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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 409 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 409 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 366, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 601, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 117, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 214, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insect Systematics and Diversity     Hybrid Journal  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.728
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 36  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2398-7308 - ISSN (Online) 2398-7316
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [409 journals]
  • Derivation of Time-Activity Data Using Wearable Cameras and Measures of
           Personal Inhalation Exposure among Workers at an Informal Electronic-Waste
           Recovery Site in Ghana
    • Authors: Laskaris Z; Milando C, Batterman S, et al.
      Pages: 829 - 841
      Abstract: ObjectivesApproximately 2 billion workers globally are employed in informal settings, which are characterized by substantial risk from hazardous exposures and varying job tasks and schedules. Existing methods for identifying occupational hazards must be adapted for unregulated and challenging work environments. We designed and applied a method for objectively deriving time-activity patterns from wearable camera data and matched images with continuous measurements of personal inhalation exposure to size-specific particulate matter (PM) among workers at an informal electronic-waste (e-waste) recovery site.MethodsOne hundred and forty-two workers at the Agbogbloshie e-waste site in Accra, Ghana, wore sampling backpacks equipped with wearable cameras and real-time particle monitors during a total of 171 shifts. Self-reported recall of time-activity (30-min resolution) was collected during the end of shift interviews. Images (N = 35,588) and simultaneously measured PM2.5 were collected each minute and processed to identify activities established through worker interviews, observation, and existing literature. Descriptive statistics were generated for activity types, frequencies, and associated PM2.5 exposures. A kappa statistic measured agreement between self-reported and image-based time-activity data.ResultsBased on image-based time-activity patterns, workers primarily dismantled, sorted/loaded, burned, and transported e-waste materials for metal recovery with high variability in activity duration. Image-based and self-reported time-activity data had poor agreement (kappa = 0.17). Most measured exposures (90%) exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) 24-h ambient PM2.5 target of 25 µg m−3. The average on-site PM2.5 was 81 µg m−3 (SD: 94). PM2.5 levels were highest during burning, sorting/loading and dismantling (203, 89, 83 µg m−3, respectively). PM2.5 exposure during long periods of non-work-related activities also exceeded the WHO standard in 88% of measured data.ConclusionsIn complex, informal work environments, wearable cameras can improve occupational exposure assessments and, in conjunction with monitoring equipment, identify activities associated with high exposures to workplace hazards by providing high-resolution time-activity data.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxz056
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 8 (2019)
  • Estimation of Source-Specific Occupational Benzene Exposure in a
           Population-Based Case–Control Study of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
    • Authors: Dopart P; Locke S, Cocco P, et al.
      Pages: 842 - 855
      Abstract: ObjectivesOccupational exposures in population-based case–control studies are increasingly being assessed using decision rules that link participants’ responses to occupational questionnaires to exposure estimates. We used a hierarchical process that incorporated decision rules and job-by-job expert review to assign occupational benzene exposure estimates in a US population-based case–control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.MethodsWe conducted a literature review to identify scenarios in which occupational benzene exposure has occurred, which we grouped into 12 categories of benzene exposure sources. For each source category, we then developed decision rules for assessing probability (ordinal scale based on the likelihood of exposure > 0.02 ppm), frequency (proportion of work time exposed), and intensity of exposure (in ppm). The rules used the participants’ occupational history responses and, for a subset of jobs, responses to job- and industry-specific modules. For probability and frequency, we used a hierarchical assignment procedure that prioritized subject-specific module information when available. Next, we derived job-group medians from the module responses to assign estimates to jobs with only occupational history responses. Last, we used job-by-job expert review to assign estimates when job-group medians were not available or when the decision rules identified possible heterogeneous or rare exposure scenarios. For intensity, we developed separate estimates for each benzene source category that were based on published measurement data whenever possible. Frequency and intensity annual source-specific estimates were assigned only for those jobs assigned ≥75% probability of exposure. Annual source-specific concentrations (intensity × frequency) were summed to obtain a total annual benzene concentration for each job.ResultsOf the 8827 jobs reported by participants, 8% required expert review for one or more source categories. Overall, 287 (3.3%) jobs were assigned ≥75% probability of exposure from any benzene source category. The source categories most commonly assigned ≥75% probability of exposure were gasoline and degreasing. The median total annual benzene concentration among jobs assigned ≥75% probability was 0.11 ppm (interquartile range: 0.06–0.55). The highest source-specific median annual concentrations were observed for ink and printing (2.3 and 1.2 ppm, respectively).ConclusionsThe applied framework captures some subject-specific variability in work tasks, provides transparency to the exposure decision process, and facilitates future sensitivity analyses. The developed decision rules can be used as a starting point by other researchers to assess occupational benzene exposure in future population-based studies.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxz063
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 8 (2019)
  • Associations of Metrics of Peak Inhalation Exposure and Skin Exposure
           Indices With Beryllium Sensitization at a Beryllium Manufacturing Facility
    • Authors: Virji M; Schuler C, Cox-Ganser J, et al.
      Pages: 856 - 869
      Abstract: ObjectivesPeak beryllium inhalation exposures and exposure to the skin may be relevant for developing beryllium sensitization (BeS). The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with BeS to inform the prevention of sensitization, and the development of chronic beryllium disease (CBD).MethodsIn a survey of short-term workers employed at a primary beryllium manufacturing facility between the years 1994–1999, 264 participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for BeS. A range of qualitative and quantitative peak inhalation metrics and skin exposure indices were created using: personal full-shift beryllium exposure measurements, 15 min to 24 h process-specific task and area exposure measurements, glove measurements as indicator of skin exposure, process-upset information gleaned from historical reports, and self-reported information on exposure events. Hierarchical clustering was conducted to systematically group participants based on similarity of patterns of 16 exposure variables. The associations of the exposure metrics with BeS and self-reported skin symptoms (in work areas processing beryllium salts as well as in other work areas) were evaluated using correlation analysis, log-binomial and logistic regression models with splines.ResultsMetrics of peak inhalation exposure, indices of skin exposure, and using material containing beryllium salts were significantly associated with skin symptoms and BeS; skin symptoms were a strong predictor of BeS. However, in this cohort, we could not tease apart the independent effects of skin exposure from inhalation exposure, as these exposures occurred simultaneously and were highly correlated. Hierarchical clustering identified groups of participants with unique patterns of exposure characteristics resulting in different prevalence of BeS and skin symptoms. A cluster with high skin exposure index and use of material containing beryllium salts had the highest prevalence of BeS and self-reported skin symptoms, followed by a cluster with high inhalation and skin exposure index and a very small fraction of jobs in which beryllium salts were used. A cluster with low inhalation and skin exposure and no workers using beryllium salts had no cases of BeS.ConclusionMultiple pathways and types of exposure were associated with BeS and may be important for informing BeS prevention. Prevention efforts should focus on controlling airborne beryllium exposures with attention to peaks, use of process characteristics (e.g. the likelihood of upset conditions to design interventions) minimize skin exposure to beryllium particles, and in particular, eliminate skin contact with beryllium salts to interrupt potential exposure pathways for BeS risk.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxz064
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 8 (2019)
  • Semiconductor Work and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Associated with Male
           Workers: A Retrospective Cohort Study
    • Authors: Choi K; Kim H, Kim M, et al.
      Pages: 870 - 880
      Abstract: ObjectivesA hazardous work environment in semiconductor factories is a threat to the workers’ health. Semiconductor manufacturing characteristically requires young workers, and reproductive toxicity is an important issue. Studies investigating reproductive toxicity among individuals working in the semiconductor manufacturing industry have primarily focused on outcomes in women. Information on the reproductive health of male semiconductor factory workers is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the association between workplace exposures among male workers in a Korean semiconductor company and adverse pregnancy outcomes.MethodsBased on the data from the 2015 Semiconductor Health Survey (SHS), which evaluated the workplace exposures, pregnancy outcomes, and general health of 21 969 employees of the semiconductor industry in South Korea, we included 3868 male workers with 7504 pregnancy outcomes identified by self-reports for this retrospective cohort study. Data regarding the pregnancy outcomes, order of pregnancy, and the years of the outcomes were collected via the SHS questionnaire. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were defined as preterm labor, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirth. Workplace exposures were classified as fabrication, assembly, others, lab, and office work (reference group). A generalized estimating equations model including repeated events of individuals and producing relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the association between workplace exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Analyses were adjusted for work location, spouse’s employment in semiconductor production work, educational level, marital status, risky alcohol drinking, smoking status, body mass index, order of pregnancy, and age and year of pregnancy outcome, which were based on a priori decisions.ResultsThe adjusted risk for adverse outcomes was higher [RR (95% CI): 1.47 (1.04, 2.07)] among assembly process workers compared with the office workers. Adjusted risks for adverse outcomes among workers in assembly and fabrication, whose spouses also worked in semiconductor production, were 1.60 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.46) and 1.74 (95% CI: 1.18, 2.57) times higher, respectively, compared with the office workers with spouses not working in semiconductor production.ConclusionsBased on these findings, semiconductor work might be considered a risk factor for reproductive toxicity among male workers, especially for those whose spouses have the same job.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxz061
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 8 (2019)
  • Whole-Body Vibration Associated with Dozer Operation at an Australian
           Surface Coal Mine
    • Authors: Lynas D; Burgess-Limerick R.
      Pages: 881 - 889
      Abstract: Bulldozers are used extensively on surface mine sites and have been previously identified as being associated with high amplitude whole-body vibration exposures. Previous investigations of this equipment have involved either a very small number of measurements, or measurements of very short duration (or both); or the data obtained were incompletely reported. This research reports 69 measurements (median duration 440 min) obtained from 15 different dozers during operation at a surface coal mine. More than one-third of vertical vibration measurements exceeded the ISO2631.1 Health Guidance Caution Zone when expressed as VDV(8). Considerable variability in measurement amplitudes was found. This was also true within measurements obtained from the same dozers on different shifts suggesting, by a process of elimination, that the remaining variability in whole-body vibration amplitude is a function of some combination of task characteristics, geology, and operator behaviour; rather than equipment-related variability, such as maintenance, suspension, seating, or track design. Short-comings in the evaluation methods provided by ISO2631.1 are highlighted.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxz054
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 8 (2019)
  • Benzene Exposure and Biomarkers in Alveolar Air and Urine Among Deck Crews
           on Tankers Transporting Gasoline
    • Authors: Forsell K; Liljelind I, Ljungkvist G, et al.
      Pages: 890 - 897
      Abstract: IntroductionIncreased rates of leukaemia have been found among tanker crews. Occupational exposures to the leukomogen benzene during loading, unloading, and tank cleaning are possible causes. Studies on older types of tankers carrying gasoline with most handling being done manually have revealed important exposures to benzene. Our study explores benzene exposures on tankers with both automatic and manual systems. Correlations between benzene exposure and benzene in alveolar air (AlvBe), benzene in urine (UBe), and trans,trans-muconic acid (ttMA) in urine were investigated.MethodsForty-three male seafarers (22 deck crewmembers and 21 not on deck) on five Swedish different product and chemical tankers transporting 95- or 98-octane gasoline were investigated between 1995 and 1998. The tankers used closed systems for the loading and unloading of gasoline but stripping and tank cleaning were done manually. Benzene in respiratory air was measured using personal passive dosimeters during a 4-h work shift. Samples for biomarker analyses were collected pre- and post-shift. Smoking did occur and crewmembers did not use any respiratory protection during work.ResultsThe average 4-h benzene exposure level for exposed was 0.45 mg m−3 and for non-exposed 0.02 mg m−3. Benzene exposure varied with type of work (range 0.02–143 mg m−3). AlvBe, UBe, and ttMA were significantly higher in post-shift samples among exposed and correlated with exposure level (r = 0.89, 0.74, and 0.57, respectively). Smoking did not change the level of significance among exposed.DiscussionBenzene in alveolar air, unmetabolized benzene, and ttMA in urine are potential biomarkers for occupational benzene exposure. Biomarkers were detectable in non-exposed, suggesting benzene exposure even for other work categories on board tankers. Work on tankers carrying gasoline with more or less closed handling of the cargo may still lead to significant benzene exposure for deck crewmembers, and even exceed the Swedish Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL; 8-h time-weighted average [TWA]) of 1.5 mg m−3.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxz055
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 8 (2019)
  • A Quantitative Validation of the Control Banding Nanotool
    • Authors: Zalk D; Paik S, Chase W.
      Pages: 898 - 917
      Abstract: Eleven years (by publication) years after the development and application of the control banding (CB) Nanotool for the qualitative assessment and control of engineered nanoparticles (ENP), there remains no quantitative gold standard to serve as an alternative to the qualitative assessment. Many CB models have been developed during the years subsequent to the initial development of the CB Nanotool and the literature continues to blossom with comparisons and applications of these various tools; however, these developments have hitherto been made in the absence of validating and verifying their effectiveness using existing, albeit limited, quantitative methods. This paper reviews the existing literature on the CB Nanotool to evaluate its effectiveness in a variety of settings and presents a summary of qualitative and quantitative information from its application in a broad range of ENP handling activities performed in two different research institutions. A total of 28 ENP activities were assessed using the CB Nanotool (Version 2.0). Due to the lack of guidance on a single exposure assessment methodology, a combination of real-time monitoring, filter analysis, and microscopic analysis was used to assess various quantitative metrics, including mass concentration, particle number concentration, and particle speciation. All the results indicated that the control outcomes from the CB Nanotool qualitative assessment were sufficient to prevent workers from being exposed to ENP at levels beyond established exposure limits or background levels. These data represent an independent quantitative validation of CB Nanotool risk level outcomes and give further credence to the use of the CB Nanotool to effectively control worker exposures in the absence of quantitative air monitoring results.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxz057
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 8 (2019)
  • Sound Level Measurements in Berthing Areas of an Aircraft Carrier
    • Authors: Schaal N; Majar M, Hunter A.
      Pages: 918 - 929
      Abstract: BackgroundPersonnel assigned to aircraft carriers work and live in environments where hazardous noise areas and hearing recovery spaces such as sleeping areas are in close proximity to one another. Hazardous noise exposure occurring during on-duty time periods and elevated noise levels during off-duty periods in sleeping areas may be prohibiting adequate hearing recovery, thus potentially leading to hearing loss and may lead to adverse effects on sleep, leading to crew-member fatigue. This investigation characterizes Equivalent sound level (Leq) and standardized octave band center frequency noise levels according to berthing (sleeping) area location during flight operation and nonflight operation time periods on a US Navy aircraft carrier. In addition, the investigation compares noise measurements in sleeping areas to noise levels associated with auditory rest and poor sleep quality and quantity.MethodsNoise levels were measured in berthing areas aboard a US Navy Nimitz-class aircraft carrier during a routine at-sea period. Sixty noise measurements were taken in eight sleeping locations. Leq in decibels ‘A’ weighted (dBA) and noise levels from 16 to 16 000 Hz in (dB) were measured during flight operations [Leq (flt ops)] and nonflight operations [Leq (nonflt ops)]. Leq was also measured according to sleep area shipboard locations of forward (FWD) Leq (FWD), middle (MID) Leq (MID), and rear (AFT) Leq (AFT). These data were compared to the 70 dBA American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) for effective quiet areas. In addition, these data were compared to noise levels associated with hearing loss and sleep parameters. Statistical analysis was conducted with R version 3.5.2 using an alpha level of 0.05.ResultsLeq (flt ops) in sleeping areas was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) 6.4 dBA higher than the Leq (nonflt ops). Leq (FWD) and Leq (MID) in sleeping areas was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) 15.2 and 15.0 dBA higher, respectively, than the Leq (AFT) noise levels. Mean noise levels at standardized center (1/1) octave bands were highest between 500 and 4000 Hz, ranging from 65.2 to 69.8 dB. A total of 72% of all area Leq measurements exceeded the 70 dBA ACGIH TLV classified as effective quiet to allow for temporary threshold shift recovery. All noise measurements exceeded the World Health Organization’s noise threshold where adverse effects on sleep begin.Discussion/ConclusionsResults suggest that sleeping area location in close proximity to relatively high noise sources and activities occurring on an aircraft carrier (i.e. flight operations) increase noise levels in sleeping areas. These findings raise serious concerns since high noise exposures both on duty and during off-duty/sleeping periods may inhibit auditory recovery from hazardous noise exposures. In addition, results suggest noise levels in sleeping areas are high enough to evoke negative sleep effects.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxz051
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 8 (2019)
  • The Effect on Fit of Multiple Consecutive Donning and Doffing of N95
           Filtering Facepiece Respirators
    • Authors: Vuma C; Manganyi J, Wilson K, et al.
      Pages: 930 - 936
      Abstract: BackgroundN95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are widely used in healthcare to reduce transmission of airborne infectious diseases. These respirators are generally described as single use or limited reuse devices, but cost and operational issues mean that they may be donned and doffed multiple times. There is scant research on the effect of this practice on adequacy of fit.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to measure the effect on respirator fit of multiple donning and doffing of N95 FFRs.MethodsThis was an experiment in which 16 women and 9 men employed by the National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOH), Johannesburg, donned their same N95 FFR six times. All 25 were trained in the correct wearing of the devices before the experiment. Four models of respirators were used: the six who did not use respirators at work (novice subjects) were issued a 3M 1860 FFR and the others used their currently supplied one. During the experiment subjects donned their respirators under the supervision of the tester. Quantitative fit testing was done in the NIOH Occupational Hygiene laboratory after each donning according to the OSHA-Accepted Fit Test Protocol using the TSI PortaCount Pro+ Model 8038 Respirator Fit Tester. During the test, fit was measured after each of seven exercises and then an overall fit factor was computed. Only individuals who achieved an initial overall fit factor of ≥100 were allowed to continue participation in the study. Median overall fit factors were calculated for the 25 subjects for each donning and changes across them was examined using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Men and women and frequent and infrequent users were compared across the six tests. Infrequent use was defined as subjects who wore respirators ≤ once per week, and novice subjects.ResultsTwo subjects (8%) had an overall fit factor <100 at fit Test 2, 6 (24%) at Test 3, and 8 (32%) at Tests 4, 5, and 6. Thirteen respirator users (52%) achieved ≥100 throughout the fit testing, so 12 had at least one failure at either Tests 2–6. Five of the 12 subjects with at least one failure showed persistent failures on all subsequent donnings. Six subjects out of 12 (50%) who failed a fit test achieved an overall fit factor >100 at a subsequent test. There was a significant difference between the median first and sixth overall fit factors (195 versus 150; P = 0.0271), but not between the second and sixth (161 versus 150; P = 0.3584). Men and women had similar overall fit factors, but infrequent users had larger average overall fit factors than frequent users after all six donnings.ConclusionForty-eight percent of study subjects failed at least one fit test after re-donning an N95 FFR. The fit test data suggest that donning practices probably accounted for the fit test failures. The 50% of subjects who produced overall fit factors ≥100 after a test of <100 supports this contention.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxz060
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 8 (2019)
  • Impact of Source Position and Obstructions on Fume Hood Releases
    • Authors: Mattox T; Falzone C, Sadrizadeh S, et al.
      Pages: 937 - 949
      Abstract: A fume hood is the most central piece of safety equipment available to researchers in a laboratory environment. While it is understood that the face velocity and sash height can drastically influence airflow patterns, few specific recommendations can be given to the researcher to guide them to maximize the safety of their particular hood. This stems from the issue that fundamentally little is known regarding how obstructions within the hood can push potentially harmful particles or chemicals out of the fume hood and into the breathing zone. In this work, we demonstrate how the position of a typical nanoparticle synthesis setup, including a Schlenk line and stir plate on an adjustable stand, influences airflow in a constant velocity fume hood. Using a combination of smoke evolution experiments and the aid of computational fluid dynamics simulations, we show how the location and height of the reaction components impact airflow. This work offers a highly visual display intended especially for new or inexperienced fume hood users. Based upon our studies and simulations, we provide detailed guidance to researchers and lab technicians on how to optimally modify reaction placement in order to protect the breathing zone while working.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxz062
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 8 (2019)
  • Comparison of Microwave-Assisted Digestion and Consensus Open-Vessel
           Digestion Procedures for Evaluation of Metalliferous Airborne Particulate
    • Authors: Schwank T; Pitzke K, Gusbeth K, et al.
      Pages: 950 - 964
      Abstract: Metal occupational exposure limits mainly focus on total content of the respective metals of interest. The methods applied for trace metal analysis in occupational health and safety laboratories are usually standardized to pragmatic consensus digestion schemes, ensuring comparability of results. The objective of the present study entailed the evaluation of a recently developed HNO3-only microwave-assisted digestion procedure by comparison with the German consensus hot-block digestion and other national digestion schemes. An inter-laboratory comparison test with participation of nine national occupational health and safety laboratories from Europe and North America was organized. For adequate emulation of what workers are at risk of inhaling four different industrial metal processing workplace dusts (electronic recycling, high-speed steel grinding, cylinder head cleaning, and battery combustion ash) were homogenized and sieved to the particle size < 100 µm diameter at IFA. The participants were asked to process air sample-typical amounts according to the German hot-plate technique, the IFA microwave-assisted digestion scheme as well as their national or in-house conventional digestion method for airborne dust and analyze for Cd, Co, Cr, Co, Fe, Mg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Recoveries (relative to consensus open-vessel digestion) obtained for the new IFA microwave-assisted digestion were between 88 and 114% and relative reproducibility standard deviations were <10% for most metals of interest. The in-house digestion procedures applied varied widely but (whether microwave, hot block, or open vessel) yielded comparable results for the predominantly elemental alloy type dusts supplied. Results become more diverse for the combustion dust, especially if a combination of microwave-assisted digestion procedures with high temperatures and hydrofluoric acid is applied. ISO 15202-2 is currently being revised; this digestion procedure will be included as a possible variant in annex 2.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxz068
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 8 (2019)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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