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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 524, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Annals of Occupational Hygiene
  [SJR: 0.837]   [H-I: 57]   [27 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-4878 - ISSN (Online) 1475-3162
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Workplace Measurements of Ultrafine Particles—A Literature Review
    • Authors: Viitanen A; Uuksulainen S, Koivisto A, et al.
      Pages: 749 - 758
      Abstract: AbstractWorkers are exposed to ultrafine particles (UFP) in a number of occupations. In order to summarize the current knowledge regarding occupational exposure to UFP (excluding engineered nanoparticles), we gathered information on UFP concentrations from published research articles. The aim of our study was to create a basis for future epidemiological studies that treat UFP as an exposure factor. The literature search found 72 publications regarding UFP measurements in work environments. These articles covered 314 measurement results and tabled concentrations. Mean concentrations were compared to typical urban UFP concentration level, which was considered non-occupational background concentration. Mean concentrations higher than the typical urban UFP concentration were reported in 240 workplace measurements. The results showed that workers’ exposure to UFP may be significantly higher than their non-occupational exposure to background concentration alone. Mean concentrations of over 100 times the typical urban UFP concentration were reported in welding and metal industry. However, according to the results of the review, measurements of the UFP in work environments are, to date, too limited and reported too heterogeneous to allow us to draw general conclusions about workers’ exposure. Harmonization of measurement strategies is essential if we are to generate more reliable and comparable data in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxx049
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 7 (2017)
  • A New Approach Combining Analytical Methods for Workplace Exposure
           Assessment of Inhalable Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
    • Authors: Tromp P; Kuijpers E, Bekker C, et al.
      Pages: 759 - 772
      Abstract: AbstractTo date there is no consensus about the most appropriate analytical method for measuring carbon nanotubes (CNTs), hampering the assessment and limiting the comparison of data. The goal of this study is to develop an approach for the assessment of the level and nature of inhalable multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs) in an actual workplace setting by optimizing and evaluating existing analytical methods. In a company commercially producing MWCNTs, personal breathing zone samples were collected for the inhalable size fraction with IOM samplers; which were analyzed with carbon analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). Analytical methods were optimized for carbon analysis and SEM/EDX. More specifically, methods were applied and evaluated for background correction using carbon analyses and SEM/EDX, CNT structure count with SEM/EDX and subsequent mass conversion based on both carbon analyses and SEM/EDX. A moderate-to-high concordance correlation coefficient (RC) between carbon analyses and SEM/EDX was observed [RC = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59–0.92] with an absolute mean difference of 59 µg m−3. A low RC between carbon analyses and ICP-MS (RC = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.07–0.67) with an absolute mean difference of 570 µg m−3 was observed. The large absolute difference between EC and metals is due to the presence of non-embedded inhalable catalyst particles, as a result of which MWCNT concentrations were overestimated. Combining carbon analysis and SEM/EDX is the most suitable for quantitative exposure assessment of MWCNTs in an actual workplace situation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxx053
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 7 (2017)
  • A Bayesian Approach for Summarizing and Modeling Time-Series Exposure Data
           with Left Censoring
    • Authors: Houseman E; Virji M.
      Pages: 773 - 783
      Abstract: AbstractObjectiveDirect reading instruments are valuable tools for measuring exposure as they provide real-time measurements for rapid decision making. However, their use is limited to general survey applications in part due to issues related to their performance. Moreover, statistical analysis of real-time data is complicated by autocorrelation among successive measurements, non-stationary time series, and the presence of left-censoring due to limit-of-detection (LOD). A Bayesian framework is proposed that accounts for non-stationary autocorrelation and LOD issues in exposure time-series data in order to model workplace factors that affect exposure and estimate summary statistics for tasks or other covariates of interest.MethodA spline-based approach is used to model non-stationary autocorrelation with relatively few assumptions about autocorrelation structure. Left-censoring is addressed by integrating over the left tail of the distribution. The model is fit using Markov-Chain Monte Carlo within a Bayesian paradigm. The method can flexibly account for hierarchical relationships, random effects and fixed effects of covariates. The method is implemented using the rjags package in R, and is illustrated by applying it to real-time exposure data. Estimates for task means and covariates from the Bayesian model are compared to those from conventional frequentist models including linear regression, mixed-effects, and time-series models with different autocorrelation structures. Simulations studies are also conducted to evaluate method performance.ResultsSimulation studies with percent of measurements below the LOD ranging from 0 to 50% showed lowest root mean squared errors for task means and the least biased standard deviations from the Bayesian model compared to the frequentist models across all levels of LOD. In the application, task means from the Bayesian model were similar to means from the frequentist models, while the standard deviations were different. Parameter estimates for covariates were significant in some frequentist models, but in the Bayesian model their credible intervals contained zero; such discrepancies were observed in multiple datasets. Variance components from the Bayesian model reflected substantial autocorrelation, consistent with the frequentist models, except for the auto-regressive moving average model. Plots of means from the Bayesian model showed good fit to the observed data.ConclusionThe proposed Bayesian model provides an approach for modeling non-stationary autocorrelation in a hierarchical modeling framework to estimate task means, standard deviations, quantiles, and parameter estimates for covariates that are less biased and have better performance characteristics than some of the contemporary methods.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxx046
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 7 (2017)
  • Sampling Efficiency and Performance of Selected Thoracic Aerosol Samplers
    • Authors: Görner P; Simon X, Boivin A, et al.
      Pages: 784 - 796
      Abstract: AbstractMeasurement of worker exposure to a thoracic health-related aerosol fraction is necessary in a number of occupational situations. This is the case of workplaces with atmospheres polluted by fibrous particles, such as cotton dust or asbestos, and by particles inducing irritation or bronchoconstriction such as acid mists or flour dust. Three personal and two static thoracic aerosol samplers were tested under laboratory conditions. Sampling efficiency with respect to particle aerodynamic diameter was measured in a horizontal low wind tunnel and in a vertical calm air chamber. Sampling performance was evaluated against conventional thoracic penetration. Three of the tested samplers performed well, when sampling the thoracic aerosol at nominal flow rate and two others performed well at optimized flow rate. The limit of flow rate optimization was found when using cyclone samplers.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxx057
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 7 (2017)
  • Temporal Trends in Airborne Dust Concentrations at a Large Chrysotile Mine
           and its Asbestos-enrichment Factories in the Russian Federation During
    • Authors: Schonfeld S; Kovalevskiy E, Feletto E, et al.
      Pages: 797 - 808
      Abstract: AbstractObjectivesMining and processing of chrysotile, an established carcinogen, has been undertaken in Asbest, Russian Federation since the late 1800s. Dust concentrations were routinely recorded at the open-pit mine and its asbestos-enrichment factories. We examined the temporal trends in these dust concentrations from 1951 to 2001.MethodsAnalyses included 89290 monthly averaged gravimetric dust concentrations in six factories (1951–2001) and 1457 monthly averaged concentrations in the mine (1964–2001). Annual percent changes (APC) in geometric mean dust concentrations were estimated for each factory and the mine separately from linear mixed models of the logarithmic-transformed monthly averaged concentrations.ResultsDust concentrations declined significantly in the mine [APC: −1.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −3.0 to −0.2] and Factories 1–5 but not 6. Overall factory APCs ranged from −30.4% (95% CI: −51.9 to −8.9; Factory 1: 1951–1955) to −0.6% (95% CI: −1.5 to 0.2; Factory 6: 1969–2001). Factory trends varied across decades, with the steepest declines observed before 1960 [APCs: −21.5% (Factory 2) and −17.4% (Factory 3)], more moderate declines in the 1960s and 1970s [APCs from −10% in Factory 2 (1960s) to −0.3% (not statistically significant) in Factory 4 (1970s)], and little change thereafter. Mine dust concentrations increased in the 1960s (APC: +9.7%; 95% CI: 3.6 to 15.9), decreased in the 1990s (APC: −5.8%; 95% CI: −8.1 to −3.5) and were stable in between.ConclusionsIn this analysis of >90000 dust concentrations, factory dust concentrations declined between 1951 and 1979 and then stabilized. In the mine, dust levels increased in the 1960s, declined in the 1990s and were unchanged in the interim.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxx051
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 7 (2017)
  • Characterising the Exposure of Prison Staff to Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke
    • Authors: Semple S; Sweeting H, Demou E, et al.
      Pages: 809 - 821
      Abstract: AbstractSecond-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) is an avoidable and harmful exposure in the workplace but >25000 prison staff continue to be exposed on a daily basis in the UK and many more worldwide. SHS exposures in prisons are incompletely understood but may be considerable given the large proportion of smoking prisoners and limited ventilation. This study characterized the exposure of prison staff to SHS in all 15 prisons in Scotland using multiple methods. Exposure assessment strategies included 6-day area measurement of fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and airborne nicotine in each prison together with short (30-minute) measurements of PM2.5 covering a range of locations/activities. Pre- and post-shift saliva samples were also gathered from non-smoking staff and analysed for cotinine to estimate exposure. There was evidence of exposure to SHS in all prisons from the results of PM2.5 and nicotine measurements. The salivary cotinine results from a sub-sample of non-smoking workers indicated SHS exposures of similar magnitude to those provided by the 6-day area measurements of PM2.5. There was a high degree of exposure variability with some locations/activities involving exposure to SHS concentrations that were comparable to those measured in bars in Scotland prior to smoke-free legislation in 2006. The median shift exposure to SHS-PM2.5 was ~20 to 30 µg m−3 and is broadly similar to that experienced by someone living in a typical smoking home in Scotland. This is the most comprehensive assessment of prison workers’ exposure to SHS in the world. The results are highly relevant to the development of smoke-free policies in prisons and should be considered when deciding on the best approach to provide prison staff with a safe and healthy working environment.
      PubDate: 2017-07-16
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxx058
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 7 (2017)
  • Association of Endotoxin and Allergens with Respiratory and Skin Symptoms:
           A Descriptive Study in Laboratory Animal Workers
    • Authors: Oppliger A; Barresi F, Maggi M, et al.
      Pages: 822 - 835
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundIn laboratory animal work, allergens are classically considered to play a prominent role in generation of respiratory and skin symptoms. However, recent development may have changed working conditions and require an updating of preventive measures.ObjectiveIn workers exposed to a range of animals besides laboratory mice and rats the relative role of endotoxin, irritants, and allergens in symptom generation was assessed for updating preventative measures and health surveillance.MethodsEligible workers were recruited from university units in which exposure to rats and/or mice, occurrence of respiratory and/or skin symptoms, and/or a history of animal bites had been reported. Exposure to endotoxin and rat and mouse allergen was assessed (71 half-day personal samples). ‘Symptomatic’ was defined by work-related ocular, nasal, respiratory, or skin symptoms. A concentration of specific IgE against rat or mouse (e87 and e88) ≥0.35 kU/l defined sensitization. Sensitivity analyses examined the effect of alternative exposure indicators and definitions of ‘sensitized’ and ‘symptomatic’.ResultsFrom 302 eligible workers, 177 participated. There were 121 and 41 workers in the asymptomatic and non-sensitized and symptomatic but non-sensitized group, respectively. Eight subjects were symptomatic and sensitized. Six sensitized subjects were asymptomatic. One participant could not be assigned to a subgroup. Airborne endotoxin and allergen concentrations were mostly below 20 EU m−3 or the detection limit, respectively. Clinical history showed that irritants and sensitizers other than mouse/rat allergen or endotoxin were a major cause of symptoms. Results were sensitive to the selected exposure indicator and the definition of ‘symptomatic’.ConclusionsHealth surveillance programs need to be adapted to include a larger range of allergens and pay more attention to irritants.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxx048
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 7 (2017)
  • Assessment of Workers’ Exposure to Grain Dust and Bioaerosols During the
           Loading of Vessels’ Hold: An Example at a Port in the Province of
    • Authors: Marchand G; Gardette M, Nguyen K, et al.
      Pages: 836 - 843
      Abstract: AbstractLongshoremen are exposed to large amounts of grain dust while loading of grain into the holds of vessels. Grain dust inhalation has been linked to respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, hypersensitivity, pneumonitis, and toxic pneumonitis. Our objective was to characterize the exposure of longshoremen to inhalable and total dust, endotoxins, and cultivable bacteria and fungi during the loading of grain in a vessel’s hold at the Port of Montreal in order to assess the potential health risks. Sampling campaigns were conducted during the loading of two different types of grain (wheat and corn). Environmental samples of microorganisms (bacteria, fungus, and actinomycetes) were taken near the top opening of the ship’s holds while personal breathing zone measurements of dust and endotoxins were sampled during the worker’s 5-hour shifts. Our study show that all measurements are above the recommendations with concentration going up to 390 mg m−3 of total dust, 89 mg m−3 of inhalable fraction, 550 000 EU m−3 of endotoxins, 20 000 CFU m−3 of bacteria, 61 000 CFU m−3 of fungus and 2500 CFU m−3 of actinomycetes. In conclusion, longshoremen are exposed to very high levels of dust and of microorganisms and their components during grain loading work. Protective equipment needs to be enforced for all workers during such tasks in order to reduce their exposure.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxx045
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 7 (2017)
  • The Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Northeastern
           US Trucking Terminals
    • Authors: Walker E; Hart J, Garshick E, et al.
      Pages: 844 - 853
      Abstract: AbstractIn recent years, significant attention has been given to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures given their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. However, levels of exposure and the key determinants of exposure are not well defined for the trucking industry. We measured ultrafine particle characteristics at 10 trucking terminals of varying operating size and location in the Northeast region of the United States using particle concentration counter and a surface area analyzer. Multivariate mixed-effects linear regression models were used to assess determinants of the concentration of total bound PAHs (tPAH), the total aerosol active surface area (AS), and the ratio tPAH/AS overall and individually within docks, trucking cabs, and administrative offices. Associations between PAH measures with integrated measures of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM)2.5 were assessed by Spearman rank correlation. In adjusted models, tPAH, AS, and tPAH/AS average concentrations (95% confidence interval) were significantly higher in truck cabs compared to office locations (1.26 (ng m−3) (1.18, 1.35); 0.99 (mm2 mm−3) (0.91, 1.08); 0.26 (ng mm−2) (0.18, 0.33), respectively). In the loading dock, AS concentrations were significantly higher than in the office (0.67 (0.61, 0.71), while the tPAH/AS was not (−0.63 (−0.67, −0.58). In each location, average tPAH concentrations were moderately but significantly correlated with EC (r = 0.47–0.63) and with tPAH/AS (r = 0.34–0.40) in the truck cabs and loading docks. In conclusion, key predictors of tPAH, AS, and tPAH/AS within the trucking industry are work location (in particular truck cabs and terminal docks) and terminal characteristics (size). The association of tPAH and tPAH/AS with EC concentrations in dockworkers and pick-up and delivery drivers is consistent with occupational exposure attributable to vehicle exhaust. Therefore, measurement of tPAH, AS, and tPAH/AS to characterize ultrafine particles and bound PAH concentrations provide additional information regarding exposures in the trucking industry not captured by integrated measures by EC, OC, and PM2.5.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxx050
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 7 (2017)
  • Validation of the dermal exposure model in ECETOC TRA
    • Authors: Marquart H; Franken R, Goede H, et al.
      Pages: 854 - 871
      Abstract: AbstractThe ECETOC TRA model (presently version 3.1) is often used to estimate worker inhalation and dermal exposure in regulatory risk assessment. The dermal model in ECETOC TRA has not yet been validated by comparison with independent measured exposure levels. This was the goal of the present study. Measured exposure levels and relevant contextual information were gathered via literature search, websites of relevant occupational health institutes and direct requests for data to industry. Exposure data were clustered in so-called exposure cases, which are sets of data from one data source that are expected to have the same values for input parameters in the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model. For each exposure case, the 75th percentile of measured values was calculated, because the model intends to estimate these values. The input values for the parameters in ECETOC TRA were assigned by an expert elicitation and consensus building process, based on descriptions of relevant contextual information.From more than 35 data sources, 106 useful exposure cases were derived, that were used for direct comparison with the model estimates. The exposure cases covered a large part of the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model. The model explained 37% of the variance in the 75th percentiles of measured values. In around 80% of the exposure cases, the model estimate was higher than the 75th percentile of measured values. In the remaining exposure cases, the model estimate may not be sufficiently conservative.The model was shown to have a clear bias towards (severe) overestimation of dermal exposure at low measured exposure values, while all cases of apparent underestimation by the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model occurred at high measured exposure values. This can be partly explained by a built-in bias in the effect of concentration of substance in product used, duration of exposure and the use of protective gloves in the model. The effect of protective gloves was calculated to be on average a factor of 34 in this data set, while factors of five to ten were used in the model estimations. There was also an effect of the sampling method in the measured data on the exposure levels. Exposure cases where sampling was done via an interception method, such as gloves, on average showed a factor of six higher 75th percentiles of measured values than exposure cases where sampling was done via a removal method, such as hand washing. This may partly be responsible for the apparent underestimation of dermal exposure by the model at high exposure values. However, there also appeared to be a relation between expected exposure level (as indicated by the model estimate) and the choice of sampling method.In this study, solid substances used in liquid products were treated as liquids with negligible volatility. The results indicate that the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model performs equally well for these substances as for liquids. There were suggestions of a difference in performance of the model between solids and liquids.For several parts of the ECETOC TRA dermal model, no or hardly any measured dermal exposure data were available. Therefore, gathering of more dermal exposure levels is recommended, specifically for situations not yet sufficiently covered in the present data set.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxx059
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 7 (2017)
  • Effects of Known Determinants on Methylene Bisphenyl Isocyanate (MDI)
           Concentration During Spray-On Truck Bed-Lining Processes
    • Authors: Schaal N; Brazile W, Finnie K, et al.
      Pages: 872 - 882
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundOccupational exposure to methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) presents serious worker health concerns as it may lead to short- and long-term health effects such as asthma, airway irritation, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and irritation of skin and mucous membranes. While studies of worker isocyanate exposures during vehicle painting activities are widespread, few studies have investigated the spray-on truck bed-liner (STBL) industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of several ventilation system variables and process characteristics in controlling MDI concentrations in the STBL industry.MethodsA total of 47 personal air samples were collected for MDI during 18 site visits at nine STBL companies in Colorado and Wyoming. Ventilation system and process characteristics that were assessed included: ventilation system face velocity, airflow, air changes per minute (AC/M), capture velocity, percent of MDI in bed-liner product, application temperature, application pressure, paint booth temperature, paint booth relative humidity, paint booth volume, and quantity of bed-liner product applied.ResultsPearson correlation revealed percentage of MDI in bed-liner product (r = 0.557, n = 14, P < 0.05) and process temperature (r = 0.677, n = 14, P < 0.05) had high positive correlation with MDI concentration. Ventilation system face velocity (r = −0.578, n = 14, P < 0.05) and AC/M (r = −0.657, n = 14, P < 0.05) had high negative correlation with MDI concentration while airflow (r = −0.475, n = 14, P < 0.05) and capture velocity (r = −0.415, n = 14, P = 0.07) had moderate negative correlation with MDI concentration. Multiple linear regression revealed process temperature and capture velocity made a statistically significant and unique contribution in estimating MDI concentration (F (2, 11) = 10.99, P < 0.05) with an adjusted R2 of 0.61, explaining 61% of the variability in MDI concentration.ConclusionsThis investigation contributed to an understudied STBL industry by targeting determinants germane to MDI exposures during STBL application processes. Increasing ventilation performance for AC/M, airflow, face velocity, and capture velocity while also decreasing bed-liner application temperature and bed-liner product MDI content may have the greatest effect on reducing worker MDI exposures during STBL activities.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxx052
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 7 (2017)
  • Evaluating the Physiological and Perceptual Responses of Wearing a Newly
           Designed Cooling Vest for Construction Workers
    • Authors: Zhao Y; Yi W, Chan A, et al.
      Pages: 883 - 901
      Abstract: AbstractConstruction workers are subjected to heat stress because of the hot environment, physically demanding tasks, and/or personal protective equipment. A tailor-made cooling vest that protects construction workers from heat-related injuries was developed. The purpose of the study is to examine a newly designed cooling vest’s effectiveness in alleviating physiological and perceptual strain in a hot and humid environment. Twelve male participants performed two trials, i.e., cooling vest (VEST) and control (CON) in a climatic chamber controlled at 37°C temperature, 60% relative humidity, 0.3 m/s air velocity, and 450 W/m2 solar radiation to simulate the summer working environment of construction sites. Two bouts of treadmill exercise intermitted with 30-minute passive recovery were designed to simulate the practical work–rest schedule of the construction industry. The cooling vest was used during the passive recovery period in the VEST condition, and the results were compared with that of no cooling vest in the CON condition. The results revealed that the newly designed cooling vest can significantly alleviate heat strain and improve thermal comfort, based on the decrease in body temperature, heart rate, and subjective perceptions (including perceived exertion, thermal, wetness, and comfort sensation) of the participants. It can also prolong work duration in the subsequent exercise. The cooling countermeasures proposed in this study will be able to provide an effective solution in situations that involve repeated bouts of outdoor construction work.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxx055
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 7 (2017)
  • Exhaled Breath Condensate: A Novel Matrix for Biological Monitoring to
           Assess Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica
    • Authors: Leese E; Staff J, Carolan V, et al.
      Pages: 902 - 906
      Abstract: AbstractBiological monitoring (BM) is a useful way of determining overall exposures to chemical substances; however, in the case of respirable crystalline silica (RCS), this has not been analytically feasible in conventional biological matrices. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as a potential biological matrix in which to determine exposure to RCS. A small pilot study was undertaken collecting EBC from six quarry workers and six occupationally unexposed persons; the samples were analysed using both single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that EBC obtained from the occupationally unexposed persons exhibited low background levels of dissolved silica whilst silica particles of various sizes were present in samples from quarry workers. This is the first study to report EBC as a potential biological matrix that allows differentiation of RCS concentrations between samples from workers and occupationally unexposed controls. The results shown here confirm the presence of RCS in EBC by both spICP-MS and TEM. However, there are difficult analytical challenges still to be overcome before this can be used as a BM method to determine workplace exposure, these are currently being investigated.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxx047
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 7 (2017)
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