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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 294, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 581, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access  
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.728
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 33  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2398-7308 - ISSN (Online) 2398-7316
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • A Systematic Review of the Routes and Forms of Exposure to Engineered
    • Authors: Basinas I; Jiménez A, Galea K, et al.
      Pages: 639 - 662
      Abstract: BackgroundEstablishing the routes of exposure is a fundamental component of the risk assessment process for every dangerous substance. The present study systematically reviews the available literature to assess the relevance of the different routes and forms of exposure that are of concern for the protection of workers during the manufacture, handling, or end-use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs).MethodsA systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature published between 2000 and 2015 was completed. Only studies including measurements of inhalation or dermal exposure were selected and used to identify the exposure situations for which the measurements were collected. The identified exposure situations were grouped based on the type of ENM (i.e. carbon nanotubes and fibres, silicon-based, titanium dioxide, other metal oxides, pure elemental metals, and other ENMs) and activity involved. The grouped exposure situations were assessed to provide a conclusion regarding the likelihood, form, and route of exposure. Assessment of the likelihood of exposure was based on well-defined criteria using a previously established decision logic for inhalation exposure and the outputs from measurements and/or conceptual models for dermal/ingestion exposure. For each combination of nano-activity and type of ENM, the aggregated likelihood across all relevant individual assessments was used to draw conclusions about the relevance of both the inhalation and dermal/ingestion routes. Based on the quality of the data, the strength of the evidence was also evaluated.ResultsOne hundred and seven studies were identified during the review process, reporting 424 individual exposure assessments. Measurement data were limited for dermal/ingestion exposure and for inhalation exposure for downstream use and end-of-life. However, the data provided high-quality evidence that in occupational settings all three routes can be of relevance for exposure to ENMs. In general, whenever inhalation exposure occurs then dermal and inadvertent ingestion exposure may occur due to surface deposition and transfer due to the ENMs release. However, for some forms of exposure (e.g. suspension/liquids), dermal exposure can occur even when inhalation exposure is unlikely. An increased likelihood of exposure was observed for manual activities such as cleaning and maintenance, collection/harvesting, spraying, and finishing as well as those involving feeding into a process and handling of powders outside enclosures. The likelihood of exposure was affected by the presence of risk management measures and the scale of the production involved.ConclusionThis literature review provides evidence that for ENMs, as found for other materials, the likelihood of the exposure depends largely on the physical form of the substance as well as the applied process and operational conditions. These results can be used to provide first indications of the likelihood of exposure and guidance for exposure controls in workplaces. However, there is a clear lack of high-quality exposure data, in particular for downstream use and end-of-life scenarios and in low- and medium-income countries.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxy048
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 6 (2018)
  • Bovine Allergens in a Ruminant Clinic and Dairy Barns: Exposure Levels,
           Determinants, and Variability
    • Authors: Samadi S; Heederik D, Zahradnik E, et al.
      Pages: 663 - 673
      Abstract: BackgroundDairy farmers may develop specific sensitization and allergic airway diseases due to bovine allergens. However, dose–response relationships are lacking, and as yet little is known on bovine allergen exposure levels.ObjectiveTo investigate bovine allergen exposure levels in a ruminant clinic and dairy barns, and to assess exposure determinants and variability of exposure.MethodsSamples were collected using active and passive airborne dust measurements in a ruminant clinic and several dairy barns. Bovine allergen levels were determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Linear mixed models were applied to explore the association between bovine allergen exposure levels and potential exposure determinants. Day-to-day within-worker and between-worker exposure variability was determined, as well as how exposure determinants affect exposure variability.ResultsBovine allergens were measureable in all samples. Personal bovine allergen exposure levels in the ruminant clinic ranged from 0.10 to 24.8 µg/m3, geometric mean (GM) 1.34 µg/m3. Exposure levels varied dependent on job titles. Personal exposure levels in dairy barns ranged from 0.10 to 46.8 µg/m3, GM 1.47 µg/m3. Type of bedding materials in the barns appeared to be a significant determinant of bovine allergen levels. Compost bedding, particularly, increased allergen levels. Milking by robot was the most important determinant explaining between-worker exposure variability, while bedding was important as well. Bovine allergen levels in stationary measurements were somewhat lower than personal measurements (GM ratio 0.47). Bovine allergens could be readily detected in electrostatic dust-fall collector measurements.ConclusionThis study provides insight in bovine allergen exposure levels and their determinants, which is a first step to investigate dose–response relationships between sensitization/allergy associated with exposure to bovine allergen levels in future studies.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxy028
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 6 (2018)
  • Exposure to Wood Dust, Microbial Components, and Terpenes in the Norwegian
           Sawmill Industry
    • Authors: Straumfors A; Olsen R, Daae H, et al.
      Pages: 674 - 688
      Abstract: Sawmill workers are exposed to wood dust (a well-known carcinogen), microorganisms, endotoxins, resin acids (diterpenes), and vapours containing terpenes, which may cause skin irritation, allergy, and respiratory symptoms including asthma. The health effects of most of these exposures are poorly understood as most studies measure only wood dust. The present study assessed these exposures in the Norwegian sawmill industry, which processes predominantly spruce and pine. Personal exposures of wood dust, resin acids, endotoxin, fungal spores and fragments, mono-, and sesquiterpenes were measured in 10 departments in 11 saw and planer mills. The geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) thoracic exposures were: 0.09 mg m−3 dust (GSD 2.6), 3.0 endotoxin units (EU) m−3 (GSD 4.9), 0.4 × 105 fungal spores m−3 (GSD 4.2), 2 × 105 fungal fragments m−3 (GSD 3.2), and 1560 ng m−3 of resin acids (GSD 5.5). The GM (GSD) inhalable exposures were: 0.72 mg m−3 dust (2.6), 17 EU m−3 (4.3), 0.4 × 105 fungal spores m−3 (3.8), and 7508 ng m−3 (4.4) of resin acids. The overall correlation between the thoracic and inhalable exposure was strong for resin acid (rp = 0.84), but moderate for all other components (rp = 0.34–0.64). The GM (GSD) exposure to monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were 1105 µg m−3 (7.8) and 40 µg m−3 (3.9), respectively. Although mean exposures were relatively low, the variance was large, with exposures regularly exceeding the recommended occupational exposure limits. The exposures to spores and endotoxins were relatively high in the dry timber departments, but exposures to microbial components and mono-and sesquiterpenes were generally highest in areas where green (undried) timber was handled. Dust and resin acid exposure were highest in the dry areas of the sawmills. Low to moderate correlation between components (rp ranging from 0.02 to 0.65) suggests that investigations of exposure–response associations for these components (both individually and combined) are feasible in future epidemiological studies.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxy041
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 6 (2018)
  • Exposure to Upper Arm Elevation During Work Compared to Leisure Among 12
           Different Occupations Measured with Triaxial Accelerometers
    • Authors: Palm P; Gupta N, Forsman M, et al.
      Pages: 689 - 698
      Abstract: Regarding prevention of neck and shoulder pain (NSP), unsupported arm elevation is one factor that should be taken into account when performing work risk assessment. Triaxial accelerometers can be used to measure arm elevation over several days but it is not possible to differentiate between supported and unsupported arm elevation from accelerometers only. Supported arm elevation is more likely to exist during sitting than standing. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of whole workday measurements of arm elevation with accelerometers to assess potentially harmful work exposure of arm elevation, by comparing arm elevation at work with arm elevation during leisure, in a population with diverse work tasks, and to assess how the exposure parameters were modified when upper arm elevation during sitting time was excluded. The participants, 197 workers belonging to 12 occupational groups with diverse work tasks, wore triaxial accelerometers on the dominant arm, hip, and back for 1–4 days to measure arm elevation and periods of sitting. None of the groups were found to have higher exposure to arm elevation during work compared to leisure. Even though some occupations where known to have work tasks that forced them to work with elevated arms to a large extent. A high proportion of arm elevation derived from sitting time, especially so during leisure. When arm elevation during sitting time was excluded from the analysis, arm elevation was significantly higher at work than during leisure among construction workers, garbage collectors, manufacturing workers, and domestic cleaners. Together this illustrates that it is not suitable to use whole workday measurments of arm elevation with accelerometer as a sole information source when assessing the risk for NSP due to arm elevation. Information on body posture can provide relevant contextual information in exposure assessments when it is known that the potential harmful exposure is performed in standing or walking.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxy037
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 6 (2018)
  • Particle Concentrations in Occupational Settings Measured with a
           Nanoparticle Respiratory Deposition (NRD) Sampler
    • Authors: Stebounova L; Gonzalez-Pech N, Park J, et al.
      Pages: 699 - 710
      Abstract: There is an increasing need to evaluate concentrations of nanoparticles in occupational settings due to their potential negative health effects. The Nanoparticle Respiratory Deposition (NRD) personal sampler was developed to collect nanoparticles separately from larger particles in the breathing zone of workers, while simultaneously providing a measure of respirable mass concentration. This study compared concentrations measured with the NRD sampler to those measured with a nano Micro Orifice Uniform-Deposit Impactor (nanoMOUDI) and respirable samplers in three workplaces. The NRD sampler performed well at two out of three locations, where over 90% of metal particles by mass were submicrometer particle size (a heavy vehicle machining and assembly facility and a shooting range). At the heavy vehicle facility, the mean metal mass concentration of particles collected on the diffusion stage of the NRD was 42.5 ± 10.0 µg/m3, within 5% of the nanoMOUDI concentration of 44.4 ± 7.4 µg/m3. At the shooting range, the mass concentration for the diffusion stage of the NRD was 5.9 µg/m3, 28% above the nanoMOUDI concentration of 4.6 µg/m3. In contrast, less favorable results were obtained at an iron foundry, where 95% of metal particles by mass were larger than 1 µm. The accuracy of nanoparticle collection by NRD diffusion stage may have been compromised by high concentrations of coarse particles at the iron foundry, where the NRD collected almost 5-fold more nanoparticle mass compared to the nanoMOUDI on one sampling day and was more than 40% different on other sampling days. The respirable concentrations measured by NRD samplers agreed well with concentrations measured by respirable samplers at all sampling locations. Overall, the NRD sampler accurately measured concentrations of nanoparticles in industrial environments when concentrations of large, coarse mode, particles were low.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxy033
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 6 (2018)
  • Performance Comparison of Field Portable Instruments to the Scanning
           Mobility Particle Sizer Using Monodispersed and Polydispersed Sodium
           Chloride Aerosols
    • Authors: Vo E; Horvatin M, Zhuang Z.
      Pages: 711 - 720
      Abstract: This study compared the performance of the following field portable aerosol instrument sets to performance of the reference Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS): the handheld CPC-3007, the portable aerosol mobility spectrometer (PAMS), the NanoScan scanning mobility particle sizer (NanoScan SMPS) combined with an optical particle sizer (OPS). Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols. Monodispersed aerosols were controlled at the approximate concentration of 1 × 105 particles cm−3 and four monodispersed particle sizes of 30, 60, 100, and 300 nm were selected and classified for the monodispersed aerosol test, while three different steady-state concentration levels (low, medium, and high: ~8 × 103, 5 × 104, and 1 × 105 particles cm−3, respectively) were selected for the polydispersed aerosol test. For all four monodispersed aerosol sizes, particle concentrations measured with the NanoScan SMPS were within 13% of those measured with the reference SMPS. Particle concentrations measured with the PAMS were within 25% of those measured with the reference SMPS. Concentrations measured with the handheld condensation particle counter were within 30% of those measured with the reference SMPS. For the polydispersed aerosols, the particle sizes and concentrations measured with the NanoScan-OPS compared most favorably with those measured with the reference SMPS for three different concentration levels of low, medium, and high (concentration deviations ≤10% for all three concentration levels; deviations of particle size ≤4%). Although the particle-size comparability between the PAMS and the reference SMPS was quite reasonable with the deviations within 10%, the polydispersed particle concentrations measured with the PAMS were within 36% of those measured with the reference SMPS. The results of this evaluation will be useful for selecting a suitable portable device for our next workplace study phase of respiratory protection assessment. This study also provided the advantages and limitations of each individual portable instrument and therefore results from this study can be used by industrial hygienists and safety professionals, with appropriate caution, when selecting a suitable portable instrument for aerosol particle measurement in nanotechnology workplaces.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxy036
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 6 (2018)
  • Sampling and Analysis of Bitumen Fumes: Comparison of German and French
           Methods to Determine a Conversion Formula
    • Authors: Sutter B; Pelletier E, Blaskowitz M, et al.
      Pages: 721 - 732
      Abstract: Bitumen is classed as possibly carcinogenic to humans according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Data on individual exposure to bitumen fumes is therefore required to highlight the exposing situations and develop methods to prevent them. The Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA) and the French National Research and Safety Institute for the Prevention of Occupational Accidents and Diseases (INRS) have both developed methods to measure individual exposure. The objective of this study was to determine a conversion factor to allow interconversion of data acquired by the two methods. To develop this conversion factor, comparative laboratory and workplace tests were performed according to both the IFA method (No. 6305) and the INRS method (MetroPol M-2). The amounts of organic material collected on the filters and XAD-2 beds were compared. The results revealed differences between the sampling and analytical methods that could be linked to sampler design, extraction solvent, and the detection method used. The total quantification returned by the two methods—the sum of the masses quantified on filter and XAD-2 bed for each sampler—were correlated in both controlled and real-life tests. A conversion equation was therefore determined, based on field tests: CIFA = 1.76 CINRS ± 0.39 (R2 = 0.99) that is applicable to total quantification data. This formula can be applied to data acquired by the two institutes to increase the number of data points available on exposure to bitumen fumes in various conditions, and thus increase the statistical power of studies into occupational prevention.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxy029
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 6 (2018)
  • Laboratory Validation and Field Assessment of Petroleum Laboratory
           Technicians’ Dermal Exposure to Crude Oil Using a Wipe Sampling Method
    • Authors: Galea K; Mueller W, Arfaj A, et al.
      Pages: 733 - 741
      Abstract: Crude oil may cause adverse dermal effects therefore dermal exposure is an exposure route of concern. Galea et al. (2014b) reported on a study comparing recovery (wipe) and interception (cotton glove) dermal sampling methods. The authors concluded that both methods were suitable for assessing dermal exposure to oil-based drilling fluids and crude oil but that glove samplers may overestimate the amount of fluid transferred to the skin. We describe a study which aimed to further evaluate the wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to crude oil, with this assessment including extended sample storage periods and sampling efficiency tests being undertaken at environmental conditions to mimic those typical of outdoor conditions in Saudi Arabia. The wipe sampling method was then used to assess the laboratory technicians’ actual exposure to crude oil during typical petroleum laboratory tasks. Overall, acceptable storage efficiencies up to 54 days were reported with results suggesting storage stability over time. Sampling efficiencies were also reported to be satisfactory at both ambient and elevated temperature and relative humidity environmental conditions for surrogate skin spiked with known masses of crude oil and left up to 4 h prior to wiping, though there was an indication of reduced sampling efficiency over time. Nineteen petroleum laboratory technicians provided a total of 35 pre- and 35 post-activity paired hand wipe samples. Ninety-three percent of the pre-exposure paired hand wipes were less than the analytical limit of detection (LOD), whereas 46% of the post-activity paired hand wipes were less than the LOD. The geometric mean paired post-activity wipe sample measurement was 3.09 µg cm−2 (range 1.76–35.4 µg cm−2). It was considered that dermal exposure most frequently occurred through direct contact with the crude oil (emission) or via deposition. The findings of this study suggest that the wipe sampling method is satisfactory in quantifying laboratory technicians’ dermal exposure to crude oil. It is therefore considered that this wipe sampling method may be suitable to quantify dermal exposure to crude oil for other petroleum workers.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxy038
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 6 (2018)
  • Laboratory Evaluation of a Novel Real-Time Respirator Seal Integrity
    • Authors: Wu B; Corey J, Yermakov M, et al.
      Pages: 742 - 753
      Abstract: BackgroundA low-cost real-time Respirator Seal Integrity Monitor (ReSIM) was recently developed to monitor a respirator’s actual performance at a workplace. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of the new ReSIM prototype in manikin-based laboratory experiments to rapidly detect induced leakage of a half-mask elastomeric respirator.MethodsTwo phases of testing were conducted in this study. First, the accuracy of ReSIM measuring an aerosol concentration was assessed by comparing the outputs of ReSIM against a reference optical aerosol spectrometer (OAS) in a flow-through set-up. Second, the capability to detect a leak was tested using a manikin-based set-up to simulate leaks into a functional respirator.ResultsThe regression curve of ReSIM versus OAS had an R2 of 0.936, indicating its high accuracy within the targeted particle size range of 0.5–2 µm. The ReSIM provided a leak detection sensitivity (probability of correctly identifying intervals with the true leak) of 98.4% when challenged with a combustion aerosol, compared to 71.8% when challenged with a NaCl aerosol. Its specificity (probability of identifying intervals without a leak) was 99.8% after adjusting for persistent false positives for both types of challenge aerosol.ConclusionThe ReSIM prototype not only can estimate the particle concentration with high accuracy but also can rapidly detect respirator faceseal leakage in real time with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. In addition, it can trigger an alarm when the faceseal integrity is compromised.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxy026
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 6 (2018)
  • Testing of Disposable Protective Garments Against Isocyanate Permeation
           From Spray Polyurethane Foam Insulation
    • Authors: Mellette M; Bello D, Xue Y, et al.
      Pages: 754 - 764
      Abstract: BackgroundDiisocyanates (isocyanates), including methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), are the primary reactive components of spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation. They are potent immune sensitizers and a leading cause of occupational asthma. Skin exposure to isocyanates may lead to both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis and possibly contribute to systemic sensitization. More than sufficient evidence exists to justify the use of protective garments to minimize skin contact with aerosolized and raw isocyanate containing materials during SPF applications. Studies evaluating the permeation of protective garments following exposure to SPF insulation do not currently exist.ObjectivesTo conduct permeation testing under controlled conditions to assess the effectiveness of common protective gloves and coveralls during SPF applications using realistic SPF product formulations.MethodsFive common disposable garment materials [disposable latex gloves (0.07 mm thickness), nitrile gloves (0.07 mm), vinyl gloves (0.07 mm), polypropylene coveralls (0.13 mm) and Tyvek coveralls (0.13 mm)] were selected for testing. These materials were cut into small pieces and assembled into a permeation test cell system and coated with a two-part slow-rise spray polyurethane foam insulation. Glass fiber filters (GFF) pretreated with 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine) (MAP) were used underneath the garment to collect permeating isocyanates. GFF filters were collected at predetermined test intervals between 0.75 and 20.00 min and subsequently analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For each garment material, we assessed (i) the cumulative concentration of total isocyanate, including phenyl isocyanate and three MDI isomers, that effectively permeated the material over the test time; (ii) estimated breakthrough detection time, average permeation rate, and standardized breakthrough time; from which (iii) recommendations were developed for the use of similar protective garments following contamination by two-component spray polyurethane foam systems and the limitations of such protective garments were identified.ResultsEach type of protective garment material demonstrated an average permeation rate well below the ASTM method F-739 standardized breakthrough rate threshold of 100.0 ng/cm2 min−1. Disposable latex gloves displayed the greatest total isocyanate permeation rate (4.11 ng/cm2 min−1), followed by the vinyl and nitrile gloves, respectively. The Tyvek coverall demonstrated a greater average rate of isocyanate permeation than the polypropylene coveralls. Typical isocyanate loading was in the range of 900 to 15,000 ng MDI/cm2.ConclusionPermeation test data collected during this study indicated that each type of protective garment evaluated, provided a considerable level of protection (i.e. 10–110-fold reduction from the level of direct exposure) against the isocyanate component of the SPF insulation mixture. Nitrile gloves and polypropylene coveralls demonstrated the lowest rate of permeation and the lowest cumulative permeation of total isocyanate for each garment type.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxy030
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 6 (2018)
  • Does the Size of a Company Make a Difference in the Prevalence of Exposure
           to Asthmagens and in the Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment'
    • Authors: El-Zaemey S; Carey R, Darcey E, et al.
      Pages: 765 - 769
      Abstract: IntroductionAbout half of all workers in high-income countries work in small companies. However, regulatory bodies and researchers predominantly work with large companies because they are more convenient to study and easier to reach. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of exposure to asthmagens and the use of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) by company size.MethodsThis analysis used data from the Australian Work Exposures Study-Asthma, a telephone survey which investigated exposure to 27 asthmagen groups.ResultsAmong 4844 respondents, 18.8, 19.9, 31.9, and 29.4% of workers reported working in micro (<5 employees), small (5–19 employees), medium (20–200 employees), and large (>200 employees) companies, respectively. Compared to workers in large companies, workers in micro, small, or medium companies had higher prevalence of exposure to most asthmagens and lesser use of RPE.ConclusionOur results suggest that policy actions and regulatory measures should target micro/small companies in order to have the greatest effect.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxy031
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 6 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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