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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 369 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 369 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 489, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Mathematics Research Surveys - advance access     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Annals of Occupational Hygiene
  [SJR: 0.837]   [H-I: 57]   [24 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-4878 - ISSN (Online) 1475-3162
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [369 journals]
  • Corrigendum
    • Abstract: Annals of Occupational Hygiene Performance, 2016
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
       
  • An Assessment of the Robustness of the COSHH-Essentials (C-E) Target
           Airborne Concentration Ranges 15 Years on, and Their Usefulness for
           Determining Control Measures
    • Authors: Vaughan NP; Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah R.
      Abstract: AbstractThe Health and Safety Executive (HSE) in Great Britain (GB), in association with its stakeholders, developed the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH)-Essentials (C-E) control banding tool in 1998. The objective was to provide a simple tool for employers, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), to help select and apply appropriate measures for the adequate control of exposure to hazardous substances. The tool used hazard classification information (R-phrases) to assign substances to one of five health hazard groups, each with its respective ‘target airborne concentration range’. The validity of the allocation of substances to a target airborne concentration range was demonstrated at the time using 111 substances that had a current health-based Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) in GB. The C-E control banding approach remains an important tool to complement exposure assessment/monitoring and the selection and use of suitable control measures for hazardous substances. These include engineering controls and personal protective equipment (PPE). The C-E based control banding approach has been adopted around the world. This paper extends the original validation exercise, using a greater number of chemical substances, to establish whether the target airborne concentration ranges remain appropriate. This is of particular interest in light of the introduction of the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) for classification, in which R-phrases have now been replaced by hazard-statements (H-statements). The validation exercise includes substances with OELs published by nine bodies internationally; and the Derived No-Effect Levels (DNELs) assigned by registrants under the European Union—Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Regulations. When compared against 8-hour TWA OELs for 850 substances drawn from nine bodies and a limited number of DNELS, the C-E target airborne concentration ranges remain valid. This comparative work also informs a wider consideration around the practicality and the applicability of the C-E generic approach to facilitate the implementation of good practice control for a wide range of substances (more than 95%) which do not have any recognized OEL.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
       
  • The Effects of Trivialization of Workplace Violence on Its Victims:
           Profession and Sex Differences in a Cross-Sectional Study among Healthcare
           and Law Enforcement Workers
    • Authors: Geoffrion S; Goncalves J, Boyer R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground:Workers from the law enforcement and healthcare sectors tend to normalize or mute their victimization from workplace violence (WPV).Objectives:This study aims to assess the impact of the trivialization of WPV on psychological consequences for workers who have been affected by a WPV incident. The second aim is to assess the moderating effect of sex on the trivialization of WPV. The third and overarching aim is to assess the moderating effect of professional identity on the relations between individual and organizational factors and psychological consequences following a WPV incident.Methods:The findings are based on a convenience sample of 377 (204 female and 173 male) workers from the law enforcement and healthcare sectors. Individual factors (sex, age, professional identity, prior victimization, witnessing WPV, injuries, and trivialization of violence) and perceived support factors (colleagues’ support and employer’s support) were used as predictor variables of psychological consequences in hierarchical linear regression models. Sex was used as a moderator of trivialization while professional identity was used as a moderator of all predictors.Findings:When individual and social support factors were controlled for, normalizing violence was negatively associated with psychological consequences while perceiving a taboo associated with complaining about WPV was positively associated for all participants. When these relations were moderated by the sex of the participants and then by their professional identity, normalization was found to decrease psychological consequences only for male healthcare workers.Implications:To help employees cope with WPV, organizations should promote strategies adapted to profession and sex differences. For male healthcare workers, normalization as a cognitive coping strategy should be formally recognized. For both professions and sexes, organizational strategies that counter the perceived taboo of complaining about violence should be reinforced.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
       
  • Exposure to Diisocyanates and Their Corresponding Diamines in Seven
           Different Workplaces
    • Authors: Jones K; Johnson PD, Baldwin PJ, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBiological monitoring to assess exposure to diisocyanates in the workplace is becoming increasingly widespread due to its relative ease of use and ability to look at all exposure routes. Currently, biological monitoring measures the corresponding isocyanate-derived diamine in urine, after hydrolysis. Because of this, any exposure to the diamines themselves released during the industrial process could confound the assessment of diisocyanate exposure. This paper reports an initial assessment of the extent of diamine formation and exposure during different processes involving diisocyanates including casting, grouting, core making, spray painting, foam blowing, and floor screeding. Air monitoring and glove analysis were conducted for both the relevant diisocyanate (measured as total NCO) and its corresponding diamine; urine samples were analysed (after hydrolysis) for the isocyanate-derived diamine. Processes that generated aerosols (as demonstrated by impinger analysis) such as spray painting and foam blowing were associated with the detection of diamines. Those processes that did not generate aerosols (casting, grouting, core making, and screeding) had no diamines detected, either in air or on gloves. In spray-painting tasks, diamines were a minor component (5 µmol mol−1 creatinine) despite airborne levels being well within occupational exposure limits (20 µg m−3 total NCO in Great Britain); measurement data and statistical modelling indicated that skin absorption was the most likely exposure route. Foam blowing exposures were more complex, but urinary levels were greater than those expected from diisocyanate inhalation alone (measured as total NCO). This study provides evidence that biological monitoring for diisocyanates based on measuring the corresponding diamine in urine is valid, although any co-exposure to diamines themselves should be considered when interpreting results. It also demonstrates the potential for substantial skin absorption of diisocyanates in certain processes such as floor screeding and foam production.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
       
  • Annals of Occupational Hygiene Performance, 2016
    • Authors: Seixas NS.
      Abstract: Volume 60, the last volume of the journal under the name ‘The Annals of Occupational Hygiene’, was published in nine issues during 2016 and continued to offer readers rigorous scientific investigation into the assessment and control of exposures at work.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11
       
  • Influence of Work Pace on Upper Extremity Kinematics and Muscle Activity
           in a Short-Cycle Repetitive Pick-and-Place Task
    • Authors: Luger T; Mathiassen S, Srinivasan D, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractObjectives:This study investigated the extent to which controlled changes in work pace in a cyclic pick-and-place task influence upper extremity kinematics and muscle activity, and whether an effect depends on working height.Methods:Thirteen participants performed the task for 4 min at each of five work paces ranging from 8 to 12 cycles·min−1 in each of two experimental conditions where the hand was moved horizontally with an average upper arm elevation of 30° and 50°, respectively. For each work cycle, we calculated the average and standard deviation of the upper arm elevation angle and the activity of the trapezius and deltoid muscles, as well as the angular peak velocity. We summarized these seven variables by calculating averages across cycles and cycle-to-cycle variabilities.Results:At 30° arm elevation, pace significantly influenced within-cycle angle variation, cycle-to-cycle variability of the average angle, angular peak velocity, and cycle-to-cycle variability of peak velocity. However, only angular peak velocity increased monotonically across all paces from 8 to 12 cycles·min−1). Average activity in the trapezius and the deltoid were the only muscle activity variables to increase consistently with pace. These effects of work pace did not change with working height.Conclusion:The present study did not find any consistent work pace effect on upper extremity kinematics and muscle activity, in spite of a comprehensive empirical basis compared to previous literature. While our results suggest that work pace may not be of critical concern in an occupational health context, we encourage further studies verifying or disproving this notion.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
       
  • Accuracy Evaluation of Three Modelling Tools for Occupational Exposure
           Assessment
    • Authors: Spinazzè A; Lunghini F, Campagnolo D, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractObjectives:The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of three exposure-modelling tools [STOFFENMANAGER® v.6, European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemical Target Risk Assessment v.3.1 (ECETOC TRA v.3.1), and Advanced REACH Tool (ART v.1.5)], by comparing available measured data for exposure to organic solvents and pesticides in occupational exposure scenarios (ESs).Methods:Model accuracy was evaluated by comparing the predicted and the measured values, expressed as an underestimation or overestimation factor (PRED/EXP), and by regression analysis. Robustness was quantitatively described by the so-called variable ‘Uncertainty Factor’ (UF), which was attributed to each model’s input: a higher UF score indicates greater model uncertainty and poorer robustness.Results:ART was the most accurate model, with median PRED/EXP factors of 1.3 and 0.15 for organic solvent and pesticide ESs, respectively, and a significant correlation (P < 0.05) among estimated and measured data. As expected, Tier 1 model ECETOC TRA demonstrated the worst performance in terms of accuracy, with median PRED/EXP factors of 2.0 for organic solvent ESs and 3545 for pesticide ESs. Simultaneously, STOFFENMANAGER® showed a median UF equal to 2.0, resulting in the most robust model.Discussion:ECETOC TRA was not considered acceptable in terms of accuracy, confirming that this model is not appropriate for the evaluation of the selected ESs for pesticides. Conversely, STOFFENMANAGER® was the best choice, and ART tended to underestimate the exposure to pesticides. For organic solvent ESs, there were no cases of strong underestimation, and all models presented overall acceptable results; for the selected ESs, ART showed the best accuracy. Stoffenmanager was the most robust model overall, indicating that even with a mistake in ES interpretation, predicted values would remain acceptable.Conclusion:ART may lead to more accurate results when well-documented ESs are available. In other situations, Stoffenmanager appears to be a safer alternative because of its greater robustness, particularly when entry data uncertainty is difficult to assess. ECETOC TRA cannot be directly compared to higher tiered models because of its simplistic nature: the use of this tool should be limited only to exceptional cases in which a strong conservative and worst-case evaluation is necessary.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07
       
  • Characterization of Particulate Fume and Oxides Emission from Stainless
           Steel Plasma Cutting
    • Authors: Wang J; Hoang T, Floyd EL, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractPlasma cutting is a metal fabrication process that employs an electrically conductive plasma arc to cut metals. The metal fume emitted from stainless steel plasma cutting may consist of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+), which is a carcinogen, and other toxicants. Overexposure to plasma cutting fume may cause pulmonary toxicity and other health effects. This study was to evaluate the effects of operation parameters (arc current and arc time) on the fume formation rates, Cr6+ and other oxides concentrations, particle size distributions (PSD), and particle morphology. A fume chamber and high-volume pump were used to collect fume produced from cutting ER308L stainless steel plates with arc currents varying between 20 and 50 A. The amount of fume collected on glass fiber filters was gravimetrically determined and normalized to arc time. Cr6+ and other oxides in the fume were analyzed using ion chromatography. PSD of the fume was examined using a scanning mobility particle sizer and an aerodynamic particle sizer for fine and coarse fractions, respectively. The particle morphology was imaged through a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Total fume generation rate increased with arc current and ranged from 16.5 mg min−1 at 20 A to 119.0 mg min−1 at 50 A. Cr6+ emissions (219.8–480.0 µg min−1) from the plasma cutting were higher than welding fume in a previous study. Nitrogen oxides level can be an indicator of oxidation level and Cr6+ formation (R = 0.93). Both PSD measurement and TEM images confirmed a multimodal size distribution. A high concentration of a fine fraction of particles with geometric mean sizes from 96 to 235 nm was observed. Higher arc current yielded more particles, while lower arc current was not able to penetrate the metal plates. Hence, the worker should optimize the arc current to balance cut performance and fume emission. The findings indicated that arc current was the dominant factor in fume emission from plasma cutting. Appropriate ventilation and respiratory protection should be used to reduce workers’ exposure.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
       
  • Maintenance of Low-Pressure Carburising Furnaces: A Source of PAH Exposure
    • Authors: Champmartin C; Jeandel F, Monnier H.
      Abstract: AbstractObjectives:Low-pressure carburising is a new technology used to harden steel; the process has been shown to be a source of considerable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution. Some PAH are carcinogenic, and activities such as furnace maintenance may thus represent a risk to workers. Occupational exposure during these operations should therefore be assessed.Methods:In this study, the PAH-related carcinogenic risk associated with furnace maintenance was assessed by monitoring atmospheric levels of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a representative marker, alongside urinary levels of 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OHBaP), one of its metabolites. PAH exposure levels were monitored during seven sampling campaigns in four different factories specialized in heat-treatment of mechanical workpieces for the automotive and helicopter industries. Two types of furnace were studied, and 37 individuals were monitored.Results:Values up to 20-fold the French regulatory value of 150 ng/m3 for atmospheric BaP, and, for urinary 3-OHBaP values up to 40-fold the French biological limit value (BLV) of 0.35 nmol/mol of creatinine were detected. Very high concentrations of BaP, close to or even exceeding those found in coal-tar pitch (up to about 20 g/kg), were measured in residues (tars, dusts) deposited inside the furnace. Even when adequate and suitable personal protective equipment was used, urinary 3-OHBaP values often exceeded the BLV. We hypothesize that this exposure is linked to insidious and fortuitous dermal contamination through contact with factory equipment and staining.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
       
  • Retrospective Assessment of Occupational Exposures for the GENEVA Study of
           ALS among Military Veterans
    • Authors: Bello A; Woskie SR, Gore R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractObjective:This paper describes the retrospective exposure assessment conducted to assess occupational exposures for the Genes and Environmental Exposures in Veterans (GENEVA) study, a case–control study investigating the joint contribution of genetics and environmental exposures to the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among military veterans.Methods:Occupational histories for 1597 study participants collected as part of the GENEVA study were the basis for this retrospective exposure assessment. The data set included 15528 jobs held from 1924 to 2010, representing 4539 unique industry and occupation (I&O) combinations. Three industrial hygiene experts were recruited to independently rate occupational exposures to specific agents previously associated with an increased risk of ALS. Utilizing information on industry, job title, tasks performed, and materials used for each job held, raters assigned exposures associated with each I&O for the ‘current time’ defined as the period after 1995 (post-1995). The exposure assessment targeted agents identified as potential occupational risk factors for ALS. Experts rated semi-quantitatively exposure intensity in five exposure categories (0–4) for Group A agents (lead, formaldehyde, hydrocarbon solvents, and chlorinated solvents) and qualitatively as yes/no (1/0) exposed for Group B agents (mercury, selenium, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls, electromagnetic field, pesticides, and viral agents). Confidence scores (0–3) were reported for every I&O rated based on raters’ experience with that industry and/or job. Each I&O was assigned an average exposure score of the raters and an alternative exposure rating was developed for each I&O by excluding low confidence (
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
       
  • Urinary 8-Oxo-7,8-Dihydro-2′-Deoxyguanosine in Tunisian Electric Steel
           Foundry Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    • Authors: Hanchi M; Campo L, Polledri E, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIn this study, urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), as biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, was evaluated in Tunisian electric steel foundry workers and was associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. Ninety-three healthy male workers were enrolled in the study; 8-oxodG was assessed by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Exposure to PAHs was evaluated by measuring 16 urinary PAHs (U-PAHs) and 8 monohydroxylated metabolites (OHPAHs). The median 8-oxodG level for all subjects was 3.20 µg l−1 (1.85 µg g−1 creatinine). No correlation between 8-oxodG and 1-hydroxypyrene or any other OHPAH was found. Significant linear correlations between 8-oxodG and some U-PAHs were found, particularly urinary acenaphthylene (r = 0.249), phenanthrene (r = 0.327), anthracene (r = 0.357), fluoranthene (r = 0.248), and pyrene (r = 0.244). Multiple regression analyses confirmed that urinary phenanthrene, anthracene, and naphthalene (the latter with a non-linear relationship) were predictors of 8-oxodG; job title, but not smoking, was a determinant of 8-oxodG; the variance explained by these models was up to 20%. The oxidative DNA damage assessed by urinary 8-oxodG was moderate and in the range of values reported in other occupational fields or in the general population. The results of this study indicate that the investigated biomarkers of PAH exposure were only minor contributors to urinary 8-oxodG.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
       
  • Exposure to Inhalable Dust, Endotoxin, and Total Volatile Organic Carbons
           on Dairy Farms Using Manual and Automated Feeding Systems
    • Authors: Basinas I; Cronin G, Hogan V, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIntroduction:Agricultural workers tend to have high exposures to organic dusts which may induce or exacerbate respiratory disorders. Studies investigating the effect of work tasks and farm characteristics on organic dust exposures among farm workers suggest that handling of animal feed is an important exposure determinant; however, the effect of the animal feeding system has not been explored in any detail.Objectives:To measure the exposure of Irish dairy farmers to inhalable dust, endotoxin, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) during parlour work and to explore whether levels of exposure to these agents depend on the applied feeding system in the farms.Methods:Thirty-eight personal exposure measurements were collected from farmers across seven dairy farms. The farms used manual, loft, or semi-automated feeding systems. Information on worker tasks and farm characteristics was collected during the surveys. Associations between exposure concentrations and feeding systems, worker tasks, and other farm characteristics were explored in linear mixed-effect regression models with farmer identity treated as a random effect.Results:Exposure concentrations were variable and had a geometric mean (GM; geometric standard deviation) of 1.5 mg m−3 (1.8) for inhalable dust and 128 EU m−3 (2.5) for endotoxin. More than 50% of the exposure measurements for endotoxin, and organic dust exceeded recommended health-based occupational exposure limits. Endotoxin levels were somewhat lower in farms using semi-automatic feeding systems when compared to those using manual feeding systems but in multivariate regression analysis associations were not statistically significant (β = −0.54, P = 0.4). Performance of activities related to handling and spreading of hay or straw was the strongest determinant for both inhalable dust and endotoxin exposure (β = 0.78, P ≤ 0.001; β = 0.72, P = 0.02, respectively). The level of dust exposure increased also as a consequence of a lower outdoor temperature, and higher ratio of distributed feed per cow (P = 0.01). Stationary measurements of TVOC and CO2 concentrations inside the dairy parlours had a GM of 180 ppb (1.9) and 589 ppb (1.3), respectively. The use of cow teat disinfectants and building ventilation were both strong predictors of TVOC concentrations within parlours.Conclusions:Dairy farm workers can be exposed to high and variable levels of inhalable dust and endotoxin and may be at risk of respiratory disease. Results from this study suggest that exposure control strategies for organic dusts and TVOCs exposures should consider building ventilation and work tasks such as spreading of bedding material, using spray disinfectants and animal feeding. Until effective permanent engineering controls are established farm workers should be encouraged to wear respiratory protective equipment during these tasks.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
       
 
 
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