939, CiteScore: 2)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342, SJR: 1.397, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 0)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 2)
Adult Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 133, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Tumor Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.108, CiteScore: 0)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Affilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
Agrarian South : J. of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Alexandria : The J. of National and Intl. Library and Information Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
AlterNative : An Intl. J. of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Alternative Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.351, CiteScore: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Educational Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 2.913, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Cosmetic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.646, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.65, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.972, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 3.949, CiteScore: 6)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.313, CiteScore: 1)
American Review of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.062, CiteScore: 2)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 301, SJR: 6.333, CiteScore: 6)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, CiteScore: 2)
Animation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.634, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.096, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.225, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of the ICRP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.341, CiteScore: 7)
Anthropological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.635, CiteScore: 2)
Antyajaa : Indian J. of Women and Social Change     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.17, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 2)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Media Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Management Research and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 1)
Asian and Pacific Migration J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 102, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Management Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
ASN Neuro     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.534, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.519, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.433, CiteScore: 1)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.801, CiteScore: 2)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 521, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian J. of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.497, CiteScore: 1)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 317, SJR: 1.739, CiteScore: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.877, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bible Translator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Biblical Theology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Research for Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarkers in Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioscope: South Asian Screen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 3)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Neuroscience Advances     Open Access  
Breast Cancer : Basic and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Music Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
British J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Politics and Intl. Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
British J.ism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 1)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Business Perspectives and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cahiers Élisabéthains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
California Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.209, CiteScore: 4)
Canadian J. of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.007, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Nursing Research (CJNR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 0.626, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.769, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists J. / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Control     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Growth and Metastasis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.64, CiteScore: 1)
Capital and Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access  
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Cartilage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.889, CiteScore: 3)
Cell and Tissue Transplantation and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.023, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.581, CiteScore: 3)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Child Maltreatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
Child Neurology Open     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
China Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Christianity & Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chronic Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.672, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.808, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Stress     Open Access  
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.757, CiteScore: 1)
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Translational Neuroscience     Open Access  
Clinical Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.73, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Blood Disorders     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Ear, Nose and Throat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.776, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Trauma and Intensive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Nursing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.487, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.281, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.399, CiteScore: 2)
Clothing and Textiles Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Communication and the Public     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.458, CiteScore: 1)
Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.171, CiteScore: 3)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.451, CiteScore: 1)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226, SJR: 3.772, CiteScore: 3)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)
Competition and Regulation in Network Industries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.642, CiteScore: 2)
Conflict Management and Peace Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.441, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary Drug Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 2)
Contemporary Education Dialogue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary Review of the Middle East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Contemporary Sociology : A J. of Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Contemporary Voice of Dalit     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Contexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contributions to Indian Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 0)
Convergence The Intl. J. of Research into New Media Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.521, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Assessment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.519
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 16  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 4 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 1073-1911 - ISSN (Online) 1552-3489
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1087 journals]
  • A Hierarchical Integration of Normal and Abnormal Personality Dimensions:
           Structure and Predictive Validity in a Heterogeneous Sample of Psychiatric
           Outpatients
    • Authors: Timothy A. Allen, Colin G. DeYoung, R. Michael Bagby, Bruce G. Pollock, Lena C. Quilty
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Hierarchical, quantitative models of psychopathology focus primarily on higher-order constructs, whereas less is known about the structure and content comprising lower-order dimensions of psychopathology. Here, we address this gap in the literature by using targeted factor analysis to integrate the 25 maladaptive facet-level traits of the Personality Inventory for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder–Fifth edition and the 10 aspect-level traits of the normal personality hierarchy within a sample of 198 psychiatric outpatients. A 10-factor solution replicated previous work, with each of the 10 aspects primarily characterizing only one factor. In addition, the 10 factors differentially predicted a range of diagnoses, including alcohol use disorder, major depression, panic disorder, social anxiety, and borderline and avoidant personality disorders. Our results suggest that research on the development, causes, and structure of lower-order traits within the normal personality hierarchy may serve as an important guide to research on the causes and structure of maladaptive personality.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-11-15T12:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119887442
       
  • Differential Item Functioning by HIV Status and Sexual Orientation of the
           Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale: An Item Response
           Theory Analysis
    • Authors: Pablo D. Radusky, Violeta J. Rodriguez, Mahendra Kumar, Deborah L. Jones
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale (CES-D) is the most widely used instrument to assess depressive symptoms in people living with HIV. However, its differential item functioning (DIF) by HIV status and sexual orientation has yet to be explored. This study examined DIF and measurement invariance of the CES-D using an item response theory (IRT) framework, and a more traditional factor analytic approach. Data from 841 HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals, from Miami, Florida, were analyzed. Uniform DIF by HIV status was detected in Items 4, 12, and 16 from the Positive Affect factor. Nonuniform DIF was detected in Items 13 and 17. Uniform DIF by sexual orientation was detected in Items 2, 15, and 19, two of them from the Interpersonal factor. Nonuniform DIF was detected in Item 2. Using a factor analytic approach, the CES-D was invariant at the configural and metric levels by HIV and sexual orientation. These findings indicate that overall, however, using IRT, the magnitudes of DIF were negligible, the CED-D was somewhat invariant using factor analytic methods; the CES-D may be reliably used to compare by HIV status or sexual orientation.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-11-13T09:13:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119887445
       
  • Examining the Validity of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire
           in the Assessment of Police Candidates
    • Authors: Martin Sellbom, David M. Corey, Yossef S. Ben-Porath
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      A well-validated test of normal personality functioning is necessary in preemployment evaluations of candidates for public safety positions. In this study, we evaluated the construct validity and predictive validity of one such measure, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), in a large sample of candidates for law enforcement positions. We examined associations between MPQ scale scores and biographical data, clinician suitability ratings on the 10 established California Commission on Peace Officer and Standards and Training (POST) psychological screening dimensions, and (for a subsample) posthire performance outcome data. MPQ scores generally demonstrated a conceptually expected pattern of associations with criterion variables, supporting their construct validity. Scores related to negative emotionality were particularly salient predictors of a range of POST-10 suitability ratings. Scales assessing aspects of positive emotionality, impulsivity, as well as absorption, emerged as the best predictors of posthire performance problems.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-11-13T09:12:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119887443
       
  • Estimating Premorbid Ability in Rehabilitation Patients Using the Test of
           Premorbid Functioning and Wide Range Achievement Test–Fourth Edition
    • Authors: Summer N. Rolin, Jeremy J. Davis, Justin B. Miller
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: This study examined premorbid ability estimate concordance using Test of Premorbid Functioning predicted Full Scale Intelligent Quotient (TOPF-IQ) and Wide Range Achievement Test–Fourth Edition Word Reading (WRAT4-WR). Method: The sample (N = 145) was 28% female with average age and education of 40.6 and 13.2 years, respectively. Outpatient neuropsychological evaluations were conducted in a rehabilitation setting. Measures included the TOPF, WRAT4-WR, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Fourth Edition, and other neuropsychological tests. Non-WAIS measures defined impairment groups. Analyses included t tests, pairwise correlations, concordance correlation coefficients, and root mean square differences. Results: TOPF-IQ, WRAT4-WR, and Full Scale Intelligent Quotient scores were not significantly different but were lower than normative mean. TOPF-IQ and WRAT4-WR showed acceptable agreement (concordance correlation coefficient = .92; root mean square difference = 5.9). Greater premorbid–current ability differences were observed in the impaired group. TOPF-IQ and WRAT4-WR showed lower but similar agreement with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient in the unimpaired group. Conclusions: Findings support the WRAT4-WR in predicting premorbid ability in rehabilitation settings.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-11-13T09:07:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119887441
       
  • The Practical Effects of Measurement Invariance: Gender Invariance in Two
           Big Five Personality Measures
    • Authors: Jisoo Ock, Samuel T. McAbee, Evan Mulfinger, Frederick L. Oswald
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The essence of measurement invariance (MI) analysis is to test the assumption that observed scores on a scale accurately reflect respondents’ standings on a measured construct. Based on exploratory structural equation modeling, the current study examines gender-based MI in two Big Five measures of personality: the Mini-IPIP, and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) facet scales. We report results for MI based on both model fit indices and a practical significance index that quantifies the extent of noninvariance (i.e., dMACS). From the latter, we partition the observed group mean differences in scale scores into construct-irrelevant group differences versus construct-relevant group differences. In measures of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Neuroticism across instruments, results supported metric invariance but not scalar invariance. That said, findings of statistical noninvariance were generally small in terms of practical effects, although some notable variability in the effects was evident. Overall, the current results provide evidence regarding gender-based MI of Big Five personality measures that are more detailed than that provided in past work. More generally, this study also provides useful guidance for future researchers investigating both the statistical and practical significance of measurement invariance.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-11-05T09:50:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119885018
       
  • Testing the Longitudinal Structure and Change in Sluggish Cognitive Tempo
           and Inattentive Behaviors From Early Through Middle Childhood
    • Authors: Melissa R. Dvorsky, Stephen P. Becker, Leanne Tamm, Michael T. Willoughby
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies have demonstrated that sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) behaviors are empirically distinct from inattentive (IN) behaviors that are used to define attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, most studies used cross-sectional designs during middle childhood. Using parent and teacher ratings from the Family Life Project (N = 1,173), we investigated the factor structure, longitudinal measurement invariance, developmental trajectories, and predictors of developmental change in SCT and IN from age 3 years through Grade 5. SCT and IN were dissociable but correlated constructs that exhibited longitudinal invariance for both informants. Mean levels of SCT increased modestly with age, becoming more prominent between age 5 years and first grade, while IN was more stable. Lower parental education was associated with higher parent- and teacher-reported SCT, male sex was associated with higher teacher-reported IN, and African American race was associated with higher teacher-reported IN but lower teacher-reported SCT. These findings support the validity of SCT starting in early childhood.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-11-04T06:24:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119872247
       
  • On the Use of Empirical Bayes Estimates as Measures of Individual Traits
    • Authors: Siwei Liu, Peter Kuppens, Laura Bringmann
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Empirical Bayes (EB) estimates of the random effects in multilevel models represent how individuals deviate from the population averages and are often extracted to detect outliers or used as predictors in follow-up analysis. However, little research has examined whether EB estimates are indeed reliable and valid measures of individual traits. In this article, we use statistical theory and simulated data to show that EB estimates are biased toward zero, a phenomenon known as “shrinkage.” The degree of shrinkage and reliability of EB estimates depend on a number of factors, including Level-1 residual variance, Level-1 predictor variance, Level-2 random effects variance, and number of within-person observations. As a result, EB estimates may not be ideal for detecting outliers, and they produce biased regression coefficients when used as predictors. We illustrate these issues using an empirical data set on emotion regulation and neuroticism.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T06:17:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119885019
       
  • Practical Significance of Longitudinal Measurement Invariance Violations
           in the Dutch–Flemish PROMIS Item Banks for Depression and Anxiety: An
           Illustration With Ordered-Categorical Data
    • Authors: Gerard Flens, Niels Smits, Caroline B. Terwee, Liv Pijck, Philip Spinhoven, Edwin de Beurs
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      We investigated longitudinal measurement invariance in the Dutch–Flemish PROMIS adult v1.0 item banks for Depression and Anxiety using two clinical samples with mood and anxiety disorders (n = 640 and n = 528, respectively). Factor analysis was used to evaluate whether the item banks were sufficiently unidimensional at two test-occasions and whether the measured constructs remained the same over time. The results indicated that the item banks were sufficiently unidimensional, but the thresholds and residual variances of the constructs changed over time. However, using tentative rules of thumb, these invariance violations did not substantially affect the endorsement of a specific response category of a specific item at a specific test-occasion. Furthermore, the impact on the mean latent change scores of the item banks remained below the proposed cutoff value for substantial bias. These findings suggest that the invariance violations lacked practical significance for test-users, meaning that the item banks provide sufficiently invariant latent factor scores for use in clinical practice.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-10-18T09:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119880967
       
  • The Motivation and Opportunity for Socially Desirable Responding Does Not
           Alter the General Factor of Personality

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Dirk H. M. Pelt, Dimitri Van der Linden, Curtis S. Dunkel, Marise Ph. Born
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Socially desirable responding may affect the factor structure of personality questionnaires and may be one of the reasons for the common variance among personality traits. In this study, we test this hypothesis by investigating the influence of the motivational test-taking context (development vs. selection) and the opportunity to distort responses (forced-choice vs. Likert response format) on personality questionnaire scores. Data from real selection and assessment candidates (total N = 3,980) matched on gender, age, and educational level were used. Mean score differences were found between the selection and development groups, with smaller differences for the FC version. Yet, exploratory structural equation models showed that the overall factor structures as well as the general factor were highly similar across the four groups. Thus, although socially desirable responding may affect mean scores on personality traits, it does not appear to affect factor structures. This study further suggests that the common variance in personality questionnaires is consistent and appears to be little influenced by motivational pressures for response distortion.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-10-17T05:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119880960
       
  • A Psychometric Review and Conceptual Replication Study of the Five Facets
           Mindfulness Questionnaire Latent Structure
    • Authors: Oscar Lecuona, Eduardo García-Garzón, Carlos García-Rubio, Raquel Rodríguez-Carvajal
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is a popular tool in mindfulness research. However, its psychometric qualities and its replicability have caused controversy. This study carried out a psychometric review and a conceptual replication of the FFMQ latent structure. The review showed that previous validation studies of the FFMQ used nonoptimal methods. In addition, this conceptual replication study tested the structure of the FFMQ using frequentist and Bayesian techniques. The original structure did not provide a good fit with both techniques, while the proposed alternative provided mixed results. We also found systematic fit improvements in both techniques when the Observe facet was excluded and method factors were included. With these findings, we conclude that the conceptual replication of the FFMQ’s structure failed. Alternatively, we propose a new provisional FFMQ model with a set of recommendations regarding its application. Future research proposals on improving techniques and models toward mindfulness assessment are also presented and discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-10-14T01:17:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119873718
       
  • The Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress–Second Edition (DAPS-2):
           Initial Psychometric Evaluation in an MTurk-Recruited, Trauma-Exposed
           Community Sample
    • Authors: Jessica M. Petri, Frank W. Weathers, Tracy K. Witte, Madison W. Silverstein
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress (DAPS; Briere, 2001) is a comprehensive questionnaire that assesses posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria as well as peritraumatic responses and associated problems such as dissociation, suicidality, and substance abuse. DAPS scores have demonstrated excellent reliability, validity, and clinical utility, performing as well or better than leading PTSD questionnaires. The present study was an initial psychometric evaluation of the unreleased DAPS (DAPS-2), revised for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fifth edition (DSM-5), in an MTurk-recruited mixed trauma sample (N = 367). DAPS-2 PTSD scale and associated features scales demonstrated high internal consistency and strong convergent and discriminant validity. In confirmatory factor analyses, the DSM-5 four-factor model of PTSD provided adequate fit, but the leading seven-factor model provided superior fit. These results indicate the DAPS-2 is a psychometrically sound measure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-10-14T01:17:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119880963
       
  • Disturbed Eating and Body Dysmorphic Symptoms in a Young Adult Sample Are
           Separable Constructs That Each Show a Mixture of Distributions
    • Authors: Majed Samad, Christina Ralph-Nearman, Gerhard Hellemann, Sahib S. Khalsa, Ladan Shams, Jamie D. Feusner
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Eating disorder and body dysmorphic disorder symptoms overlap and frequently co-occur clinically, yet whether they represent one or more underlying constructs in the general population is unknown. We examined relationships between these symptoms on underlying factor structures and dimensional distributions in a young adult sample of 328 students using the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q 6.0) and the Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ). We performed factor and hierarchical cluster analyses on pooled items and Gaussian mixture modeling on score distributions. EDE-Q 6.0 and DCQ total scores were correlated (r = 0.53, p < .001). Pooled items demonstrated a three-factor solution; DCQ items separating from two EDE-Q 6.0 factors. Hierarchical clustering yielded a two-cluster solution that separated the two scales. Mixture modeling demonstrated that more than one underlying distribution best fit the data for each scale. These results suggest that the EDE-Q 6.0 and DCQ measure different sets of psychopathological features, despite their tendency to track together. Moreover, eating disorder and body dysmorphic phenotypes each show nonuniform variation from normal to abnormal. This argues against using linear dimensional applications of these scales to assess individuals ranging from mild to severe in symptom severity. Separate scales may be necessary to characterize lower and higher ranges of clinical severity.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-10-14T01:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119879241
       
  • Predicting Adolescent Substance Use in a Child Welfare Sample: A
           Multi-Indicator Algorithm
    • Authors: Suvarna V. Menon, Hena Thakur, Ryan C. Shorey, Joseph R. Cohen
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Given the risk of substance use (SU) among adolescents in the child welfare system, identification of risk for prospective impairing SU behaviors is a significant public health priority. We sought to quantify the incremental validity of routine multi-informant assessments of adolescent psychological distress (i.e., the Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self-Report) and a commonly used SU screening protocol (i.e., the CRAFFT) to predict SU at 18 and 36 months after baseline in a nationally representative child welfare sample (N = 1,054; Mage = 13.72). We used receiver operator characteristics and reclassification analyses to develop our algorithms. We found that a battery consisting of baseline CRAFFT scores, self-reported delinquent behavior, and parent-reported rule-breaking behavior provided an incrementally valid prediction model for SU behavior among females, while baseline CRAFFT scores and self-reported delinquent behavior incrementally predicted SU for males. Results suggest that leveraging existing assessments within the child welfare system can improve forecasting of SU risk for this population.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-10-11T10:01:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119880966
       
  • Erratum to Using Dominance Analysis to Decompose Narcissism and Its
           Relation to Aggression and Externalizing Outcomes
    • Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-10-04T08:59:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119880413
       
  • Strengths-Based Assessment for Suicide Prevention: Reasons for Life as a
           Protective Factor From Yup’ik Alaska Native Youth Suicide
    • Authors: James Allen, Stacy M. Rasmus, Carlotta Ching Ting Fok, Billy Charles, Joseph Trimble, KyungSook Lee
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Suicide is the second leading cause of death among American Indian and Alaska Native youth, and within the Alaska Native youth subpopulation, the leading cause of death. In response to this public health crisis, American Indian and Alaska Native communities have created strategies to protect their young people by building resilience using localized Indigenous well-being frameworks and cultural strengths. These approaches to suicide prevention emphasize promotion of protective factors over risk reduction. A measure of culturally based protective factors from suicide risk has potential to assess outcomes from these strengths-based, culturally grounded suicide prevention efforts, and can potentially address several substantive concerns regarding direct assessment of suicide risk. We report on the Reasons for Life (RFL) scale, a measure of protective factors from suicide, testing psychometric properties including internal structure with 302 rural Alaska Native Yup’ik youth. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed the RFL is best described through three distinct first-order factors organized under one higher second-order factor. Item response theory analyses identified 11 satisfactorily functioning items. The RFL correlates with other measures of more general protective factors. Implications of these findings are described, including generalizability to other American Indian and Alaska Native, other Indigenous, and other culturally distinct suicide disparities groups.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-09-20T01:43:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119875789
       
  • Cross-Cultural and Gender Invariance of Transdiagnostic Processes in the
           United States and Singapore
    • Authors: Nur Hani Zainal, Michelle G. Newman, Ryan Y. Hong
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Research Domain Criteria define cognitive and emotional processes (e.g., rumination, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety sensitivity, emotion dysregulation) as key transdiagnostic elements of psychopathology. However, there is currently a dearth of construct equivalence studies on measures of these processes. We thus aimed to validate the latent structures of five transdiagnostic constructs using established and newer measures: two-factor Rumination–Reflection Questionnaire, six-factor Perseverative Cognitions Questionnaire, two-factor Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, three-factor Anxiety Sensitivity Index–3, two-factor Cognitive and Behavioral Processes Questionnaire (CBPQ). Measurement equivalence was examined across 292 American and 144 Singaporean undergraduates. Cross-cultural confirmatory factor analyses revealed strict invariance for all measures, with interfactor association differences on the Perseverative Cognitions Questionnaire and CBPQ. Across gender, full invariance was found on all measures except the CBPQ. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-09-20T01:42:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119869832
       
  • Measurement Invariance of the Five Factor Model of Personality:
           Facet-Level Analyses Among Euro and Asian Americans
    • Authors: P. Priscilla Lui, Douglas B. Samuel, David Rollock, Frederick T. L. Leong, Edward C. Chang
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Relative to broad Big Five domains, personality facets provide incremental value in predicting life outcomes. Valid between-group comparisons of means and correlates of facet scores are contingent upon measurement invariance of personality measures. Research on culture and Big Five personality has been largely limited to cross-national comparisons of domains, without assessing measurement invariance across ethnoracial groups within the same country. Using the NEO Inventories, we tested facet-level measurement invariance between Euro (N = 418, 63.2% women, Mage = 18.43) and Asian Americans (N = 429, 56.6% women, Mage = 18.00). Multigroup exploratory factor analysis within a confirmatory factor analysis framework showed partial strong invariance. Assertiveness and activity did not load onto extraversion as strongly for Asian Americans. Self-consciousness showed a stronger cross-loading onto extraversion among Asian Americans than Euro Americans. Achievement striving, competence, warmth, tender-mindedness, and excitement seeking showed noninvariant intercepts across groups. Collectivistic values emphasizing interpersonal harmony and modesty should be considered when examining narrow and broad traits among Asian Americans.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T11:56:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119873978
       
  • Modeling Relations Between Triarchic Biobehavioral Traits and DSM
           Internalizing Disorder Dimensions
    • Authors: Robert D. Latzman, Isabella M. Palumbo, Robert F. Krueger, Laura E. Drislane, Christopher J. Patrick
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The biobehavioral traits of the triarchic model of psychopathy have well-known correlates with externalizing psychopathology. Although evidence also suggests associations with internalizing disorders, research has yet to formally model relationships between dimensions of internalizing psychopathology and triarchic traits. Employing a sample of 218 adults (50.2% female), the current study used confirmatory factor analysis to characterize how triarchic trait dimensions—delineated using different scale operationalizations—relate to internalizing when modeled as a single broad factor, and as distinct fear and distress subfactors. Findings demonstrated (a) robust opposing relations for triarchic boldness (+) and disinhibition (−), and an interactive association for the two, with general internalizing, along with a modest negative relationship for meanness; and (b) distinct associations for the three triarchic trait dimensions with fear and distress subfactors of internalizing. This work clarifies how facets of psychopathy relate to the internalizing psychopathology spectrum and provides a means for interfacing this spectrum with biological variables.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T11:54:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119876022
       
  • ROC Analyses of Relevant Conners 3–Short Forms, CBCL, and TRF Scales for
           Screening ADHD and ODD
    • Authors: Rapson Gomez, Alasdair Vance, Shaun Watson, Vasileios Stavropoulos
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to examine and compare the diagnostic accuracy of the Conners 3–Parent Short Form (C 3-P(S)), and the Conners 3–Teacher Short Form (C 3-T(S)) inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity scales, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher’s Report Form (TRF) attention problems scales, to distinguish those with and without attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It also examined and compared the diagnostic accuracy of the C 3-P(S) and C 3-T(S) Aggression (AG) scales, and the CBCL and TRF Aggressive Behavior (AB) scales, to distinguish those with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The study used archival data (N = 150-261) involving a large group of clinic-referred children aged between 6 and 11 years who had been interviewed for clinical diagnosis of ADHD and ODD using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children (ADISC-IV) as the reference standard, and then administered one or more of the screening measures. The findings provided empirical support for the use of the C 3-P(S) and CBCL for identifying ADHD and ODD, with the CBCL aggressive behavior scale having better ability to detect ODD. The implications of the findings for using the screening scales for diagnoses of ADHD and ODD are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-09-19T11:51:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119876023
       
  • The Structure, Measurement Invariance, and External Validity of the
           Barratt Impulsiveness Scale–Brief in a Sample of At-Risk Adolescents
    • Authors: Nora E. Charles, Paula N. Floyd, Christopher T. Barry
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure and measurement invariance of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale–Brief version (BIS-Brief) in an archival sample of 315 adolescents (81% male; 63.5% Caucasian; Mage = 16.7 years) participating in a military-style residential program for at-risk youths. Additionally, correlations between BIS scores and external measures of impulsivity-related behaviors were examined. Results showed support for a previously described two-dimensional structure for the BIS-Brief, which was invariant across racial groups. Additionally, the BIS-Brief performed similarly to the total BIS-11 score in relation to external measures of impulsivity-related behaviors. However, the two dimensions exhibited some significant differences in their associations with other measures. This study supports the utility of the BIS-Brief as a brief measure of impulsivity and suggests that the dimensions of the BIS-Brief may be useful in distinguishing how different aspects of impulsivity relate to problem behaviors such as binge drinking and self-injury.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-09-14T11:48:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119872259
       
  • The Development and Validation of the Compassion Scale
    • Authors: Elizabeth Pommier, Kristin D. Neff, István Tóth-Király
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents a measure of compassion for others called the Compassion Scale (CS), which is based on Neff’s theoretical model of self-compassion. Compassion was operationalized as experiencing kindness, a sense of common humanity, mindfulness, and lessened indifference toward the suffering of others. Study 1 (n = 465) describes the development of potential scale items and the final 16 CS items chosen based on results from analyses using bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling. Study 2 (n = 510) cross-validates the CS in a second student sample. Study 3 (n = 80) establishes test–retest reliability. Study 4 (n = 1,394) replicates results with a community sample, while Study 5 (n = 172) replicates results with a sample of meditators. Study 6 (n = 913) examines the finalized version of the CS in a community sample. Evidence regarding reliability, discriminant, convergent, construct, and known-groups validity for the CS is provided.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-09-13T12:21:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119874108
       
  • Insight Into Individual Differences in Emotion Dynamics With Clustering
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Anja F. Ernst, Marieke E. Timmerman, Bertus F. Jeronimus, Casper J. Albers
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Studying emotion dynamics through time series models is becoming increasingly popular in the social sciences. Across individuals, dynamics can be rather heterogeneous. To enable comparisons and generalizations of dynamics across groups of individuals, one needs sophisticated tools that express the essential similarities and differences. A way to proceed is to identify subgroups of people who are characterized by qualitatively similar emotion dynamics through dynamic clustering. So far, these methods assume equal generating processes for individuals per cluster. To avoid this overly restrictive assumption, we outline a probabilistic clustering approach based on a mixture model that clusters on individuals’ vector autoregressive coefficients. We evaluate the performance of the method and compare it with a nonprobabilistic method in a simulation study. The usefulness of the methods is illustrated using 366 ecological momentary assessment time series with external measures of depression and anxiety.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-09-13T12:19:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119873714
       
  • Comparing the Boston Naming Test With the Neuropsychological Assessment
           
    • Authors: January Durant, Jody-Lynn Berg, Sarah J. Banks, Jaeson Kaylegian, Justin B. Miller
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Boston Naming Test–Second edition (BNT-2) and the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery–Naming (NAB-N) subtest are two commonly used confrontation naming tests used to evaluate word-finding ability in individuals suspected of neurodegenerative disease. The BNT-2 and NAB-N are designed to measure the same construct; however, observations in practice suggest these two tests provide divergent estimates of naming ability. This study sought to systematically investigate the level of agreement between performance on the BNT-2 and NAB-N. Records from 105 consecutive referrals seen for neuropsychological evaluation as part of routine care in an outpatient memory disorders clinic were reviewed. Discrepancy scores, concordance correlation coefficients, and root mean squared differences were calculated between demographically adjusted T-scores on the BNT-2 and NAB-N. Results indicated that estimates of word finding ability generated by the BNT-2 and NAB-N have a strong linear relationship but systematically generate scores that are inconsistent. Despite similar task demands, the BNT-2 and NAB-N provide different information about naming ability and further research is needed to understand these differences and inform clinicians on interpreting the naming estimates provided by each test.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-09-13T12:18:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119872253
       
  • Projected Retained Ability Score (PRAS): A New Methodology for Quantifying
           Absolute Change in Norm-Based Psychological Test Scores Over Time

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: William G. Kronenberger, Magdalena Harrington, Karen S. Yee
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      A limitation of norm-based ability test scores is that they can only be used to evaluate relative change (compared with change in the norm sample), as opposed to absolute (raw) change in performance from Time 1 to Time 2. To address this limitation, a novel method (Projected Retained Ability Score [PRAS]) was developed to characterize absolute change in norm-based ability test scores. The PRAS method was applied to Differential Ability Scales®–Second Edition (DAS-II) General Conceptual Ability (GCA) scores in three cases of children with the neurodegenerative condition mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) who were assessed at two visits, 16 to 23 months apart. Although all three cases showed declines in norm-based GCA scores, the PRAS method revealed differences in absolute change in performance. The PRAS method allows for differentiation of slower-than-average improvement or stabilization versus deterioration of cognitive ability when norm-based scores decline from Time 1 to Time 2.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-09-13T12:17:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119872250
       
  • Monte Carlo Modeling of Contemporary Intelligence Test (IQ) Factor
           Structure: Implications for IQ Assessment, Interpretation, and Theory
    • Authors: Stefan C. Dombrowski, Ryan J. McGill, Grant B. Morgan
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers continue to debate the constructs measured by commercial ability tests. Factor analytic investigations of these measures have been used to develop and refine widely adopted psychometric theories of intelligence particularly the Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) model. Even so, this linkage may be problematic as many of these investigations examine a particular instrument in isolation and CHC model specification across tests and research teams has not been consistent. To address these concerns, the present study used Monte Carlo resampling to investigate the latent structure of four of the most widely used intelligence tests for children and adolescents. The results located the approximate existence of the publisher posited CHC theoretical group factors in the Differential Abilities Scales–Second edition and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children–Second edition but not in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth edition or the Woodcock–Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Instead, the results supported alternative conceptualizations from independent factor analytic research. Additionally, whereas a bifactor model produced superior fit indices in two instruments (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth edition and Woodcock–Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities), a higher order structure was found to be superior in the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children–Second edition and the Differential Abilities Scales–Second edition. Regardless of the model employed, the general factor captured a significant portion of each instrument’s variance. Implications for IQ test assessment, interpretation, and theory are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-08-21T05:17:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119869828
       
  • Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS): Validation in a
           Large Multisite College Sample
    • Authors: Jaclyn M. Kamradt, Molly A. Nikolas, G. Leonard Burns, Annie A Garner, Matthew A. Jarrett, Aaron M. Luebbe, Stephen P. Becker
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the importance of daily life executive functioning (EF) for college students’ success, few measures exist that have been validated in college students specifically. This study examined the factor structure of the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS) in college students. Participants were 1,311 students (ages 18-28 years, 65% female) from five universities in the United States. Additionally, the study examined invariance across sex, age, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Exploratory structural equation modeling provided strong support for the BDEFS five-factor structure though some items had high cross-loadings on multiple factors. Findings generally supported invariance across sex and age; however, loadings, thresholds, and factor means differed based on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Stronger support for invariance across sex emerged for a reduced item version that eliminated cross-loading items. Overall, findings provide support for the validity and utility of the BDEFS in college students.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-08-21T05:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119869823
       
  • When Hindsight Is Not 20/20: Ecological Momentary Assessment of PTSD
           Symptoms Versus Retrospective Report
    • Authors: Keke Schuler, Camilo J. Ruggero, Brittain Mahaffey, Adam Gonzalez, Jennifer L. Callahan, Adriel Boals, Monika A. Waszczuk, Benjamin J. Luft, Roman Kotov
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has relied almost exclusively on retrospective memory of symptoms, sometimes over long intervals. This approach creates potential for recall bias and obscures the extent to which symptoms fluctuate. The aim of the present study was to examine the discrepancy between retrospective self-reporting of PTSD symptoms and ecological momentary assessment (EMA), which captures symptoms closer to when they occur. The study also sought to estimate the degree to which PTSD symptoms vary or are stable in the short-term. World Trade Center responders (N = 202) oversampled for current PTSD (19.3% met criteria in past month) were assessed three times a day for 7 consecutive days. Retrospective assessment of past week symptoms at the end of the reporting period were compared with daily EMA reports. There was correspondence between two approaches, but retrospective reports most closely reflected symptom severity on the worst day of the reporting period rather than average severity across the week. Symptoms varied significantly, even within the span of hours. Findings support intervention research efforts focused on exploiting significant, short-term variability of PTSD symptoms, and suggest that traditional assessments most reflect the worst day of symptoms over a given period of recall.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-08-17T08:50:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119869826
       
  • The Positive Valence Systems Scale: Development and Validation
    • Authors: Gabriela Kattan Khazanov, Ayelet Meron Ruscio, Courtney N. Forbes
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      We present the Positive Valence Systems Scale (PVSS), a measure of the National Institute of Mental Health’s Research Domain Criteria Positive Valence Systems domain. An initial long form of the scale (45 items) providing a broad assessment of the domain was distilled into a short form (21 items) measuring responses to a wide range of rewards (Food, Physical Touch, Outdoors, Positive Feedback, Social Interactions, Hobbies, and Goals). Across three diverse samples, the PVSS-21 demonstrated strong internal consistency, retest reliability, and factorial validity. It was more strongly related to reward than punishment sensitivity, positive than negative affect, and depression than anxiety. PVSS-21 scores discriminated depressed from nondepressed individuals and predicted anhedonia severity even when controlling for depression status. Hobbies emerged as the strongest predictor of clinical outcomes and the best differentiator of depressed and nondepressed individuals. Results highlight the potential of the PVSS for advancing understanding of reward-related abnormalities in depression and other disorders.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-08-16T07:10:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119869836
       
  • The Reliability of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Clinical Practice
    • Authors: Bruno Kopp, Florian Lange, Alexander Steinke
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) represents the gold standard for the neuropsychological assessment of executive function. However, very little is known about its reliability. In the current study, 146 neurological inpatients received the Modified WCST (M-WCST). Four basic measures (number of correct sorts, categories, perseverative errors, set-loss errors) and their composites were evaluated for split-half reliability. The reliability estimates of the number of correct sorts, categories, and perseverative errors fell into the desirable range (rel ≥ .90). The study therefore disclosed sufficiently reliable M-WCST measures, fostering the application of this eminent psychological test to neuropsychological assessment. Our data also revealed that the M-WCST possesses substantially better psychometric properties than would be expected from previous studies of WCST test-retest reliabilities obtained from non-patient samples. Our study of split-half reliabilities from discretionary construed and from randomly built M-WCST splits exemplifies a novel approach to the psychometric foundation of neuropsychology.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-08-03T05:28:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119866257
       
  • The Association Between the Number of Neuropsychological Measures and the
           Base Rate of Low Scores
    • Authors: Javier Oltra-Cucarella, Miriam Sánchez-SanSegundo, María Rubio-Aparicio, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla, Rosario Ferrer-Cascales
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Obtaining one or more low scores, or scores indicative of impairment, is common in neuropsychological batteries that include several measures even among cognitively normal individuals. However, the expected number of low scores in batteries with differing number of tests is unknown. Using 10 neuropsychological measures from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center database, 1,023 permutations were calculated from a sample of 5,046 cognitively normal individuals. The number of low scores (i.e., z score ≤−1.5) varied for the same number of measures and among different number of measures and did not increase linearly as the number of measures increased. According to the number of low scores shown by fewer than 10% of the sample, cognitive impairment should be suspected for 1 or more, 2 or more, and 3 or more in batteries with up to 2 measures, 3 to 9 measures, and 10 measures, respectively. These results may increase the identification of mild cognitive impairment.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-31T10:24:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119864646
       
  • Development and Psychometric Properties of the Sussex-Oxford Compassion
           Scales (SOCS)
    • Authors: Jenny Gu, Ruth Baer, Kate Cavanagh, Willem Kuyken, Clara Strauss
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Compassion has received increasing societal and scientific interest in recent years. The science of compassion requires a tool that can offer valid and reliable measurement of the construct to allow examination of its causes, correlates, and consequences. The current studies developed and examined the psychometric properties of new self-report measures of compassion for others and for the self, the 20-item Sussex-Oxford Compassion for Others Scale (SOCS-O) and 20-item Sussex-Oxford Compassion for the Self Scale (SOCS-S). These were based on the theoretically and empirically supported definition of compassion as comprising five dimensions: (a) recognizing suffering, (b) understanding the universality of suffering, (c) feeling for the person suffering, (d) tolerating uncomfortable feelings, and (e) motivation to act/acting to alleviate suffering. Findings support the five-factor structure for both the SOCS-O and SOCS-S. Scores on both scales showed adequate internal consistency, interpretability, floor/ceiling effects, and convergent and discriminant validity.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-29T09:27:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119860911
       
  • Quantifying Behavioral Sensation Seeking With the Aroma Choice Task
    • Authors: Brandon G. Oberlin, Nolan E. Ramer, Sage M. Bates, Yitong I. Shen, Jeremy S. Myslinski, David A. Kareken, Melissa A. Cyders
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Our goal was to develop a behavioral measure of sensation seeking (SS). The Aroma Choice Task (ACT) assesses preference for an intense, novel, varied, and risky (exciting) option versus a mild, safe (boring) option using real-time odorant delivery. A total of 147 healthy young adults completed 40 binary choice trials. We examined (1) intensity and pleasantness of odorants, (2) stability of responding, (3) association with SS self-report, and (4) association with self-reported illicit drug use. Participants’ preference for the “exciting” option versus the safe option was significantly associated with self-reported SS (p < .001) and illicit drug use (p = .041). Odorant ratings comported with their intended intensity. The ACT showed good internal, convergent, and criterion validity. We propose that the ACT might permit more objective SS assessment for investigating the biological bases of psychiatric conditions marked by high SS, particularly addiction. The ACT measures SS behaviorally, mitigating some self-report challenges and enabling real-time assessment, for example, for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-27T09:14:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119864659
       
  • The Coin in Hand–Extended Version: Development and Validation of a
           Multicultural Performance Validity Test
    • Authors: Julia C. Daugherty, Luis Querido, Nathalia Quiroz, Diana Wang, Natalia Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Sandra Fernandes, Miguel Pérez-García, Carlos Jose De los Reyes-Aragon, Rute Pires, Eve Valera
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The number of computerized and reliable performance validity tests are scarce. This study aims to address this issue by validating a free and computerized performance validity test: the Coin in Hand–Extended Version (CIH-EV). The CIH-EV test was administered in four countries (Colombia, Spain, Portugal, and the United States) and performance was compared with other commonly used validated tests. Results showed that the CIH-EV has at least 95% specificity and 62% sensitivity, and performance was highly correlated with scores on the Test of Memory Malingering, Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and Digit Span of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. There were no significant differences in scores across countries, suggesting that the CIH-EV performs similarly in a variety of cultures. Our findings suggest that the CIH-EV has the potential to serve as a valid validity test either alone or as a supplement to other commonly used validity tests.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-26T09:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119864652
       
  • Construction and Validation of the Interpersonal Influence Tactics
           Circumplex (IIT-C) Scales
    • Authors: Chloe F. Bliton, Aaron L. Pincus
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Assessment of interpersonal dispositions (e.g., traits, problems) commonly employs self- and informant-report measures that conform to the two-dimensional interpersonal circumplex (IPC) model. Here, we adopted the IPC and interpersonal theory as a framework for mapping the universe of content of interpersonal influence. Although there are existing measures of influence tactics used in influence research, this literature is divided among disciplines with varying construct definitions and no unifying theory. Here, we define interpersonal influence as the conscious maneuvering of one’s behavior to engender desired responses from others in interpersonal situations. The current article details the construction and validation of the Interpersonal Influence Tactics Circumplex (IIT-C) Scales in two samples (Ns = 862, 608). The 64-item IIT-C assesses a comprehensive taxonomy of interpersonal influence tactics conforming to the structure of the IPC. Circumplex structure of the IIT-C was confirmed and replicated. Using the structural summary method for circumplex data, associations with other IPC measures, existing measures of influence, normal personality traits, and pathological personality traits supported the validity of IIT-C scores. The IIT-C assesses a theoretically based and empirically derived set of interpersonal influence tactics and provides a common language for integrating distinct streams of influence research by conforming to the IPC.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-25T09:15:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119864661
       
  • Using the Short Form of the MSBS to Assess State Boredom Among
           Adolescents: Psychometric Evidence by Applying Item Response Theory
    • Authors: Maria Anna Donati, Elisa Borace, Edoardo Franchi, Caterina Primi
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Multidimensional State Boredom Scale (MSBS) is widely used, but evidence regarding its psychometric properties among adolescents is lacking. In particular, the functioning of the scale across genders is unknown. As a result, we used item response theory (IRT) to investigate gender invariance of the Short Form of the MSBS (MSBS-SF) among adolescents. Four hundred and sixty-six Italian high school students (51% male; M = 16.7, SD = 1.44) were recruited. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the unidimensionality of the scale, and IRT analyses indicated that the scale was sufficiently informative. Differential item functioning (DIF) across genders showed that only one item had DIF that was both nonuniform and small in size. Additionally, relationships with negative/positive urgency and present/future-oriented time perspectives were found. Overall, this study offers evidence that the MSBS-SF is a valuable and useful scale for measuring state boredom among male and female adolescents.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-25T09:14:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119864655
       
  • Psychometric Properties of the Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ) and of
           the Body Checking Cognitions Scale (BCCS): A Bifactor-Exploratory
           Structural Equation Modeling Approach
    • Authors: Christophe Maïano, Alexandre J. S. Morin, Annie Aimé, Geneviève Lepage, Stéphane Bouchard
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This research sought to assess the psychometric properties of the French versions of the Body Checking Questionnaire and the Body Checking Cognitions Scale among community samples. A total sample of 922 adolescents and adults was involved in a series of two studies. The results from the first study supported factor validity and reliability of responses obtained on these two measures, and showed that both measures were best represented by a bifactor-exploratory structural equation modeling representation of the data. The results from the second study replicated these conclusions, while also supporting the measurement invariance of the bifactor-exploratory structural equation modeling solution and the equivalence of the correlations among the two measures (i.e., convergent validity) across samples. This second study also supported the criterion-related validity of ratings on both measures with measures of global self-esteem, physical appearance, social physique anxiety, fear of negative appearance evaluation, and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors. Finally, the results of this last study also supported the measurement invariance and lack of differential item functioning of both measures in relation to sex, age, diagnosis of eating disorders, and body mass index.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-22T06:56:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119858411
       
  • The Value of Physical Symptoms in Screening For Posttraumatic Stress
           Disorder in the Military
    • Authors: Kristin Graham, Amelia Searle, Miranda Van Hooff, Ellie Lawrence-Wood, Alexander McFarlane
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Physical symptoms are highly comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As PTSD is underdiagnosed, this study explored the value of self-reported physical symptoms in screening for 30-day PTSD in military personnel. Two physical symptom scales were constructed using items from a 67-item health symptom checklist, clinical interviews were used as the diagnostic reference standard, and diagnostic utility of physical symptoms was compared with the current gold standard screen, the PTSD checklist (PCL). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that both a 9-item and a 10-item physical symptom scale were of value in predicting PTSD (areas under the curve 0.81 and 0.85). Importantly, two thirds of PTSD positive personnel missed by the PCL were captured with physical symptoms scales, and when physical symptoms were added to the PCL, prediction was improved (areas under the curve 0.90 to 0.92). Our findings highlight the value of including assessing physical symptoms in PTSD screening.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-22T06:56:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119864662
       
  • Assessing Appetitive Traits Among Chinese Young Adults Using the Adult
           Eating Behavior Questionnaire: Factor Structure, Gender Invariance and
           Latent Mean Differences, and Associations With BMI
    • Authors: Jinbo He, Shengyan Sun, Hana F. Zickgraf, Jordan M. Ellis, Xitao Fan
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examined the factor structure, measurement reliability, measurement invariance across genders, and latent gender mean differences, of a new Chinese translation of the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (C-AEBQ) in a Chinese young adult sample (n = 1,068, 52.57% women). The associations between the appetitive traits assessed by the AEBQ and body mass index were also explored. The previously established eight-factor model of the AEBQ was supported in the present sample. The C-AEBQ had strong measurement invariance between genders. Cronbach’s alpha estimates of the eight subscales of the C-AEBQ ranged from 0.76 to 0.97, and the test–retest reliability coefficients of the subscales ranged from 0.50 to 0.77. The C-AEBQ had adequate convergent and divergent validity, as supported by the theoretically expected correlations between C-AEBQ and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Furthermore, Satiety Responsiveness, Slowness in Eating, and Food Fussiness were inversely associated with body mass index. Overall, the C-AEBQ appears to be a psychometrically sound instrument as a comprehensive measure for appetitive traits for Chinese young adults.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-22T06:55:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119864642
       
  • Components of the Triarchic Model of Psychopathy and the Five-Factor Model
           Domains Share Largely Overlapping Nomological Networks
    • Authors: Courtland S. Hyatt, Michael L. Crowe, Donald R. Lynam, Joshua D. Miller
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The triarchic model of psychopathy is a recently developed model of psychopathy that identifies three primary domains: Boldness, Meanness, and Disinhibition. These traits overlap substantially with general and pathological five-factor model of personality (Boldness = low Neuroticism + high Extraversion; Meanness = low Agreeableness; Disinhibition = low Conscientiousness). In the current study (total N = 1,266), we compare domains from the triarchic model of psychopathy and five-factor model in relation to self- and informant-report of external criteria (e.g., pathological traits, antisocial behavior), and quantified their absolute similarity using a profile-matching approach. The corresponding traits from these models show large interrelations and very similar convergent and divergent relations, suggesting that unaltered traits from one can be considered excellent representations of the other. Results are discussed in terms of the benefits of using a unifying trait-based model to study psychopathy, as well as personality disorders more broadly.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-13T10:19:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119860903
       
  • Measurement Invariance and Sex and Age Differences of the Big Five
           Inventory–2: Evidence From the Russian Version
    • Authors: Sergei Shchebetenko, Aleksey Y. Kalugin, Arina M. Mishkevich, Christopher J. Soto, Oliver P. John
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Big Five Inventory–2 (BFI-2) is a recently published 60-item questionnaire that measures personality traits within the five-factor model framework. An important aspect of the BFI-2 is that it measures the traits at both the domain and facet levels and also controls acquiescence bias via the balanced number of true- and false-keyed items across the domains and facets. The current research evaluates factorial measurement invariance of a Russian version of the BFI-2 across sex and age within samples of 1,024 university students (Study 1) and 1,029 Internet users (Study 2). Across these samples, men scored lower on the domains of negative emotionality and agreeableness and slightly higher on extraversion. Sex differences were also obtained on various facets. In the Internet sample, age correlated modestly with several Big Five domains in accordance with the well-documented maturity principle. The newly developed Russian version of BFI-2 showed good reliability and validity across both samples. Moreover, random intercept exploratory factor analyses showed that the BFI-2 displayed a hierarchical five-domain-15-facet structure that demonstrated strict measurement invariance across sex and age.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-09T11:43:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119860901
       
  • Validation of a Brief Self-Report Measure of Adolescent Bullying
           Perpetration and Victimization
    • Authors: Aja Louise Murray, Manuel Eisner, Denis Ribeaud, Daniela Kaiser, Karen McKenzie, George Murray
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Although a wide range of measures of bullying have been developed, there remains a need for brief psychometrically supported measures for use in contexts in which there are constraints on the number of items that can be administered. We thus evaluated the reliability and validity of scores from a 10-item self-report measure of bullying victimization and perpetration in adolescents: the Zurich Brief Bullying Scales. The measure covers social exclusion, property destruction, verbal and physical aggression, and sexual bullying in both traditional and cyber forms. We evaluated factorial validity, internal consistency, developmental invariance, gender invariance, and convergent and divergent validity of the measure. Our sample was the normative longitudinal Zurich Project on Social Development from Childhood to Adulthood (z-proso) sample (N = 1,304). The study involved the administration of Zurich Brief Bullying Scales to participants aged 11, 13, 15, and 17 years. Strengths and weaknesses of the measure and recommendations for utilizing and improving the measure were identified. Overall, results suggest that the items provide a reasonable general but brief measure of bullying victimization and perpetration that can be used across early to late adolescence and in both males and females.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-08T05:02:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119858406
       
  • Psychometric Properties of Two Brief Versions of the Hopkins Symptom
           Checklist: HSCL-5 and HSCL-10
    • Authors: Bjarne Schmalbach, Markus Zenger, Ana Nanette Tibubos, Sören Kliem, Katja Petrowski, Elmar Brähler
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Hopkins Symptom Checklist–25 (HSCL-25) is a widely applied measure of depression and anxiety. The present study examines two of its short forms—the HSCL-5 and HSCL-10, which have been proposed by previous research—in a representative sample of the German general population. To this end, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory analysis on two subsamples (n = 1,246 and n = 1,216). Our results suggest that, compared with the HSCL-25, both short forms represent economical ways of assessing depression and anxiety. Model fit was good and correlations with established measures demonstrate convergent validity. Both HSCL short forms are strongly invariant across sex, and we found evidence for partial strong invariance across age groups. Further analyses showed that differences in HSCL can be partially explained by sociodemographic variables. Finally, we report normative values for usage by researchers and clinicians. We recommend the HSCL-5 and HSCL-10 for clinical and research-oriented application.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-05T06:37:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119860910
       
  • The Narcissistic Grandiosity Scale: A Measure to Distinguish Narcissistic
           Grandiosity From High Self-Esteem
    • Authors: Seth A. Rosenthal, Jill M. Hooley, R. Matthew Montoya, Sander L. van der Linden, Yulia Steshenko
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Measures of self-esteem frequently conflate two independent constructs: high self-esteem (a normative positive sense of self) and narcissistic grandiosity (a nonnormative sense of superiority). Confusion stems from the inability of self-report self-esteem scales to adequately distinguish between high self-esteem and narcissistic grandiosity. The Narcissistic Grandiosity Scale (NGS) was developed to clarify this distinction by providing a measure of narcissistic grandiosity. In this research, we refined the NGS and demonstrated that NGS scores exhibit good convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity relative to scores on theoretically relevant measures. NGS scores, when used as simultaneous predictors with scores on a self-esteem measure, related more strongly to phenomena linked to narcissistic grandiosity (e.g., competitiveness, overestimating one’s attractiveness, lack of shame), whereas self-esteem scores related more strongly to phenomena crucial to individuals’ well-being (e.g., higher levels of optimism and satisfaction with life, and lower levels of depression, worthlessness, and hostility). The NGS provides researchers with a measure to help clarify the distinctions between narcissistic grandiosity and high self-esteem, as well as other facets of narcissism, both in theory and as predictors of important real-life characteristics.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-03T12:25:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119858410
       
  • Circular Modelling of Circumplex Measurements for Interpersonal Behavior
    • Authors: Jolien Cremers, Helena J. M. Pennings, Tim Mainhard, Irene Klugkist
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This article describes a new way to analyze data from the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) for interpersonal behavior. Instead of analyzing Agency and Communion separately or analyzing the IPC’s octants, we propose using a circular regression model that allows us to investigate effects on a blend of Agency and Communion. The proposed circular model is called a projected normal (PN) model. We illustrate the use of a PN mixed-effects model on three repeated measures data sets with circumplex measurements from interpersonal and educational psychology. This model allows us to detect different types of patterns in the data and provides a more valid analysis of circumplex data. In addition to being able to investigate the effect on the location (mean) of scores on the IPC, we can also investigate effects on the spread (variance) of scores on the IPC. We also introduce new tools that help interpret the fixed and random effects of PN models.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-01T10:22:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119858407
       
  • Validity Aspects of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)
           
    • Authors: Jorien Vugteveen, Annelies de Bildt, Meinou Theunissen, Menno Reijneveld, Marieke Timmerman
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, validity aspects of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) self-report and parent-report versions were assessed among Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (community sample: n = 962, clinical sample: n = 4,053). The findings mostly support the continued use of both SDQ versions in screening for psychosocial problems as (a) exploratory structural equation analyses partially supported the grouping of items into five scales; (b) investigation of associations between scales of the SDQ and the Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report, and Intelligence Development Scales-2 provided evidence for the SDQ versions’ convergent and divergent validity; and (c) receiver operating characteristics curves yielded evidence for both SDQ versions’ criterion validity by showing that these questionnaires can be used to screen for psychosocial problems, except for the adolescent-reported version for males. Regardless of the adolescent’s gender, the receiver operating characteristics curves showed both SDQ versions to be useful for screening for three specific types of problems: anxiety/mood disorder, conduct/oppositional deviant disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Additionally, parent-rated SDQ scores were found to be useful for screening for autism spectrum disorder.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-07-01T10:20:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119858416
       
  • Measurement Invariance of the ADHD Rating Scale–IV Home and School
           Versions Across Age, Gender, Clinical Status, and Informant
    • Authors: Anca Dobrean, Costina-Ruxandra Păsărelu, Robert Balazsi, Elena Predescu
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aimed to investigate the measurement invariance across age, gender, clinical status, and informant of the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale–IV (ADHD-RS-IV) Home and School versions. The participants were 1,106 Romanian children and adolescents (mean age = 12.74 years, standard deviation = 2.84, age range 6-18 years). Both parents and teachers assessed ADHD symptoms. The factorial structure of the scale was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis, and measurement invariance was assessed using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. The results supported the reliability of the ADHD-RS-IV, with high internal consistency coefficients for both versions. Confirmatory factor analysis validated a two-factor model. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the measurement invariance of ADHD-RS-IV across age, gender, clinical status, and informant. ADHD-RS-IV had good psychometric properties in a sample of Romanian children and adolescents. It is a reliable instrument given its strong invariance. Implications for evidence-based assessment of ADHD are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-06-29T06:08:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119858421
       
  • Item Responses in Quantity–Frequency Questionnaires: Implications
           for Data Generalizability
    • Authors: Jordan E. Stevens, Emilie Shireman, Douglas Steinley, Thomas M. Piasecki, Daniel Vinson, Kenneth J. Sher
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Alcohol consumption is an important predictor of a variety of negative outcomes. There is an extensive literature that examines the differences in the estimated level of alcohol consumption between types of assessments (e.g., quantity–frequency [QF] questionnaires, daily diaries). However, it is typically assumed that all QF-based measures are nearly identical in their assessment of the volume of alcohol consumption in a population. Using timeline follow-back data and constructing common QF consumption measures, we examined differences among survey instruments to assess alcohol consumption and heavy drinking. Using three data sets, including clinical to community samples, we demonstrate how scale-specific item characteristics (i.e., number of response options and ranges of consumption assessed by each option) can substantially affect the estimated mean level of consumption and estimated prevalence of binge drinking. Our analyses suggest that problems can be mitigated by employing more resolved measures of quantity and frequency in consumption questionnaires.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-06-26T05:49:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119858398
       
  • A Psychometric Analysis of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents Among
           Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Caregiver–Adolescent Agreement,
           Factor Structure, and Validity
    • Authors: Hillary K. Schiltz, Brooke E. Magnus, Alana J. McVey, Angela D. Haendel, Bridget K. Dolan, Rachel E. Stanley, Kirsten A. Willar, Sheryl J. Pleiss, Audrey M. Carson, Mary Carlson, Christina Murphy, Elisabeth M. Vogt, Brianna D. Yund, Amy Vaughan Van Hecke
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-06-05T11:20:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119851563
       
  • Positive and Negative Activation in the Mood Disorder Questionnaire:
           Associations With Psychopathology and Emotion Dysregulation in a Clinical
           Sample
    • Authors: Ryan W. Carpenter, Kasey Stanton, Noah N. Emery, Mark Zimmerman
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-05-29T07:17:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119851574
       
  • The Interpersonal Transaction Scales–8 (ITS-8): A Circumplex-Based,
           Behaviorally Anchored Instrument Based on the CLOIT-R
    • Authors: Pamela Sadler, Ashley P. Howard, Ivana Lizdek, Erik Woody
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-05-29T07:13:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119851565
       
  • Assessing Callous–Unemotional Traits in 6- to 18-Year-Olds: Reliability,
           Validity, Factor Structure, and Norms of the German Version of the
           Inventory of Callous–Unemotional Traits
    • Authors: Kathrin Ueno, Katharina Ackermann, Christine M. Freitag, Christina Schwenck
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-05-17T06:27:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119847766
       
  • Assessing Individual Differences in the Affective Experience of Dreams:
           The Jena Dream Inventory–Affect Scales (JeDI-A)
    • Authors: Birk Hagemeyer, Sarah Salomo, Cordelia Engelhardt, Franz J. Neyer, Sven Rupprecht
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-05-10T06:22:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119847767
       
  • Refining the Parenting Stress Index–Short Form (PSI-SF) in Chinese
           Parents
    • Authors: Jie Luo, Meng-Cheng Wang, Yu Gao, Hong Zeng, Wendeng Yang, Wei Chen, Shouying Zhao, Shisan Qi
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-05-10T06:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119847757
       
  • Measurement Invariance Across Gender on the Second-Order Five-Factor Model
           of the German Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth Edition
    • Authors: Franz Pauls, Monika Daseking, Franz Petermann
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-05-09T05:18:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119847762
       
  • Allowing for Nondisclosure in High Suicide Risk Groups
    • Authors: Matthew C. Podlogar, Thomas E. Joiner
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-05-04T04:25:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119845495
       
  • Exploratory Factor Analyses of the Intelligence and Development
           Scales–2: Implications for Theory and Practice
    • Authors: Silvia Grieder, Alexander Grob
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-04-26T05:42:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119845051
       
  • Further Validation of the Inventory of Callous–Unemotional Traits in
           
    • Authors: Meng-Cheng Wang, Yiyun Shou, Jinghui Liang, Hongyu Lai, Hong Zeng, Lina Chen, Yu Gao
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-04-25T07:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119845052
       
  • On the Validity of Forced Choice Scores Derived From the Thurstonian Item
           Response Theory Model
    • Authors: Kate E. Walton, Lina Cherkasova, Richard D. Roberts
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-04-22T05:55:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119843585
       
  • Factor-Analytic Evidence for the Complexity of the Delis–Kaplan
           Executive Function System (D-KEFS)
    • Authors: Dennis J. McFarland
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-04-17T06:15:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119843584
       
  • Psychometric Properties and Measurement Invariance Across Gender and
           Age-Group of the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire–Children (PTQ-C)
           in Colombia
    • Authors: Francisco J. Ruiz, Daniela M. Salazar, Juan C. Suárez-Falcón, Andrés Peña-Vargas, Thomas Ehring, María L. Barreto-Zambrano, María P. Gómez-Barreto
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-04-17T06:14:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119843580
       
  • The Validity of the SNAP-IV in Children Displaying ADHD Symptoms
    • Authors: Charlotte L. Hall, Boliang Guo, Althea Z. Valentine, Madeline J. Groom, David Daley, Kapil Sayal, Chris Hollis
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-04-17T06:13:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119842255
       
  • Development of a Novel Method of Emotion Differentiation That Uses
           Open-Ended Descriptions of Momentary Affective States

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Charlotte Ottenstein, Tanja Lischetzke
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-04-05T06:03:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119839138
       
  • Quantifying Dispositional Fear as Threat Sensitivity: Development and
           Initial Validation of a Model-Based Scale Measure
    • Authors: Mark D. Kramer, Christopher J. Patrick, John M. Hettema, Ashlee A. Moore, Chelsea K. Sawyers, James R. Yancey
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-04-05T06:01:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119837613
       
  • Structure of ADHD/ODD Symptoms in Spanish Preschool Children: Dangers of
           Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Evaluation of Rating Scales
    • Authors: Jonatan Molina, Mateu Servera, G. Leonard Burns
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T06:41:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119839140
       
  • Multicultural Validation of the Zuckerman–Kuhlman–Aluja Personality
           Questionnaire Shortened Form (ZKA-PQ/SF) Across 18 Countries
    • Authors: Anton Aluja, Jérôme Rossier, Barry Oumar, Luis. F. García, Tarek Bellaj, Fritz Ostendorf, Willibald Ruch, Wei Wang, Zsuzsanna Kövi, Dawid Ścigała, Đorđe Čekrlija, Adam W. Stivers, Lisa Di Blas, Mauricio Valdivia, Sonia Ben Jemaa, Kokou A. Atitsogbe, Michel Hansenne, Joseph Glicksohn
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-03-18T06:30:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119831770
       
  • Using Harter and Likert Response Formats in Middle Childhood: A Comparison
           of Attachment Measures
    • Authors: Tatiana Marci, Ughetta Moscardino, Francesca Lionetti, Alessandra Santona, Gianmarco Altoé
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-03-15T10:48:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119836497
       
  • An Analysis of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment
           Schedule 2.0 Measurement Model Using Partial Least Squares–Structural
           Equation Modeling
    • Authors: Saundra M. Tabet, Glenn W. Lambie, Shiva Jahani, S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-03-15T10:47:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119834653
       
  • Comparing Scores From Full Length, Short Form, and Adaptive Tests of the
           Social Interaction Anxiety and Social Phobia Scales
    • Authors: Matthew Sunderland, Mohammad H. Afzali, Philip J. Batterham, Alison L. Calear, Natacha Carragher, Megan Hobbs, Alison Mahoney, Lorna Peters, Tim Slade
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-03-15T10:46:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119832657
       
  • Selecting Tetradic Short Forms of the Taiwan Wechsler Adult Intelligence
           Scale IV
    • Authors: Hsinyi Chen, Mau-Sun Hua
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-03-11T05:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119831787
       
  • Assessing Psychopathic Traits Among Children: The First Validation Study
           of the Child Problematic Traits Inventory in a Clinical Sample
    • Authors: Olivier F. Colins, Peter J. Roetman, Laura Lopez-Romero, Henrik Andershed
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-03-08T06:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119832654
       
  • Validation of the Intention Attribution Test for Children (IAC)
    • Authors: Stéphanie Vanwalleghem, Raphaële Miljkovitch, Alyssa Counsell, Leslie Atkinson, Annie Vinter
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-03-05T08:35:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119831781
       
  • Measurement Invariance of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale Across Age
           and Sex Across the Adult Life Span
    • Authors: Evangelia Argyriou, Miji Um, Wei Wu, Melissa A. Cyders
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-03-02T10:56:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119832660
       
  • Determining at What Age Children Provide Sound Self-Reports: An
           Illustration of the Validity-Index Approach
    • Authors: Judith M. Conijn, Niels Smits, Esther E. Hartman
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-03-02T10:55:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119832655
       
  • The Psychology of Smartphone: The Development of the Smartphone Impact
           Scale (SIS)
    • Authors: Luca Pancani, Emanuele Preti, Paolo Riva
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-03-02T10:54:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119831788
       
  • Memory for familiar locations: The impact of age, education and cognitive
           efficiency on two neuropsychological allocentric tasks
    • Authors: Antonella Lopez, Alessandro O. Caffò, Andrea Bosco
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-03-01T06:12:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119831780
       
  • Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Resilience Scale for
           Adolescents (READ)
    • Authors: Kristin Gärtner Askeland, Mari Hysing, Børge Sivertsen, Kyrre Breivik
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-03-01T06:10:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119832659
       
  • The Emotional Approach Coping Scales in Chinese: Validation, Psychometric
           Properties, and Measurement Invariance
    • Authors: Pui San Tse, Sharon Rae Jenkins, Chiachih DC Wang, David Andrés González
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-03-01T06:08:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119832662
       
  • Factor Structure of the Early Adolescent Temperament
           Questionnaire–Revised
    • Authors: Melissa D. Latham, Paul Dudgeon, Marie B. H. Yap, Julian G. Simmons, Michelle L. Byrne, Orli S. Schwartz, Elizabeth Ivie, Sarah Whittle, Nicholas B. Allen
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-02-21T11:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119831789
       
  • The Integration of EMA and Single-Occasion Multimethod Assessment Data for
           a Complex Psychiatric Patient
    • Authors: Katie C. Lewis, Jeremy M. Ridenour
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-01-25T06:29:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191118825313
       
  • The Development and Validation of an Online Spatial Network Measure
    • Authors: Bao Sheng Loe
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-01-24T05:35:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191118824662
       
  • The Personality Assessment Inventory Alcohol Scale in Veterans With PTSD:
           Convergent and Discriminant Relations With the Alcohol Use Disorders
           Identification Test
    • Authors: Dan V. Blalock, Sarah M. Wilson, Eric A. Dedert, Carolina P. Clancy, Michael A. Hertzberg, Jean C. Beckham, Patrick S. Calhoun
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-01-24T05:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191118824661
       
  • Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20: Examining 18 Competing Factor Structure
           Solutions in a U.S. Sample and a Philippines Sample
    • Authors: Antover P. Tuliao, Alicia K. Klanecky, Bernice Vania N. Landoy, Dennis E. McChargue
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-01-21T08:57:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191118824030
       
  • The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire: Statistical Considerations for
           Improved Clinical Application
    • Authors: Sean M. Mitchell, Sarah L. Brown, Jared F. Roush, Raymond P. Tucker, Kelly C. Cukrowicz, Thomas E. Joiner
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-01-18T06:10:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191118824660
       
  • Validation of the Attention, Memory, and Frontal Abilities Screening Test
           (AMFAST)
    • Authors: Bryan M. Freilich, Nicole Feirsen, Elise I. Welton, Wenzhu B. Mowrey, Tamar B. Rubinstein
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-01-09T10:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191118822734
       
  • Applying Item Response Theory Analysis to the Montreal Cognitive
           Assessment in a Low-Education Older Population
    • Authors: Hao Luo, Björn Andersson, Jennifer Y. M. Tang, Gloria H. Y. Wong
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-01-04T10:29:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191118821733
       
  • Reexamining the Psychometric Properties of the Substance Use Risk Profile
           Scale
    • Authors: Brittany E. Blanchard, Angela K. Stevens, Kenneth J. Sher, Andrew K. Littlefield
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2019-01-02T10:19:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191118820135
       
 
 
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