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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 285, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 576, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Journal of Experimental Botany
  [SJR: 2.798]   [H-I: 163]   [14 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-0957 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2431
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • A new opening for wheat seed production
    • Authors: Dixon L; Bencivenga S, Boden S.
      First page: 341
      Abstract: This article comments on:Okada T, Jayasinghe R, Nansamba M, Baes M, Warner P, Kouidri A, Correia D, Nguyen V, Whitford R, Baumann U. 2017. Unfertilized ovary pushes wheat flower open for cross-pollination. Journal of Experimental Botany 69, 399–412.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx430
       
  • Quantitative imaging of plants: multi-scale data for better plant anatomy
    • Authors: Legland D; Devaux M, Guillon F.
      First page: 343
      Abstract: This article comments on:Staedler YM, Kreisberger T, Manafzadeh S, Chartier M, Handschuh S, Pamperl S, Sontag S, Paun O, Schönenberger J. 2017. Novel computed tomography-based tools reliably quantify plant reproductive investment. Journal of Experimental Botany 69, 525–535.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx416
       
  • Profligate and conservative: water use strategies in grain legumes
    • Authors: Blessing C; Mariette A, Kaloki P, et al.
      First page: 349
      Abstract: Yields of grain legumes are constrained by available water. Thus, it is crucial to understand traits influencing water uptake and the efficiency of using water to produce biomass. Global comparisons and comparisons at specific locations reveal that water use of different grain legumes is very similar, which indicates that water use efficiency varies over a wide range due to differences in biomass and yield. Moreover, yield increases more per millimetre of water used in cool season grain legumes than warm season species. Although greater contrasts have been observed across species and genotypes at the pot and lysimeter level, agronomic factors need to be taken into account when scaling those studies to field-level responses. Conservative water use strategies in grain legumes such as low stomatal conductance as approximated by low photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination reduces yield potential, whereas temporal adjustments of stomatal conductance within the growing season and in response to environmental factors (such as vapour pressure deficit) helps to optimize the trade-off between carbon gain and water loss. Furthermore, improved photosynthetic capacity, reduced mesophyll conductance, reduced boundary layer, and re-fixation of respired CO2 were identified as traits that are beneficial without water deficit, but also under terminal and transient drought. Genotypic variability in some grain legume species has been observed for several traits that influence water use, water use efficiency, and yield, including root length and the temporal pattern of water use, but even more variation is expected from wild relatives. Albeit that N2 fixation decreases under drought, its impact on water use is still largely unknown, but the nitrogen source influences gas exchange and, thus, transpiration efficiency. This review concludes that conservative traits are needed under conditions of terminal drought to help maintain soil moisture until the pod-filling period, but profligate traits, if tightly regulated, are important under conditions of transient drought in order to profit from short intermittent periods of available soil moisture.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx415
       
  • Transcript levels of orf288 are associated with the hau cytoplasmic male
           sterility system and altered nuclear gene expression in Brassica juncea
    • Authors: Heng S; Gao J, Wei C, et al.
      First page: 455
      Abstract: Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is primarily caused by chimeric genes located in the mitochondrial genomes. In Brassica juncea, orf288 has been identified as a CMS-associated gene in the hau CMS line; however, neither the specific abortive stage nor the molecular function of the gene have been determined. We therefore characterized the hau CMS line, and found that defective mitochondria affect the development of archesporial cells during the L2 stage, leading to male sterility. The expression level of the orf288 transcript was higher in the male-sterility line than in the fertility-restorer line, although no significant differences were apparent at the protein level. The toxicity region of ORF288 was found to be located near the N-terminus and repressed growth of Escherichia coli. However, transgenic expression of different portions of ORF288 indicated that the region that causes male sterility resides between amino acids 73 and 288, the expression of which in E. coli did not result in growth inhibition. Transcriptome analysis revealed a wide range of genes involved in anther development and mitochondrial function that were differentially expressed in the hau CMS line. This study provides new insights into the hau CMS mechanism by which orf288 affects the fertility of Brassica juncea.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx443
       
  • Association of extracellular dNTP utilization with a GmPAP1-like protein
           identified in cell wall proteomic analysis of soybean roots
    • Authors: Wu W; Lin Y, Liu P, et al.
      First page: 603
      Abstract: Plant root cell walls are dynamic systems that serve as the first plant compartment responsive to soil conditions, such as phosphorus (P) deficiency. To date, evidence for the regulation of root cell wall proteins (CWPs) by P deficiency remains sparse. In order to gain a better understanding of the roles played by CWPs in the roots of soybean (Glycine max) in adaptation to P deficiency, we conducted an iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) proteomic analysis. A total of 53 CWPs with differential accumulation in response to P deficiency were identified. Subsequent qRT-PCR analysis correlated the accumulation of 21 of the 27 up-regulated proteins, and eight of the 26 down-regulated proteins with corresponding gene expression patterns in response to P deficiency. One up-regulated CWP, purple acid phosphatase 1-like (GmPAP1-like), was functionally characterized. Phaseolus vulgaris transgenic hairy roots overexpressing GmPAP1-like displayed an increase in root-associated acid phosphatase activity. In addition, relative growth and P content were significantly enhanced in GmPAP1-like overexpressing lines compared to control lines when deoxy-ribonucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) was applied as the sole external P source. Taken together, the results suggest that the modulation of CWPs may regulate complex changes in the root system in response to P deficiency, and that the cell wall-localized GmPAP1-like protein is involved in extracellular dNTP utilization in soybean.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx441
       
  • Solanaceous exocyst subunits are involved in immunity to diverse plant
           pathogens
    • Authors: Du Y; Overdijk E, Berg J, et al.
      First page: 655
      Abstract: The exocyst, a multiprotein complex consisting of eight subunits, plays an essential role in many biological processes by mediating secretion of post-Golgi-derived vesicles towards the plasma membrane. In recent years, roles for plant exocyst subunits in pathogen defence have been uncovered, largely based on studies in the model plant Arabidopsis. Only a few studies have been undertaken to assign the role of exocyst subunits in plant defence in other plants species, including crops. In this study, predicted protein sequences from exocyst subunits were retrieved by mining databases from the Solanaceous plants Nicotiana benthamiana, tomato, and potato. Subsequently, their evolutionary relationship with Arabidopsis exocyst subunits was analysed. Gene silencing in N. benthamiana showed that several exocyst subunits are required for proper plant defence against the (hemi-)biotrophic plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae. In contrast, some exocyst subunits seem to act as susceptibility factors for the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Furthermore, the majority of the exocyst subunits were found to be involved in callose deposition, suggesting that they play a role in basal plant defence. This study provides insight into the evolution of exocyst subunits in Solanaceous plants and is the first to show their role in immunity against multiple unrelated pathogens.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx442
       
  • Corrigendum: Crop-model assisted phenomics and genome-wide association
           study for climate adaptation of indica rice. 1. Phenology
    • Authors: Dingkuhn M; Pasco R, Pasuquin J, et al.
      First page: 711
      Abstract: Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 68, No. 15 pp. 4369–4388, 2017 doi: 10.1093/jxb/erx249
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx461
       
  • Corrigendum: Crop-model assisted phenomics and genome-wide association
           study for climate adaptation of indica rice 2. Thermal stress and spikelet
           sterility
    • Authors: Dingkuhn M; Pasco R, Pasuquin J, et al.
      First page: 713
      Abstract: Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 68, No. 15 pp. 4389–4406, 2017 doi: 10.1093/jxb/erx250
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx462
       
  • News from the PUB: plant U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligases
    • Authors: Trujillo M.
      First page: 371
      Abstract: Plant U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligases (PUBs) are well known for their functions in a variety of stress responses, including immune responses and the adaptation to abiotic stresses. First linked to pollen self-incompatibility, their repertoire of roles has grown to encompass also the regulation of developmental processes. Notably, new studies provide clues to their mode of action, underline the existence of conserved PUB–kinase modules, and suggest new links to G-protein signalling, placing PUBs at the crossroads of major signalling hubs. The frequent association with membranes, by interacting and/or targeting membrane proteins, as well as through a recently reported direct interaction with phospholipids, indicates a general function in the control of vesicle transport and their cargoes. This review aims to give an overview of the most significant advances in the field, while also trying to identify common themes of PUB function.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx411
       
  • LARGE ROOT ANGLE1, encoding OsPIN2, is involved in root system
           architecture in rice
    • Authors: Wang L; Guo M, Li Y, et al.
      First page: 385
      Abstract: Root system architecture is very important for plant growth and crop yield. It is essential for nutrient and water uptake, anchoring, and mechanical support. Root growth angle (RGA) is a vital constituent of root system architecture and is used as a parameter for variety evaluation in plant breeding. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms that determine root growth angle in rice (Oryza sativa). In this study, a rice mutant large root angle1 (lra1) was isolated and shown to exhibit a large RGA and reduced sensitivity to gravity. Genome resequencing and complementation assays identified OsPIN2 as the gene responsible for the mutant phenotypes. OsPIN2 was mainly expressed in roots and the base of shoots, and showed polar localization in the plasma membrane of root epidermal and cortex cells. OsPIN2 was shown to play an important role in mediating root gravitropic responses in rice and was essential for plants to produce normal RGAs. Taken together, our findings suggest that OsPIN2 plays an important role in root gravitropic responses and determining the root system architecture in rice by affecting polar auxin transport in the root tip.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx427
       
  • Unfertilized ovary pushes wheat flower open for cross-pollination
    • Authors: Okada T; Jayasinghe J, Nansamba M, et al.
      First page: 399
      Abstract: Bread wheat is strongly autogamous; however, an opportunity for outcrossing occurs when self-pollination fails and florets open. The first phase of floret opening at anthesis is short and induced by lodicule turgidity. Some wheat florets re-open post-anthesis for several days, known as the ‘second opening’, for which the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We performed detailed physiological, anatomical, and histological investigations to understand the biological basis of the flower opening process. Wheat florets were observed open when the ovary was unfertilized. Unfertilized ovaries significantly increased in radial size post-anthesis, pushing the lemma and palea apart to open the florets. The absence of fertile pollen was not directly linked to this, but anther filament elongation coincided with initiation of ovary swelling. The pericarp of unfertilized ovaries did not undergo degeneration as normally seen in developing grains, instead pericarp cells remained intact and enlarged, leading to increased ovary radial size. This is a novel role for the ovary pericarp in wheat flower opening, and the knowledge is useful for facilitating cross-pollination in hybrid breeding. Ovary swelling may represent a survival mechanism in autogamous cereals such as wheat and barley, ensuring seed set in the absence of self-fertilization and increasing genetic diversity through cross-pollination.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx410
       
  • Natural variation reveals that OsSAP16 controls low-temperature
           germination in rice
    • Authors: Wang X; Zou B, Shao Q, et al.
      First page: 413
      Abstract: Low temperature affects seed germination in plants, and low-temperature germination (LTG) is an important agronomic trait. Natural variation of LTG has been reported in rice, but the molecular basis for this variation is largely unknown. Here we report the phenotypic analysis of LTG in 187 rice natural accessions and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of LTG in this collection. A total of 53 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were found to be associated with LTG, of which 20 were located in previously reported QTLs. We further identified Stress-Associated Protein 16 (OsSAP16), coding for a zinc-finger domain protein, as a causal gene for one of the major LTG QTLs. Loss of OsSAP16 function reduces germination while greater expression of OsSAP16 enhances germination at low temperature. In addition, accessions with extremely high and low LTG values have correspondingly high and low OsSAP16 expression at low temperatures, suggesting that variation in expression of the OsSAP16 gene contributes to LTG variation. As the first case of identification of an LTG gene through GWAS, this study indicates that GWAS of natural accessions is an effective strategy in genetically dissecting LTG processes and gaining molecular understanding of low-temperature response and germination.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx413
       
  • Arabidopsis MKK10-MPK6 mediates red-light-regulated opening of seedling
           cotyledons through phosphorylation of PIF3
    • Authors: Xin X; Chen W, Wang B, et al.
      First page: 423
      Abstract: Photomorphogenesis is an important process in which seedlings emerge from soil and begin autotrophic growth. Mechanisms of photomorphogenesis include light signal perception, signal transduction, and the modulation of expression of light-responsive genes, ultimately leading to cellular and developmental changes. Phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) play negative regulatory roles in photomorphogenesis. Light-induced activation of phytochromes triggers rapid phosphorylation and degradation of PIFs, but the kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of PIFs are largely unknown. Here, we show that Arabidopsis MPK6 is a kinase involved in phosphorylating PIF3 and regulating red light-induced cotyledon opening, a crucial process during seedling photomorphogenesis. MPK6 was activated by red light, and the cotyledon opening angle in red light was reduced in mpk6 seedlings. MKK10, a MAPKK whose function is currently unclear, appears to act as a kinase upstream of MPK6 in regulating cotyledon opening. Activation of MPK6 by MKK10 led to the phosphorylation of PIF3 and accelerated its turnover in transgenic seedlings. Accordingly, the overexpression of PIF3 suppressed MKK10-induced cotyledon opening. MKK10 and MPK6 function downstream of phyB in regulating seedling cotyledon opening in red light. Therefore, the MKK10-MPK6 cascade appears to mediate the regulation of red-light-controlled seedling photomorphogenesis via a mechanism that might involve the phosphorylation of PIF3.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx418
       
  • Antibody-mediated modulation of cytokinins in tobacco: organ-specific
           changes in cytokinin homeostasis
    • Authors: Gelová Z; ten Hoopen P, Novák O, et al.
      First page: 441
      Abstract: Cytokinins comprise a group of phytohormones with an organ-specific mode of action. Although the mechanisms controlling the complex networks of cytokinin metabolism are partially known, the role of individual cytokinin types in the maintenance of cytokinin homeostasis remains unclear. Utilizing the overproduction of single-chain Fv antibodies selected for their ability to bind trans-zeatin riboside and targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum, we post-synthetically modulated cytokinin ribosides, the proposed transport forms of cytokinins. We observed asymmetric activity of cytokinin biosynthetic genes and cytokinin distribution in wild-type tobacco seedlings with higher cytokinin abundance in the root than in the shoot. Antibody-mediated modulation of cytokinin ribosides further enhanced the relative cytokinin abundance in the roots and induced cytokinin-related phenotypes in an organ-specific manner. The activity of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase in the roots was strongly up-regulated in response to antibody-mediated formation of the cytokinin pool in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, we only detected a slight decrease in the root cytokinin levels. In contrast, a significant decrease of cytokinins occurred in the shoot. We suggest the roots as the main site of cytokinin biosynthesis in tobacco seedlings. Conversely, cytokinin levels in the shoot seem to depend largely on long-range transport of cytokinin ribosides from the root and their subsequent metabolic activation.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx426
       
  • Pi starvation-dependent regulation of ethanolamine metabolism by
           phosphoethanolamine phosphatase PECP1 in Arabidopsis roots
    • Authors: Tannert M; May A, Ditfe D, et al.
      First page: 467
      Abstract: A universal plant response to phosphorus deprivation is the up-regulation of a diverse array of phosphatases. As reported recently, the AtPECP1 gene encodes a phosphatase with in vitro substrate specificity for phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine. The putative substrates suggested that AtPECP1 is related to phospholipid metabolism; however, the biological function of AtPECP1 is as yet not understood. In addition, whereas lipid remodelling processes as part of the phosphorus starvation response have been extensively studied, knowledge of the polar head group metabolism and its regulation is lacking. We found that AtPECP1 is expressed in the cytosol and exerts by far its strongest activity in roots of phosphate-starved plants. We established a novel LC-MS/MS-based method for the quantitative and simultaneous measurement of the head group metabolites. The analysis of Atpecp1 null mutants and overexpression lines revealed that phosphoethanolamine, but not phosphocholine is the substrate of AtPECP1 in vivo. The impact on head group metabolite levels is greatest in roots of both loss-of-function and gain-of-function transgenic lines, indicating that the biological role of AtPECP1 is mainly restricted to roots. We suggest that phosphoethanolamine hydrolysis by AtPECP1 during Pi starvation is required to down-regulate the energy-consuming biosynthesis of phosphocholine through the methylation pathway.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx408
       
  • Hyperspectral reflectance as a tool to measure biochemical and
           physiological traits in wheat
    • Authors: Silva-Perez V; Molero G, Serbin S, et al.
      First page: 483
      Abstract: Improving photosynthesis to raise wheat yield potential has emerged as a major target for wheat physiologists. Photosynthesis-related traits, such as nitrogen per unit leaf area (Narea) and leaf dry mass per area (LMA), require laborious, destructive, laboratory-based methods, while physiological traits underpinning photosynthetic capacity, such as maximum Rubisco activity normalized to 25 °C (Vcmax25) and electron transport rate (J), require time-consuming gas exchange measurements. The aim of this study was to assess whether hyperspectral reflectance (350–2500 nm) can be used to rapidly estimate these traits on intact wheat leaves. Predictive models were constructed using gas exchange and hyperspectral reflectance data from 76 genotypes grown in glasshouses with different nitrogen levels and/or in the field under yield potential conditions. Models were developed using half of the observed data with the remainder used for validation, yielding correlation coefficients (R2 values) of 0.62 for Vcmax25, 0.7 for J, 0.81 for SPAD, 0.89 for LMA, and 0.93 for Narea, with bias <0.7%. The models were tested on elite lines and landraces that had not been used to create the models. The bias varied between −2.3% and −5.5% while relative error of prediction was similar for SPAD but slightly greater for LMA and Narea.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx421
       
  • ZmWRKY79 positively regulates maize phytoalexin biosynthetic gene
           expression and is involved in stress response
    • Authors: Fu J; Liu Q, Wang C, et al.
      First page: 497
      Abstract: Maize (Zea mays) accumulates maize terpenoid phytoalexins (MTPs), kauralexins and zealexins in response to various elicitations. Although the key biosynthetic genes for these have been characterized, the regulatory mechanism remains unclear. Through co-correlation analysis, a transcription factor (TF), ZmWRKY79, was identified as highly correlated with expression of MTP biosynthetic genes. Gene expression analysis indicated that ZmWRKY79 was induced by Fusarium graminearum infection, phytohormone treatment, and multiple stresses. Overexpression of ZmWRKY79 in maize protoplasts increased expression of genes involved in MTP biosynthesis, jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways, and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subsequent transient RNAi in maize protoplast compromised the induction of MTP biosynthetic genes by jasmonic acid and ethylene combined treatment. Such regulation was further demonstrated to be dependent on a W-box or WLE cis-element. Transient overexpression of ZmWRKY79 in tobacco conferred resistance against Rhizoctonia solani infection through reducing ROS production. Our results indicate that MTP biosynthesis is regulated by the common transcription factor ZmWRKY79, which plays a broad role as a potential master regulator in stress response through involvement in phytohormone metabolism or signaling and ROS scavenging.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx436
       
  • Overexpression of the tonoplast sugar transporter CmTST2 in melon fruit
           increases sugar accumulation
    • Authors: Cheng J; Wen S, Xiao S, et al.
      First page: 511
      Abstract: Fruits are an important part of the human diet and sugar content is a major criterion used to evaluate fruit quality. Melon fruit accumulate high sugar concentrations during their development; however, the mechanism through which these sugars are transported into the vacuoles of fruit cells for storage remains unclear. In this study, three tonoplast sugar transporters (TSTs), CmTST1, CmTST2, and CmTST3, were isolated from melon plants. Analysis of subcellular localization revealed that all these proteins were targeted to the tonoplast, and evaluation of spatial expression and promoter-GUS activity indicated that they had different expression patterns in the plant. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR results indicated that CmTST2 exhibited the highest expression level among the TST isoforms during melon fruit development. Histochemical and immunohistochemistry localization experiments were performed to identify the tissue- and cell-type localization of CmTST2 in the fruit, and the results indicated that both its transcription and translation were in the mesocarp and vascular cells. Overexpressing the CmTST2 gene in strawberry fruit and cucumber plants by transient expression and stable transformation, respectively, both increased sucrose, fructose, and glucose accumulation in the fruit. The results indicate that CmTST2 plays an important role in sugar accumulation in melon fruit.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx440
       
  • Novel computed tomography-based tools reliably quantify plant reproductive
           investment
    • Authors: Staedler Y; Kreisberger T, Manafzadeh S, et al.
      First page: 525
      Abstract: The flower is a bisexual reproductive unit where both genders compete for resources. Counting pollen and ovules in flowers is essential to understand how much is invested in each gender. Classical methods to count very numerous pollen grains and ovules are inefficient when pollen grains are tightly aggregated, and when fertilization rates of ovules are unknown. In this study we have therefore developed novel counting techniques based on computed tomography. In order to demonstrate the potential of our methods in very difficult cases, we counted pollen and ovules across inflorescences of deceptive and rewarding species of European orchids, which possess both very large numbers of pollen grains (tightly aggregated) and ovules. Pollen counts did not significantly vary across inflorescences and pollination strategies, whereas deceptive flowers had significantly more ovules than rewarding flowers. The within-inflorescence variance of pollen-to-ovule ratios in rewarding flowers was four times higher than in deceptive flowers, possibly demonstrating differences in the constraints acting on both pollination strategies. We demonstrate the inaccuracies and limitations of previously established methods, and the broad applicability of our new techniques: they allow measurement of reproductive investment without restriction on object number or aggregation, and without specimen destruction.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx405
       
  • Changes in the epigenome and transcriptome of the poplar shoot apical
           meristem in response to water availability affect preferentially hormone
           pathways
    • Authors: Lafon-Placette C; Le Gac A, Chauveau D, et al.
      First page: 537
      Abstract: The adaptive capacity of long-lived organisms such as trees to the predicted climate changes, including severe and successive drought episodes, will depend on the presence of genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity. Here, the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in phenotypic plasticity toward soil water availability was examined in Populus×euramericana. This work aimed at characterizing (i) the transcriptome plasticity, (ii) the genome-wide plasticity of DNA methylation, and (iii) the function of genes affected by a drought–rewatering cycle in the shoot apical meristem. Using microarray chips, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified for each water regime. The rewatering condition was associated with the highest variations of both gene expression and DNA methylation. Changes in methylation were observed particularly in the body of expressed genes and to a lesser extent in transposable elements. Together, DEGs and DMRs were significantly enriched in genes related to phytohormone metabolism or signaling pathways. Altogether, shoot apical meristem responses to changes in water availability involved coordinated variations in DNA methylation, as well as in gene expression, with a specific targeting of genes involved in hormone pathways, a factor that may enable phenotypic plasticity.
      PubDate: Sat, 02 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx409
       
  • Fine-tuning of the setting of critical day length by two casein kinases in
           rice photoperiodic flowering
    • Authors: Nemoto Y; Hori K, Izawa T.
      First page: 553
      Abstract: Many short-day plants have a critical day length that fixes the schedule for flowering time, limiting the range of natural growth habitats (or growth and cultivation areas). Thus, fine-tuning of the critical day-length setting in photoperiodic flowering determines ecological niches within latitudinal clines; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the fine-tuning of the critical day-length setting in plants. Previously, we determined that florigen genes are regulated by day length, and identified several key genes involved in setting the critical day length in rice. Using a set of chromosomal segment substitution lines with the genetic background of an elite temperate japonica cultivar, we performed a series of expression analyses of flowering-time genes to identify those responsible for setting the critical day-length in rice. Here, we identified two casein kinase genes, Hd16 and Hd6, which modulate the expression of florigen genes within certain restricted ranges of photoperiod, thereby fine-tuning the critical day length. In addition, we determined that Hd16 functions as an enhancer of the bifunctional action of Hd1 (the Arabidopsis CONSTANS ortholog) in rice. Utilization of the natural variation in Hd16 and Hd6 was only found among temperate japonica cultivars adapted to northern areas. Therefore, this fine-tuning of the setting of the critical day length may contribute to the potential northward expansion of rice cultivation areas.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx412
       
  • Dark conditions enhance aluminum tolerance in several rice cultivars via
           multiple modulations of membrane sterols
    • Authors: Wagatsuma T; Maejima E, Watanabe T, et al.
      First page: 567
      Abstract: Aluminum-sensitive rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars showed increased Al tolerance under dark conditions, because less Al accumulated in the root tips (1 cm) under dark than under light conditions. Under dark conditions, the root tip concentration of total sterols, which generally reduce plasma membrane permeabilization, was higher in the most Al-sensitive japonica cultivar, Koshihikari (Ko), than in the most Al-tolerant cultivar, Rikuu-132 (R132), but the phospholipid content did not differ between the two. The Al treatment increased the proportion of stigmasterol (which has no ability to reduce membrane permeabilization) out of total sterols similarly in both cultivars under light conditions, but it decreased more in Ko under dark conditions. The carotenoid content in the root tip of Al-treated Ko was significantly lower under dark than under light conditions, indicating that isopentenyl diphosphate transport from the cytosol to plastids was decreased under dark conditions. HMG2 and HMG3 (encoding the key sterol biosynthetic enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase) transcript levels in the root tips were enhanced under dark conditions. We suggest that the following mechanisms contribute to the increase in Al tolerance under dark conditions: inhibition of stigmasterol formation to retain membrane integrity; greater partitioning of isopentenyl diphosphate for sterol biosynthesis; and enhanced expression of HMGs to increase sterol biosynthesis.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx414
       
  • Control of proline accumulation under drought via a novel pathway
           comprising the histone methylase CAU1 and the transcription factor ANAC055
           
    • Authors: Fu Y; Ma H, Chen S, et al.
      First page: 579
      Abstract: Proline plays a crucial role in the drought stress response in plants. However, there are still gaps in our knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that regulate proline metabolism under drought stress. Here, we report that the histone methylase encoded by CAU1, which is genetically upstream of P5CS1 (encoding the proline biosynthetic enzyme Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1), plays a crucial role in proline-mediated drought tolerance. We determined that the transcript level of CAU1 decreased while that of ANAC055 (encoding a transcription factor) increased in wild-type Arabidopsis under drought stress. Further analyses showed that CAU1 bound to the promoter of ANAC055 and suppressed its expression via H4R3sme2-type histone methylation in the promoter region. Thus, under drought stress, a decreased level of CAU1 led to an increased transcript level of ANAC055, which induced the expression of P5CS1 and increased proline level independently of CAS. Drought tolerance and the level of proline were found to be decreased in the cau1 anac055 double-mutant, while proline supplementation restored drought sensitivity in the anac055 mutant. Our results reveal the details of a novel pathway leading to drought tolerance mediated by CAU1.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx419
       
  • Pine wilt disease causes cavitation around the resin canals and
           irrecoverable xylem conduit dysfunction
    • Authors: Yazaki K; Takanashi T, Kanzaki N, et al.
      First page: 589
      Abstract: Physiological mechanisms of irreversible hydraulic dysfunction in seedlings infected with pine wilt disease (PWD) are still unclear. We employed cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) to investigate the temporal and spatial changes in water distribution within the xylem of the main stem of 2-year-old Japanese black pine seedlings infested by pine wood nematodes (PWNs). Our experiment was specifically designed to compare the water relations among seedlings subjected to the following water treatment and PWN combinations: (i) well-watered versus prolonged drought (no PWNs); and (ii) well-watered with PWNs versus water-stressed with PWNs (four treatments in total). Cryo-SEM imaging observations chronicled the development of patchy cavitations in the xylem tracheids of the seedlings influenced by PWD. With the progression of drought, many pit membranes of bordered pits in the xylem of the main stem were aspirated with the decrease in water potential without xylem cavitation, indicating that hydraulic segmentation may exist between tracheids. This is the first study to demonstrate conclusively that explosive and irreversible cavitations occurred around the hydraulically vulnerable resin canals with the progression of PWD. Our findings provide a more comprehensive understanding of stressors on plant–water relations that may eventually better protect trees from PWD and assist with the breeding of trees more tolerant to PWD.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx417
       
  • SMZ/SNZ and gibberellin signaling are required for nitrate-elicited delay
           of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana
    • Authors: Gras D; Vidal E, Undurraga S, et al.
      First page: 619
      Abstract: The reproductive success of plants largely depends on the correct programming of developmental phase transitions, particularly the shift from vegetative to reproductive growth. The timing of this transition is finely regulated by the integration of an array of environmental and endogenous factors. Nitrogen is the mineral macronutrient that plants require in the largest amount, and as such its availability greatly impacts on many aspects of plant growth and development, including flowering time. We found that nitrate signaling interacts with the age-related and gibberellic acid pathways to control flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. We revealed that repressors of flowering time belonging to the AP2-type transcription factor family including SCHLAFMUTZE (SMZ) and SCHNARCHZAPFEN (SNZ) are important regulators of flowering time in response to nitrate. Our results support a model whereby nitrate activates SMZ and SNZ via the gibberellin pathway to repress flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx423
       
  • Co-expression of a cyclizing asparaginyl endopeptidase enables efficient
           production of cyclic peptides in planta
    • Authors: Poon S; Harris K, Jackson M, et al.
      First page: 633
      Abstract: Cyclotides are ultra-stable, backbone-cyclized plant defence peptides that have attracted considerable interest in the pharmaceutical industry. This is due to their range of native bioactivities as well as their ability to stabilize other bioactive peptides within their framework. However, a hindrance to their widespread application is the lack of scalable, cost-effective production strategies. Plant-based production is an attractive, benign option since all biosynthetic steps are performed in planta. Nonetheless, cyclization in non-cyclotide-producing plants is poor. Here, we show that cyclic peptides can be produced efficiently in Nicotiana benthamiana, one of the leading plant-based protein production platforms, by co-expressing cyclotide precursors with asparaginyl endopeptidases that catalyse peptide backbone cyclization. This approach was successful in a range of other plants (tobacco, bush bean, lettuce, and canola), either transiently or stably expressed, and was applicable to both native and engineered cyclic peptides. We also describe the use of the transgenic system to rapidly identify new asparaginyl endopeptidase cyclases and interrogate their substrate sequence requirements. Our results pave the way for exploiting cyclotides for pest protection in transgenic crops as well as large-scale production of cyclic peptide pharmaceuticals in plants.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx422
       
  • MAP kinases associate with high molecular weight multiprotein complexes
    • Authors: Bequette C; Hind S, Pulliam S, et al.
      First page: 643
      Abstract: Plant responses to the environment and developmental processes are mediated by a complex signaling network. The Arabidopsis thaliana mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) MPK3 and MPK6 and their orthologs in other plants are shared signal transducers that respond to many developmental and environmental signals and thus represent highly connected hubs in the cellular signaling network. In animals, specific MAPK signaling complexes are assembled which enable input-specific protein–protein interactions and thus specific signaling outcomes. In plants, not much is known about such signaling complexes. Here, we report that MPK3, MPK6, and MPK10 orthologs in tomato, tobacco, and Arabidopsis as well as tomato MAPK kinase 4 (MKK4) associate with high molecular weight (~250–550 kDa) multiprotein complexes. Elicitation by the defense-associated peptides flg22 and systemin resulted in phosphorylation and activation of the monomeric MAPKs, whereas the complex-associated MAPKs remained unphosphorylated and inactive. In contrast, treatment of tomato cells with a phosphatase inhibitor resulted in association of phosphorylated MPK1/2 with the complex. These results demonstrate that plant MAPKs and MAPKKs dynamically assemble into stable multiprotein complexes and this may depend on their phosphorylation status. Identification of the constituents of these multiprotein complexes promises a deeper understanding of signaling dynamics.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx424
       
  • The ability to regulate voltage-gated K+-permeable channels in the mature
           root epidermis is essential for waterlogging tolerance in barley
    • Authors: Gill M; Zeng F, Shabala L, et al.
      First page: 667
      Abstract: abstractOxygen depletion under waterlogged conditions results in a compromised operation of H+-ATPase, with strong implications for membrane potential maintenance, cytosolic pH homeostasis, and transport of all nutrients across membranes. The above effects, however, are highly tissue specific and time dependent, and the causal link between hypoxia-induced changes to the cell’s ionome and plant adaptive responses to hypoxia is not well established. This work aimed to fill this gap and investigate the effects of oxygen deprivation on K+ signalling and homeostasis in plants, and potential roles of GORK (depolarization-activated outward-rectifying potassium) channels in adaptation to oxygen-deprived conditions in barley. A significant K+ loss was observed in roots exposed to hypoxic conditions; this loss correlated with the cell’s viability. Stress-induced K+ loss was stronger in the root apex immediately after stress onset, but became more pronounced in the root base as the stress progressed. The amount of K+ in shoots of plants grown in waterlogged soil correlated strongly with K+ flux under hypoxia measured in laboratory experiments. Hypoxia induced membrane depolarization; the severity of this depolarization was less pronounced in the tolerant group of cultivars. The expression of GORK was down-regulated by 1.5-fold in mature root but it was up-regulated by 10-fold in the apex after 48 h hypoxia stress. Taken together, our results suggest that the GORK channel plays a central role in K+ retention and signalling under hypoxia stress, and measuring hypoxia-induced K+ fluxes from the mature root zone may be used as a physiological marker to select waterlogging-tolerant varieties in breeding programmes.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx429
       
  • Ozone-triggered surface uptake and stress volatile emissions in Nicotiana
           tabacum ‘Wisconsin’
    • Authors: Kanagendran A; Pazouki L, Li S, et al.
      First page: 681
      Abstract: Ozone is a strong oxidant and a key stress elicitor. The immediate and longer term impacts of ozone are poorly understood in species with emission of both de novo synthesized and stored volatiles, such a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which has terpene-containing glandular trichomes on the leaf surface. In this study, we exposed N. tabacum ‘Wisconsin’ leaves to acute ozone doses of 0 (control), 400, 600, 800, and 1000 ppb for 30 min and studied the effects of ozone exposure on ozone uptake, gas-exchange characteristics, and emissions of lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. Foliage emissions of lipoxygenase pathway volatiles were quantitatively related to the severity of ozone exposure, but the stress dose vs. emission relationship was weaker for terpenoids. Analysis of leaf terpene content and composition indicated that several monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were not stored in leaves and were synthesized de novo upon ozone exposure. The highest degree of elicitation for each compound was observed immediately after ozone treatment and it declined considerably during recovery. Leaf ozone uptake was dominated by non-stomatal deposition, and the emissions of total lipoxygenase pathway volatiles and mono- and sesquiterpenes were positively correlated with non-stomatal ozone deposition. Overall, this study demonstrates remarkably high ozone resistance of the studied tobacco cultivar and indicates that ozone’s effects on volatile emissions primarily reflect modifications in the release of stored volatiles and reaction of ozone with the leaf surface structure.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx431
       
  • Genetic basis of photosynthetic responses to cold in two locally adapted
           populations of Arabidopsis thaliana
    • Authors: Oakley C; Savage L, Lotz S, et al.
      First page: 699
      Abstract: abstractLocal adaptation is common, but the traits and genes involved are often unknown. Physiological responses to cold probably contribute to local adaptation in wide-ranging species, but the genetic basis underlying natural variation in these traits has rarely been studied. Using a recombinant inbred (495 lines) mapping population from locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from Sweden and Italy, we grew plants at low temperature and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for traits related to photosynthesis: maximal quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm), rapidly reversible photoprotection (NPQfast), and photoinhibition of PSII (NPQslow) using high-throughput, whole-plant measures of chlorophyll fluorescence. In response to cold, the Swedish line had greater values for all traits, and for every trait, large effect QTLs contributed to parental differences. We found one major QTL affecting all traits, as well as unique major QTLs for each trait. Six trait QTLs overlapped with previously published locally adaptive QTLs based on fitness measured in the native environments over 3 years. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic responses to cold can vary dramatically within a species, and may predominantly be caused by a few QTLs of large effect. Some photosynthesis traits and QTLs probably contribute to local adaptation in this system.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx437
       
 
 
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