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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 238, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 511, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Annals of Oncology
  [SJR: 4.362]   [H-I: 173]   [47 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0923-7534 - ISSN (Online) 1569-8041
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Tracking colorectal cancer evolution in time and space
    • Authors: Rospo GG; Corti GG, Crisafulli GG, et al.
      First page: 1163
      Abstract: In the current issue of Annals of Oncology, Lote et al. shed light on the timelines of metastatic dissemination in a colorectal cancer patient [1]. We have long known that the process leading from a primary neoplasm to the formation of metastases involves years (often decades) [2–4]. However, the precise timelines of each step have been difficult to estimate with accuracy. Lote et al. exploited a clever approach involving clinical annotation of metastasis seeding coupled to mathematic calculations to reconstruct the chronological evolution of a colorectal cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx127
       
  • Identifying predictive factors of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
           (CINV): a novel approach
    • Authors: Scotté FF.
      First page: 1165
      Abstract: In this issue of Annals of Oncology, Dranitsaris et al. [1] report the development of an innovative prediction tool to identify cancer patients who are at high risk of chemotherapy-induced emesis. This novel approach could possibly change routine daily practice for these patients. International leaders in the field have combined their experience to conduct a study with the aim of identifying predictive factors of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), using data prospectively collected from five non-industrial studies [2–8]. The primary endpoint was to detect risk factors related to grade ≥2 CINV, based on previous studies reported in the literature [3, 4, 9, 10]. In the data pooled from 1198 patients who were assessed, the eight predictive factors defined with a P-value set at <0.05 were: patient age ≤60 years, the first two cycles of chemotherapy, anticipatory nausea and vomiting, history of morning sickness, <7 h of sleep the night before, type of chemotherapy, occurrence of CINV during the prior cycle, patient self-medication at home with non-prescribed treatments, and the use of platinum or anthracycline-based regimens. The rigorous methodology developed by the authors to identify these risk factors, met some bias related to preselected measurable variables. The suggested cut-off point at ≥16 had a good sensitivity of 87.4% but a poor specificity at 38.4% with a high rate of false positives. The patient’s distribution showed predominantly female gender (74.6%), known to be at higher risk of emesis, as well as a majority of patients undergoing a High Emetogenic Chemotherapy (HEC) regimen, as defined by the different published guidelines [11–13]. Finally, the high level of missing anxiety questionnaire (25.7%) may have impacted the characteristics of defined risk factors.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx120
       
  • Combining PI3K and PARP inhibitors for breast and ovarian cancer treatment
    • Authors: Condorelli RR; André FF.
      First page: 1167
      Abstract: PARP inhibitors have shown antitumor activity in phase II trials, nevertheless, the magnitude of benefit in the metastatic setting is modest and there is therefore a need to combine with other compounds [1, 2]. Matulonis et al. [3] report the toxicity and efficacy of a combination between BKM120, a non-selective PI3K inhibitor, and olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, in patients with breast and ovarian cancers. The rationale for this trial came from two studies reported in 2012 [4, 5]. The first showed that PI3K inhibition decreases BRCA1/2 expression and leads to homologous recombination deficiency. The authors then showed that the combination of PI3K and PARP inhibitors exhibits antitumor activity in triple negative breast cancer with wild type BRCA1. The second study showed that, in a model of BRCA1-mutated TNBC, BKM120 increased antitumor effects of PARP inhibitors. This second paper focused on BRCA1, and the synergism was not investigated in BRCA2-mediated cancers.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx218
       
  • Statistical controversies in clinical research: overlap and errors in the
           meta-analyses of microRNA genetic association studies in cancers
    • Authors: Park JH; Eisenhut MM, van der Vliet HJ, et al.
      First page: 1169
      Abstract: BackgroundVarious errors in the design, conduct, and analysis of medical and public health research studies can produce false results and waste valuable resources. While systematic reviews and meta-analyses are arguably considered the most dependable source of evidence-based medicine, increasing numbers of studies are indicating that, on the contrary to the public’s belief, many of these investigations are redundant, erroneous, and even biased.MethodsNinety-four meta-analyses on microRNA polymorphism and risk of cancer were extracted from Pubmed database on August 2016. Two investigators independently extracted data (i.e. number of studies, ethnicity, number of cases/controls, bias, etc.) from each meta-analysis. PROSPERO registration status and reference status were also recorded.ResultsAmong the 217 microRNA gene-variant cancer associations reported by 94 published meta-analyses, 37% had overlapping results and were extracted from the exact identical case–control studies. However, not one meta-analysis was registered into PROSPERO. Thirty-one percent of the overlapping associations referenced a previous meta-analysis investigating the same association; although only 36% of these overlapping associations referenced earlier meta-analysis that had the same overlapping results. Seventy-four percent of these references were limited to mere citations. Twenty-six percent of the overlapping associations from 16 meta-analyses showed discordant results, and of these, 87% of the genotype comparisons were found significant, contrary to the initial reports of being non-significant. However, no association was noteworthy in regards to false positive rate probability calculations at a given prior probability of 0.001 and 0.000001 and statistical power to detect an odds ratio (OR) of 1.1 and 1.5.ConclusionsGenetic association meta-analyses were by far more redundant, erroneous, and lacking references than initially expected. Careful search of similar studies, attention to small details, and inclination to reference previous works are needed. This paper proposes potential solutions for these problems in hopes of standardizing research efforts and in improving the quality of medical research.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx024
       
  • Statistical controversies in clinical research: Value of adverse events
           relatedness to study treatment: analyses of data from randomized
           double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials
    • Authors: Le-Rademacher JJ; Hillman SL, Meyers JJ, et al.
      First page: 1183
      Abstract: BackgroundCollection and reporting of adverse events (AEs) and their relatedness to study treatment, known commonly as attribution, in clinical trials is mandated by regulatory agencies (the National Cancer Institute and the Food and Drug Administration). Attribution is assigned by the treating physician using judgment based on various factors including patient’s baseline status, disease history, and comorbidity as well as knowledge about the safety profile of the study treatments. We evaluate the patterns of AE attribution (unrelated, unlikely, possibly, probably, and definitely related to the treatment) in treatment, symptom intervention (cancer patients) and cancer prevention (participants at high risk for cancer) setting.Materials and methodsNine multicenter placebo-controlled trials (two treatment, two symptom intervention, and five cancer prevention) were analysed separately (2155 patients). Frequency and severity of AEs were summarized by arm. Attribution and percentage of repeated AEs whose attribution changed overtime were summarized for the placebo arms. Percentage of physician over- or under-reporting of AE relatedness was calculated for the treatment arms using the placebo arm as the reference.ResultsAcross all trials and settings, a very high proportion of AEs reported as related to treatment were classified as possibly related, a significant proportion of AEs in the placebo arm were incorrectly reported as related to treatment, and clinician-reported attribution over-estimated the rate of AEs related to treatment. Fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and neurosensory were the common AEs that were over reported by clinician as related to treatment.ConclusionsThese analyses demonstrate that assigning causality to AE is a complex and difficult process that produces unreliable and subjective data. In randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials where data are available to objectively assess relatedness of AE to treatment, attribution assignment should be eliminated.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx043
       
  • Promises and challenges for the implementation of computational medical
           imaging (radiomics) in oncology
    • Authors: Limkin EJ; Sun RR, Dercle LL, et al.
      First page: 1191
      Abstract: Medical image processing and analysis (also known as Radiomics) is a rapidly growing discipline that maps digital medical images into quantitative data, with the end goal of generating imaging biomarkers as decision support tools for clinical practice. The use of imaging data from routine clinical work-up has tremendous potential in improving cancer care by heightening understanding of tumor biology and aiding in the implementation of precision medicine. As a noninvasive method of assessing the tumor and its microenvironment in their entirety, radiomics allows the evaluation and monitoring of tumor characteristics such as temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One can observe a rapid increase in the number of computational medical imaging publications—milestones that have highlighted the utility of imaging biomarkers in oncology. Nevertheless, the use of radiomics as clinical biomarkers still necessitates amelioration and standardization in order to achieve routine clinical adoption. This Review addresses the critical issues to ensure the proper development of radiomics as a biomarker and facilitate its implementation in clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx034
       
  • Targeting the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in gastric cancer:
           promise or pitfall'
    • Authors: Hierro CC; Alsina MM, Sánchez MM, et al.
      First page: 1207
      Abstract: Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. Systemic chemotherapy remains the mainstay therapeutic option for this poor prognosis cancer. Trastuzumab, the epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2 or HER2)-antibody, is the only biological agent approved for the molecularly selected population of HER2-positive gastric cancer patients. Over the last decade, several groups have been working for deepening into the molecular characterization of gastric cancer, shedding some light into the heterogeneity of this tumour. The published data have broadened the landscape towards a future molecular classification into several subtypes of gastric cancer, enabling a better selection of the optimal therapeutic strategy. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway plays a key role in gastric cancer pathogenesis, with 1.2%–9% of gastric cancer patients harbouring FGFR2 amplifications. Several selective FGFR inhibitors have been developed in the last years, with promising efficacy signals. However, there is still scarce evidence of the most reliant molecular determinants of response to these targeted agents. Homogeneous high-level clonal FGFR2-amplification, high FGFR2 mRNA or protein levels, specific FGFR2 C3 isoform expression, FGF ligand co-overexpression or detection of FGFR2 copy number in plasma circulating tumour DNA, are considered some of the potential predictive biomarkers to the FGFR inhibition. The successful development of highly specific FGFR inhibitors will rely on our capacity of establishing new personalized strategies, based on a deeper knowledge of the key alterations that drive oncogenesis in gastric cancer. Further efforts seem mandatory in order to implement accurate predictive biomarkers in the next stages of the FGFR inhibitors development.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx081
       
  • Adult weight gain and colorectal adenomas—a systematic review and
           meta-analysis
    • Authors: Schlesinger SS; Aleksandrova KK, Abar LL, et al.
      First page: 1217
      Abstract: BackgroundColorectal adenomas are known as precursors for the majority of colorectal carcinomas. While weight gain during adulthood has been identified as a risk factor for colorectal cancer, the association is less clear for colorectal adenomas. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the evidence on this association.MethodsWe searched Medline up to September 2016 to identify observational (prospective, cross-sectional and retrospective) studies on weight gain during adulthood and colorectal adenoma occurrence and recurrence. We conducted meta-analysis on high weight gain versus stable weight, linear and non-linear dose–response meta-analyses to analyze the association. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using a random effects model.ResultsFor colorectal adenoma occurrence, the summary OR was 1.39 (95% CI: 1.17–1.65; I2: 43%, N = 9 studies, cases = 5507) comparing high (midpoint: 17.4 kg) versus stable weight gain during adulthood and with each 5 kg weight gain the odds increased by 7% (2%–11%; I2: 65%, N = 7 studies). Although there was indication of non-linearity (Pnon-linearity < 0.001) there was an increased odds of colorectal adenoma throughout the whole range of weight gain. Three studies were identified investigating the association between weight gain and colorectal adenoma recurrence and data were limited to draw firm conclusions.ConclusionsEven a small amount of adult weight gain was related to a higher odds of colorectal adenoma occurrence. Our findings add to the benefits of weight control in adulthood regarding colorectal adenoma occurrence, which might be relevant for early prevention of colorectal cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx080
       
  • Best practices for the management of local-regional recurrent chordoma: a
           position paper by the Chordoma Global Consensus Group
    • Authors: Stacchiotti SS; Gronchi AA, Fossati PP, et al.
      First page: 1230
      Abstract: Chordomas are rare, malignant bone tumors of the skull-base and axial skeleton. Until recently, there was no consensus among experts regarding appropriate clinical management of chordoma, resulting in inconsistent care and suboptimal outcomes for many patients. To address this shortcoming, the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the Chordoma Foundation, the global chordoma patient advocacy group, convened a multi-disciplinary group of chordoma specialists to define by consensus evidence-based best practices for the optimal approach to chordoma. In January 2015, the first recommendations of this group were published, covering the management of primary and metastatic chordomas. Additional evidence and further discussion were needed to develop recommendations about the management of local-regional failures. Thus, ESMO and CF convened a second consensus group meeting in November 2015 to address the treatment of locally relapsed chordoma. This meeting involved over 60 specialists from Europe, the United States and Japan with expertise in treatment of patients with chordoma. The consensus achieved during that meeting is the subject of the present publication and complements the recommendations of the first position paper.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx054
       
  • Carbon dating cancer: defining the chronology of metastatic progression in
           colorectal cancer
    • Authors: Lote HH; Spiteri II, Ermini LL, et al.
      First page: 1243
      Abstract: BackgroundPatients often ask oncologists how long a cancer has been present before causing symptoms or spreading to other organs. The evolutionary trajectory of cancers can be defined using phylogenetic approaches but lack of chronological references makes dating the exact onset of tumours very challenging.Patients and methodsHere, we describe the case of a colorectal cancer (CRC) patient presenting with synchronous lung metastasis and metachronous thyroid, chest wall and urinary tract metastases over the course of 5 years. The chest wall metastasis was caused by needle tract seeding, implying a known time of onset. Using whole genome sequencing data from primary and metastatic sites we inferred the complete chronology of the cancer by exploiting the time of needle tract seeding as an in vivo ‘stopwatch’. This approach allowed us to follow the progression of the disease back in time, dating each ancestral node of the phylogenetic tree in the past history of the tumour. We used a Bayesian phylogenomic approach, which accounts for possible dynamic changes in mutational rate, to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree and effectively ‘carbon date’ the malignant progression.ResultsThe primary colon cancer emerged between 5 and 8 years before the clinical diagnosis. The primary tumour metastasized to the lung and the thyroid within a year from its onset. The thyroid lesion presented as a tumour-to-tumour deposit within a benign Hurthle adenoma. Despite rapid metastatic progression from the primary tumour, the patient showed an indolent disease course. Primary cancer and metastases were microsatellite stable and displayed low chromosomal instability. Neo-antigen analysis suggested minimal immunogenicity.ConclusionOur data provide the first in vivo experimental evidence documenting the timing of metastatic progression in CRC and suggest that genomic instability might be more important than the metastatic potential of the primary cancer in dictating CRC fate.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx074
       
  • Co-clinical trials demonstrate predictive biomarkers for dovitinib, an
           FGFR inhibitor, in lung squamous cell carcinoma
    • Authors: Kim HR; Kang HN, Shim HS, et al.
      First page: 1250
      Abstract: BackgroundWe conducted co-clinical trials in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models to identify predictive biomarkers for the multikinase inhibitor dovitinib in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).MethodsThe PDX01-02 were established from LSCC patients enrolled in the phase II trial of dovitinib (NCT01861197) and PDX03-05 were established from LSCC patients receiving surgery. These five PDX tumors were subjected to in vivo test of dovitinib efficacy, whole exome sequencing and gene expression profiling.ResultsThe PDX tumors recapitulate histopathological properties and maintain genomic characteristics of originating tumors. Concordant with clinical outcomes of the trial enrolled-LSCC patients, dovitinib produced substantial tumor regression in PDX-01 and PDX-05, whereas it resulted in tumor progression in PDX-02. PDX-03 and -04 also displayed poor antitumor efficacy to dovitinib. Mutational and genome-wide copy number profiles revealed no correlation between genomic alterations of FGFR1-3 and sensitivity to dovitinib. Of note, gene expression profiles revealed differentially expressed genes including FGF3 and FGF19 between PDX-01 and 05 and PDX-02-04. Pathway analysis identified two FGFR signaling-related gene sets, FGFR ligand binding/activation and SHC-mediated cascade pathway were substantially up-regulated in PDX-01 and 05, compared with PDX-02-04. The comparison of gene expression profiles between dovitinib-sensitive versus -resistant lung cancer cell lines in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia database also found that transcriptional activation of 18 key signaling components in FGFR pathways can predict the sensitivity to dovitinib both in cell lines and PDX tumors. These results highlight FGFR pathway activation as a key molecular determinant for sensitivity to dovitinib.ConclusionsFGFR gene expression signatures are predictors for the response to dovitinib in LSCC.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx098
       
  • The development of a prediction tool to identify cancer patients at high
           risk for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
    • Authors: Dranitsaris GG; Molassiotis AA, Clemons MM, et al.
      First page: 1260
      Abstract: BackgroundDespite the availability of effective antiemetics and evidence-based guidelines, up to 40% of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy fail to achieve complete nausea and vomiting control. In addition to type of chemotherapy, several patient-related risk factors for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) have been identified. To incorporate these factors into the optimal selection of prophylactic antiemetics, a repeated measures cycle-based model to predict the risk of ≥ grade 2 CINV (≥2 vomiting episodes or a decrease in oral intake due to nausea) from days 0 to 5 post-chemotherapy was developed.Patients and methodsData from 1198 patients enrolled in one of the five non-interventional CINV prospective studies were pooled. Generalized estimating equations were used in a backwards elimination process with the P-value set at <0.05 to identify the relevant predictive factors. A risk scoring algorithm (range 0–32) was then derived from the final model coefficients. Finally, a receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROCC) analysis was done to measure the predictive accuracy of the scoring algorithm.ResultsOver 4197 chemotherapy cycles, 42.2% of patients experienced ≥grade 2 CINV. Eight risk factors were identified: patient age <60 years, the first two cycles of chemotherapy, anticipatory nausea and vomiting, history of morning sickness, hours of sleep the night before chemotherapy, CINV in the prior cycle, patient self-medication with non-prescribed treatments, and the use of platinum or anthracycline-based regimens. The ROC analysis indicated good predictive accuracy with an area-under-the-curve of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.67–0.70). Before to each cycle of therapy, patients with risk scores ≥16 units would be considered at high risk for developing ≥grade 2 CINV.ConclusionsThe clinical application of this prediction tool will be an important source of individual patient risk information for the oncology clinician and may enhance patient care by optimizing the use of the antiemetics in a proactive manner.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx100
       
  • Integrated safety analysis of rolapitant with coadministered drugs from
           phase II/III trials: an assessment of CYP2D6 or BCRP inhibition by
           rolapitant
    • Authors: Barbour SS; Smit TT, Wang XX, et al.
      First page: 1268
      Abstract: BackgroundRolapitant, a long-acting neurokinin (NK)1 receptor antagonist (RA), has demonstrated efficacy in prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients administered moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Unlike other NK1 RAs, rolapitant does not inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, but it does inhibit CYP2D6 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). To analyze potential drug–drug interactions between rolapitant and concomitant medications, this integrated safety analysis of four double-blind, randomized phase II or III studies of rolapitant examined adverse events (AEs) by use versus non-use of drug substrates of CYP2D6 or BCRP.Patients and methodsPatients were randomized to receive either 180 mg oral rolapitant or placebo ∼1–2 h before chemotherapy in combination with a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 RA and dexamethasone. Data for treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs) and treatment-emergent serious AEs (TESAEs) during cycle 1 were pooled across the four studies and summarized in the overall population and by concomitant use/non-use of CYP2D6 or BCRP substrate drugs.ResultsIn the integrated safety population, 828 of 1294 patients (64%) in the rolapitant group and 840 of 1301 patients (65%) in the control group experienced at least one TEAE. Frequencies of common TEAEs were similar in the rolapitant and control populations. Overall, 53% of patients received CYP2D6 substrate drugs, none of which had a narrow therapeutic index (like thioridazine or pimozide), and 63% received BCRP substrate drugs. When grouped by concomitant use versus non-use of CYP2D6 or BCRP substrate drugs, TEAEs and TESAEs occurred with similar frequency in the rolapitant and control populations.ConclusionsThe results of this study support the safety of rolapitant as part of an antiemetic triple-drug regimen in patients receiving emetogenic chemotherapy, including those administered concomitant medications that are substrates of CYP2D6 or BCRP, such as ondansetron, docetaxel, or irinotecan.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx073
       
  • Networking for ovarian rare tumors: a significant breakthrough improving
           disease management
    • Authors: Chiannilkulchai NN; Pautier PP, Genestie CC, et al.
      First page: 1274
      Abstract: BackgroundRare ovarian tumors represent >20% of all ovarian cancers. Given the rarity of these tumors, natural history, prognostic factors are not clearly identified. The extreme variability of patients (age, histological subtypes, stage) induces multiple and complex therapeutic strategies.MethodsSince 2011, a national network with a dedicated system for referral, up to 22 regional and three national reference centers (RC) has been supported by the French National Cancer Institute (INCa). The network aims to prospectively monitor the management of rare ovarian tumors and provide an equal access to medical expertise and innovative treatments to all French patients through a dedicated website, www.ovaire-rare.org.ResultsOver a 5-year activity, 4612 patients have been included. Patients’ inclusions increased from 553 in 2011 to 1202 in 2015. Expert pathology review and patients’ files discussion in dedicated multidisciplinary tumor boards increased from 166 cases in 2011 (25%) to 538 (45%) in 2015. Pathology review consistently modified the medical strategy in 5–9% every year. The rate of patients’ files discussed in RC similarly increased from 294 (53%) to 789 (66%). An increasing number (357 in 5 years) of gynecologic (non-ovarian) rare tumors were also registered by physicians seeking for pathological or medical advice from expert tumor boards.ConclusionSuch a nation-wide organization for rare gynecological tumors has invaluable benefits, not only for patients, but also for epidemiological, clinical and biological research.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx099
       
  • Phase II randomized study of PM01183 versus topotecan in patients with
           platinum-resistant/refractory advanced ovarian cancer
    • Authors: Poveda AA; del Campo JM, Ray-Coquard II, et al.
      First page: 1280
      Abstract: Background PM01183 is a new compound that blocks active transcription, produces DNA breaks and apoptosis, and affects the inflammatory microenvironment. PM01183 showed strong antitumor activity in preclinical models of cisplatin-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer.Patients and methodsPatients with platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer were included in a two-stage, controlled, randomized (in a second stage), multicenter, phase II study. Primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) by RECIST and/or GCIG criteria. The exploratory first stage (n = 22) confirmed the activity of PM01183 as a single agent at 7.0 mg flat dose every 3 weeks (q3wk). The second stage (n = 59) was randomized and controlled with topotecan on days 1–5 q3wk or weekly (every 4 weeks, q4wk).ResultsORR was 23% (95% CI, 13%–37%) for 52 PM01183-treated patients. Median duration of response was 4.6 months (95% CI, 2.5–6.9 months), and 23% (95% CI, 0%–51%) of responses lasted 6 months or more. Ten of the 12 confirmed responses were reported for 33 patients with platinum-resistant disease [ORR = 30% (95% CI, 16%–49%)]; for the 29 patients treated with topotecan in the second stage, no responses were found. Median PFS for all PM01183-treated patients was 4.0 months (95% CI, 2.7–5.6 months), and 5.0 months (95% CI, 2.7–6.9 months) for patients with platinum-resistant disease.Grade 3/4 neutropenia in 85% of patients; febrile neutropenia in 21% and fatigue (grade 3 in 35%) were the principal safety findings for PM01183.ConclusionPM01183 is an active drug in platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer and warrants further development. The highest activity was observed in platinum-resistant disease. Its safety profile indicates the dose should be adjusted to body surface area (mg/m2).Trial codeEudraCT 2011-002172-16.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx111
       
  • Randomized phase III trial of S-1 versus capecitabine in the first-line
           treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: SALTO study by the Dutch
           Colorectal Cancer Group
    • Authors: Kwakman JM; Simkens LJ, van Rooijen JM, et al.
      First page: 1288
      Abstract: BackgroundHand–foot syndrome (HFS) is a common side-effect of capecitabine. S-1 is an oral fluoropyrimidine with comparable efficacy to capecitabine in gastrointestinal cancers but associated with a lower incidence of HFS in Asian patients. This study compares the incidence of HFS between S-1 and capecitabine as first-line treatment in Western metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients.Patients and methodsPatients with previously untreated mCRC and planned treatment with fluoropyrimidine monochemotherapy were randomized 1 : 1 to receive either capecitabine (1250 mg/m2 orally for patients <70 years; 1000 mg/m2 for patients ≥70 years, twice daily on days 1–14) or S-1 (30 mg/m2 orally twice daily on days 1–14) in 3-weekly cycles, with bevacizumab optional in both groups. The primary endpoint was the incidence of any grade HFS, as assessed by both physicians and patients (diaries). Secondary endpoints included grade 3 HFS, other toxicities, relative dose intensity, progression-free survival, response rate and overall survival.ResultsA total of 161 patients were randomized in 27 centres. The incidence of any grade HFS as assessed by physicians was 73% in the capecitabine group (n = 80) and 45% in the S-1 group (n = 80) [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.31 (0.16–0.60), P = 0.0005]. The incidence of grade 3 HFS was 21% and 4% (P = 0.003), respectively. Patient-assessed any grade HFS was 84% and 58%, respectively (P = 0.004). Grade 3 anorexia was more common in the S-1 group (3% versus 13%, P = 0.03). Median relative dose intensity was 88% in the capecitabine group and 95% in the S-1 group (P = 0.026). There were no statistically significant differences in median progression-free survival, response rate and overall survival rates.ConclusionTreatment with S-1 in Western mCRC patients is associated with a significantly lower incidence of HFS compared with capecitabine, with comparable efficacy.ClinicalTrials.gov registration numberNCT01918852.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx122
       
  • Concordance of blood- and tumor-based detection of RAS mutations to guide
           anti-EGFR therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer
    • Authors: Grasselli JJ; Elez EE, Caratù GG, et al.
      First page: 1294
      Abstract: BackgroundCirculating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a potential source for tumor genome analysis. We explored the concordance between the mutational status of RAS in tumor tissue and ctDNA in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients to establish eligibility for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy.Patients and methodsA prospective-retrospective cohort study was carried out. Tumor tissue from 146 mCRC patients was tested for RAS status with standard of care (SoC) PCR techniques, and Digital PCR (BEAMing) was used both in plasma and tumor tissue.ResultsctDNA BEAMing RAS testing showed 89.7% agreement with SoC (Kappa index 0.80; 95% CI 0.71 − 0.90) and BEAMing in tissue showed 90.9% agreement with SoC (Kappa index 0.83; 95% CI 0.74 − 0.92). Fifteen cases (10.3%) showed discordant tissue-plasma results. ctDNA analysis identified nine cases of low frequency RAS mutations that were not detected in tissue, possibly due to technical sensitivity or heterogeneity. In six cases, RAS mutations were not detected in plasma, potentially explained by low tumor burden or ctDNA shedding. Prediction of treatment benefit in patients receiving anti-EGFR plus irinotecan in second- or third-line was equivalent if tested with SoC PCR and ctDNA. Forty-eight percent of the patients showed mutant allele fractions in plasma below 1%.ConclusionsPlasma RAS determination showed high overall agreement and captured a mCRC population responsive to anti-EGFR therapy with the same predictive level as SoC tissue testing. The feasibility and practicality of ctDNA analysis may translate into an alternative tool for anti-EGFR treatment selection.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx112
       
  • Tracking a CAD-ALK gene rearrangement in urine and blood of a colorectal
           cancer patient treated with an ALK inhibitor
    • Authors: Siravegna GG; Sartore-Bianchi AA, Mussolin BB, et al.
      First page: 1302
      Abstract: BackgroundMonitoring response and resistance to kinase inhibitors is essential to precision cancer medicine, and is usually investigated by molecular profiling of a tissue biopsy obtained at progression. However, tumor heterogeneity and tissue sampling bias limit the effectiveness of this strategy. In addition, tissue biopsies are not always feasible and are associated with risks due to the invasiveness of the procedure. To overcome these limitations, blood-based liquid biopsy analysis has proven effective to non-invasively follow tumor clonal evolution.Patients and methodsWe exploited urine cell-free, trans-renal DNA (tr-DNA) and matched plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to monitor a metastatic colorectal cancer patient carrying a CAD-ALK translocation during treatment with an ALK inhibitor.ResultsUsing a custom next generation sequencing panel we identified the genomic CAD-ALK rearrangement and a TP53 mutation in plasma ctDNA. Sensitive assays were developed to detect both alterations in urine tr-DNA. The dynamics of the CAD-ALK rearrangement in plasma and urine were concordant and paralleled the patient’s clinical course. Detection of the CAD-ALK gene fusion in urine tr-DNA anticipated radiological confirmation of disease progression. Analysis of plasma ctDNA identified ALK kinase mutations that emerged during treatment with the ALK inhibitor entrectinib.ConclusionWe find that urine-based genetic testing allows tracing of tumor-specific oncogenic rearrangements. This strategy could be effectively applied to non-invasively monitor tumor evolution during therapy. The same approach could be exploited to monitor minimal residual disease after surgery with curative intent in patients whose tumors carry gene fusions. The latter could be implemented without the need of patient hospitalization since urine tr-DNA can be self-collected, is stable over time and can be shipped at specified time-points to central labs for testing.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx095
       
  • A randomized, open-label, phase 2 study of everolimus in combination with
           pasireotide LAR or everolimus alone in advanced, well-differentiated,
           progressive pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: COOPERATE-2 trial
    • Authors: Kulke MH; Ruszniewski PP, Van Cutsem EE, et al.
      First page: 1309
      Abstract: BackgroundSeveral studies have demonstrated the antitumor activity of first-generation somatostatin analogs (SSAs), primarily targeting somatostatin receptor (sstr) subtypes 2 and 5, in neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Pasireotide, a second-generation SSA, targets multiple sstr subtypes. We compared the efficacy and safety of pasireotide plus everolimus to everolimus alone in patients with advanced, well-differentiated, progressive pancreatic NET.Patients and methodsPatients were randomized 1 : 1 to receive a combination of everolimus (10 mg/day, orally) and pasireotide long-acting release (60 mg/28 days, intramuscularly) or everolimus alone (10 mg/day, orally); stratified by prior SSA use, and baseline serum chromogranin A and neuron-specific enolase. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival, objective response rate, disease control rate, and safety. Biomarker response was evaluated in an exploratory analysis.ResultsOf 160 patients enrolled, 79 were randomized to the combination arm and 81 to the everolimus arm. Baseline demographics and disease characteristics were similar between the treatment arms. No significant difference was observed in PFS: 16.8 months in combination arm versus 16.6 months in everolimus arm (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.64–1.54). Partial responses were observed in 20.3% versus 6.2% of patients in combination arm versus everolimus arm; however, overall disease control rate was similar (77.2% versus 82.7%, respectively). No significant improvement was observed in median overall survival. Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of both the drugs; grade 3 or 4 fasting hyperglycemia was seen in 37% versus 11% of patients, respectively.ConclusionsThe addition of pasireotide to everolimus was not associated with the improvement in PFS compared with everolimus alone in this study. Further studies to delineate mechanisms by which SSAs slow tumor growth in NET are warranted.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx078
       
  • A randomized, open-label study of the efficacy and safety of AZD4547
           monotherapy versus paclitaxel for the treatment of advanced gastric
           adenocarcinoma with FGFR2 polysomy or gene amplification
    • Authors: Van Cutsem EE; Bang YJ, Mansoor WW, et al.
      First page: 1316
      Abstract: BackgroundApproximately 5%–10% of gastric cancers have a fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) gene amplification. AZD4547 is a selective FGFR-1, 2, 3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent preclinical activity in FGFR2 amplified gastric adenocarcinoma SNU16 and SGC083 xenograft models. The randomized phase II SHINE study (NCT01457846) investigated whether AZD4547 improves clinical outcome versus paclitaxel as second-line treatment in patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma displaying FGFR2 polysomy or gene amplification detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization.Patients and methodsPatients were randomized 3:2 (FGFR2 gene amplification) or 1:1 (FGFR2 polysomy) to AZD4547 or paclitaxel. Patients received AZD4547 80 mg twice daily, orally, on a 2 weeks on/1 week off schedule of a 21-day cycle or intravenous paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 administered weekly on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Safety outcomes were assessed and an exploratory biomarker analysis was undertaken.ResultsOf 71 patients randomized (AZD4547 n = 41, paclitaxel n = 30), 67 received study treatment (AZD4547 n = 40, paclitaxel n = 27). Among all randomized patients, median PFS was 1.8 months with AZD4547 and 3.5 months with paclitaxel (one-sided P = 0.9581); median follow-up duration for PFS was 1.77 and 2.12 months, respectively. The incidence of adverse events was similar in both treatment arms. Exploratory biomarker analyses revealed marked intratumor heterogeneity of FGFR2 amplification and poor concordance between amplification/polysomy and FGFR2 mRNA expression.ConclusionsAZD4547 did not significantly improve PFS versus paclitaxel in gastric cancer FGFR2 amplification/polysomy patients. Considerable intratumor heterogeneity for FGFR2 gene amplification and poor concordance between FGFR2 amplification/polysomy and FGFR2 expression indicates the need for alternative predictive biomarker testing. AZD4547 was generally well tolerated.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx107
       
  • Plasma ctDNA RAS mutation analysis for the diagnosis and treatment
           monitoring of metastatic colorectal cancer patients
    • Authors: Vidal JJ; Muinelo LL, Dalmases AA, et al.
      First page: 1325
      Abstract: BackgroundRAS assessment is mandatory for therapy decision in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. This determination is based on tumor tissue, however, genotyping of circulating tumor (ct)DNA offers clear advantages as a minimally invasive method that represents tumor heterogeneity. Our study aims to evaluate the use of ctDNA as an alternative for determining baseline RAS status and subsequent monitoring of RAS mutations during therapy as a component of routine clinical practice.Patients and methodsRAS mutational status in plasma was evaluated in mCRC patients by OncoBEAM™ RAS CRC assay. Concordance of results in plasma and tissue was retrospectively evaluated. RAS mutations were also prospectively monitored in longitudinal plasma samples from selected patients.ResultsAnalysis of RAS in tissue and plasma samples from 115 mCRC patients showed a 93% overall agreement. Plasma/tissue RAS discrepancies were mainly explained by spatial and temporal tumor heterogeneity. Analysis of clinico-pathological features showed that the site of metastasis (i.e. peritoneal, lung), the histology of the tumor (i.e. mucinous) and administration of treatment previous to blood collection negatively impacted the detection of RAS in ctDNA. In patients with baseline mutant RAS tumors treated with chemotherapy/antiangiogenic, longitudinal analysis of RAS ctDNA mirrored response to treatment, being an early predictor of response. In patients RAS wt, longitudinal monitoring of RAS ctDNA revealed that OncoBEAM was useful to detect emergence of RAS mutations during anti-EGFR treatment.ConclusionThe high overall agreement in RAS mutational assessment between plasma and tissue supports blood-based testing with OncoBEAM™ as a viable alternative for genotyping RAS of mCRC patients in routine clinical practice. Our study describes practical clinico-pathological specifications to optimize RAS ctDNA determination. Moreover, OncoBEAM™ is useful to monitor RAS in patients undergoing systemic therapy to detect resistance and evaluate the efficacy of particular treatments.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx125
       
  • A randomized phase III study of 72 h infusional versus bolus bleomycin
           in BEP (bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin) chemotherapy to treat IGCCCG
           good prognosis metastatic germ cell tumours (TE-3)
    • Authors: Shamash JJ; Sarker SJ, Huddart RR, et al.
      First page: 1333
      Abstract: BackgroundBleomycin is an integral part of combination chemotherapy in germ cell tumours. Pulmonary toxicity often necessitates drug cessation and death occurs in 1%–2% of patients. A continuous infusion of bleomycin might reduce lung toxicity when compared with the conventional weekly boluses given as part of standard BEP chemotherapy.Patients and methodsA phase 3 trial was conducted based on 212 men with IGCCCG good prognosis metastatic germ cell tumours with 1 : 1 randomization. They were stratified for age, smoking history and renal function. Patients received either conventional BEP with weekly bleomycin (30 000 units/week i.v. bolus) or as a 90 000 unit infusion on day 1 over 72 h. The primary endpoint was CT assessed lung toxicity, secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), changes in lung function testing and quality of life. Repeated measures mixed effects model was used to analyse the data.ResultsCT assessed lung toxicity for the infusional and conventional arm patients were respectively 80% versus 62% at the end of treatment and 54% versus 51% at 1-year post-treatment. There was no significant difference between the two arms for CT assessed lung toxicity (estimated regression coefficient = 1.4, 95% CI: −0.36, 3.16). Older patients had higher toxicity (coefficient = 4.81, 95% CI: 3.04, 6.58). Lung toxicity increased after 1 cycle and peaked at end of treatment (P ≤ 0.002) and then declined. Lung function testing did not predict for subsequent lung damage. The median follow-up was 2.5 years. Two-year PFS rate (infusional: 93%, conventional: 94%; hazard ratio =0.91, 95% CI: 0.33, 2.52) was similar. Cough (P = 0.002) but not shortness of breath (P ≥ 0.09) was associated with bleomycin toxicity.ConclusionsInfusional bleomycin has no advantage over standard administration. It supports abandoning routine pulmonary function testing, instead the presence of cough should be sought and the early use of CT scanning of the chest to evaluate potential lung toxicity is preferred.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx071
       
  • Final overall survival analysis for the phase II RECORD-3 study of
           first-line everolimus followed by sunitinib versus first-line sunitinib
           followed by everolimus in metastatic RCC
    • Authors: Knox JJ; Barrios CH, Kim TM, et al.
      First page: 1339
      Abstract: BackgroundRECORD-3 compared everolimus and sunitinib as first-line therapy, and the sequence of everolimus followed by sunitinib at progression compared with the opposite (standard) sequence in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). This final overall survival (OS) analysis evaluated mature data for secondary end points.Patients and methodsPatients received either first-line everolimus followed by second-line sunitinib at progression (n = 238) or first-line sunitinib followed by second-line everolimus (n = 233). Secondary end points were combined first- and second-line progression-free survival (PFS), OS, and safety. The impacts of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and baseline levels of soluble biomarkers on OS were explored.ResultsAt final analysis, median duration of exposure was 5.6 months for everolimus and 8.3 months for sunitinib. Median combined PFS was 21.7 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 15.1–26.7] with everolimus-sunitinib and 22.2 months (95% CI 16.0–29.8) with sunitinib-everolimus [hazard ratio (HR)EVE-SUN/SUN-EVE, 1.2; 95% CI 0.9–1.6]. Median OS was 22.4 months (95% CI 18.6–33.3) for everolimus-sunitinib and 29.5 months (95% CI 22.8–33.1) for sunitinib-everolimus (HREVE-SUN/SUN-EVE, 1.1; 95% CI 0.9–1.4). The rates of grade 3 and 4 adverse events suspected to be related to second-line therapy were 47% with everolimus and 57% with sunitinib. Higher NLR and 12 soluble biomarker levels were identified as prognostic markers for poor OS with the association being largely independent of treatment sequences.ConclusionsResults of this final OS analysis support the sequence of sunitinib followed by everolimus at progression in patients with mRCC. The safety profiles of everolimus and sunitinib were consistent with those previously reported, and there were no unexpected safety signals.Clinical Trials numberClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00903175
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx075
       
  • Pazopanib in advanced germ cell tumors after chemotherapy failure: results
           of the open-label, single-arm, phase 2 Pazotest trial
    • Authors: Necchi AA; Lo Vullo SS, Giannatempo PP, et al.
      First page: 1346
      Abstract: BackgroundTherapeutic options for patients with chemoresistant germ cell tumors (GCTs) are limited. Pazopanib is a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor with distinct antiangiogenic activity. We aimed to evaluate pazopanib activity in patients with refractory GCT.Patients and methodsIn the open-label, single-arm, phase 2 Pazotest study (NCT01743482), patient eligibility included failure of ≥2 platinum-based regimens, and allowed prior high-dose chemotherapy administration. Patients were given pazopanib 800 mg/day until disease progression (PD) or onset of unacceptable toxicity. Measurements of serum tumor markers (STM), computed tomography and FDG-PET were carried out at baseline, after 4 weeks of pazopanib treatment, and every 8 weeks thereafter. PD was defined as increasing levels of STM, increasing size of non-teratomatous masses, or appearance of new lesions. The study primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS, H0: 3-month PFS ≤ 10%, H1: ≥25%, α = 5%, β = 20%).ResultsForty-three patients were enrolled from May 2013 to July 2016. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens was: 2 (11.6%), 3 (51.2%), >3 (37.2%). Grade 3 adverse events were observed in six patients (13.9%). Overall, 70.3% of patients had reduced levels of STM after 4 weeks. There were 2 partial responses (4.7%), 19 cases of stable disease, and 16 cases of PD (6 not evaluable by RECIST). The median follow-up duration was 29.6 months. The 3-month PFS probability was 12.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7%–28.9%]. The 24-month OS probability was 14.2% (95% CI: 6.0%–33.7%). In patients with a >50% decline in STM, the 24-month OS probability was 24.1% (95% CI: 8.3%–69.6%). The small sample size was the major limitation.ConclusionsDespite pazopanib showed potent but short-lived activity in refractory GCT, long-term survival was obtained in a proportion of treated patients. According to the kinetics of pazopanib activity, this drug may be investigated in less pre-treated patients as an optimal bridging therapy preceding and/or combined with salvage chemotherapy.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx124
       
  • Risk factors and a prognostic score for survival after autologous
           stem-cell transplantation for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma
    • Authors: Bröckelmann PJ; Müller HH, Casasnovas OO, et al.
      First page: 1352
      Abstract: BackgroundNovel agents are changing the treatment of relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Nevertheless, high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) are considered standard of care in eligible patients. To identify patients who could benefit most from novel therapeutic approaches, we investigated a comprehensive set of risk factors (RFs) for survival after ASCT.MethodsIn this multinational prognostic multivariable modeling study, 23 potential RFs were retrospectively evaluated in HL patients from nine prospective trials with multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses (part I). The resulting prognostic score was then validated in an independent clinical sample (part II).ResultsIn part I, we identified 656 patients treated for relapsed/refractory HL between 1993 and 2013 with a median follow-up of 60 months after ASCT. The majority of potential RFs had significant impact on progression-free survival (PFS) with hazard ratios (HR) ranging from 1.39 to 2.22. The multivariable analysis identified stage IV disease, time to relapse ≤3 months, ECOG performance status ≥1, bulk ≥5 cm and inadequate response to salvage chemotherapy [<partial remission by computed tomography (CT)] as significant and non-redundant RFs for PFS. A risk score composed of these equally weighed RFs was significantly prognostic for PFS (HR = 1.67 for each additional RF; P < 0.0001). Validation in an independent sample of 389 patients treated in different clinical settings with evaluation of response to salvage therapy by functional imaging instead of CT confirmed the excellent discrimination of risk groups and significant prognostication of PFS and overall survival (OS) after ASCT (HR = 1.70 and HR = 1.63, respectively; P < 0.0001).ConclusionsBased on this large study (n = 1045), precise and valid risk prognostication in HL patients undergoing ASCT can be achieved with five easily available clinical RFs. The proposed prognostic score hence allows reliable stratification of patients for innovative therapeutic approaches in clinical practice and future trials.Registered trialsGHSG HD10 NCT00265018, HD11 NCT00264953, HD12 NCT00265031, HD13 ISRCTN63474366, HD14 ISRCTN04761296, HD15 ISRCTN32443041 and HDR2 NCT00025636.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx072
       
  • Predicted vitamin D status and colon cancer recurrence and mortality in
           CALGB 89803 (Alliance)
    • Authors: Fuchs MA; Yuan CC, Sato KK, et al.
      First page: 1359
      Abstract: BackgroundObservational studies suggest that higher levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) are associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer and improved survival of colorectal cancer patients. However, the influence of vitamin D status on cancer recurrence and survival of patients with stage III colon cancer is unknown.Patients and methodsWe prospectively examined the influence of post-diagnosis predicted plasma 25(OH)D on outcome among 1016 patients with stage III colon cancer who were enrolled in a National Cancer Institute-sponsored adjuvant therapy trial (CALGB 89803). Predicted 25(OH)D scores were computed using validated regression models. We examined the influence of predicted 25(OH)D scores on cancer recurrence and mortality (disease-free survival; DFS) using Cox proportional hazards.ResultsPatients in the highest quintile of predicted 25(OH)D score had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for colon cancer recurrence or mortality (DFS) of 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44–0.86), compared with those in the lowest quintile (Ptrend = 0.005). Higher predicted 25(OH)D score was also associated with a significant improvement in recurrence-free survival and overall survival (Ptrend = 0.01 and 0.0004, respectively). The benefit associated with higher predicted 25(OH)D score appeared consistent across predictors of cancer outcome and strata of molecular tumor characteristics, including microsatellite instability and KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53 mutation status.ConclusionHigher predicted 25(OH)D levels after a diagnosis of stage III colon cancer may be associated with decreased recurrence and improved survival. Clinical trials assessing the benefit of vitamin D supplementation in the adjuvant setting are warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov IdentifierNCT00003835
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx109
       
  • Baseline gut microbiota predicts clinical response and colitis in
           metastatic melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab
    • Authors: Chaput NN; Lepage PP, Coutzac CC, et al.
      First page: 1368
      Abstract: BackgroundIpilimumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting CTLA-4, prolongs survival in a subset of patients with metastatic melanoma (MM) but can induce immune-related adverse events, including enterocolitis. We hypothesized that baseline gut microbiota could predict ipilimumab anti-tumor response and/or intestinal toxicity.Patients and methodsTwenty-six patients with MM treated with ipilimumab were prospectively enrolled. Fecal microbiota composition was assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing at baseline and before each ipilimumab infusion. Patients were further clustered based on microbiota patterns. Peripheral blood lymphocytes immunophenotypes were studied in parallel.ResultsA distinct baseline gut microbiota composition was associated with both clinical response and colitis. Compared with patients whose baseline microbiota was driven by Bacteroides (cluster B, n = 10), patients whose baseline microbiota was enriched with Faecalibacterium genus and other Firmicutes (cluster A, n = 12) had longer progression-free survival (P = 0.0039) and overall survival (P = 0.051). Most of the baseline colitis-associated phylotypes were related to Firmicutes (e.g. relatives of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Gemmiger formicilis), whereas no colitis-related phylotypes were assigned to Bacteroidetes. A low proportion of peripheral blood regulatory T cells was associated with cluster A, long-term clinical benefit and colitis. Ipilimumab led to a higher inducible T-cell COStimulator induction on CD4+ T cells and to a higher increase in serum CD25 in patients who belonged to Faecalibacterium-driven cluster A.ConclusionBaseline gut microbiota enriched with Faecalibacterium and other Firmicutes is associated with beneficial clinical response to ipilimumab and more frequent occurrence of ipilimumab-induced colitis.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx108
       
  • Efficacy and safety of nilotinib in patients with KIT -mutated metastatic
           or inoperable melanoma: final results from the global, single-arm, phase
           II TEAM trial
    • Authors: Guo JJ; Carvajal RD, Dummer RR, et al.
      First page: 1380
      Abstract: BackgroundThe single-arm, phase II Tasigna Efficacy in Advanced Melanoma (TEAM) trial evaluated the KIT-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with KIT-mutated advanced melanoma without prior KIT inhibitor treatment.Patients and methodsForty-two patients with KIT-mutated advanced melanoma were enrolled and treated with nilotinib 400 mg twice daily. TEAM originally included a comparator arm of dacarbazine (DTIC)-treated patients; the design was amended to a single-arm trial due to an observed low number of KIT-mutated melanomas. Thirteen patients were randomized to DTIC before the protocol amendment removing this study arm. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR), determined according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors.ResultsORR was 26.2% (n = 11/42; 95% CI, 13.9%–42.0%), sufficient to reject the null hypothesis (ORR ≤10%). All observed responses were partial responses (PRs; median response duration, 7.1 months). Twenty patients (47.6%) had stable disease and 10 (23.8%) had progressive disease; 1 (2.4%) response was unknown. Ten of the 11 responding patients had exon 11 mutations, four with an L576P mutation. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.2 and 18.0 months, respectively. Three of the 13 patients on DTIC achieved a PR, and another patient had a PR following switch to nilotinib.ConclusionNilotinib activity in patients with advanced KIT-mutated melanoma was similar to historical data from imatinib-treated patients. DTIC treatment showed potential activity, although the low patient number limits interpretation. Similar to previously reported results with imatinib, nilotinib showed greater activity among patients with an exon 11 mutation, including L576P, suggesting that nilotinib may be an effective treatment option for patients with specific KIT mutations.Clinical Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01028222.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx079
       
  • Pembrolizumab KEYNOTE-001: an adaptive study leading to accelerated
           approval for two indications and a companion diagnostic
    • Authors: Kang SP; Gergich KK, Lubiniecki GM, et al.
      First page: 1388
      Abstract: The landscape of cancer treatment has undergone a vast change over the past four decades [1, 2]. Discovery of the heterogeneous molecular features of tumors and the associated microenvironment has led to the development of novel classes of targeted therapeutics [3–5], the two main types of which are small-molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) [1–3]. These targeted drugs have furthered the development of personalized therapeutic regimens in oncology.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx076
       
  • DPD testing must remain a recommended option, but not a recommended
           routine test
    • Authors: Milano GG.
      First page: 1399
      Abstract: The 2016 ESMO clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were recently published in this journal [1].
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx118
       
  • Reply to the letter to the editor ‘Higher rate of severe toxicities in
           obese patients receiving dose-dense (dd) chemotherapy according to
           unadjusted body surface area: results of the prospectively randomized GAIN
           study’ by Daly et al.
    • Authors: Furlanetto JJ; Loibl SS, Moebus VV.
      First page: 1400
      Abstract: In the letter related to our work [1], Daly et al. underline the association between body composition and increased treatment toxicity, suggesting to use the lean body mass (LBM) instead of body mass index (BSA) to improve the individualization of cytotoxic drugs doses. We agree that the use of BSA is far from being the most accurate way to define chemotherapy doses in normal weight as well as in obese patients, as it does not reflect pharmacokinetic parameters. Despite all the criticism arising around the BSA formula, it is the only standardized method available, until today. Therefore, all efforts should be made to improve its use as long as no other validated method is available. ASCO guidelines recommend using full weight-based chemotherapy to treat obese patients with cancer, particularly when cure is the main goal [2]. Despite that, we demonstrated that a dose adjustment of intense dose-dense chemotherapy should be carried out to avoid life-threatening complications in obese patients with early breast cancer (EBC) [3].
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx117
       
  • Are ALK rearrangement variants promising predictive biomarker of ALK
           tyrosine kinase inhibitors efficacy'
    • Authors: Duruisseaux MM; Mc Leer-Florin AA, Moro-Sibilot DD, et al.
      First page: 1401
      Abstract: We read with interest the article by Woo et al. reporting ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs) efficacy in 51 ALK-positive patients with known EML4-ALK rearrangement variants (v) [1]. The authors report a better 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate with crizotinib in the v1/v2/others group (n = 24) compared with the v3a/b group (n = 20) (76% versus 26.4%, P = 0.034). This differential efficacy of crizotinib among ALK variants is supported by in vitro experiments.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx116
       
  • Prior radiotherapy does not predict nivolumab response in non-small-cell
           lung cancer: a retrospective cohort study
    • Authors: Kataoka YY; Ebi NN, Fujimoto DD, et al.
      First page: 1402
      Abstract: Nivolumab is one of the standard therapy for previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1]. Durable responses are observed in NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab, but there are fewer than half of patients who will benefit [1].
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx114
       
  • Pembrolizumab associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
    • Authors: Shah DD; Shrestha RR, Ramlal RR, et al.
      First page: 1403
      Abstract: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a potentially fatal disease, resulting from uninhibited T-cells causing a cytokine storm, and histiocytes engulfing other blood or marrow cells. The resulting syndrome, if left untreated, can cause a rapid demise of a patient. We describe a patient who was on immunotherapy with pembrolizumab and developed HLH.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx113
       
  • Nivolumab induced radiation recall pneumonitis after two years of
           radiotherapy
    • Authors: Shibaki RR; Akamatsu HH, Fujimoto MM, et al.
      First page: 1404
      Abstract: Nivolumab, a first-in-class anti-programmed cell death-1 (anti-PD-1) antibody, has become the standard second-line treatment in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nivolumab sometimes causes immune-related adverse events. Pneumonitis occurred in 3% of patients in the pivotal trial [1], but its nature had not been fully elucidated. Here, we present two cases of a unique pattern of nivolumab-related pneumonitis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx115
       
  • Anti-PD-1-related cryoglobulinemia during treatment with nivolumab in
           NSCLC patient
    • Authors: Pellegrino BB; Musolino AA, Tiseo MM.
      First page: 1405
      Abstract: Monoclonal antibodies that block PD1 or PDL1 are among the most-promising immunotherapies available in advanced cancers, including pembrolizumab and nivolumab for melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1–5]. Adverse events related to anticancer immunotherapy have been extensively investigated; we report the first case, to our knowledge, of cryoglobulinemia associated with the use of anti-PD-1 antibody, nivolumab, in patient affected by advanced NSCLC.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx126
       
  • Addressing the quality of the ESMO-MCBS
    • Authors: Del Paggio JC.
      First page: 1406
      Abstract: The utility of the ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS)—one of a variety of value frameworks that seeks to quantify the clinical benefit of anticancer therapies [1]—is currently under evaluation by the oncology community. Having worked with the ESMO-MCBS as a means of understanding the modern landscape of clinical benefit in contemporary oncological randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) [2], one of the unique and important aspects of the scale is its emphasis on quality of life (QOL) data, presented in the context of each clinical trial it seeks to evaluate. For decades now, QOL endpoints have been considered a ‘fundamental task’ of all oncological RCTs [3], given that the sine qua non of anticancer therapies is to allow patients to live longer and/or live better.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx077
       
 
 
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