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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 524, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Journal of Experimental Botany
  [SJR: 2.798]   [H-I: 163]   [14 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-0957 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2431
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Where does it come from, where does it go' The role of the xylem for
           plant CO 2 efflux
    • Authors: Gessler A.
      Pages: 2633 - 2636
      Abstract: Assimilationcarbon isotopeenvironmental driversrespirationtranspiration.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx161
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • To respond or not to respond' Natural variation of root architectural
           responses to nutrient signals
    • Authors: Amtmann A; Shahzad Z.
      Pages: 2636 - 2640
      Abstract: Environmental interactionsepistatic effectsglutamatenatural variationnitrateQTL mappingroot architectureroot growthtemperature sensitivity.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx160
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Enhancing genetic gain in the era of molecular breeding
    • Authors: Xu Y; Li P, Zou C, et al.
      Pages: 2641 - 2666
      Abstract: AbstractAs one of the important concepts in conventional quantitative genetics and breeding, genetic gain can be defined as the amount of increase in performance that is achieved annually through artificial selection. To develop pro ducts that meet the increasing demand of mankind, especially for food and feed, in addition to various industrial uses, breeders are challenged to enhance the potential of genetic gain continuously, at ever higher rates, while they close the gaps that remain between the yield potential in breeders’ demonstration trials and the actual yield in farmers’ fields. Factors affecting genetic gain include genetic variation available in breeding materials, heritability for traits of interest, selection intensity, and the time required to complete a breeding cycle. Genetic gain can be improved through enhancing the potential and closing the gaps, which has been evolving and complemented with modern breeding techniques and platforms, mainly driven by molecular and genomic tools, combined with improved agronomic practice. Several key strategies are reviewed in this article. Favorable genetic variation can be unlocked and created through molecular and genomic approaches including mutation, gene mapping and discovery, and transgene and genome editing. Estimation of heritability can be improved by refining field experiments through well-controlled and precisely assayed environmental factors or envirotyping, particularly for understanding and controlling spatial heterogeneity at the field level. Selection intensity can be significantly heightened through improvements in the scale and precision of genotyping and phenotyping. The breeding cycle time can be shortened by accelerating breeding procedures through integrated breeding approaches such as marker-assisted selection and doubled haploid development. All the strategies can be integrated with other widely used conventional approaches in breeding programs to enhance genetic gain. More transdisciplinary approaches, team breeding, will be required to address the challenge of maintaining a plentiful and safe food supply for future generations. New opportunities for enhancing genetic gain, a high efficiency breeding pipeline, and broad-sense genetic gain are also discussed prospectively.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx135
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • A systems-wide understanding of photosynthetic acclimation in algae and
           higher plants
    • Authors: Moejes F; Matuszyńska A, Adhikari K, et al.
      Pages: 2667 - 2681
      Abstract: AbstractThe ability of phototrophs to colonise different environments relies on robust protection against oxidative stress, a critical requirement for the successful evolutionary transition from water to land. Photosynthetic organisms have developed numerous strategies to adapt their photosynthetic apparatus to changing light conditions in order to optimise their photosynthetic yield, which is crucial for life on Earth to exist. Photosynthetic acclimation is an excellent example of the complexity of biological systems, where highly diverse processes, ranging from electron excitation over protein protonation to enzymatic processes coupling ion gradients with biosynthetic activity, interact on drastically different timescales from picoseconds to hours. Efficient functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus and its protection is paramount for efficient downstream processes, including metabolism and growth. Modern experimental techniques can be successfully integrated with theoretical and mathematical models to promote our understanding of underlying mechanisms and principles. This review aims to provide a retrospective analysis of multidisciplinary photosynthetic acclimation research carried out by members of the Marie Curie Initial Training Project, AccliPhot, placing the results in a wider context. The review also highlights the applicability of photosynthetic organisms for industry, particularly with regards to the cultivation of microalgae. It intends to demonstrate how theoretical concepts can successfully complement experimental studies broadening our knowledge of common principles in acclimation processes in photosynthetic organisms, as well as in the field of applied microalgal biotechnology.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx137
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Consequences of the genotypic loss of mitochondrial Complex I in
           dinoflagellates and of phenotypic regulation of Complex I content in other
           photosynthetic organisms
    • Authors: Raven JA; Beardall J.
      Pages: 2683 - 2692
      Abstract: AbstractThe absence of mitochondrial Complex I in the dinoflagellates decreases ATP production per hexose catabolised by about 30%, with little evidence of compensation from other ATP-producing pathways. This decrease in ATP synthesis could account for the lower maximum specific growth rate of dinoflagellates when compared with some other higher taxa of algae, as well as the generally higher rate of respiration per unit of photosynthesis or growth. These effects might be smaller when nutrients are limiting. The iron requirement per cell for the synthesis of respiratory ATP at the observed rate in the absence of Complex I is predicted to be at least 85% of the iron content of cells containing Complex I. The limited data available show that the iron content per cell volume of iron-replete dinoflagellate cells is similar to that of other microalgae. Data also reveal that the minimum iron quota of a dinoflagellate is greater than that of three other microalgae. There is no effect of the absence of the Complex I-associated ϒ-carbonic anhydrase protein, which has no detectable carbonic anhydrase activity but instead plays a role in the assembly of Complex I.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx149
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Fine mapping of a quantitative trait locus for spikelet number per panicle
           in a new plant type rice and evaluation of a near-isogenic line for grain
    • Authors: Sasaki K; Fujita D, Koide Y, et al.
      Pages: 2693 - 2702
      Abstract: AbstractTotal spikelet number per panicle (TSN) is one of the determinants of grain productivity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we attempted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for TSN in the introgression lines with high TSN, derived from the cross of Indica Group variety IR 64 with new plant type lines. Two QTLs were detected on the long arm of chromosome 12: qTSN12.1 in the BC4F2 population of YTH63/IR 64 and qTSN12.2 in the BC4F3 population of YTH83/IR 64. TSN of the main tiller was significantly higher in near-isogenic lines (NILs) for qTSN12.1 (IR 64-NIL1; 188.6) and for qTSN12.2 (IR 64-NIL12; 199.4) than in IR 64 (141.2), owing to a significant increase in both primary and secondary branch numbers. These results suggest the critical function of these QTLs in the promotion of rachis branching at the panicle formation stage. Fine mapping of qTSN12.2 revealed six candidate genes in a 92-kb region of the Nipponbare reference genome sequence between flanking markers RM28746 and RM28753. Detailed phenotyping of agronomic traits of IR 64-NIL12 carrying qTSN12.2 showed drastic changes in plant architecture: this line had lower panicle number, longer culm, and longer and wider leaves compared with IR 64. Percentage of fertility and 1000-grain weight tended to be greater, and grain yield per square meter was also greater in IR 64-NIL12 than in IR 64. The newly identified QTLs will be useful for genetic improvement of the yield potential of Indica Group varieties. The markers tightly linked to qTSN12.2 are available for marker-assisted breeding.
      PubDate: 2017-06-03
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx128
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Uncovering tomato quantitative trait loci and candidate genes for fruit
           cuticular lipid composition using the Solanum pennellii introgression line
    • Authors: Fernandez-Moreno J; Levy-Samoha D, Malitsky S, et al.
      Pages: 2703 - 2716
      Abstract: AbstractThe cuticle is a specialized cell wall layer that covers the outermost surface of the epidermal cells and has important implications for fruit permeability and pathogen susceptibility. In order to decipher the genetic control of tomato fruit cuticle composition, an introgression line (IL) population derived from a biparental cross between Solanum pennellii (LA0716) and the Solanum lycopersicum cultivar M82 was used to build a first map of associated quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A total of 24 cuticular waxes and 26 cutin monomers were determined. They showed changes associated with 18 genomic regions distributed in nine chromosomes affecting 19 ILs. Out of the five main fruit cuticular components described for the wild species S. pennellii, three of them were associated with IL3.4, IL12.1, and IL7.4.1, causing an increase in n-alkanes (≥C30), a decrease in amyrin content, and a decrease in cuticle thickness of ~50%, respectively. Moreover, we also found a QTL associated with increased levels of amyrins in IL3.4. In addition, we propose some candidate genes on the basis of their differential gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphism variability between the introgressed and the recurrent alleles, which will be the subjects of further investigation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx134
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Differential expression of a WRKY gene between wild and cultivated
           soybeans correlates to seed size
    • Authors: Gu Y; Li W, Jiang H, et al.
      Pages: 2717 - 2729
      Abstract: AbstractSoybean (Glycine max) probably originated from the wild soybean (Glycine soja). Glycine max has a significantly larger seed size, but the underlying genomic changes are largely unknown. Candidate regulatory genes were preliminarily proposed by data co-localizing RNA sequencing with the quantitative loci (QTLs) for seed size. The soybean gene locus SoyWRKY15a and its orthologous genes from G. max (GmWRKY15a) and G. soja (GsWRKY15a) were analyzed in detail. The coding sequences were nearly identical between the two orthologs, but GmWRKY15a was significantly more highly expressed than GsWRKY15a. Four haplotypes (H1–H4) were found and they varied in the size of a CT-core microsatellite locus in the 5'-untranslated region of this gene. H1 (with six CT-repeats) was the only allelic version found in G. max, while H3 (with five CT-repeats) was the dominant G. soja allele. Differential expression of this gene in soybean pods was correlated with CT-repeat variation, and manipulation of the CT copy number altered the reporter gene expression, suggesting a regulatory role for the simple sequence repeats. Seed weight of wild soybeans harboring H1 was significantly greater than that of soybeans having haplotypes H2, H3, or H4, and seed weight was correlated with gene expression, suggesting the influence of GsWRKY15a in controlling seed size. However, the seed size might be refractory to increased SoyWRKY15a expression in cultivated soybeans. The evolutionary significance of SoyWRKY15a variation in soybean seed domestication is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx147
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • quatre-quart1 is an indispensable U12 intron-containing gene that plays a
           crucial role in Arabidopsis development
    • Authors: Kwak K; Kim B, Lee K, et al.
      Pages: 2731 - 2739
      Abstract: AbstractDespite increasing understanding of the importance of the splicing of U12-type introns in plant development, the key question of which U12 intron-containing genes are essential for plant development has not yet been explored. Here, we assessed the functional role of the quatre-quart1 (QQT1) gene, one of the ~230 U12 intron-containing genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of QQT1 in the U11/U12-31K small nuclear ribonucleoprotein mutant (31k) rescued the developmental-defect phenotypes of the 31k mutant, whereas the miRNA-mediated qqt1 knockdown mutants displayed severe defects in growth and development, including severely arrested stem growth, small size, and the formation of serrated leaves. The structures of the shoot apical meristems in the qqt1 mutants were abnormal and disordered. Identification of QQT1-interacting proteins via a yeast two-hybrid screening and a firefly luciferase complementation-imaging assay revealed that a variety of proteins, including many chloroplast-targeted proteins, interacted with QQT1. Importantly, the levels of chloroplast-targeted proteins in the chloroplast were reduced, and the chloroplast structure was abnormal in the qqt1 mutant. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that QQT1 is an indispensable U12 intron-containing gene whose correct splicing is crucial for the normal development of Arabidopsis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx138
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • The Arabidopsis JAGGED LATERAL ORGANS ( JLO ) gene sensitizes plants to
    • Authors: Rast-Somssich MI; Žádníková P, Schmid S, et al.
      Pages: 2741 - 2755
      Abstract: AbstractPlant growth and development of new organs depend on the continuous activity of the meristems. In the shoot, patterns of organ initiation are determined by PINFORMED (PIN)-dependent auxin distribution, while the undifferentiated state of meristem cells requires activity of KNOTTED LIKE HOMEOBOX (KNOX) transcription factors. Cell proliferation and differentiation of the root meristem are regulated by the largely antagonistic functions of auxin and cytokinins. It has previously been shown that the transcription factor JAGGED LATERAL ORGANS (JLO), a member of the LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY DOMAIN (LBD) family, coordinates KNOX and PIN expression in the shoot and promotes root meristem growth. Here we show that JLO is required for the establishment of the root stem cell niche, where it interacts with the auxin/PLETHORA pathway. Auxin signaling involves the AUX/IAA co-repressor proteins, ARF transcription factors and F-box receptors of the TIR1/AFB1–5 family. Because jlo mutants fail to degrade the AUX/IAA protein BODENLOS, root meristem development is inhibited. We also demonstrate that the expression levels of two auxin receptors, TIR1 and AFB1, are controlled by JLO dosage, and that the shoot and root defects of jlo mutants are alleviated in jlo plants expressing TIR1 and AFB1 from a transgene. The finding that the auxin sensitivity of a plant can be differentially regulated through control of auxin receptor expression can explain how different developmental processes can be integrated by the activity of a key transcription factor.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx131
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Two DELLA-interacting proteins bHLH48 and bHLH60 regulate flowering under
           long-day conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana
    • Authors: Li Y; Wang H, Li X, et al.
      Pages: 2757 - 2767
      Abstract: AbstractGibberellin (GA) regulates many developmental transitions in the plant life cycle. Although great progress has been made, the GA signaling pathways have not been fully elucidated. Identifying and characterizing new targets of DELLA proteins is an effective approach to reveal the complicated GA signaling networks. In this study, two novel DELLA-interacting transcription factors, bHLH48 and bHLH60, were identified. Their overexpression caused plants to flower early under long-day conditions, whereas their functional repression resulted in the opposite result. The constitutive expression of bHLH48 and bHLH60 upregulated the transcription of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that bHLH48 bound to the promoter of FT and that GA promoted the DNA-binding activity of bHLH48. Genetic analyses indicated that the early flowering phenotype of plants overexpressing bHLH48 and bHLH60 depended on FT and that the overexpression of bHLH48 and bHLH60 could rescue the late-flowering phenotypes of RGL1 overexpressing plants. Transient expression assays suggested that RGL1 inhibited the transcription activation ability of bHLH48 and bHLH60. Taken together, this study confirmed that bHLH48 and bHLH60 positively regulate GA-mediated flowering.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx143
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Analysis of CFB , a cytokinin-responsive gene of Arabidopsis thaliana
           encoding a novel F-box protein regulating sterol biosynthesis
    • Authors: Brenner WG; Leuendorf J, Cortleven A, et al.
      Pages: 2769 - 2785
      Abstract: AbstractProtein degradation by the ubiquitin–26S proteasome pathway is important for the regulation of cellular processes, but the function of most F-box proteins relevant to substrate recognition is unknown. We describe the analysis of the gene Cytokinin-induced F-box encoding (CFB, AT3G44326), identified in a meta-analysis of cytokinin-related transcriptome studies as one of the most robust cytokinin response genes. F-box domain-dependent interaction with the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex component ASK1 classifies CFB as a functional F-box protein. Apart from F-box and transmembrane domains, CFB contains no known functional domains. CFB is expressed in all plant tissues, predominantly in root tissue. A ProCFB:GFP-GUS fusion gene showed strongest expression in the lateral root cap and during lateral root formation. CFB-GFP fusion proteins were mainly localized in the nucleus and the cytosol but also at the plasma membrane. cfb mutants had no discernible phenotype, but CFB overexpressing plants showed several defects, such as a white upper inflorescence stem, similar to the hypomorphic cycloartenol synthase mutant cas1-1. Both CFB overexpressing plants and cas1-1 mutants accumulated the CAS1 substrate 2,3-oxidosqualene in the white stem tissue, the latter even more after cytokinin treatment, indicating impairment of CAS1 function. This suggests that CFB may link cytokinin and the sterol biosynthesis pathway.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx146
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Transcriptional regulatory network of WOX11 is involved in the control of
           crown root development, cytokinin signals, and redox in rice
    • Authors: Jiang W; Zhou S, Zhang Q, et al.
      Pages: 2787 - 2798
      Abstract: AbstractThe rice root system is mainly composed of post-embryonic shoot-borne roots called crown roots. WOX11, encoding a WUSCHEL-related homeobox domain transcription factor, is a key regulator of crown root growth and development in rice (Oryza sativa. L). In addition to specifically activating crown root development, WOX11 is also involved in lateral root initiation, root hair formation, and abiotic stresses. However, the gene regulatory network downstream of WOX11 remains largely unknown. Here, we studied the transcriptome of wox11 root tips by RNA-Seq and determined direct WOX11-binding targets by bioinformatic and biochemical analysis. The transcriptomic analysis revealed 664 differentially expressed genes, which covered a wide range of functions related to root development, cytokinin homeostasis/signaling, stress response, and redox metabolic processes. Bioinformatic analysis also revealed that the WOX11-binding motif was distributed over 41% (273/664) of the differentially expressed genes, and was mostly enriched in the promoter and intron regions. We used qRT-PCR and/or in situ hybridization to confirm co-expression of some of the WOX11-regulated genes in crown root development. We also used electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation with anti-WOX11 antibody to validate direct regulation of these genes by WOX11. The analysis identified several genes that acted downstream of WOX11 in controlling crown root formation, cytokinin signaling, stress response, and redox metabolism. This work built a hierarchical regulatory model of WOX11 in rice crown root development.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx153
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Phytoplasma-conserved phyllogen proteins induce phyllody across the
           Plantae by degrading floral MADS domain proteins
    • Authors: Kitazawa Y; Iwabuchi N, Himeno M, et al.
      Pages: 2799 - 2811
      Abstract: AbstractABCE-class MADS domain transcription factors (MTFs) are key regulators of floral organ development in angiosperms. Aberrant expression of these genes can result in abnormal floral traits such as phyllody. Phyllogen is a virulence factor conserved in phytoplasmas, plant pathogenic bacteria of the class Mollicutes. It triggers phyllody in Arabidopsis thaliana by inducing degradation of A- and E-class MTFs. However, it is still unknown whether phyllogen can induce phyllody in plants other than A. thaliana, although phytoplasma-associated phyllody symptoms are observed in a broad range of angiosperms. In this study, phyllogen was shown to cause phyllody phenotypes in several eudicot species belonging to three different families. Moreover, phyllogen can interact with MTFs of not only angiosperm species including eudicots and monocots but also gymnosperms and a fern, and induce their degradation. These results suggest that phyllogen induces phyllody in angiosperms and inhibits MTF function in diverse plant species.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx158
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Inheritance of vernalization memory at FLOWERING LOCUS C during plant
    • Authors: Nakamura M; Hennig L.
      Pages: 2813 - 2819
      Abstract: AbstractSpecific gene states can be transmitted to subsequent cell generations through mitosis involving particular chromatin (epigenetic) states. During reproduction of plants and animals, however, most epigenetic states are reset to allow development to start anew. Flowering is one of the critical developmental steps by which plants acquire their reproductive capacity. This phase transition is controlled by environmental signals and autonomous regulation. The FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) gene is a flowering repressor that is epigenetically silenced after long-term exposure to cold, ensuring flowering in the spring season. In Arabidopsis thaliana, epigenetically silenced FLC expression is reset during sexual reproduction. Plants have a remarkable potential to regenerate from somatic cells. However, little is known about whether the regeneration process is similar to sexual reproduction in terms of affecting chromatin states. Here, we tested whether FLC silencing is reset during in vitro regeneration. Transcriptional repression and high H3K27me3 at FLC were both stably transmitted, resulting in early flowering in regenerated shoots. Thus, the silenced epigenetic state of FLC is reset only during sexual reproduction and not during in vitro regeneration. In contrast, the active epigenetic state of FLC was only partially maintained through in vitro reproduction, suggesting that regeneration causes stochastic FLC silencing.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx154
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Molecular association of Arabidopsis RTH with its homolog RTE1 in
           regulating ethylene signaling
    • Authors: Zheng F; Cui X, Rivarola M, et al.
      Pages: 2821 - 2832
      Abstract: AbstractThe plant hormone ethylene affects many biological processes during plant growth and development. Ethylene is perceived by ethylene receptors at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. The ETR1 ethylene receptor is positively regulated by the transmembrane protein RTE1, which localizes to the ER and Golgi apparatus. The RTE1 gene family is conserved in animals, plants, and lower eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, RTE1-HOMOLOG (RTH) is the only homolog of the Arabidopsis RTE1 gene family. The regulatory function of the Arabidopsis RTH in ethylene signaling and plant growth is largely unknown. The present study shows Arabidopsis RTH gene expression patterns, protein co-localization with the ER and Golgi apparatus, and the altered ethylene response phenotype when RTH is knocked out or overexpressed in Arabidopsis. Compared with rte1 mutants, rth mutants exhibit less sensitivity to exogenous ethylene, while RTH overexpression confers ethylene hypersensitivity. Genetic analyses indicate that Arabidopsis RTH might not directly regulate the ethylene receptors. RTH can physically interact with RTE1, and evidence supports that RTH might act via RTE1 in regulating ethylene responses and signaling. The present study advances our understanding of the regulatory function of the Arabidopsis RTE1 gene family members in ethylene signaling.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx175
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • ORRM5, an RNA recognition motif-containing protein, has a unique effect on
           mitochondrial RNA editing
    • Authors: Shi X; Castandet B, Germain A, et al.
      Pages: 2833 - 2847
      Abstract: AbstractPlants have an RNA editing mechanism that prevents deleterious organelle mutations from resulting in impaired proteins. A typical flowering plant modifies about 40 cytidines in chloroplast transcripts and many hundreds of cytidines in mitochondrial transcripts. The plant editosome, the molecular machinery responsible for this process, contains members of several protein families, including the organelle RNA recognition motif (ORRM)-containing family. ORRM1 and ORRM6 are chloroplast editing factors, while ORRM2, ORRM3, and ORRM4 are mitochondrial editing factors. Here we report the identification of organelle RRM protein 5 (ORRM5) as a mitochondrial editing factor with a unique mode of action. Unlike other ORRM editing factors, the absence of ORRM5 in orrm5 mutant plants results in an increase of the editing extent in 14% of the mitochondrial sites surveyed. The orrm5 mutant also exhibits a reduced splicing efficiency of the first nad5 intron and slower growth and delayed flowering time. ORRM5 contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM) and a glycine-rich domain at the C terminus. The RRM provides the editing activity of ORRM5 and is able to complement the splicing but not the morphological defects.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx139
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Inside out: efflux of carbon dioxide from leaves represents more than leaf
    • Authors: Stutz SS; Anderson J, Zulick R, et al.
      Pages: 2849 - 2857
      Abstract: AbstractHigh concentrations of inorganic carbon in the xylem, produced from root, stem, and branch respiration, travel via the transpiration stream and eventually exit the plant through distant tissues as CO2. Unlike previous studies that focused on the efflux of CO2 from roots and woody tissues, we focus on efflux from leaves and the potential effect on leaf respiration measurements. We labeled transported inorganic carbon, spanning reported xylem concentrations, with 13C and then manipulated transpiration rates in the dark in order to vary the rates of inorganic carbon supply to cut leaves from Brassica napus and Populus deltoides. We used tunable diode laser absorbance spectroscopy to directly measure the rate of gross 13CO2 efflux, derived from inorganic carbon supplied from outside of the leaf, relative to gross 12CO2 efflux generated from leaf cells. These experiemnts showed that 13CO2 efflux was dependent upon the rate of inorganic carbon supply to the leaf and the rate of transpiration. Our data show that the gross leaf efflux of xylem-transported CO2 is likely small in the dark when rates of transpiration are low. However, gross leaf efflux of xylem-transported CO2 could approach half the rate of leaf respiration in the light when transpiration rates and branch inorganic carbon concentrations are high, irrespective of the grossly different petiole morphologies in our experiment.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx155
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • TRANSPARENT TESTA 16 and 15 act through different mechanisms to control
           proanthocyanidin accumulation in Arabidopsis testa
    • Authors: Xu WW; Bobet SS, Le Gourrierec JJ, et al.
      Pages: 2859 - 2870
      Abstract: AbstractFlavonoids are secondary metabolites that fulfil a multitude of functions during the plant life cycle. In Arabidopsis proanthocyanidins (PAs) are flavonoids that specifically accumulate in the innermost integuments of the seed testa (i.e. endothelium), as well as in the chalaza and micropyle areas, and play a vital role in protecting the embryo against various biotic and abiotic stresses. PAs accumulation in the endothelium requires the activity of the MADS box transcription factor TRANSPARENT TESTA (TT) 16 (ARABIDOPSIS B-SISTER/AGAMOUS-LIKE 32) and the UDP-glycosyltransferase TT15 (UGT80B1). Interestingly tt16 and tt15 mutants display a very similar flavonoid profiles and patterns of PA accumulation. By using a combination of genetic, molecular, biochemical, and histochemical methods, we showed that both TT16 and TT15 act upstream the PA biosynthetic pathway, but through two distinct genetic routes. We also demonstrated that the activity of TT16 in regulating cell fate determination and PA accumulation in the endothelium is required in the chalaza prior to the globular stage of embryo development. Finally this study provides new insight showing that TT16 and TT15 functions extend beyond PA biosynthesis in the inner integuments of the Arabidopsis seed coat.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx151
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Photosynthetic limitations in two Antarctic vascular plants: importance of
           leaf anatomical traits and Rubisco kinetic parameters
    • Authors: Sáez PL; Bravo LA, Cavieres LA, et al.
      Pages: 2871 - 2883
      Abstract: AbstractParticular physiological traits allow the vascular plants Deschampsia antarctica Desv. and Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. to inhabit Antarctica. The photosynthetic performance of these species was evaluated in situ, focusing on diffusive and biochemical constraints to CO2 assimilation. Leaf gas exchange, Chl a fluorescence, leaf ultrastructure, and Rubisco catalytic properties were examined in plants growing on King George and Lagotellerie islands. In spite of the species- and population-specific effects of the measurement temperature on the main photosynthetic parameters, CO2 assimilation was highly limited by CO2 diffusion. In particular, the mesophyll conductance (gm)—estimated from both gas exchange and leaf chlorophyll fluorescence and modeled from leaf anatomy—was remarkably low, restricting CO2 diffusion and imposing the strongest constraint to CO2 acquisition. Rubisco presented a high specificity for CO2 as determined in vitro, suggesting a tight co-ordination between CO2 diffusion and leaf biochemistry that may be critical ultimately to optimize carbon balance in these species. Interestingly, both anatomical and biochemical traits resembled those described in plants from arid environments, providing a new insight into plant functional acclimation to extreme conditions. Understanding what actually limits photosynthesis in these species is important to anticipate their responses to the ongoing and predicted rapid warming in the Antarctic Peninsula.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx148
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • The Solanum tuberosum KST1 partial promoter as a tool for guard cell
           expression in multiple plant species
    • Authors: Kelly G; Lugassi N, Belausov E, et al.
      Pages: 2885 - 2897
      Abstract: AbstractTo date, guard cell promoters have been examined in only a few species, primarily annual dicots. A partial segment of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) KST1 promoter (KST1 partial promoter, KST1ppro) has previously been shown to confer guard cell expression in potato, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), citrus [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis×Poncirus trifoliata)], and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we describe an extensive analysis of the expression pattern of KST1ppro in eight (previously reported, as well as new) species from five different angiosperm families, including the Solanaceae and the Cucurbitaceae, Arabidopsis, the monocot barley (Hordeum vulgare), and two perennial species: grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and citrus. Using confocal imaging and three-dimensional movies, we demonstrate that KST1ppro drives guard cell expression in all of these species, making it the first dicot-originated guard cell promoter shown to be active in a monocot and the first promoter reported to confer guard cell expression in barley and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The results presented here indicate that KST1ppro can be used to drive constitutive guard cell expression in monocots and dicots and in both annual and perennial plants. In addition, we show that the KST1ppro is active in guard cells shortly after the symmetric division of the guard mother cell and generates stable expression in mature guard cells. This allows us to follow the spatial and temporal distribution of stomata in cotyledons and true leaves.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx159
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • The association of changes in DNA methylation with temperature-dependent
           sex determination in cucumber
    • Authors: Lai Y; Zhang X, Zhang W, et al.
      Pages: 2899 - 2912
      Abstract: AbstractCucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is characterized by its diverse and flexible sexual types. Here, we evaluated the effect of low temperature (LT) exposure on cucumber femaleness under short-day conditions. Shoot apices were subjected to whole-genome bisulfate sequencing (WGBS), mRNA-seq, and sRNA-seq. The results showed that temperature had a substantial and global impact on transposable element (TE)-related small RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) mechanisms, resulting in large amounts of CHH-type cytosine demethylation. In the cucumber genome, TEs are common in regions near genes that are also subject to DNA demethylation. TE–gene interactions showed very strong reactions to LT treatment, as nearly 80% of the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were distributed in genic regions. Demethylation near genes led to the co-ordinated expression of genes and TEs. More importantly, genome-wide de novo methylation changes also resulted in small amounts of CG- and CHG-type DMRs. Methylation changes in CG-DMRs located <600 bp from the transcription start and end sites (TSSs/TESs) negatively correlated with transcription changes in differentially expressed genes (DEGs), probably indicating epiregulation. Ethylene is called the ‘sex hormone’ of cucumbers. We observed the up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis-related CsACO3 and the down-regulation of an Arabidopsis RAP2.4-like ethylene-responsive (AP2/ERF) transcription factor, demonstrating the inferred epiregulation. Our study characterized the response of the apex methylome to LT and predicted the possible epiregulation of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in cucumber.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx144
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Up-regulation of NCED3 and ABA biosynthesis occur within minutes of a
           decrease in leaf turgor but AHK1 is not required
    • Authors: Sussmilch FC; Brodribb TJ, McAdam SM.
      Pages: 2913 - 2918
      Abstract: AbstractA major environmental signal influencing day-time stomatal aperture is the vapour pressure deficit between the leaf and atmosphere (VPD). In angiosperms, increased VPD triggers biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), prompting rapid stomatal closure. Altered cell turgor has been proposed as the trigger for ABA biosynthesis, but the timing and nature of the genetic signals linking these processes have remained uncertain. We investigated this in Arabidopsis by examining changes induced by a decrease in leaf turgor, simulating a natural increase in VPD. We found that the rate-limiting gene within the de novo ABA biosynthesis pathway, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 3 (NCED3), was induced and ABA levels increased within just 5 min of decreased leaf turgor. This rapid induction matches the time-frame for initiation of stomatal closure in response to a doubling in VPD. We further examined Arabidopsis histidine kinase1 (AHK1) as the most likely candidate for the turgor-sensing receptor involved, but found no significant difference between wild-type and an ahk1 null mutant in the induction of ABA-biosynthetic genes, ABA production, or stomatal behaviour. We show that decreased leaf turgor triggers de novo ABA biosynthesis within the time-frame of the stomatal response to VPD, but that AHK1 does not fulfil a critical role as a turgor-sensing receptor within this pathway.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx124
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • QTL analysis of the developmental response to L-glutamate in Arabidopsis
           roots and its genotype-by-environment interactions
    • Authors: Walch-Liu P; Meyer RC, Altmann T, et al.
      Pages: 2919 - 2931
      Abstract: AbstractPrimary root growth in Arabidopsis and a number of other species has previously been shown to be remarkably sensitive to the presence of external glutamate, with glutamate signalling eliciting major changes in root architecture. Using two recombinant inbred lines from reciprocal crosses between Arabidopsis accessions C24 and Col-0, we have identified one large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL), GluS1, and two minor QTLs, GluS2 and GluS3, which together accounted for 41% of the phenotypic variance in glutamate sensitivity. The presence of the GluS1 locus on chromosome 3 was confirmed using a set of C24/Col-0 isogenic lines. GluS1 was mapped to an interval between genes At3g44830–At3g46880. When QTL mapping was repeated under a range of environmental conditions, including temperature, shading and nitrate supply, a strong genotype-by-environment interaction in the controls for the glutamate response was identified. Major differences in the loci controlling this trait were found under different environmental conditions. Here we present evidence for the existence of loci on chromosomes 1 and 5 epistatically controlling the response of the GluS1 locus to variations in ambient temperature, between 20°C and 26°C. In addition, a locus on the long arm of chromosome 1 was found to play a major role in controlling the ability of external nitrate signals to antagonize the glutamate effect. We conclude that there are multiple loci controlling natural variation in glutamate sensitivity in Arabidopsis roots and that epistatic interactions play an important role in modulating glutamate sensitivity in response to changes in environmental conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx132
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • VpPUB24 , a novel gene from Chinese grapevine, Vitis pseudoreticulata ,
           targets VpICE1 to enhance cold tolerance
    • Authors: Yao W; Wang L, Wang J, et al.
      Pages: 2933 - 2949
      Abstract: AbstractThe ubiquitination system plays important roles in the degradation and modification of substrate proteins. In this study, we characterize a putative U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligase gene, VpPUB24 (plant U-box protein 24), from Chinese wild grapevine, Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1. We show that VpPUB24 is induced by a number of stresses, especially cold treatment. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the PUB24 transcripts were increased after cold stress in different grapevine species, although the relative expression level was different. In grapevine protoplasts, we found that VpPUB24 was expressed at a low level at 22 °C but accumulated rapidly following cold treatment. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that VpPUB24 interacted physically with VpICE1. Further experiments indicated that VpICE1 is targeted for degradation via the 26S proteasome and that the degradation is accelerated by VpHOS1, and not by VpPUB24. Immunoblot analyses indicated that VpPUB24 promotes the accumulation of VpICE1 and suppresses the expression of VpHOS1 to regulate the abundance of VpICE1. Furthermore, VpICE1 promotes transcription of VpPUB24 at low temperatures. We also found that VpPUB24 interacts with VpHOS1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Additionally, over-expression of VpPUB24 in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced cold tolerance. Collectively, our results suggest that VpPUB24 interacts with VpICE1 to play a role in cold stress.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx136
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • A bioassay-guided fractionation system to identify endogenous small
           molecules that activate plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity in
    • Authors: Han X; Yang Y, Wu Y, et al.
      Pages: 2951 - 2962
      Abstract: AbstractPlasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase is essential for plant growth and development. Various environmental stimuli regulate its activity, a process that involves many protein cofactors. However, whether endogenous small molecules play a role in this regulation remains unknown. Here, we describe a bio-guided isolation method to identify endogenous small molecules that regulate PM H+-ATPase activity. We obtained crude extracts from Arabidopsis seedlings with or without salt treatment and then purified them into fractions based on polarity and molecular mass by repeated column chromatography. By evaluating the effect of each fraction on PM H+-ATPase activity, we found that fractions containing the endogenous, free unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic acid (C18:3) extracted from salt-treated seedlings stimulate PM H+-ATPase activity. These results were further confirmed by the addition of exogenous C18:1, C18:2, or C18:3 in the activity assay. The ssi2 mutant, with reduced levels of C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, displayed reduced PM H+-ATPase activity. Furthermore, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 directly bound to the C-terminus of the PM H+-ATPase AHA2. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the binding of free unsaturated fatty acids to the C-terminus of PM H+-ATPase is required for its activation under salt stress. The bio-guided isolation model described in this study could enable the identification of new endogenous small molecules that modulate essential protein functions, as well as signal transduction, in plants.
      PubDate: 2017-06-03
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx156
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK10 mediates both drought tolerance
           and blast disease resistance in rice plants
    • Authors: Bundó M; Coca M.
      Pages: 2963 - 2975
      Abstract: AbstractPlant growth and productivity is negatively affected by different stresses. Most stresses trigger calcium signals that initiate acclimation responses in plants. The multigene family of plant calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) functions in multiple stress responses by transducing calcium signals into phosphorylation events. This work reports that the OsCPK10 isoform positively mediates tolerance to different stresses in rice plants by enhancing their antioxidant capacity and protecting them from reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage, with the uncontrolled generation of ROS being a common feature of these stresses. Here, we show that the constitutive accumulation of an HA-tagged OsCPK10 full-length protein enhances the hydrogen peroxide detoxifying capacity of rice plants during desiccation. This is achived by modulating the accumulation of catalase proteins, which reduces the extent of lipid peroxidation and protects the integrity of cell membranes, resulting in drought tolerance. OsCPK10HA accumulation also confers blast disease resistance by interfering with fungal necrotrophic growth via a reduction in the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, we show by bimolecular complementation assays that OsCPK10 is a plasma membrane protein that physically interacts in vivo with catalase A. OsCPK10 therefore appears to be a good molecular target to improve tolerance to abiotic stresses as well as to blast disease, which limit rice crop productivity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx145
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • MdSnRK1.1 interacts with MdJAZ18 to regulate sucrose-induced anthocyanin
           and proanthocyanidin accumulation in apple
    • Authors: Liu X; An X, Liu X, et al.
      Pages: 2977 - 2990
      Abstract: AbstractSugars induce anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. As a conserved energy sensor, SnRK1 (SNF1-related kinase 1) is involved in sucrose-induced anthocyanin accumulation. However, the exact molecular mechanism by which SnRK1 regulates the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) in response to sucrose in plants is not clear. In this study, it was found that MdSnRK1.1 interacted with MdJAZ18 protein which acts as a repressor in the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway. MdSnRK1.1 then phosphorylated MdJAZ18 to facilitate its 26S proteasome-mediated degradation, which released MdbHLH3 thereby activating the expression of the regulatory and structural genes, thus finally promoting the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and PAs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the involvement of MdSnRK1.1 in sucrose-induced accumulation of anthocyanins and PAs. For the first time, our findings shed light on the molecular mechanism by which the crosstalk of sucrose and JA signaling regulates flavonoid biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx150
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • The Arabidopsis Cys2/His2 zinc finger transcription factor ZAT18 is a
           positive regulator of plant tolerance to drought stress
    • Authors: Yin M; Wang Y, Zhang L, et al.
      Pages: 2991 - 3005
      Abstract: AbstractEnvironmental stress poses a global threat to plant growth and reproduction, especially drought stress. Zinc finger proteins comprise a family of transcription factors that play essential roles in response to various abiotic stresses. Here, we found that ZAT18 (At3g53600), a nuclear C2H2 zinc finger protein, was transcriptionally induced by dehydration stress. Overexpression (OE) of ZAT18 in Arabidopsis improved drought tolerance while mutation of ZAT18 resulted in decreased plant tolerance to drought stress. ZAT18 was preferentially expressed in stems, siliques, and vegetative rosette leaves. Subcellular location results revealed that ZAT18 protein was predominantly localized in the nucleus. ZAT18 OE plants exhibited less leaf water loss, lower content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), higher leaf water content, and higher antioxidant enzyme activities after drought treatment when compared with the wild type (WT). RNA sequencing analysis showed that 423 and 561 genes were transcriptionally modulated by the ZAT18 transgene before and after drought treatment, respectively. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that hormone metabolism, stress, and signaling were over-represented in ZAT18 OE lines. Several stress-responsive genes including COR47, ERD7, LEA6, and RAS1, and hormone signaling transduction-related genes including JAZ7 and PYL5 were identified as putative target genes of ZAT18. Taken together, ZAT18 functions as a positive regulator and plays a crucial role in the plant response to drought stress.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx157
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • The Nodulin 26-like intrinsic membrane protein OsNIP3;2 is involved in
           arsenite uptake by lateral roots in rice
    • Authors: Chen Y; Sun S, Tang Z, et al.
      Pages: 3007 - 3016
      Abstract: AbstractPrevious studies have shown that the Nodulin 26-like intrinsic membrane protein (NIP) Lsi1 (OsNIP2;1) is involved in arsenite [As(III)] uptake in rice (Oryza sativa). However, the role of other rice NIPs in As(III) accumulation in planta remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role OsNIP3;2 in As(III) uptake in rice. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, OsNIP3;2 showed a high transport activity for As(III). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that the expression of OsNIP3;2 was suppressed by 5 µM As(III), but enhanced by 20 and 100 µM As(III). Transgenic rice plants expressing OsNIP3;2pro-GUS showed that the gene was predominantly expressed in the lateral roots and the stele region of the primary roots. Transient expression of OsNIP3;2:GFP fusion protein in rice protoplasts showed that the protein was localized in the plasma membrane. Knockout of OsNIP3;2 significantly decreased As concentration in the roots, but had little effect on shoot As concentration. Synchrotron microfocus X-ray fluorescence showed decreased As accumulation in the stele of the lateral roots in the mutants compared with wild-type. Our results indicate that OsNIP3;2 is involved in As(III) uptake by lateral roots, but its contribution to As accumulation in the shoots is limited.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx165
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Differential fine-tuning of gene expression regulation in coffee leaves by
           CcDREB1D promoter haplotypes under water deficit
    • Authors: Alves G; Torres L, Déchamp E, et al.
      Pages: 3017 - 3031
      Abstract: AbstractDespite the importance of the DREB1D gene (also known as CBF4) in plant responses to water deficit and cold stress, studies analysing its regulation by transgenic approaches are lacking. In the current work, a functional study of three CcDREB1D promoter haplotypes (named HP15, HP16 and HP17) isolated from drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive clones of Coffea canephora was carried out in plants of C. arabica stably transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens by analysing their ability to regulate the expression of the uidA reporter gene in response to water deficit mimicked by polyethylene glycol (−2.0 MPa) and low relative humidity treatments. A deletion analysis of their corresponding 5′-upstream regions revealed increased specificity of β-glucuronidase activity in the polyethylene glycol and low relative humidity treatments, with high expression in leaf mesophyll and guard cells in full-length constructs. RT-qPCR assays also revealed that the HP16 haplotype (specific to clone tolerant to water deficit) had stronger and earlier activity compared with the HP15 and HP17 haplotypes. As most of the cis-regulatory elements involved in ABA-dependent and -independent networks, tissue specificity and light regulation are common to these haplotypes, we propose that their organization, as well as the nucleic acid polymorphisms present outside these boxes, may play a role in modulating activities of DREB1D promoters in guard cells.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx166
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Corrigendum
    • Pages: 3033 - 3033
      Abstract: RABBIT EARS regulates the transcription of TCP4 during petal development in Arabidopsis
      PubDate: 2017-02-16
      DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx036
      Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 11 (2017)
  • Corrigendum
    • Abstract: Systems analysis of cis-regulatory motifs in C4 photosynthesis genes using maize and rice leaf transcriptomics data during a process of de-etiolation
      PubDate: 2016-12-22
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