Publisher: Sage Publications   (Total: 1090 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1090 Journals sorted alphabetically
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Abstracts in Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Academic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Accounting History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Radiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.754, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Radiologica Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.939, CiteScore: 2)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 362, SJR: 1.397, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 0)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 2)
Adult Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 136, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Tumor Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.108, CiteScore: 0)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Affilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
Agrarian South : J. of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Alexandria : The J. of National and Intl. Library and Information Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Allergy & Rhinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AlterNative : An Intl. J. of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Alternative Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.351, CiteScore: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Educational Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 231, SJR: 2.913, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Cosmetic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American J. of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.646, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.65, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.972, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 3.949, CiteScore: 6)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.313, CiteScore: 1)
American Review of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.062, CiteScore: 2)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 336, SJR: 6.333, CiteScore: 6)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, CiteScore: 2)
Animation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.634, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.096, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.225, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of the ICRP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.341, CiteScore: 7)
Anthropological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.635, CiteScore: 2)
Antyajaa : Indian J. of Women and Social Change     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.17, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 2)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Media Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Management Research and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 1)
Asian and Pacific Migration J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian J. of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Management Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
ASN Neuro     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.534, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.519, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.433, CiteScore: 1)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.801, CiteScore: 2)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 532, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian J. of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.497, CiteScore: 1)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 338, SJR: 1.739, CiteScore: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.877, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bible Translator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biblical Theology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Research for Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarkers in Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioscope: South Asian Screen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 3)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Neuroscience Advances     Open Access  
Breast Cancer : Basic and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.823, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Music Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
British J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 220, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Politics and Intl. Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
British J.ism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BRQ Business Review Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 1)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Business Perspectives and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cahiers Élisabéthains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
California Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.209, CiteScore: 4)
Canadian J. of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.007, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Nursing Research (CJNR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.626, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.769, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists J. / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Control     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Growth and Metastasis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.64, CiteScore: 1)
Capital and Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access  
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Cartilage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.889, CiteScore: 3)
Cell and Tissue Transplantation and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.023, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.581, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Child Maltreatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
Child Neurology Open     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
China Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Chronic Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.672, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.808, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Stress     Open Access  
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.757, CiteScore: 1)
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Translational Neuroscience     Open Access  
Clinical Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.73, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Blood Disorders     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Ear, Nose and Throat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.776, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Trauma and Intensive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Nursing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.487, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.281, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.399, CiteScore: 2)
Clothing and Textiles Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Communication and the Public     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.458, CiteScore: 1)
Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.171, CiteScore: 3)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.451, CiteScore: 1)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 264, SJR: 3.772, CiteScore: 3)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)
Competition and Regulation in Network Industries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.642, CiteScore: 2)
Conflict Management and Peace Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.441, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary Drug Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 2)
Contemporary Education Dialogue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary Review of the Middle East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Contemporary Sociology : A J. of Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Contemporary Voice of Dalit     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Contexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.519
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 17  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1073-1911 - ISSN (Online) 1552-3489
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1090 journals]
  • Psychometric Properties of a Semistructured Interview to Assess Limited
           Prosocial Emotions
    • Authors: Toni M. Walker, Paul J. Frick, Tatiana M. Matlasz, Emily L. Robertson, Amy J. Mikolajewski, Colter Mitchell, Nestor Lopez-Duran, Christopher Monk, Luke W. Hyde
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Callous-unemotional (CU) traits have recently been added to the diagnostic criteria of Conduct Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fifth edition and of conduct–dissocial and oppositional defiant disorders in the International Classification of Disease–Eleventh edition as the limited prosocial emotions specifier. This change necessitates the assessment of these traits with validated measures in both research and clinical contexts. The current study sought to validate a semi-structured diagnostic interview method, the Michigan Limited Prosocial Emotion Addendum (M-LPE) to the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children–Present and Lifetime Version, of assessing CU traits based on a recently developed clinician rating system (Clinical Assessment of Prosocial Emotions, Version 1.1) in a sample of at-risk youth. Results supported the interrater reliability of the M-LPE with moderate agreement and high reliability between raters. The M-LPE demonstrated convergent and incremental validity with CU traits and various measures of antisocial behavior. The results provide preliminary evidence for the use of a semi-structured interview assessment of CU traits in research contexts and build the foundation for further validation.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-08-10T03:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120947796
  • Toward Reduced Burden in Evidence-Based Assessment of PTSD: A Machine
           Learning Study
    • Authors: Tammy Jiang, Sunny Dutra, Daniel J. Lee, Anthony J. Rosellini, Gabrielle M. Gauthier, Terence M. Keane, Jaimie L. Gradus, Brian P. Marx
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Structured diagnostic interviews involve significant respondent burden and clinician administration time. This study examined whether we can maintain diagnostic accuracy using fewer posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment questions. Our study included 1,265 U.S. veterans of the Afghanistan and Iraq conflicts who were assessed for PTSD using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (SCID-5). We used random forests to assess the importance of each diagnostic item in predicting a SCID-5 PTSD diagnosis. We used variable importance to rank each item and removed the lowest ranking items while maintaining ≥90% accuracy (i.e., efficiency), sensitivity, and other metrics. We eliminated six diagnostic items among the overall sample, four items among male veterans, and six items among female veterans. Our findings demonstrate that we may shorten the SCID-5 PTSD module while maintaining excellent diagnostic performance. These findings have implications for potentially reducing patient and provider burden of PTSD diagnostic assessment.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-08-07T09:32:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120947797
  • A Comparison of the Validity of Very Brief Measures of the Big
           Five/Five-Factor Model of Personality
    • Authors: Chelsea E. Sleep, Donald R. Lynam, Joshua D. Miller
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Personality is of great lay, clinical, and research interest with important functional implications. The field has largely settled on five- or six-factor models as being largely sufficient for descriptive purposes, at least in W.E.I.R.D settings and, as such, numerous measures have been created of varying length and breadth. For a number of reasons, however, super-short forms have come to be quite popular in research endeavors with a number created in the past 20 years. The goal of the present study was to compare the time with completion and general psychometric properties of these measures, as well as examine their convergence with one another and with longer measures in an online community sample (N = 494). Generally, the psychometric properties of the measures varied considerably in terms of internal consistency and convergence with one another. The brief measures demonstrated mostly adequately convergence with longer measures. Despite this convergence, longer measures were found to contain considerably more variance that was not accounted for by brief measures. We consider the advantages and disadvantages of these measures and suggest that longer measures be prioritized whenever possible.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-08-07T09:31:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120939160
  • Is the Vineland-3 Comprehensive Interview Form a Multidimensional or
           Unidimensional Scale': Structural Analysis of Subdomain Scores Across
           Early Childhood to Adulthood
    • Authors: Ryan L. Farmer, Randy G. Floyd, Patrick J. McNicholas
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      As the Vineland Scales are among the most relevant, well-developed, and popular measures of adaptive behavior available for use, this study evaluated the factor structure and dimensionality of the Vineland-3 Comprehensive Interview Form. Drawing data from 2,560 participants in the norming sample, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were completed across two independent samples from four age-groups ranging from preschool-age children to adults. Results from exploratory factor analysis revealed evidence for a unidimensional model across age-groups, but results from confirmatory factor analysis indicated that multidimensional models were better fitting than unidimensional models for each age-group. Discussion focuses on whether the Vineland-3 Comprehensive Interview Form is truly a unidimensional or multidimensional measure.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-08-07T09:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120947804
  • Improving the Measurement of Functional Somatic Symptoms With Item
           Response Theory
    • Authors: Angélica Acevedo-Mesa, Jorge Nunes Tendeiro, Annelieke Roest, Judith G. M. Rosmalen, Rei Monden
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      More than 40 questionnaires have been developed to assess functional somatic symptoms (FSS), but there are several methodological issues regarding the measurement of FSS. We aimed to identify which items of the somatization subscale of the Symptom Checklist–90 (SCL-90) are more informative and discriminative between persons at different levels of severity of FSS. To this end, item response theory was applied to the somatization scale of the SCL-90, collected from a sample of 82,740 adult participants without somatic conditions in the Lifelines Cohort Study. Sensitivity analyses were performed with all the participants who completed the somatization scale. Both analyses showed that Items 11 “feeling weak physically” and 12 “heavy feelings in arms or legs” were the most discriminative and informative to measure severity levels of FSS, regardless of somatic conditions. Clinicians and researchers may pay extra attention to these symptoms to augment the assessment of FSS.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T10:24:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120947153
  • Criterion A Scales: Convergent, Discriminant, and Structural Relationships
    • Authors: Gillian A. McCabe, Joshua R. Oltmanns, Thomas A. Widiger
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The alternative model of personality disorder was created to address the apparent failings of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fourth edition–text revision personality disorder diagnostic categories and consists of Criterion A (i.e., personality functioning) and Criterion B (i.e., pathological personality traits). There are now four alternative measures of the Criterion A impairments but, perhaps surprisingly, no study has yet compared any one of them with any one of the other three. The current study assesses the convergent (and discriminant) validity of all four, as well as their structural relationship with the five-factor model (FFM), a widely accepted model for understanding the structure of normal and pathological personality traits. Exploratory structural equation modeling analyses of the Criterion A measures and FFM scales demonstrate that the Criterion A self-identity scale can be understood as a maladaptive variant of FFM neuroticism. Moreover, results indicate no appreciable discriminant validity in the assessment of the Criterion A impairments—the Criterion A scales correlated more highly within measures than across alternative measures, even when measuring the same construct. Implications of these findings for the conceptualization and assessment of Criterion A self and interpersonal impairments are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T02:25:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120947160
  • Construct Validity of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic
           Personality (CAPP): Examining the Internal Structure and Generalizability
           of CAPP Self-Ratings Across Gender and Ethnicity
    • Authors: Katherine B. Hanniball, Richard E. Hohn, Erin K. Fuller, Kevin S. Douglas
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) is a recently developed conceptual model of psychopathy designed to index the disorder across 33 personality traits. Although recent research has evidenced support for the CAPP model with respect to the convergent, criterion, and predictive validity of CAPP instruments, little work has examined the optimal internal structure and generalizability of the model and associated measures. The present study sought to elaborate on the construct validity and psychometric properties of the CAPP Lexical Self Rating Scale and determine the utility of the instrument across men and women, and individuals of Caucasian and East Asian descent. Within a large sample of self-identified offenders (N = 1,414), we found strong support for a three-factor model comprising domains reflecting interpersonal dominance, behavioral disinhibition, and deficient emotional attachment. Analyses examining the generalizability of the model provide further insight into its applicability for diverse populations.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-07-24T10:37:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120922621
  • Impulsive States and Impulsive Traits: A Study of the Multilevel Structure
           and Validity of a Multifaceted Measure of Impulsive States
    • Authors: Max A. Halvorson, Sarah L. Pedersen, Madison C. Feil, Liliana J. Lengua, Brooke S. G. Molina, Kevin M. King
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Emerging evidence suggests impulsive states may be reliably measured in the moment using ecological momentary assessment (EMA); however, research has not investigated whether the multi-factor structure of impulsive traits also characterizes impulsive states. In two independent samples spanning adolescence through young adulthood (n = 211, n = 222), we adapted global self-report measures of impulsive traits to EMA and conducted multilevel confirmatory factor analyses to characterize the within- and between-person factor structure of five impulsive traits (negative urgency, planning, persistence, sensation seeking, and positive urgency). Across both studies, factor models with one factor for each UPPS-P facet fit the data well at both levels, though some latent factors were highly correlated. Aggregated impulsive states, especially negative urgency, predicted oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, emotional problems, alcohol problems, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Our results suggest that EMA measures can capture a range of impulsive states that mirrors the heterogeneity seen in the trait literature.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-07-18T06:43:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120939161
  • Using Intensive Longitudinal Data to Identify Early Predictors of
           Suicide-Related Outcomes in High-Risk Adolescents: Practical and
           Conceptual Considerations
    • Authors: Ewa K. Czyz, Jamie R.T. Yap, Cheryl A. King, Inbal Nahum-Shani
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Mobile technology offers new possibilities for assessing suicidal ideation and behavior in real- or near-real-time. It remains unclear how intensive longitudinal data can be used to identify proximal risk and inform clinical decision making. In this study of adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N = 32, aged 13-17 years, 75% female), we illustrate the application of a three-step process to identify early signs of suicide-related crises using daily diaries. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses, we considered the utility of 12 features—constructed using means and variances of daily ratings for six risk factors over the first 2 weeks postdischarge (observations = 360)—in identifying a suicidal crisis 2 weeks later. Models derived from single risk factors had modest predictive accuracy (area under the ROC curve [AUC] 0.46-0.80) while nearly all models derived from combinations of risk factors produced higher accuracy (AUCs 0.80-0.91). Based on this illustration, we discuss implications for clinical decision making and future research.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T01:19:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120939168
  • Examining the Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Trauma
           Symptom Checklist for Children in a Diverse Sample of Trauma-Exposed
    • Authors: Nicholas M. Morelli, Damian Elson, Jacqueline B. Duong, Meghan C. Evans, Miguel T. Villodas
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) is a widely used youth assessment of broad, transdiagnostic symptomatology following trauma. However, its factor structure has not been thoroughly tested in diverse samples. Youth (N = 738) exposed to interpersonal violence, including physical and sexual abuse, completed the TSCC. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test one-, six-, and eight-factor models of the TSCC clinical scales, based on previous literature and the TSCC manual. We examined measurement invariance across boys and girls and Black and non-Black participants, as well as convergent and discriminant validity. An eight-factor structure, consisting of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, depression, anger, overt dissociation, fantasy dissociation, sexual preoccupation, and sexual distress, demonstrated the best fit, with two items removed. Invariance tests supported configural and metric (but not scalar) invariance. This research highlights the need for further testing before differences between gender and racial groups can be accurately compared.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T01:17:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120939158
  • Using an Online Platform to Administer the Single-Session Point
           Subtraction Aggression Paradigm: An Initial Examination of Feasibility and
    • Authors: Jennifer D. Ellis, Emily R. Grekin, Donald Dekeyser, Ty Partridge
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Online platforms represent a cost-effective option for data collection; however, it is unclear whether online administration of certain kinds of tasks (e.g., behavioral measures of aggression) poses validity threats. The present study provided a preliminary examination of effort (as indexed by total number of presses), differential drop-out, and believability of an online version of the single-session point subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP). Two subsamples of participants were recruited; a sample recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (n = 758) and an in-person undergraduate sample (n = 88). All participants completed the PSAP, along with measures of trait hostility and state anger. The online sample did not differ from the in-person sample on effort (i.e., total number of presses), and did not find the task less believable. Higher scores on state anger were associated with lower likelihood of beginning the online PSAP, but were not associated with prematurely closing the task. State anger was related to aggressive responding on the PSAP. Limitations of the online PSAP and considerations for future research are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-07-13T09:10:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120940042
  • Bias-Variance Trade-Off in Continuous Test Norming
    • Authors: Lieke Voncken, Casper J. Albers, Marieke E. Timmerman
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      In continuous test norming, the test score distribution is estimated as a continuous function of predictor(s). A flexible approach for norm estimation is the use of generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape. It is unknown how sensitive their estimates are to model flexibility and sample size. Generally, a flexible model that fits at the population level has smaller bias than its restricted nonfitting version, yet it has larger sampling variability. We investigated how model flexibility relates to bias, variance, and total variability in estimates of normalized z scores under empirically relevant conditions, involving the skew Student t and normal distributions as population distributions. We considered both transversal and longitudinal assumption violations. We found that models with too strict distributional assumptions yield biased estimates, whereas too flexible models yield increased variance. The skew Student t distribution, unlike the Box–Cox Power Exponential distribution, appeared problematic to estimate for normally distributed data. Recommendations for empirical norming practice are provided.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-07-13T09:10:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120939155
  • A Personality Trait-Based Network of Boredom, Spontaneous and Deliberate
    • Authors: Corinna S. Martarelli, Alex Bertrams, Wanja Wolff
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This article reports the translation into German and validation of two self-report measures of mind-wandering and boredom (the Spontaneous and Deliberate Mind-Wandering Scales and the Short Boredom Proneness Scale). Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the original conceptualization of the constructs. To evaluate measurement invariance across samples, data were collected in a German-speaking sample (n = 418) and an English-speaking sample (n = 364). The results indicated weak measurement invariance. To explore the interplay between mind-wandering and boredom, we performed an exploratory graph analysis in the entire sample (N = 782), which revealed the structure of relationships between boredom and the two facets of mind-wandering. The results are discussed in the context of theoretical accounts of boredom and mind-wandering.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-07-04T09:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120936336
  • Construct Validity of the German Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
           Children–Fifth Edition: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of
           the 15 Primary and Secondary Subtests
    • Authors: Gary L. Canivez, Silvia Grieder, Anette Buenger
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The latent factor structure of the German Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth edition (German WISC-V) was examined using complementary hierarchical exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) with Schmid and Leiman transformation and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) for all reported models from the German WISC-V Technical Manual and rival bifactor models using the standardization sample (N = 1,087) correlation matrix of the 15 primary and secondary subtests. EFA results did not support a fifth factor (Fluid Reasoning). A four-factor model with the dominant general intelligence (g) factor resembling the WISC-IV was supported by EFA. CFA results indicated the best representation was a bifactor model with four group factors, complementing EFA results. Present EFA and CFA results replicated other independent assessments of standardization and clinical samples of the United States and international versions of the WISC-V and indicated primary, if not exclusive, interpretation of the Full Scale IQ as an estimate of g.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T11:52:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120936330
  • Using Item Response Theory to Compare Irritability Measures in Early
           Adolescent and Childhood Samples
    • Authors: Lea R. Dougherty, Maria M. Galano, Emma Chad-Friedman, Thomas M. Olino, Sara J. Bufferd, Daniel N. Klein
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Limited psychometric information is available to guide best practices for measuring youth irritability. This report compares performance of irritability measures using item response theory (IRT). Study 1 used a sample of 482 early adolescents and compared the parent- and youth-report affective reactivity index (ARI) and irritability factors derived from the parent-report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and clinician-administered Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders (K-SADS). Study 2 combined data from three childhood samples (N = 811) and compared performance of the parent-report ARI and CBCL and the clinician-administered Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). The ARI emerged as the best measure of childhood irritability across the developmental periods, while the CBCL and K-SADS provided an adequate amount of information in early adolescents. No measure reliably assessed irritability at modest severity levels. Using IRT across large pools of developmental samples and measures is needed to guide the field in the measurement of youth irritability.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T11:52:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120936363
  • Chinese Version of the Nine Item ARFID Screen: Psychometric Properties and
           Cross-Cultural Measurement Invariance
    • Authors: Jinbo He, Hana F. Zickgraf, Jordan M. Ellis, Zhicheng Lin, Xitao Fan
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: The current study aimed to provide initial psychometric evidence for a Chinese version of the Nine-Item ARFID Screen (C-NIAS), which measures the symptoms of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), including picky eating, poor appetite/limited interest in eating, and fear of aversive consequences from eating. Method: The NIAS was translated into Chinese according to standard procedures. A total of 1,069 college students from mainland China responded to the C-NIAS. The factor structure was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent and divergent validity were assessed using regression analyses. Finally, measurement invariance was tested, and latent mean differences were compared, between Chinese and American college samples. Results: The measure’s original three-factor structure was confirmed. Strong measurement invariance between college samples of the United States and China was supported, and Chinese students had significantly higher latent mean scores on all three factors. The subscales showed the expected patterns of correlations with other validity constructs. Conclusions: The C-NIAS shows good psychometric characteristics and holds promise to facilitate much-needed research on subclinical symptoms of this understudied eating disorder in Chinese-speaking adult populations. Moreover, Chinese college students demonstrate greater potential ARFID symptomatology than American counterparts. More attention to ARFID should be called for in China.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-07-01T10:50:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120936359
  • Modelling Pathological Narcissism Using the Brief PNI in Terms of
           Structure and Convergent and Divergent Validity: A New Perspective
    • Authors: Michal Weiss, Isaac Fradkin, Jonathan D. Huppert
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a popular measure and the first to attempt to tap into both grandiose and vulnerable narcissism (GN/VN). However, data have raised questions as to whether it appropriately formulates GN and differentiates it from VN. In this study, we examined the Brief-PNI’s structure and construct validity, by using a novel model based on the theoretical notion of GN and VN sharing core features. Participants (N = 1,061) completed the Brief-PNI, and psychological distress and social avoidance questionnaires. Results showed a better fit and differentiation of GN and VN for a model with cross-loading of shared first-order factors on GN and VN, compared with the traditional PNI structure. We concluded that the Brief-PNI can offer an appropriate formulation and differentiation of VN and GN, provided that their shared variance is considered.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T02:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120936354
  • Personality Disorders in the ICD-11: Spanish Validation of the PiCD and
           the SASPD in a Mixed Community and Clinical Sample
    • Authors: Fernando Gutiérrez, Anton Aluja, José Ruiz, Luis F. García, Miguel Gárriz, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Zotes, David Gallardo-Pujol, Maria V. Navarro-Haro, Miquel Alabèrnia-Segura, Joan Ignasi Mestre-Pintó, Marta Torrens, Josep M. Peri, Bárbara Sureda, Joaquim Soler, Juan Carlos Pascual, Gemma Vall, Natalia Calvo, Marc Ferrer, Joshua R. Oltmanns, Thomas A. Widiger
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The International Classification of Diseases–11th revision (ICD-11) classification of personality disorders is the official diagnostic system that is used all over the world, and it has recently been renewed. However, as yet very few data are available on its performance. This study examines the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD), which assesses the personality domains of the system, and the Standardized Assessment of Severity of Personality Disorder (SASPD), which determines severity. The Spanish versions of the questionnaires were administered to a community (n = 2,522) and a clinical sample (n = 797). Internal consistency was adequate in the PiCD (α = .75 to .84) but less so in the SASPD (α = .64 and .73). Factor analyses suggested a unidimensional or bidimensional structure for severity, while revealing that the personality trait qualifiers are organized into four factors: negative affectivity, detachment, dissociality, and a bipolar domain of disinhibition–anankastia. The mutual relationships between traits and severity were analyzed, as well as the ability of the whole system to identify clinical subjects. Although further improvements are required, the results generally support the use of the PiCD and the SASPD and help substantiate the new ICD-11 taxonomy that underlies them.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-06-25T12:12:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120936357
  • Initial Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Limited
           Prosocial Emotions Questionnaire (LPEQ)
    • Authors: Peter J. Castagna, Dara E. Babinski, Amanda M. Pearl, James G. Waxmonsky, Daniel A. Waschbusch
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Callous–unemotional traits, which include lack of remorse or guilt, callousness/lack of empathy, unconcern about performance, and shallow/deficient affect, were included as a specifier of conduct disorder in the current (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders under the rubric Limited Prosocial Emotions (LPEs). The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a new rating scale, the Limited Prosocial Emotions Questionnaire (LPEQ). Caregivers (n = 1,050) of children (Mage = 8.42, SD = 2.31) completed the LPEQ and other measures. Results provide support for a single factor model of the LPEQ, with measurement invariance supported across child and informant sex. Both the reliability and validity of the LPEQ as a measure of LPEs were also well supported. Children identified with LPE had significantly greater average impairment and need for treatment relative to children without LPE. Children with conduct problems (i.e., conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder), as well those without conduct problems, had significantly more impairment if they were identified as having LPE. Our findings fit with the mounting evidence of the clinical utility of assessing LPEs in children. Future research should look to replicate our findings in clinical samples of youth.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-06-04T09:09:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120927782
  • Embedded WAIS-IV Detection Strategies and Feigned Cognitive Impairment: An
           Investigation of Malingered ADHD
    • Authors: Richard Rogers, Sarah F. Velsor, John W. Donnelly, Brittney Dean
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Malingered attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be strongly motivated on college campuses by recreational use of ADHD medications and to obtain unwarranted academic accommodations. Rather than rely on face-valid (easily faked) ADHD checklists, the study focused on the more complex Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Fourth edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008). However, the current literature has not yet investigated well-defined detection strategies for feigned WAIS-IV presentations. Using aprioristic standards, four different detection strategies from the feigning literature were adapted to certain WAIS-IV subscales. For example, significantly below-chance performance was applied to visual puzzles. Using a between-subjects simulation design, 74 undergraduate simulators were compared with archival data on 73 outpatients diagnosed with ADHD at a university psychology clinic. Very large effect sizes (Cohen’s ds from 1.66 to 1.90) differentiated between genuine and feigned ADHD. Two strategies (significantly below-chance performance and floor effect) showed strong promise if cross-validated for other feigning presentations. The study concluded with clinical considerations and future avenues for research.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-06-04T09:08:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120927788
  • Factors Influencing Family Environment Reporting Concordance Among U.S.
           War Zone Veterans and Their Partners
    • Authors: Adam D. LaMotte, Anica Pless Kaiser, Lewina O. Lee, Christina Supelana, Casey T. Taft, Jennifer J. Vasterling
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      A key challenge in the assessment of family variables is the discrepancies that arise between reports. Although prior research has observed levels of interpartner agreement on the family environment, no studies have investigated factors that may influence agreement. In this study, war zone veterans (WZVs) and their partners (N = 207 couples) completed assessments of the family environment. We examined interpartner agreement in relation to WZV and partner posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, WZV time away from home, and family size. More severe WZV PTSD symptoms were associated with greater interpartner agreement on family environment, whereas more severe partner PTSD symptoms were associated with reporting more negative perceptions of the family environment relative to WZV reports. Family size was associated with greater interpartner agreement. Factors associated with concordance in this study should be considered by clinicians and researchers seeking to understand and address reporting discrepancies on the family.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T06:47:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120922619
  • Examining the Item-Level Structure of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure:
           Sharpening Assessment of Psychopathy Constructs
    • Authors: Kasey Stanton, Matthew F. D. Brown, David Watson
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) has emerged as a widely used measure for assessing a three-trait model of disinhibition, meanness, and boldness. Building on recent psychometric work, we examined the TriPM’s item-level factor structure and correlates in both a clinically oriented community sample (n = 700) and in undergraduates (n = 527). Our results indicated a replicable three-factor structure generally corresponding with disinhibition, meanness, and boldness, although many items were not clear indicators of their assigned TriPM domain scales. Consequently, these dimensions may be better represented by Alternate Disinhibition (14 items), Boldness (13 items), and Meanness (8 items) domain scales. Additionally, we identified sets of items defining distinct Self-Assurance and Fearlessness dimensions within Boldness and Irresponsibility and Impulsivity dimensions within Disinhibition. We discuss these findings in the context of other recent studies examining the TriPM’s item-level structure, highlighting key future directions for sharpening measurement of the externalizing spectrum.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T06:46:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120927786
  • Structure of Dark Triad Dirty Dozen Across Eight World Regions
    • Authors: Radosław Rogoza, Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Peter K. Jonason, Jarosław Piotrowski, Keith W. Campbell, Jochen E. Gebauer, John Maltby, Constantine Sedikides, Mladen Adamovic, Byron G. Adams, Rebecca P. Ang, Rahkman Ardi, Kokou A. Atitsogbe, Sergiu Baltatescu, Snežana Bilić, Bojana Bodroža, Joel Gruneau Brulin, Harshalini Yashita Bundhoo Poonoosamy, Trawin Chaleeraktrakoon, Alejandra Del Carmen Dominguez, Sonya Dragova-Koleva, Sofián El-Astal, Walaa Labib M. Eldesoki, Valdiney V. Gouveia, Katherine Gundolf, Dzintra Ilisko, Tomislav Jukić, Shanmukh V. Kamble, Narine Khachatryan, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Monika Kovacs, Inna Kozytska, Aitor Larzabal Fernandez, Konrad Lehmann, Xuejun Lei, Kadi Liik, Jessica McCain, Taciano L. Milfont, Andreas Nehrlich, Evgeny Osin, Emrah Özsoy, Joonha Park, Jano Ramos-Diaz, Ognjen Riđić, Abdul Qadir, Adil Samekin, Habib Tiliouine, Robert Tomsik, Charles S. Umeh, Kees van den Bos, Alain Van Hiel, Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Anna Włodarczyk
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Dark Triad (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism) has garnered intense attention over the past 15 years. We examined the structure of these traits’ measure—the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (DTDD)—in a sample of 11,488 participants from three W.E.I.R.D. (i.e., North America, Oceania, Western Europe) and five non-W.E.I.R.D. (i.e., Asia, Middle East, non-Western Europe, South America, sub-Saharan Africa) world regions. The results confirmed the measurement invariance of the DTDD across participants’ sex in all world regions, with men scoring higher than women on all traits (except for psychopathy in Asia, where the difference was not significant). We found evidence for metric (and partial scalar) measurement invariance within and between W.E.I.R.D. and non-W.E.I.R.D. world regions. The results generally support the structure of the DTDD.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-06-02T12:48:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120922611
  • Comparing the Psychometric Properties of Eight Embedded Performance
           Validity Tests in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Wechsler Memory
           Scale Logical Memory, and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test–Revised
           Recognition Trials for Detecting Invalid Neuropsychological Test
    • Authors: Joshua I. Pliskin, Samantha DeDios Stern, Zachary J. Resch, Kevin F. Saladino, Gabriel P. Ovsiew, Dustin A. Carter, Jason R. Soble
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This cross-sectional study evaluated eight embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) previously derived from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale–IV–Logical Memory (LM), and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test–Revised (BVMT-R) recognition trials among a single mixed clinical sample of 108 neuropsychiatric patients (83 valid/25 invalid) with (n = 54) and without (n = 29) mild neurocognitive disorder. Among the overall sample, all eight recognition PVTs significantly differentiated valid from invalid performance (areas under the curve [AUCs] = .64-.81) with 26% to 44% sensitivity (≥89% specificity) at optimal cut-scores depending on the specific PVT. After subdividing the sample by cognitive impairment status, all eight PVTs continued to reliably identify invalid performance (AUC = .68-.91) with markedly increased sensitivities of 56% to 80% (≥89% specificity) in the unimpaired group. In contrast, among those with mild neurocognitive disorder, RAVLT False Positives and LM became nonsignificant, whereas the other six PVTs remained significant (AUC = .64-.77), albeit with reduced sensitivities of 32% to 44% (≥89% specificity) at optimal cut-scores. Taken together, results cross-validated BVMT-R and most RAVLT recognition indices as effective embedded PVTs for identifying invalid neuropsychological test performance with diverse populations including examinees with and without suspected mild neurocognitive disorder, whereas LM had more limited utility as an embedded PVT, particularly when mild neurocognitive disorder was present.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-06-02T12:47:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120929093
  • Bias and Precision of Continuous Norms Obtained Using Quantile Regression
    • Authors: Elise A. V. Crompvoets, Jos Keuning, Wilco H. M. Emons
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Continuous norming is an increasingly popular approach to establish norms when the performance on a test is dependent on age. However, current continuous norming methods rely on a number of assumptions that are quite restrictive and may introduce bias. In this study, quantile regression was introduced as more flexible alternative. Bias and precision of quantile regression-based norming were investigated with (age-)group as covariate, varying sample sizes and score distributions, and compared with bias and precision of two other norming methods: traditional norming and mean regression-based norming. Simulations showed the norms obtained using quantile regression to be most precise in almost all conditions. Norms were nevertheless biased when the score distributions reflected a ceiling effect. Quantile regression-based norming can thus be considered a promising alternative to traditional norming and mean regression-based norming, but only if the shape of the score distribution can be expected to be close to normal.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-06-02T10:10:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120910201
  • Parental Rejecting Behaviors: Validating a Behaviorally Based Youth-Report
           Measure of Parental Emotional Abuse
    • Authors: David S. Kosson, Cody V. Schraft, Chelsea L. Brieman, Cami K. McBride, Raymond A. Knight
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Positive and warm parental attitudes are associated with better social and emotional child functioning, whereas negative or rejecting parental attitudes are associated with poor outcomes, such as aggression, impaired self-esteem, and emotional instability. The current study investigated the reliability and validity of scores on an interview adaptation of a measure of parental rejecting behavior (PRB) in a sample of detained adolescents. Participants (N = 198) completed a measure assessing their memories of the frequency of specific parental behaviors associated with rejection and self-report measures of exposure to abuse/neglect and community violence, and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. PRB scores were internally consistent and associated with several kinds of child maltreatment. PRB scores correlated uniquely with indices of internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, even after controlling for indices of overall child maltreatment or a specific index of emotional abuse. The pattern of correlations suggests that the measure provides a valid index of parental emotional abuse, which may help identify youth at risk for both internalizing and externalizing disorders.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T07:15:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120918943
  • Is Self-Compassion Universal' Support for the Measurement Invariance
           of the Self-Compassion Scale Across Populations
    • Authors: István Tóth-Király, Kristin D. Neff
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) is a widely used measure to assess the trait of self-compassion, and, so far, it has been implicitly assumed that it functions the same way across different groups. This assumption needs to be explicitly tested to ascertain that no measurement biases exist. To address this issue, the present study sought to systematically examine the generalizability of the bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling operationalization of the SCS via tests of measurement invariance across a wide range of populations, varying according to features such as student or community status, gender, age, and language. Secondary data were used for this purpose and included a total of 18 samples and 12 different languages (N = 10,997). Multigroup analyses revealed evidence for the configural, weak, strong, strict, and latent variance–covariance of the bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling operationalization of the SCS across different groups. These findings suggest that the SCS provides an assessment of self-compassion that is psychometrically equivalent across groups. However, findings comparing latent mean invariance found that levels of self-compassion differed across groups.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T07:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120926232
  • The Factor Structure and Gender Invariance of ADHD Symptoms in College
    • Authors: Kate Flory, Dexin Shi, E. Rebekah Siceloff, Alex M. Roberts, Rebeca Castellanos, Emily Neger, Stephen Taylor, Kari Benson
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies examining the factor structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in adults using self-report measures have shown mixed results, supporting two-, three-, and bifactor solutions. The current study further investigated the structure of ADHD symptoms in adults using the Current Symptoms Scale and rigorous model evaluation in a sample of 892 college students. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to analyze and compare five-factor structures; a single-factor model, a two-factor model, a three-factor model, and two bifactor models. A single-factor model with correlated residuals best fit the data. Factor correlations with nearly all related constructs (i.e., symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, depression, impairment, previous ADHD diagnosis, grades, and substance use) were significant in the expected directions and the model was invariant across gender. These findings contribute to a growing body of work suggesting a unidimensional factor may best represent ADHD symptoms in adults. Implications are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-05-26T01:19:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120918934
  • Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and
           Normative Data for Spanish 5- to 17-Year-Olds
    • Authors: Gemma Español-Martín, Mireia Pagerols, Raquel Prat, Cristina Rivas, Laura Sixto, Sergi Valero, María Soler Artigas, Marta Ribasés, Josep A. Ramos-Quiroga, Miquel Casas, Rosa Bosch
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been extensively used to measure common forms of psychopathology among children and adolescents. However, its psychometric properties vary across countries and several controversial issues warrant further investigation. This study aimed to evaluate whether the Spanish version of the SDQ is a reliable and valid tool for assessing emotional and behavioral problems in a sample of 6,775 students aged 5 to 17 years, as rated by parents, teachers, and youth. We examined the internal consistency of the questionnaire, its factor structure, and measurement invariance across child’s gender and age. Criterion validity was tested against the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Teacher’s Report Form (TRF), and Youth Self-Report (YSR), and we measured the ability of the SDQ to identify children with specific psychiatric disorders. Finally, we provide, for the first time, Spanish normative data for children aged 5 to 10 and 11 to 17 years, according to gender and each informant. Our results revealed acceptable reliability estimates for all SDQ subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original five-factor model and full measurement invariance was found. Furthermore, SDQ scores showed a moderate to strong correlation with those on the equivalent CBCL/TRF/YSR scales, and were effective in discriminating individuals with and without clinical diagnoses.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-05-25T12:27:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120918929
  • Difference Between Young and Old Adults’ Performance on the Psychology
           Experiment Building Language (PEBL) Test Battery: What Is the Role of
           Familiarity With Technology in Cognitive Performance'
    • Authors: Federica Scarpina, Federico D’Agata, Lorenzo Priano, Alessandro Mauro
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) Test Battery is a recent computerized software for the assessment of cognitive functioning in clinical and healthy populations. However, its applicability for the assessment of old adults and the role of level of familiarity with technology on performance have not been tested. Method: To verify if PEBL Test Battery is sensitive to aging cognitive decline, we assessed young and older adults’ performance on the neuropsychological tests relative to the following domains: verbal and visuospatial short-term memory, selective attention, inhibition to interference, planning and problem-solving, set-shifting, and cognitive flexibility. The difference between the two groups was studied taking into account the self-reported level of familiarity with technology, measured through the Attitudes Toward Computers Questionnaire. Results: Old participants showed a lower level of cognitive performance compared with the younger group, in line with the traditional literature about cognitive function decline in aging. However, this difference was not related to the level of familiarity with technology. Conclusion: Our descriptive study seemed to support the applicability of PEBL Test Battery for testing old adults’ cognitive functioning. However, some criticisms and future improvements about this computerized battery were discussed for its applicability in clinical, rehabilitative and research contexts.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T11:50:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120918010
  • Developing Cross-Cultural Short Scales Using Ant Colony Optimization
    • Authors: Gabriel Olaru, Daniel Danner
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This article demonstrates how the mataheuristic item selection algorithm ant colony optimization (ACO) can be used to develop short scales for cross-cultural surveys. Traditional item selection approaches typically select items based on expert-guided assessment of item-level information in the full scale, such as factor loadings or item correlations with relevant outcomes. ACO is an optimization procedure that instead selects items based on the properties of the resulting short models, such as model fit and reliability. Using a sample of 5,567 respondents from five countries, we selected a 15-item short form of the Big Five Inventory–2 with the goal of optimizing model fit and measurement invariance in exploratory structural equation modeling, as well as reliability, construct coverage, and criterion-related validity of the scale. We compared the psychometric properties of the new short scale with the Big Five Inventory–2 extra-short form developed with a traditional approach. Whereas both short scales maintained the construct coverage and criterion-related validity of the full scale, the ACO short scale achieved better model fit and measurement invariance across countries than the Big Five Inventory–2 extra-short form. As such, ACO can be a useful tool to identify items for cross-cultural comparisons of personality.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-05-16T11:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120918026
  • Questioning the Meaning of a Change on the Alzheimer’s Disease
           Assessment Scale–Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog): Noncomparable Scores and
           Item-Specific Effects Over Time
    • Authors: Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Saffire H. Krance, Sandra E. Black, Nathan Herrmann, Krista L. Lanctôt, Bradley J. MacIntosh, Michael Eid, Walter Swardfager
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Longitudinal invariance indicates that a construct is measured over time in the same way, and this fundamental scale property is a sine qua non to track change over time using ordinary mean comparisons. The Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive (ADAS-Cog) and its subscale scores are often used to monitor the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, but longitudinal invariance has not been formally evaluated. A configural invariance model was used to evaluate ADAS-Cog data as a three correlated factors structure for two visits over 6 months, and four visits over 2 years (baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months) among 341 participants with Alzheimer’s disease. We also attempted to model ADAS-Cog subscales individually, and furthermore added item-specific latent variables. Neither the three-correlated factors ADAS-Cog model, nor its subscales viewed unidimensionally, achieved longitudinal configural invariance under a traditional modeling approach. No subscale achieved scalar invariance when considered unidimensional across 6 months or 2 years of assessment. In models accounting for item-specific effects, configural and metric invariance were achieved for language and memory subscales. Although some of the ADAS-Cog individual items were reliable, comparisons of summed ADAS-Cog scores and subscale scores over time may not be meaningful due to a lack of longitudinal invariance.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T09:42:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120915273
  • Measurement Invariance of Three Narcissism Questionnaires Across the
           United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany
    • Authors: Eunike Wetzel, Felix J. Lang, Mitja D. Back, Michele Vecchione, Radoslaw Rogoza, Brent W. Roberts
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      With a recent surge of research on narcissism, narcissism questionnaires are increasingly being translated and applied in various countries. The measurement invariance of an instrument across countries is a precondition for being able to compare scores across countries. We investigated the cross-cultural measurement invariance of three narcissism questionnaires (Brief Pathological Narcissism Inventory [B-PNI], Narcissistic Personality Inventory [NPI], and Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire [NARQ]) and mean-level differences across samples from the United States (N = 2,464), the United Kingdom (N = 307), and Germany (N = 925). Overall, the B-PNI and NARQ functioned equivalently for the U.S. and U.K. participants. More violations of measurement invariance were found between Germany and the combined U.S. and U.K. samples, and for the NPI. In the B-PNI and NARQ, Americans scored higher than individuals from the United Kingdom regarding agentic aspects (self-sacrificing self-enhancement, admiration), while Germans scored lower than both Americans and U.K. individuals regarding antagonistic (entitlement rage, rivalry) and neurotic (hiding the self, contingent self-esteem) aspects. More inconsistent results were found for NPI facets. When noninvariance was present, observed means yielded biased results. Thus, the degree of measurement invariance across translated instrument versions should be considered in cross-cultural comparisons, even with culturally similar countries.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-05-06T04:25:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120907967
  • Measuring Within-Session and Between-Session Compliance in Hoarding
           Disorder: A Preliminary Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of
           the CBT Compliance Measure (CCM) and Patient Exposure/Response Prevention
           Adherence Scale for Hoarding (PEAS-H)
    • Authors: Bethany M. Wootton, Laura B. Bragdon, Blaise L. Worden, Gretchen J. Diefenbach, Michael C. Stevens, David F. Tolin
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Hoarding disorder (HD) is a new psychiatric diagnosis in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fifth edition and preliminary evidence suggests that cognitive-behavioral treatments are effective in treating this condition. However, it has been demonstrated that individuals with HD generally display poor compliance during treatment, which may lead to poor outcomes. Treatment compliance can be conceptualized as either within-session or between-session compliance, but currently there are no validated measures of within-session or between-session compliance specifically for HD. The aim of this study was to provide an initial validation of the CBT Compliance Measure and the Patient Exposure/Response Prevention Adherence Scale for Hoarding in a sample of participants with HD who were undergoing group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for HD (N = 70). Both measures, which were administered at each relevant treatment session, demonstrated a unidimensional structure, good reliability, as well as predictive validity, and are thus promising in the measurement of within-session and between-session compliance with CBT for HD.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-05-02T12:45:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120918024
  • Examining the Criterion Validity and Diagnostic Specificity of Self-Report
           Measures of Narcissism and Mania
    • Authors: David Watson, Stephanie Ellickson-Larew, Kasey Stanton, Holly F. Levin-Aspenson, Shereen Khoo
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      We examined the validity of self-report measures of narcissism and mania by relating them to interview-based ratings of psychopathology. Narcissism scales were taken from the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire–4+, and the Short Dark Triad. Mania measures included the Altman Self-Rated Mania Scale (ASRM) and scales taken from the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) and Expanded Version of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms. Our analyses addressed two key issues. The first issue was whether these scales demonstrated significant criterion validity (e.g., whether the HPS scales correlated significantly with interview ratings of mania). The second issue was whether they displayed specificity to their target constructs (e.g., whether the NPI scales correlated more strongly with ratings of narcissistic personality disorder than with other forms of psychopathology). All of the narcissism scales—including all three NPI subscales—correlated significantly with interview ratings of narcissistic personality disorder and showed considerable evidence of diagnostic specificity. Most of the mania scales also displayed good criterion validity and diagnostic specificity. However, two measures—the ASRM and the HPS Social Vitality subscale—had weak, nonsignificant associations with interview ratings of manic episodes; these findings raise concerns regarding their validity as specific indicators of mania.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-05-02T12:44:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120918012
  • Caught in the Act: Predicting Cheating in Unproctored Knowledge Assessment
    • Authors: Diana Steger, Ulrich Schroeders, Oliver Wilhelm
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Cheating is a serious threat in unproctored ability assessment, irrespective of countermeasures taken, anticipated consequences (high vs. low stakes), and test modality (paper-pencil vs. computer-based). In the present study, we examined the power of (a) self-report-based indicators (i.e., Honesty-Humility and Overclaiming scales), (b) test data (i.e., performance with extremely difficult items), and (c) para data (i.e., reaction times, switching between browser tabs) to predict participants’ cheating behavior. To this end, 315 participants worked on a knowledge test in an unproctored online assessment and subsequently in a proctored lab assessment. We used multiple regression analysis and an extended latent change score model to assess the potential of the different indicators to predict cheating. In summary, test data and para data performed best, while traditional self-report-based indicators were not predictive. We discuss the findings with respect to unproctored testing in general and provide practical advice on cheating detection in online ability assessments.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-05-01T07:23:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120914970
  • Precision and Sample Size Requirements for Regression-Based Norming
           Methods for Change Scores
    • Authors: Zhengguo Gu, Wilco H. M. Emons, Klaas Sijtsma
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      To interpret a person’s change score, one typically transforms the change score into, for example, a percentile, so that one knows a person’s location in a distribution of change scores. Transformed scores are referred to as norms and the construction of norms is referred to as norming. Two often-used norming methods for change scores are the regression-based change approach and the T Scores for Change method. In this article, we discuss the similarities and differences between these norming methods, and use a simulation study to systematically examine the precision of the two methods and to establish the minimum sample size requirements for satisfactory precision.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-04-26T03:10:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120913607
  • Predictive Properties of the Violence Risk Scale–Sexual Offense
           Version as a Function of Age
    • Authors: Mark E. Olver, Sarah M. Beggs Christofferson, Terry P. Nicholaichuk, Stephen C. P. Wong
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The present study examined the discrimination and calibration properties of Violence Risk Scale–Sexual Offense version (VRS-SO) risk and change scores for sexual and violent recidivism as a function of age at release, on a combined sample of 1,287 men who had attended sexual offense-specific treatment services. The key aim was to examine to what extent VRS-SO scores can accurately discriminate recidivists from nonrecidivists among older cohorts, and if the existing age-related adjustments in the instrument adequately correct for increasing age. VRS-SO risk and change scores showed consistent properties of discrimination for sexual recidivism across the age cohorts, via area under the curve and Cox regression survival analysis, as demonstrated through fixed effects meta-analysis. Calibration analyses, employing logistic regression, demonstrated that age at release was consistently incrementally predictive of violent, but not sexual, recidivism after controlling for individual differences on static and dynamic risk factors. E/O index analyses demonstrated that predicted rates of sexual recidivism from VRS-SO scores, particularly when employed with Static-99R, were not significantly different from those observed among age cohorts; however, calibration was weaker for general violence. Implications for use of the VRS-SO in sexual recidivism risk assessment with older offenders are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-04-26T03:07:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120914405
  • Invariance of the Bifactor Structure of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)
           Symptoms on the Rivermead Postconcussion Symptoms Questionnaire Across
    • Authors: Stephanie Agtarap, Mark D. Kramer, Laura Campbell-Sills, Esther Yuh, Pratik Mukherjee, Geoffrey T. Manley, Michael A. McCrea, Sureyya Dikmen, Joseph T. Giacino, Murray B. Stein, Lindsay D. Nelson
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to elucidate the structure of the Rivermead Postconcussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) and evaluate its longitudinal and group variance. Factor structures were developed and compared in 1,011 patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI; i.e., Glasgow Coma Scale score 13-15) from the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in TBI study, using RPQ data collected at 2 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. A bifactor model specifying a general factor and emotional, cognitive, and visual symptom factors best represented the latent structure of the RPQ. The model evinced strict measurement invariance over time and across sex, age, race, psychiatric history, and mTBI severity groups, indicating that differences in symptom endorsement were completely accounted for by these latent dimensions. While highly unidimensional, the RPQ has multidimensional features observable through a bifactor model, which may help differentiate symptom expression patterns in the future.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-04-24T08:07:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120913941
  • Evaluating Structural Models of Cognitive Vulnerabilities: Transdiagnostic
           and Specific Pathways to Internalizing Symptoms
    • Authors: Ruth Y. N. Poh, Sici Zhuang, Xiang Ling Ong, Ryan Y. Hong
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The structure of cognitive vulnerabilities to anxiety and depression was examined via a hierarchical approach to examine the usefulness of a bifactor model for identifying a broad transdiagnostic (i.e., common core) factor versus disorder-specific variables (i.e., unique dimensions) in predicting internalizing psychopathology. Several models (i.e., single factor, correlated factor, single hierarchical, and bifactor models) were evaluated in undergraduate (n = 351) and adolescent (n = 385) samples. Across both samples, the bifactor model exhibited comparable good fit as the correlated and single hierarchical models. This model comprised a core transdiagnostic vulnerability factor and six specific factors (i.e., negative cognitive style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative style, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety sensitivity, and fear of negative evaluation). Although the transdiagnostic factor predicted a general internalizing symptom factor, unique fear-related specific-level associations between individual vulnerability and symptom remained significant. Moreover, the transdiagnostic vulnerability factor predicted internalizing symptoms, even after controlling for personality and gender. These findings highlight the importance of advancing an integrative etiologic model of internalizing psychopathology.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-04-24T08:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120915287
  • The Quality Assurance and Quality Control Protocol for Neuropsychological
           Data Collection and Curation in the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease
           Research Initiative (ONDRI) Study
    • Authors: Paula M. McLaughlin, Kelly M. Sunderland, Derek Beaton, Malcolm A. Binns, Donna Kwan, Brian Levine, Joseph B. Orange, Alicia J. Peltsch, Angela C. Roberts, Stephen C. Strother, Angela K. Troyer
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      As large research initiatives designed to generate big data on clinical cohorts become more common, there is an increasing need to establish standard quality assurance (QA; preventing errors) and quality control (QC; identifying and correcting errors) procedures for critical outcome measures. The present article describes the QA and QC approach developed and implemented for the neuropsychology data collected as part of the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative study. We report on the efficacy of our approach and provide data quality metrics. Our findings demonstrate that even with a comprehensive QA protocol, the proportion of data errors still can be high. Additionally, we show that several widely used neuropsychological measures are particularly susceptible to error. These findings highlight the need for large research programs to put into place active, comprehensive, and separate QA and QC procedures before, during, and after protocol deployment. Detailed recommendations and considerations for future studies are provided.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-04-23T05:58:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120913933
  • Mokken Scale Analysis of Lifetime Responses on the Columbia Suicide
           Severity Rating Scale’s Severity of Ideation Subscale
    • Authors: Jeffrey V. Tabares, Jonathan E. Butner, Craig J. Bryan, Julia A. Harris
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Suicide risk screening assumes that suicidal thoughts and behaviors exist on a continuous, hierarchical spectrum with some suicidal thoughts implicated with greater risk for suicidal behaviors. However, screening measures based on the hierarchical model may not capture the suicide risk construct. This study assessed psychometric properties of the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS) for (a) between- and within-person measurement dimensions, (b) item utility in capturing the suicide risk construct, and (c) tenability of a hierarchical risk model. We found that the CSSRS functions differentially between and within individuals, CSSRS items capture more suicide risk construct, and that CSSRS items in current practice likely appear in the correct order. The current CSSRS reasonably represents within-person suicide risk, but not between-person risk. Scale norms or alternate scoring could facilitate functional equivalence and utility for between- and within-person CSSRS dimensions.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-04-22T06:15:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120913626
  • Further Validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic
           Personality-Self-Report (CAPP-SR) in Lithuanian Offender and Nonoffender
    • Authors: Martin Sellbom, Ilona Laurinaitytė, Alfredas Laurinavičius
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) is an emerging integrative model that makes use of 33 symptoms to characterize psychopathic personality disorder, but operationalizations of this model have not endured extensive validation to date. The current study sought to validate the recently published CAPP-Self-Report (CAPP-SR). Participants derived from two Lithuanian offender (n = 231) and nonoffender (n = 312) samples. They were administered the CAPP-SR, Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and a subsample of offenders also had Offender Assessment System risk assessment scores available. The results showed that CAPP-SR total, domain, and symptom scores were associated with TriPM and Aggression Questionnaire scores in a manner consistent with conceptual expectations. CAPP-SR symptoms specifically reflective of aggression, anger, and antagonism were most strongly associated with Offender Assessment System risk scores. The findings provide support for construct validity of CAPP-SR scores as well as have implications for the CAPP model more broadly, which are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-04-22T06:13:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120914403
  • Reliability and Validity of the Spanish-Language Version of the NIH
    • Authors: Rina S. Fox, Jennifer J. Manly, Jerry Slotkin, John Devin Peipert, Richard C. Gershon
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The psychometric properties of the English-language NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH Toolbox) have been examined in numerous populations. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of the Spanish-language NIH Toolbox. Participants were children aged 3 to 7 years and adults aged 18 to 85 years who took part in the NIH Toolbox norming study in Spanish. Results supported the internal consistency reliability of included measures. Test–retest reliability was strong for most tests, though it was weaker for the test of olfaction among children and the test of locomotion among adults. Spearman’s correlations and general linear models showed Spanish tests were often associated with age, sex, and education. Convergent validity for the two language measures that underwent more intensive development, evaluated via Spearman’s correlations with legacy measures, was strong. Results support using the Spanish-language NIH Toolbox to measure neurological and behavioral functioning among Spanish-speaking individuals in the United States.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-04-08T07:47:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120913943
  • Mapping Big Five Personality Traits Within and Across Domains of
           Interpersonal Functioning
    • Authors: Tianwei V. Du, Alison E. Yardley, Katherine M. Thomas
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Big Five and the interpersonal circumplex are among the most extensively used structural frameworks in personality research. Of the five factors, extraversion and agreeableness are theorized to carry the most interpersonal context, however, all five factors are likely to have important interpersonal implications. In the present study, we evaluated the associations between domains of interpersonal functioning and the Big Five domains and facets using the bootstrapped structural summary method. Results suggested that all Big Five traits showed prototypical and specific interpersonal profiles, with variability observed across lower order facets and domains of interpersonal functioning. Several Big Five traits and facets not overtly related to interpersonal behavior nonetheless showed specific, prototypical associations to interpersonal profiles. Findings suggest that Big Five traits and facets are saturated with interpersonal content and even personality characteristics that are not explicitly interpersonal may still have specific interpersonal implications.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-04-04T12:29:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120913952
  • When Does Differential Item Functioning Matter for Screening' A Method
           for Empirical Evaluation
    • Authors: Oscar Gonzalez, William E. Pelham
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      When items in a screening measure exhibit differential item functioning (DIF) across groups (e.g., males vs. females), DIF might affect which individuals are “caught” in the screening. This phenomenon is common, but DIF detection procedures do not typically provide guidance on whether the presence of DIF will meaningfully affect screening accuracy. Millsap and Kwok proposed a method to quantify the impact of DIF on screening accuracy, but their approach had limitations that prevent its use in scenarios where items are discrete. We extend the Millsap and Kwok procedure to accommodate discrete items and provide R functions to apply the procedure to the user’s own data. We illustrate our approach using published screening information and evaluate the proposed methodology with a small simulation study. Overall, we encourage researchers to use empirical methods to evaluate the extent to which the presence of DIF in a screening measure materially affects screening performance.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-04-04T12:28:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120913618
  • Construct Validity of DSM-5 Level 2 Assessments (PROMIS Depression,
           Anxiety, and Anger): Evidence From the MMPI-2-RF
    • Authors: Anthony M. Tarescavage, Emma H. Forner, Yossef Ben-Porath
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is a NIH-funded measure that has item banks assessing a variety of physical, social, and mental health domains. Short forms from the emotional distress item bank (which includes measures of Depression, Anxiety, and Anger) were included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders–Fifth edition as emerging measures to be administered at intake to aid diagnosis and throughout treatment to track progress. The purpose of the current study was to further investigate the PROMIS distress item bank’s construct validity using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2–Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). The sample included 344 college students (119 males, 225 females) who were administered the MMPI-2-RF and the PROMIS Anxiety, Anger, and Depression short forms. Zero-order correlations between the PROMIS scales and the Restructured Clinical Scales and Internalizing Specific Problems Scales were examined. Overall, these results suggest that scores from the PROMIS Anxiety, Anger, and Depression scales evidence convergent validity but have problematic construct validity (particularly for Depression). Future revision of the scales should be considered and sufficient external validation evidence should be available for review before psychological assessments are recommended and distributed for widespread clinical use.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-03-16T08:59:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120911092
  • Working Memory, Processing Speed, and Memory Functioning Are Minimally
           Predictive of Victoria Symptom Validity Test Performance
    • Authors: Zachary J. Resch, Jason R. Soble, Gabriel P. Ovsiew, Liliam R. Castillo, Kevin F. Saladino, Samantha DeDios-Stern, Evan T. Schulze, Woojin Song, Neil H. Pliskin
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      A sound performance validity test is accurate for detecting invalid neuropsychological test performance and relatively insensitive to actual cognitive ability or impairment. This study explored the relationship of several cognitive abilities to several performance indices on the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), including accuracy and response latency. This cross-sectional study examined data from a mixed clinical sample of 88 adults identified as having valid neurocognitive test profiles via independent validity measures, and who completed the VSVT along with objective measures of working memory, processing speed, and verbal memory during their clinical neuropsychological evaluation. Results of linear regression analyses indicated that cognitive test performance accounted for 5% to 14% of total variance for VSVT performance across indices. Working memory was the only cognitive ability to predict significant, albeit minimal, variance on the VSVT response accuracy indices. Results show that VSVT performance is minimally predicted by working memory, processing speed, or delayed verbal memory recall.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-03-14T10:26:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120911102
  • Measuring Positive Mental Health in the Postpartum Period: The Bifactor
    • Authors: Fabiana Monteiro, Ana Fonseca, Marco Pereira, Maria Cristina Canavarro
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to investigate the factor structure of the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC-SF) in the postpartum context using a single-factor model, a correlated three-factor model, and a bifactor model. The reliability and validity of the MHC-SF were also examined. The total sample consisted of 882 postpartum Portuguese women. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the bifactor model yielded a significantly better fit to the data than the other models. The unidimensionality strength indices (explained common variance = .76, percentage of uncontaminated correlations = .69) and the ωH values supported the general factor of positive mental health, which accounted for 91.5% of the reliable variance in the total score. Additionally, the MHC-SF showed high reliability (ω = .96), and its total and subscale scores were significantly correlated with other measures related to mental health. The results of this study suggest a strong general factor of positive mental health and support the use of its total score in this context.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-03-13T12:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120910247
  • Concordance of Reports of Intimate Partner Violence Across Partners and
           Measures: The Impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    • Authors: Amy D. Marshall, Alexandra C. Mattern, Jennifer D. Wong
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) is frequently used to assess intimate partner violence (IPV), but consistently yields low to moderate interpartner concordance of reports. Interpartner concordance on an alternative measure, the Event History Calendar Interview (EHCI), is largely unknown. We observed limited interpartner concordance of IPV reports on the CTS2 and EHCI, with wives generally reporting more IPV than husbands. Compared with the CTS2, the EHCI detected more cases of IPV, but not differential behavior counts. Partners’ posttraumatic stress disorder severity, a common respondent characteristic and focus of IPV research, was associated with low interpartner concordance of reports on the CTS2, but not the EHCI. Additionally, husbands’ posttraumatic stress disorder severity was associated with wives reporting more husband-perpetrated IPV on the CTS2 than the EHCI. Overall, the EHCI appears to mitigate some of the problems associated with the CTS2 as a measure of IPV, particularly among more highly traumatized samples.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-03-13T12:55:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120911097
  • Burnout–Depression Overlap: Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling
           Bifactor Analysis and Network Analysis
    • Authors: Jay Verkuilen, Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Eric Laurent
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Burnout has been viewed as a work-induced condition combining exhaustion, cynicism, and professional inefficacy. Using correlational analyses, an exploratory structural equation modeling bifactor analysis, structural regression analyses, and a network analysis, we examined the claim that burnout should not be mistaken for a depressive syndrome. The study involved 1,258 educational staff members. Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory–General Survey and depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Illegitimate work tasks and work–nonwork interferences were additionally measured. We notably found that (a) on average, exhaustion, cynicism, and professional inefficacy correlated less strongly with each other than with depression; (b) exhaustion―burnout’s core―was more strongly associated with depression than with either cynicism or professional inefficacy; (c) the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 did not correlate more strongly with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale than with exhaustion; (d) exhaustion and depression loaded primarily on a general distress/dysphoria factor in the exploratory structural equation modeling bifactor analysis; (e) on average, burnout and depression were related to job stressors in a similar manner; (f) work–nonwork interferences were strongly linked to distress/dysphoria. Overall, burnout showed no syndromal unity and lacked discriminant validity. Clinicians should systematically assess depressive symptoms in individuals presenting with a complaint of “burnout.”
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-03-10T09:29:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120911095
  • How to Correct for Computer Experience in Online Cognitive Testing'
    • Authors: Philippe R. Lee Meeuw Kjoe, Joost A. Agelink van Rentergem, Ivar E. Vermeulen, Sanne B. Schagen
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: Since computerized cognitive test performance may be influenced by computer experience, correction for this measure might be needed. This study examined how to correct for computer experience by examining its influence on online and traditional tests. Method: 248 healthy adults completed an online neuropsychological test battery and 70 adults completed traditional equivalents of the tests. Computer experience was assessed by a performance-based and a self-report measure. Regression analyses were applied to examine their influence on the online and traditional tests. Results: After correction for demographics, the performance-based measure was associated with online and traditional, predominantly speed-based, tests. The self-report measure was also associated with speed-based online tests but not with most traditional tests. Conclusions: Correcting computerized neuropsychological tests using a performance-based measure of computer experience would be unwise, because this measure also seems to tap into cognitive functions. A correction using a self-report measure might be better and is appropriate.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-03-09T05:38:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120911098
  • An Examination of the Reliability and Validity of the Comprehensive
           Assessment of Traits Relevant to Personality Disorder–Static Form
    • Authors: Tessa A. Long, Ellen Reinhard, Martin Sellbom, Jaime L. Anderson
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examined the reliability and validity of the Comprehensive Assessment of Traits Relevant to Personality Disorder–Static Form (CAT-PD-SF), a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Specifically, we used exploratory factor analysis to determine the best higher order structure for the CAT-PD-SF traits. Results suggested a five-factor structure, albeit with marginal model fit. Second, we used correlation analyses to compare the CAT-PD-SF with two additional dimensional measures of personality, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5–Brief Form and the Five-Factor Model Rating Form. The results demonstrated the CAT-PD-SF scale scores were associated with domain and facet scores from these two models in a conceptually expected manner. Finally, we explored the association between the CAT-PD-SF scores and functional impairment and found moderate associations between CAT-PD-SF trait and functional impairment scores (as measured by the Measure of Disordered Personality Functioning Scale). Overall, findings add support to the structure of the CAT-PD model, and the use of the CAT-PD-SF in measuring dimensional personality psychopathology and impairment.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-03-03T01:41:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120907957
  • Fearless Dominance/Boldness Is Not Strongly Related to Externalizing
           Behaviors: An Item Response-Based Analysis
    • Authors: Michael L. Crowe, Brandon M. Weiss, Chelsea E. Sleep, Alexandra M. Harris, Nathan T. Carter, Donald R. Lynam, Joshua D. Miller
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      There is substantial and ongoing debate regarding the centrality of Fearless Dominance/Boldness (FD/B) to psychopathic personality due, in part, to its generally weak relations with externalizing behaviors. In response to these findings, proponents of FD/B have offered two hypotheses. First, FD/B may have nonlinear associations with externalizing outcomes such that FD/B may lead to resilience at moderate levels, but an overabundance of FD/B will yield maladaptive behavioral outcomes. Second, FD/B may be related to antisocial outcomes when paired with high scores on other psychopathic traits such as self-centered impulsivity, meanness, or disinhibition. The current study tests these two possibilities using two large samples (Study 1: 787 undergraduates; Study 2: 596 Amazon’s Mechanical Turk participants). An item response theory scoring approach particularly sensitive to curvilinearity was used to maximize our ability to find a true curvilinear effect, if present. No evidence in favor of the curvilinearity hypothesis was found. Only a single significant interaction predicting substance use was observed between boldness and meanness. These findings contribute to a growing literature raising concerns regarding the relevance of FD/B to psychopathy.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-02-26T10:21:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120907959
  • Seeing the Best or Worst in Others: A Measure of Generalized
    • Authors: Richard Rau, Wiebke Nestler, Michael Dufner, Steffen Nestler
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      How positively or negatively people generally view others is key for understanding personality, social behavior, and psychopathology. Previous research has measured generalized other-perceptions by relying on either explicit self-reports or judgments made in group settings. With the current research, we overcome the limitations of these past approaches by introducing a novel measurement instrument for generalized other-perceptions: the Online-Tool for Assessing Perceiver Effects (O-TAPE). By assessing perceivers’ first impressions of a standardized set of target people displayed in social network profiles or short video sequences, the O-TAPE captures individual differences in the positivity of other-perceptions. In Study 1 (n = 219), the instrument demonstrated good psychometric properties and correlations with related constructs. Study 2 (n = 142) replicated these findings and also showed that the O-TAPE predicted other-perceptions in a naturalistic group setting. Study 3 (n = 200) refined the nomological network of the construct and demonstrated that the O-TAPE is invulnerable to effects of social desirability.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-02-26T10:19:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120905015
  • Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling
           of the Structure of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in
    • Authors: Rapson Gomez, Vasileios Stavropoulos
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in an adult community sample using first-order confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and bifactor confirmatory factor analysis and ESEM models, with two group factors (inattention [IA] and hyperactivity/impulsivity [HY/IM]) and two different three group factors (IA, hyperactivity [HY], and impulsivity [IM]; and IA, motoric HY/IM, and verbal HY/IM). A total of 738 adults (males = 374 and females = 364) between 17 and 72 years of age completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. The results provided most support for the ESEM model with group factors for IA, motoric HY/IM, and verbal HY/IM. The factors in this model were reasonably well defined, had good internal consistency omega reliabilities, and had support for their external validities, thereby making it a suitable model for ratings of the ADHD symptoms presented in the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. The theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-02-17T08:46:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120905892
  • Age Appropriateness of the Self-Report Strengths and Difficulties
    • Authors: Louise Black, Rosie Mansfield, Margarita Panayiotou
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire is widely used in clinical and research settings. However, the measure’s suitability for younger adolescents has recently been called into question by readability analysis. To provide further insight into the age-appropriateness of the self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, readability was assessed at the item level alongside consideration of item quality criteria, its factor structure was analyzed, and measurement invariance between adolescents in Year 7 (age 11-12 years) versus Year 9 (age 13-15 years) was tested. The measure showed a wide range of reading ages, and the theorized factor structure was unacceptable. Measurement invariance was therefore considered for a flexible exploratory structural equation model, and no evidence of differences between age groups was found. Suggestions are made for the measure’s revision based on these findings.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-02-14T06:50:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120903382
  • The Development of a Measure to Assess Social Reactions to Self-Injury
    • Authors: Brooke A. Ammerman, Michael S. McCloskey
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Only approximately half of individuals engaging in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) ever disclose their behavior. Yet there is a dearth of research aimed at understanding NSSI disclosure and the outcomes of choosing to disclose, such as social reactions to NSSI disclosure. The current study aimed to develop and validate a measure of perceived social reactions to the disclosure of NSSI, the Self-Injury Social Reactions Questionnaire (SI-SRQ). Results supported a three-factor structure of the SI-SRQ assessing positive (tangible aid, emotional support) and negative social reactions in undergraduate (n = 269), community (n = 217), and recent NSSI (n = 129) samples. The internal consistencies of the resultant subscales, in addition to the convergent validity, were also supported. The development of the SI-SRQ provides an avenue to enhance our knowledge of the relationship between social reactions to NSSI disclosure and disclosure outcomes, which may help inform educational efforts about responding to NSSI disclosures more effectively.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-02-07T06:22:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120903081
  • The Reasons for Living Inventory for Young Adults (RFL-YA-II)
    • Authors: Saifa Pirani, Cheyenne Kulhanek, Katherine Wainwright, Augustine Osman
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Suicide remains the second leading cause of death among young adults aged 15 years and older. Given its negative impact, it is essential to conduct studies that offer a greater understanding of the reasons young adults give for not engaging in suicide-related behaviors. The Reasons for Living Inventory for Young Adults is designed to explore this idea. This novel 24-item instrument measures four protective dimensions of reasons: Peer Acceptance and Support, Family Sources of Support, Faith-Related Support, and Personal Perceived Strength. The current investigations include two validation studies designed to examine further the psychometric properties of this instrument. Participants were undergraduate students at a state university in the U.S. Southwest. The first aim of the study was to evaluate the dimensionality of the instrument. We used confirmatory and bifactor confirmatory factor analyses to address this goal. The second aim was to examine the evidence for reliability estimates and concurrent validity. Results from both studies provided adequate support for a four-factor model across methods, acceptable internal consistency reliability, and concurrent validity for the dimensions of this instrument.Public Significance Statement: Suicide remains a significant mental health concern for young adults. The present studies found empirical support for the psychometric properties of a new measure for assessing four dimensions of the target construct: Peer-Acceptance and Social Support, Family Sources of Support, Faith-Related Support, and Personal Perceived Strength.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-01-24T01:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119900242
  • Different Styles, Different Times: How Response Times Can Inform Our
           Knowledge About the Response Process in Rating Scale Measurement
    • Authors: Mirka Henninger, Hansjörg Plieninger
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      When respondents use different ways to answer rating scale items, they employ so-called response styles that can bias inferences drawn from measurement. To describe the influence of such response styles on the response process, we investigated relations between extreme, acquiescent, and mid response style and response times in three studies using multilevel modeling. On the response level, agreement and midpoint, but not extreme responses were slower. On the person level, response times increased for extreme, but not for acquiescence or mid response style traits. For all three response styles, we found negative cross-level interaction effects, indicating that a response matching the response style trait is faster. The results demonstrate that response styles facilitate the choice of specific category combinations in terms of response speed across a wide range of response style trait levels.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-01-24T01:47:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119900003
  • The Stroop Negative Priming Matching Task: A New Task for the Direct
           Comparison of Interference Control and Inhibition
    • Authors: Gebhard Sammer, Denise Lockhofen, Eva Lenz
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Inhibition processing is an inherent part of cognitive and behavioral control. The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate psychometric criteria of an experimental paradigm that combines Stroop interference and negative priming, both of which involve inhibitory processes. We adopted a Stroop matching paradigm assessing interference control and implemented a negative priming condition. A nonclinical community sample of 94 volunteers performed this Stroop Negative Priming Matching paradigm. Since timing plays a role in priming, the interval between the prime and the probe has been varied in length (500 ms, 800 ms, and 3000 ms). The main results showed both, effects of Stroop interference and negative priming, as indicated by reaction times and incorrect responses. Reduced time pressure showed an effect on response speed and accuracy, but no interaction with interference and priming effects occurred. Reliability computed as internal consistency was generally high and did not differ between Stroop interference and negative priming scales. Retest-reliability was best for the prime–probe interval of 3000 ms. Concluding, the Stroop negative priming matching task provides reliable and directly comparable assessment of Stroop interference and negative priming effects.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T12:10:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119900254
  • Clinical Utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
           Inventory–2–Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in a Residential Treatment
           Program for Homeless Individuals
    • Authors: Mark A. Ruiz, Mary T. Dorritie
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examined the clinical utility of the Restructured Form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 (MMPI-2-RF) in a residential treatment program for homeless individuals. MMPI-2-RF scale scores from 146 participants with valid profiles were correlated with variables obtained at intake and during treatment. The sample was then followed 12 months postdischarge to test preregistered hypotheses regarding MMPI-2-RF predictors of hospital readmissions. The results indicated that a variety of MMPI-2-RF scale scores were correlated with historical and diagnostic variables at intake and with measures of treatment outcome, including behavioral problems and successful outcome. A broad range of MMPI-2-RF scale scores were related to readmissions postdischarge and many of these relationships remained significant when tested in Poisson regression models containing other predictors. However, the postdischarge findings were generally inconsistent with our predictions and were of small effect size. The clinical implications of MMPI-2-RF results for residential treatment programs are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-01-20T06:02:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119899481
  • Factor Structure, Convergent, and Divergent Validity of the Prodromal
           Questionnaire–Negative Symptom Subscale
    • Authors: Katherine M. Pierce, Seth D. Maxwell, Thomas M. Olino, Shanna Cooper, Lauren M. Ellman
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Negative symptoms such as anhedonia are associated with psychosis risk and poorer outcomes. The Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ) is a self-report questionnaire used to screen for psychosis spectrum symptoms. However, the convergent and divergent validity and underlying factor structure of the PQ–negative symptom subscale (PQ-N) have yet to be examined. Undergraduates (N = 1,556) completed the PQ, Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale, and measures assessing anxiety, depression, and motivation. An exploratory factor analysis conducted on the PQ-N yielded a two-factor solution, reflecting subdimensions of social expression and dissociative–depressive experiences, contrary to previous research examining the factor structure of negative symptoms. Associations between the PQ-N, its two factors, and measures of negative symptoms and other psychopathology were examined. Results indicated that the PQ-N and its factors were more strongly correlated with measures of depression and anxiety than with measures of negative symptoms relating to motivation and pleasure, suggesting poor convergent and divergent validity.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-01-20T06:01:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119899981
  • Positive, Negative, and Disorganized Schizotypy Predict Differential
           Patterns of Interview-Rated Schizophrenia-Spectrum Symptoms and Impairment
    • Authors: Kathryn C. Kemp, Alyssa J. Bathery, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Thomas R. Kwapil
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The present study assessed the construct validity of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS). Specifically, it assessed the associations of the MSS positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy subscales with interview-rated symptoms and impairment in 177 young adults. As hypothesized, the MSS positive schizotypy subscale was associated with interview-rated positive symptoms, and schizotypal and paranoid personality traits. Negative schizotypy was associated with interview-rated negative symptoms, and schizotypal and schizoid traits, and elevated rates of schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders. Disorganized schizotypy was associated with disorganized symptoms and attentional deficits. All three subscales were associated with impaired functioning. This was the first study to evaluate the validity of the MSS using interview measures. The findings indicate that the schizotypy dimensions are associated with unique patterns of symptoms and impairment, and support the validity of the MSS.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-01-20T05:59:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119900008
  • Assessing the Psychometric Proprieties of the Attitudes Toward Seeking
           Professional Psychological Help Scale–Short Form (ATSPPH-SF) Among
           Latino Adults
    • Authors: Lucas Torres, Brooke Magnus, Natasha Najar
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Latino population continues to underutilize mental health services at an alarming rate. The Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale–Short Form (ATSPPH-SF) is one of the most commonly used instruments to assess help-seeking attitudes. The current study sought to evaluate the factor structure and test for the presence of differential item functioning on the ATSPPH-SF with a sample of Latino adult individuals across nativity status (U.S.- vs. foreign-born), language format (English vs. Spanish), and gender. The analyses revealed two relatively independent factors named Openness to Seeking Treatment and Value and Need in Seeking Treatment. Measurement equivalence and practical implications are discussed in the context of use with Latino individuals.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T05:57:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119899470
  • Confabulations in Alcoholic Korsakoff’s Syndrome: A Factor Analysis of
           the Nijmegen–Venray Confabulation List
    • Authors: Yvonne C.M. Rensen, Erik Oudman, Joukje M. Oosterman, Roy P. C. Kessels
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Confabulations generally refer to the emergence of memories of experiences and events that, in reality, never took place, and which are unintentionally produced. They are frequently observed in alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome. The aim of the current study was to validate the Nijmegen–Venray Confabulation List (NVCL), an observation scale for quantifying both spontaneous and provoked confabulations. The NVCL was completed for 252 patients with alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test three- and four-factor models of the NVCL structure. A four-factor model (provoked confabulations, spontaneous confabulations, severity of spontaneous confabulations, and distorted sense of reality) fitted the data better than the initially proposed three-factor model (provoked confabulations, spontaneous confabulations, memory, and orientation). The new instrument is therefore referred to as the NVCL-R. We encourage clinicians to include the assessment of confabulations in the neuropsychological examination, and to do so with validated instruments such as the NVCL-R.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T05:55:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119899476
  • Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders Through the Lens of an
           Empirical Network Model
    • Authors: Carmen Díaz-Batanero, Antón Aluja, Pablo Sayans-Jiménez, Eva Baillés, Fermín Fernández-Calderón, Josep M. Peri, Gemma Vall, Óscar M. Lozano, Fernando Gutiérrez
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Alternative Model for Personality Disorders defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fifth edition (DSM-5) has recently attracted considerable interest in empirical research, with different hypotheses being proposed to explain the discordant results shown in previous research. Empirical network analysis has begun to be applied for complementing the study of psychopathological phenomena according to a new perspective. This article applies this analysis to personality facets measured in a sample of 626 patients with mental disorders and a 1,034 normative sample, using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. The results reveal five substructures partially equivalent to domains defined in the DSM-5. Discordant facets (suspiciousness, hostility, rigid perfectionism, attention seeking, and restricted affectivity) play the role of connectors between substructures. Invariance between clinical and community networks was found except for the connection between unusual beliefs and perceptual dysregulation (stronger in the clinical sample). Considering the strength centrality index, anxiousness, emotional lability, and depressivity can be highlighted for their relative importance within both clinical and normative networks.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T05:53:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119897118
  • Examining the Dimensionality, Reliability, and Invariance of the
           Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21) Across Eight
    • Authors: Cristian Zanon, Rachel E. Brenner, Makilim N. Baptista, David L. Vogel, Mark Rubin, Fatima R. Al-Darmaki, Marta Gonçalves, Patrick J. Heath, Hsin-Ya Liao, Corey S. Mackenzie, Nursel Topkaya, Nathaniel G. Wade, Alina Zlati
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated the dimensionality, invariance, and reliability of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21) within and across Brazil, Canada, Hong Kong, Romania, Taiwan, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and the United States (N = 2,580) in college student samples. We used confirmatory factor analyses to compare the fit of four different factor structures of the DASS-21: a unidimensional model, a three-correlated-factors model, a higher order model, and a bifactor model. The bifactor model, with three specific factors (depression, anxiety, and stress) and one general factor (general distress), presented the best fit within each country. We also calculated ancillary bifactor indices of model-based dimensionality of the DASS-21 and model-based reliability to further examine the validity of the composite total and subscale scores and the use of unidimensional modeling. Results suggested the DASS-21 can be used as a unidimensional scale. Finally, measurement invariance of the best fitting model was tested across countries indicating configural invariance. The traditional three-correlated-factors model presented scalar invariance across Canada, Hong Kong, Romania, Taiwan, and the United States. Overall, these analyses indicate that the DASS-21 would best be used as a general score of distress rather than three separate factors of depression, anxiety, and stress, in the countries studied.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-01-09T10:34:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119887449
  • Regression-Based Normative Data for Children From Latin America:
           Phonological Verbal Fluency Letters M, R, and P
    • Authors: Diego Rivera, Laiene Olabarrieta-Landa, Wim Van der Elst, Isabel Gonzalez, Rosario Ferrer-Cascales, Ana Ivis Peñalver Guia, Alberto Rodriguez-Lorenzana, Javier Galarza-del-Angel, María José Irías Escher, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This study is part of a larger project to generate norms for letter verbal fluency test (VFT) in 3,284 children from nine Latin American countries. The letter VFT (letters M, R, and P) was administered and multiple linear regressions, including age, age2, MPE (mean parental education), MPE2, sex, and interactions were used as predictors. Results showed significant differences across countries for all scores. Age affected scores linearly except for Ecuador (P-letter), in which a quadratic effect was found. Scores increased linearly as a function of MPE, with the exception of Mexico (R-letter), in which a quadratic effect was found. Age by MPE (M- and P-letters), and age by MPE2 (R-letter) interactions were found in Mexico. Sex had an impact on letter R in Cuba, and letter P in Ecuador and Paraguay. Age2 by sex interaction was found in Ecuador (P-letter). These norms will be useful for clinical neuropsychologists in these countries to evaluate their patients’ verbal fluency.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-01-06T12:26:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119897122
  • Validation of the Anger Expression Scale for Children With Fourth and
           Fifth Graders: Implications for Identifying Students at Risk for Behavior
    • Authors: Michelle M. Cumming, Daniel Poling, Stephen W. Smith
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      An inability to successfully regulate anger has been linked to adverse outcomes for students, including psychological problems and special education placement due to significant emotional and behavioral difficulties. Early identification, therefore, is critical to provide timely intervention for students before anger-related problems escalate. The Anger Expression Scale for Children was developed to address some of the limitations of previous measurement tools designed to assess anger expression with children and adolescents. Yet validation is needed with upper elementary school populations—a key identification and prevention period. Thus, we examined the factor structure of the scale with 2,020 fourth and fifth graders. Results revealed support for a modified two-factor model, with a general Anger Expression factor and Anger Control factor. Criterion-related validity analyses indicated that Anger Expression was positively associated with aggression and externalizing problems, whereas Anger Control was related to emotion control and less internalizing behaviors. We discuss implications of findings for both informed school use and future research.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-01-02T07:01:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191119897119
  • Using Complete Enumeration to Derive “One-Size-Fits-All” Versus
           “Subgroup-Specific” Diagnostic Rules for Substance Use Disorder
    • Authors: Cassandra L. Boness, Jordan E. Loeffelman, Douglas Steinley, Timothy Trull, Kenneth J. Sher
      First page: 1075
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The use of fixed diagnostic rules, whereby the same diagnostic algorithms are applied across all individuals regardless of personal attributes, has been the tradition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. This practice of “averaging” across individuals inevitably introduces diagnostic error. Furthermore, these average rules are typically derived through expert consensus rather than through data-driven approaches. Utilizing National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2013 (N = 23, 889), we examined whether subgroup-specific, “customized” alcohol use disorder diagnostic rules, derived using deterministic optimization, perform better than an average, “one-size-fits-all” diagnostic rule. The average solution for the full sample included a set size of six and diagnostic threshold of three. Subgroups had widely varying set sizes (M = 6.870; range = 5-10) with less varying thresholds (M = 2.70; range = 2-4). External validation verified that the customized algorithms performed as well, and sometimes better than, the average solution in the prediction of relevant correlates. However, the average solution still performed adequately with respect to external validators.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2020-02-10T10:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120903092
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