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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 372 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 372 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 281, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 577, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)

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Journal Cover Journal of Experimental Botany
  [SJR: 2.798]   [H-I: 163]   [13 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-0957 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2431
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [372 journals]
  • MADS transcription factors cooperate: complexities of complex formation
    • Authors: Hugouvieux V; Zubieta C.
      Abstract: This article comments on:Rümpler F, Theißen G, Melzer R. 2018.A conserved leucine zipper-like motif accounts for strong tetramerization capabilities of SEPALLATA-like MADS-domain transcription factors. Journal of Experimental Botany 69, 1943–1954.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Reflections from the Janus face of gibberellin in legume nodulation
    • Authors: Davies P.
      Abstract: This article comments on:McAdam EL, Reid JB, Foo E. 2018. Gibberellins promote nodule organogenesis but inhibit the infection stages of nodulation. Journal of Experimental Botany 69, 2117–2130.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • B chromosomes are associated with redistribution of genetic recombination
           towards lower recombination chromosomal regions in perennial ryegrass
    • Authors: Harper J; Phillips D, Thomas A, et al.
      Abstract: Supernumerary ‘B’ chromosomes are non-essential components of the genome present in a range of plant and animal species—including many grasses. Within diploid and polyploid ryegrass and fescue species, including the forage grass perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), the presence of B chromosomes has been reported as influencing both chromosome pairing and chiasma frequencies. In this study, the effects of the presence/absence of B chromosomes on genetic recombination has been investigated through generating DArT (Diversity Arrays Technology) marker genetic maps for six perennial ryegrass diploid populations, the pollen parents of which contained either two B or zero B chromosomes. Through genetic and cytological analyses of these progeny and their parents, we have identified that, while overall cytological estimates of chiasma frequencies were significantly lower in pollen mother cells with two B chromosomes as compared with zero B chromosomes, the recombination frequencies within some marker intervals were actually increased, particularly for marker intervals in lower recombination regions of chromosomes, namely pericentromeric regions. Thus, in perennial ryegrass, the presence of two B chromosomes redistributed patterns of meiotic recombination in pollen mother cells in ways which could increase the range of allelic variation available to plant breeders.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • CEP peptide hormones: key players in orchestrating nitrogen-demand
           signalling, root nodulation, and lateral root development
    • Authors: Taleski M; Imin N, Djordjevic M.
      Abstract: Secreted peptide hormones play pivotal roles in plant growth and development. So far, CEPs (C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDEs) have been shown to act through CEP receptors (CEPRs) to control nitrogen (N)-demand signalling, nodulation, and lateral root development. Secreted CEP peptides can enter the xylem stream to act as long-distance signals, but evidence also exists for CEPs acting in local circuits. Recently, CEP peptide species varying in sequence, length, and post-translational modifications have been identified. A more comprehensive understanding of CEP biology requires insight into the in planta function of CEP genes, CEP peptide biogenesis, the components of CEP signalling cascades and, finally, how CEP peptide length, amino-acid composition, and post-translational modifications affect biological activity. In this review, we highlight recent studies that have advanced our understanding in these key areas and discuss some future directions.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Inhibition of plastid PPase and NTT leads to major changes in starch and
           tuber formation in potato
    • Authors: Andersson M; Turesson H, Arrivault S, et al.
      Abstract: The importance of a plastidial soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase (psPPase) and an ATP/ADP translocator (NTT) for starch composition and tuber formation in potato (Solanum tuberosum) was evaluated by individual and simultaneous down-regulation of the corresponding endogenous genes. Starch and amylose content of the transgenic lines were considerably lower, and granule size substantially smaller, with down-regulation of StpsPPase generating the most pronounced effects. Single-gene down-regulation of either StpsPPase or StNTT resulted in increased tuber numbers per plant and higher fresh weight yield. In contrast, when both genes were inhibited simultaneously, some lines developed only a few, small and distorted tubers. Analysis of metabolites revealed altered amounts of sugar intermediates, and a substantial increase in ADP-glucose content of the StpsPPase lines. Increased amounts of intermediates of vitamin C biosynthesis were also observed. This study suggests that hydrolysis of pyrophosphate (PPi) by action of a psPPase is vital for functional starch accumulation in potato tubers and that no additional mechanism for consuming, hydrolysing, or exporting PPi exists in the studied tissue. Additionally, it demonstrates that functional PPi hydrolysis in combination with efficient ATP import is essential for tuber formation and development.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Hypoxia in grape berries: the role of seed respiration and lenticels on
           the berry pedicel and the possible link to cell death
    • Authors: Xiao Z; Rogiers S, Sadras V, et al.
      Abstract: Mesocarp cell death (CD) during ripening is common in berries of seeded Vitis vinifera L. wine cultivars. We examined if hypoxia within berries is linked to CD. The internal oxygen concentration ([O2]) across the mesocarp was measured in berries from Chardonnay and Shiraz, both seeded, and Ruby Seedless, using an oxygen micro-sensor. Steep [O2] gradients were observed across the skin and [O2] decreased toward the middle of the mesocarp. As ripening progressed, the minimum [O2] approached zero in the seeded cultivars and correlated to the profile of CD across the mesocarp. Seed respiration declined during ripening, from a large proportion of total berry respiration early to negligible at later stages. [O2] increased towards the central axis corresponding to the presence of air spaces visualized using X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT). These air spaces connect to the pedicel where lenticels are located that are critical for berry O2 uptake as a function of temperature, and when blocked caused hypoxia in Chardonnay berries, ethanol accumulation, and CD. The implications of hypoxia in grape berries are discussed in terms of its role in CD, ripening, and berry water relations.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Thrips advisor: exploiting thrips-induced defences to combat pests on
           crops
    • Authors: Steenbergen M; Abd-el-Haliem A, Bleeker P, et al.
      Abstract: Plants have developed diverse defence mechanisms to ward off herbivorous pests. However, agriculture still faces estimated crop yield losses ranging from 25% to 40% annually. These losses arise not only because of direct feeding damage, but also because many pests serve as vectors of plant viruses. Herbivorous thrips (Thysanoptera) are important pests of vegetable and ornamental crops worldwide, and encompass virtually all general problems of pests: they are highly polyphagous, hard to control because of their complex lifestyle, and they are vectors of destructive viruses. Currently, control management of thrips mainly relies on the use of chemical pesticides. However, thrips rapidly develop resistance to these pesticides. With the rising demand for more sustainable, safer, and healthier food production systems, we urgently need to pinpoint the gaps in knowledge of plant defences against thrips to enable the future development of novel control methods. In this review, we summarize the current, rather scarce, knowledge of thrips-induced plant responses and the role of phytohormonal signalling and chemical defences in these responses. We describe concrete opportunities for breeding resistance against pests such as thrips as a prototype approach for next-generation resistance breeding.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Distribution, mobility, and anchoring of lignin-related oxidative enzymes
           in Arabidopsis secondary cell walls
    • Authors: Yi Chou E; Schuetz M, Hoffmann N, et al.
      Abstract: Lignin is an important phenolic biopolymer that provides strength and rigidity to the secondary cell walls of tracheary elements, sclereids, and fibers in vascular plants. Lignin precursors, called monolignols, are synthesized in the cell and exported to the cell wall where they are polymerized into lignin by oxidative enzymes such as laccases and peroxidases. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a peroxidase (PRX64) and laccase (LAC4) are shown to localize differently within cell wall domains in interfascicular fibers: PRX64 localizes to the middle lamella whereas LAC4 localizes throughout the secondary cell wall layers. Similarly, laccases localized to, and are responsible for, the helical depositions of lignin in protoxylem tracheary elements. In addition, we tested the mobility of laccases in the cell wall using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. mCHERRY-tagged LAC4 was immobile in secondary cell wall domains, but mobile in the primary cell wall when ectopically expressed. A small secreted red fluorescent protein (sec-mCHERRY) was engineered as a control and was found to be mobile in both the primary and secondary cell walls. Unlike sec-mCHERRY, the tight anchoring of LAC4 to secondary cell wall domains indicated that it cannot be remobilized once secreted, and this anchoring underlies the spatial control of lignification.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A conserved leucine zipper-like motif accounts for strong tetramerization
           capabilities of SEPALLATA-like MADS-domain transcription factors
    • Authors: Rümpler F; Theißen G, Melzer R.
      Abstract: The development of angiosperm flowers is regulated by homeotic MIKC-type MADS-domain transcription factors that activate or repress target genes via the formation of DNA-bound, organ-specific tetrameric complexes. The protein–protein interaction (PPI) capabilities differ considerably between different MIKC-type proteins. In Arabidopsis thaliana the floral homeotic protein SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) acts as a hub that incorporates numerous other MADS-domain proteins into tetrameric complexes that would otherwise not form. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these promiscuous interactions remain largely unknown. In this study, we created a collection of amino acid substitution mutants of SEP3 to quantify the contribution of individual residues on protein tetramerization during DNA-binding, employing methods of molecular biophysics. We show that leucine residues at certain key positions form a leucine-zipper structure that is essential for tetramerization of SEP3, whereas the introduction of physicochemically very similar residues at respective sites impedes the formation of DNA-bound tetramers. Comprehensive molecular evolutionary analyses of MADS-domain proteins from a diverse set of flowering plants revealed exceedingly high conservation of the identified leucine residues within SEP3-subfamily proteins throughout angiosperm evolution. In contrast, MADS-domain proteins that are unable to tetramerize among themselves exhibit preferences for other amino acids at homologous sites. Our findings indicate that the subfamily-specific conservation of amino acid residues at just a few key positions accounts for subfamily-specific interaction capabilities of MADS-domain transcription factors and this has shaped the present-day structure of the PPI network controlling flower development.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The direction of carbon and nitrogen fluxes between ramets in Agrostis
           
    • Authors: Duchoslavová J; Jansa J.
      Abstract: Resource sharing is universal among connected ramets of clonal plants and is driven both by the developmental status of the ramets and the resource gradients. Above-ground competition forms spatial light gradients, but the role of resource sharing in such competition is unclear. We examined translocation of resources between mother and daughter ramets of Agrostis stolonifera under light heterogeneity throughout ramet ontogeny. We labelled ramets with 13C and 15N to estimate the bidirectional translocation of resources at three developmental stages of the daughters. In addition, we compared the final biomass of integrated and severed ramets in order to estimate the effect of integration on growth. Young developing daughters were supported by carbon, whereas nitrogen was only translocated towards daughters at the beginning of rooting, regardless of the light conditions. Shading of mothers was a major determinant of resource translocation between developed ramets, with carbon being preferentially moved to daughters from shaded mothers while nitrogen translocation was limited from daughters to shaded mothers. Surprisingly, the absolute amounts of translocated resources did not decline during development. Growth of daughters was enhanced by integration regardless of the shading. Overall, A. stolonifera maximizes the resource translocation pattern in order to enable it to spread from unfavourable habitats, rather than compensating for light heterogeneity among ramets.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Corrigendum: Blue light-dependent changes in loosely bound calcium in
           Arabidopsis mesophyll cells: an X-ray microanalysis study
    • Authors: Łabuz J; Samardakiewicz S, Hermanowicz P, et al.
      Abstract: Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 67, No. 13 pp. 3953–3964, 2016 doi: 10.1093/jxb/erw089
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Arabidopsis BRASSINOSTEROID INACTIVATOR2 is a typical BAHD acyltransferase
           involved in brassinosteroid homeostasis
    • Authors: Zhang Z Xu L.
      Abstract: Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant-specific steroidal hormones; BR homeostasis is crucial for various aspects of plant growth and development. However, to date, the BR inactivation process has not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we identified and characterized a novel BAHD family acyltransferase gene, BRASSINOSTEROID INACTIVATOR2 (BIA2), involved in BR inactivation. BIA2-overexpressing (OE-BIA2) plants displayed typical BR-deficient phenotypes, which were rescued by exogenous BR treatment. Real-time qRT-PCR and transcriptome analyses showed that expression levels of virtually all of the BR biosynthetic genes were increased, whereas the expression of many BR inactivation genes was reduced in OE-BIA2 plants. Root inhibition assays showed that the root growth of OE-BIA2 plants was inhibited. We obtained plants with an intermediate phenotype by crossing the OE-BIA2 plants with BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1)-overexpressing plants. The null BIA2 mutants had longer hypocotyls in the dark. BIA2 was predominantly expressed in roots, and its expression was induced by 24-epibrassinolide or dark treatment, but it exhibited a differential expression pattern compared with its homologue, BIA1. Furthermore, genetic transformation with point-mutant and deleted-BIA2 constructs confirmed that the HXXXD motif is essential for the function of BIA2. Taken together, these findings indicate that BIA2 is a typical BAHD acyltransferase that is involved in BR homeostasis and may inactivate bioactive BRs by esterification, particularly in roots and hypocotyls under dark conditions.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Ammonium intensifies CAM photosynthesis and counteracts drought effects by
           increasing malate transport and antioxidant capacity in Guzmania
           monostachia
    • Authors: Pereira P; Gaspar M, Smith J, et al.
      Abstract: Guzmania monostachia (Bromeliaceae) is a tropical epiphyte capable of up-regulating crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in its photosynthetic tissues in response to changing nutrient and water availability. Previous studies have shown that under drought there is a gradient of increasing CAM expression from the basal (youngest) to the apical (oldest) portion of the leaves, and additionally that nitrogen deficiency can further increase CAM intensity in the leaf apex of this bromeliad. The present study investigated the inter-relationships between nitrogen source (nitrate and/or ammonium) and water deficit in regulating CAM expression in G. monostachia leaves. The highest CAM activity was observed under ammonium nutrition in combination with water deficit. This was associated with enhanced activity of the key enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, elevated rates of ATP- and PPi-dependent proton transport at the vacuolar membrane in the presence of malate, and increased transcript levels of the vacuolar malate channel-encoding gene, ALMT. Water deficit was consistently associated with higher levels of total soluble sugars, which were maximal under ammonium nutrition, as were the activities of several antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). Thus, ammonium nutrition, whilst associated with the highest degree of CAM induction in G. monostachia, also mitigates the effects of water deficit by osmotic adjustment and can limit oxidative damage in the leaves of this bromeliad under conditions that may be typical of its epiphytic habitat.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Dynamics of metabolic responses to periods of combined heat and drought in
           Arabidopsis thaliana under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2
    • Authors: Zinta G; AbdElgawad H, Peshev D, et al.
      Abstract: As a consequence of global change processes, plants will increasingly be challenged by extreme climatic events, against a background of elevated atmospheric CO2. We analysed responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to periods of a combination of elevated heat and water deficit at ambient and elevated CO2 in order to gain mechanistic insights regarding changes in primary metabolism. Metabolic changes induced by extremes of climate are dynamic and specific to different classes of molecules. Concentrations of soluble sugars and amino acids increased transiently after short (4-d) exposure to heat and drought, and readjusted to control levels under prolonged (8-d) stress. In contrast, fatty acids showed persistent changes during the stress period. Elevated CO2 reduced the impact of stress on sugar and amino acid metabolism, but not on fatty acids. Integrating metabolite data with transcriptome results revealed that some of the metabolic changes were regulated at the transcriptional level. Multivariate analyses grouped metabolites on the basis of stress exposure time, indicating specificity in metabolic responses to short and prolonged stress. Taken together, the results indicate that dynamic metabolic reprograming plays an important role in plant acclimation to climatic extremes. The extent of such metabolic adjustments is less under high CO2, further pointing towards the role of high CO2 in stress mitigation.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Function and molecular regulation of DWARF1 as a C-24 reductase in
           brassinosteroid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis
    • Authors: Youn J; Kim T, Joo S, et al.
      Abstract: DWARF1 (DWF1) is a sterol C-24 reductase that catalyses the conversion of 24-methylenecholesterol (24-MCHR) to campesterol (CR) in Arabidopsis. A loss-of-function mutant, dwf1, showed similar phenotypic abnormalities to brassinosteroid (BR)-deficient mutants. These abnormalities were reversed in the wild-type phenotype by exogenous application of castasterone (CS) and brassinolide (BL), but not dolichosterone (DS). Accumulation of DS and decreased CS were found in quantitative analysis of endogenous BRs in dwf1. The enzyme solution prepared from dwf1 was unable to convert 6-deoxoDS to 6-deoxoCS and DS to CS, as seen in either wild-type or 35S:DWF1 transgenic plants. This suggests that DWF1 has enzyme activity not only for a sterol C-24 reductase, but also for a BR C-24 reductase that catalyses C-24 reduction of 6-deoxoDS to 6-deoxoCS and of DS to CS in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of DWF1 in a BR-deficient mutant (det2 35S:DWF1) clearly rescued abnormalities found in det2, indicating that DWF1 functions in biosynthesis of active BRs in Arabidopsis. Expression of DWF1 is down-regulated by application of CS and BL and in a BR-dominant mutant, bes1-D. E-boxes in the putative promoter region of DWF1 directly bind to a BR transcription factor, BES1, implying that DWF1 expression is feedback-regulated by BR signaling via BES1. Overall, biosynthesis of 24-methylene BR is an alternative route for generating CS, which is mediated and regulated by DWF1 in Arabidopsis.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A CsMYB6-CsTRY module regulates fruit trichome initiation in cucumber
    • Authors: Yang S; Cai Y, Liu X, et al.
      Abstract: Fruit epidermal features such as the number and size of trichomes or spines are important fruit quality traits in cucumber production. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying fruit spine formation in cucumber. Here, we report functional characterization of the cucumber CsMYB6 gene, which encodes a MIXTA-like MYB transcription factor that plays an important role in regulating fruit trichome development. Spatial-temporal expression analyses revealed high-level expression of CsMYB6 in the epidermis of cucumber ovaries during fruit spine initiation, which was similar to the expression of CsTRY, a homolog of the Arabidopsis TRY gene that also plays a key role in trichome development. Overexpression of CsMYB6 and CsTRY in cucumber and Arabidopsis revealed that CsMYB6 and CsTRY act as negative regulators of trichome initiation in both species, and that CsMYB6 acted upstream of CsTRY in this process. CsMYB6 was found to bind to the three MYB binding sites inside the promoter region of CsTRY, and protein–protein interaction assays suggested that CsTRY also directly interacted with CsMYB6 protein. The results also revealed conserved and divergent roles of CsMYB6 and its Arabidopsis homolog AtMYB106 in trichome development. Collectively, our results reveal a novel mechanism in which the CsMYB6-CsTRY complex negatively regulates fruit trichome formation in cucumber.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The 14-3-3 protein HbGF14a interacts with a RING zinc finger protein to
           regulate expression of the rubber transferase gene in Hevea brasiliensis
    • Authors: Guo D; Yang Z, Li H, et al.
      Abstract: Hevea brasiliensis is a key commercial source of natural rubber (cis 1,4-polyisoprene). In H. brasiliensis, rubber transferase is responsible for cis-1,4-polymerization of isoprene units from isopentenyl diphosphate and thus affects the yield of rubber. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the rubber transferase gene at a molecular level. In this study we show that the 5′UTR intron of the promoter of the rubber transferase gene (HRT2) suppresses the expression of HRT2. A H. brasiliensis RING zinc finger protein (designated as HbRZFP1) was able to interact specifically with the HRT2 promoter to down-regulate its transcription in vivo. A 14-3-3 protein (named as HbGF14a) was identified as interacting with HbRZFP1, both in yeast and in planta. Transient co-expression of HbGF14a and HbRZFP1-encoding cDNAs resulted in HbRZFP1-mediated HRT2 transcription inhibition being relieved. HbGF14a repressed the protein–DNA binding of HbRZFP1 with the HRT2 promoter in yeast. We propose a regulatory mechanism by which the binding of HbGF14a to HbRZFP1 interferes with the interaction of HbRZFP1 with the HRT2 promoter, thereby repressing the protein–DNA binding between them. This study provides new insights into the role of HbGF14a in mediating expression of the rubber transferase gene in Hevea brasiliensis.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Direct measurement of intercellular CO2 concentration in a gas-exchange
           system resolves overestimation using the standard method
    • Authors: Tominaga J; Shimada H, Kawamitsu Y.
      Abstract: Intercellular CO2 concentration of leaves (Ci) is a critical parameter in photosynthesis. Nevertheless, uncertainties in calculating Ci arise as stomata close. Here, by modifying the assimilation chamber of a commercial gas-exchange equipment to directly measure Ci, we demonstrate overestimation of calculated Ci (i.e. Ci(c)) without stimulating stomatal closure. Gas exchange was measured on one side of the leaf while measured Ci (Ci(m)) was acquired simultaneously on the other side of the leaf in hypostomatous passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) and amphistomatous sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The adaxial surface showed comparable Ci(c) and Ci(m) in sunflower, whereas in common bean, where the adaxial surface has a low stomatal density, Ci(c) markedly differed from Ci(m) when the stomata remained open. However, the latter discrepancy disappeared when measuring the leaf flipped upside down so that the gas exchange was measured (i.e. Ci was calculated) on the abaxial side, which has a much higher stomatal density. The passion fruit showed the largest discrepancy on the astomatous side, indicating that the cuticle has a large impact on the calculation. Direct measurement of Ci is recommended as a more accurate estimate than the calculation when stomatal gas transport is restricted. Occurrence of overestimation and prospects for direct measurement are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Dynamics of a geminivirus-encoded pre-coat protein and host RNA-dependent
           RNA polymerase 1 in regulating symptom recovery in tobacco
    • Authors: Basu S; Kumar Kushwaha N, Kumar Singh A, et al.
      Abstract: RNA silencing is an integral part of the cellular defense mechanisms in plants that act against virus infection. However, the specific role of RNA silencing and the interplay between host and virus components during recovery from geminivirus infection remains unknown. Hence, in this study we aimed to examine the mechanism behind the host-specific recovery of Nicotiana tabacum infected with Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus (ToLCGV). Unlike Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV), ToLCGV infection resulted in symptom remission in N. tabacum, and we found that this was mainly due to cross-talk between the pre-coat protein (encoded by the AV2 ORF) of the virus and the host RNA-silencing component RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (encoded by NtRDR1) of N. tabacum. Moreover, apart from the AV2 mutant, other mutants of ToLCNDV developed severe symptoms on a transgenic NtRDR1-overexpression line of N. benthamiana. In contrast, inoculation with ToLCGV resulted in symptom remission, which was due to enhanced methylation of the ToLCGV promoter. Our study reveals a novel ‘arms race’ in which the pre-coat protein of ToLCNDV selectively blocks the recovery process through inhibiting host-specific RDR1-mediated antiviral silencing in tobacco.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Attenuated accumulation of jasmonates modifies stomatal responses to water
           deficit
    • Authors: De Ollas C; Arbona V, Gómez-Cadenas A, et al.
      Abstract: To determine whether drought-induced root jasmonate [jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile)] accumulation affected shoot responses to drying soil, near-isogenic wild-type (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Castlemart) and the def-1 mutant (which fails to accumulate jasmonates during water deficit) were self- and reciprocally grafted. Rootstock hydraulic conductance was entirely rootstock dependent and significantly lower in def-1, yet def-1 scions maintained a higher leaf water potential as the soil dried due to their lower stomatal conductance (gs). Stomatal sensitivity to drying soil (the slope of gsversus soil water content) was low in def-1 self-grafts but was normalized by grafting onto WT rootstocks. Although soil drying increased 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA; a JA precursor and putative antitranspirant) concentrations in def-1 scions, foliar JA accumulation was negligible and foliar ABA accumulation reduced compared with WT scions. A WT rootstock increased drought-induced ABA and JA accumulation in def-1 scions, but decreased OPDA accumulation. Xylem-borne jasmonates were biologically active, since supplying exogenous JA via the transpiration stream to detached leaves decreased transpiration of WT seedlings but had the opposite effect in def-1. Thus foliar accumulation of both ABA and JA at WT levels is required for both maximum (well-watered) gs and stomatal sensitivity to drying soil.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Gibberellins promote nodule organogenesis but inhibit the infection stages
           of nodulation
    • Authors: McAdam E; Reid J, Foo E.
      Abstract: Leguminous plant roots can form a symbiosis with soil-dwelling nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, leading to the formation of a new root organ, the nodule. Successful nodulation requires co-ordination of spatially separated events in the root, including infection in the root epidermis and nodule organogenesis deep in the root cortex. We show that the hormone gibberellin plays distinct roles in these epidermal and cortical programmes. We employed a unique set of genetic material in pea that includes severely gibberellin-deficient lines and della-deficient lines that enabled us to characterize all stages of infection and nodule development. We confirmed that gibberellin suppresses infection thread formation and show that it also promotes nodule organogenesis into nitrogen-fixing organs. In both cases, this is achieved through the action of DELLA proteins. This study therefore provides a mechanism to explain how both low and high gibberellin signalling can result in reduced nodule number and reveals a clear role for gibberellin in the maturation of nodules into nitrogen-fixing organs. We also demonstrate that gibberellin acts independently of ethylene in promoting nodule development.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Integrated regulation triggered by a cryophyte ω-3 desaturase gene
           confers multiple-stress tolerance in tobacco
    • Authors: Shi Y; Yue X, An L.
      Abstract: ω-3 fatty acid desaturases (FADs) are thought to contribute to plant stress tolerance mainly through linolenic acid (C18:3)-induced membrane stabilization, but a comprehensive analysis of their roles in stress adaptation is lacking. Here, we isolated a microsomal ω-3 FAD gene (CbFAD3) from a cryophyte (Chorispora bungeana) and elucidated its functions in stress tolerance. CbFAD3, exhibiting a high identity to Arabidopsis AtFAD3, was up-regulated by abiotic stresses. Its functionality was verified by heterogonous expression in yeast. Overexpression of CbFAD3 in tobacco constitutively increased C18:3 in both leaves and roots, which maintained the membrane fluidity, and enhanced plant tolerance to cold, drought, and salt stresses. Notably, the constitutively increased C18:3 induced a sustained activation of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase, thereby, changing the stress-induced Ca2+ signaling. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system, which was positively correlated with the level of C18:3, was also activated in the transgenic lines. Microarray analysis showed that CbFAD3-overexpressing plants increased the expression of stress-responsive genes, most of which are affected by C18:3, Ca2+, or ROS. Together, CbFAD3 confers tolerance to multiple stresses in tobacco through the C18:3-induced integrated regulation of membrane, Ca2+, ROS, and stress-responsive genes. This is in contrast with previous observations that simply attribute stress tolerance to membrane stabilization.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Corrigendum: Fine tuning chloroplast movements through physical
           interactions between phototropins
    • Authors: Sztatelman O; Łabuz J, Hermanowicz P, et al.
      Abstract: Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 67, No. 17 pp. 4963–4978, 2016 doi: 10.1093/jxb/erw265
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Gene duplication and dosage effects during the early emergence of C4
           photosynthesis in the grass genus Alloteropsis
    • Authors: Bianconi M; Dunning L, Moreno-Villena J, et al.
      Abstract: The importance of gene duplication for evolutionary diversification has been mainly discussed in terms of genetic redundancy allowing neofunctionalization. In the case of C4 photosynthesis, which evolved via the co-option of multiple enzymes to boost carbon fixation in tropical conditions, the importance of genetic redundancy has not been consistently supported by genomic studies. Here, we test for a different role for gene duplication in the early evolution of C4 photosynthesis, via dosage effects creating rapid step changes in expression levels. Using genome-wide data for accessions of the grass genus Alloteropsis that recently diversified into different photosynthetic types, we estimate gene copy numbers and demonstrate that recurrent duplications in two important families of C4 genes coincided with increases in transcript abundance along the phylogeny, in some cases via a pure dosage effect. While increased gene copy number during the initial emergence of C4 photosynthesis probably offered a rapid route to enhanced expression, we also find losses of duplicates following the acquisition of genes encoding better-suited isoforms. The dosage effect of gene duplication might therefore act as a transient process during the evolution of a C4 biochemistry, rendered obsolete by the fixation of regulatory mutations increasing expression levels.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Jasmonate-responsive MYB factors spatially repress rutin biosynthesis in
           Fagopyrum tataricum
    • Authors: Zhang K; Logacheva M, Meng Y, et al.
      Abstract: Jasmonates are plant hormones that induce the accumulation of many secondary metabolites, such as rutin in buckwheat, via regulation of jasmonate-responsive transcription factors. Here, we report on the identification of a clade of jasmonate-responsive subgroup 4 MYB transcription factors, FtMYB13, FtMYB14, FtMYB15, and FtMYB16, which directly repress rutin biosynthesis in Fagopyrum tataricum. Immunoblot analysis showed that FtMYB13, FtMYB14, and FtMYB15 could be degraded via the 26S proteasome in the COI1-dependent jasmonate signaling pathway, and that this degradation is due to the SID motif in their C-terminus. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that FtMYB13, FtMYB14, and FtMYB15 interact with the importin protein Sensitive to ABA and Drought 2 (FtSAD2) in stem and inflorescence. Furthermore, the key repressor of jasmonate signaling FtJAZ1 specifically interacts with FtMYB13. Point mutation analysis showed that the conserved Asp residue of the SID domain contributes to mediating protein–protein interaction. Protoplast transient activation assays demonstrated that FtMYB13, FtMYB14, and FtMYB15 directly repress phenylalanine ammonia lyase (FtPAL) gene expression, and FtSAD2 and FtJAZ1 significantly promote the repressing activity of FtMYBs. These findings may ultimately be promising for further engineering of plant secondary metabolism.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Overexpression of lily HsfA3s in Arabidopsis confers increased
           thermotolerance and salt sensitivity via alterations in proline catabolism
           
    • Authors: Wu Z; Liang J, Wang C, et al.
      Abstract: Although HsfA3 (heat-stress transcription factor A3) is well characterized in heat stress, its roles in other abiotic stresses are less clear. In this study, we isolated two homologous HsfA3 genes, LlHsfA3A and LlHsfA3B, from lily (Lilium longiflorum). Both genes were induced by heat stress, but not by salt stress. Overexpressing LlHsfA3A in Arabidopsis enhanced its basal and acquired thermotolerance, while overexpressing LlHsfA3B just enhanced its acquired thermotolerance. In both cases, overexpressing plants showed hypersensitivity to salt stress, and a lack of sucrose exacerbated this salt sensitivity. Using a transient assay, the opposite effects were observed in lily. Further analysis revealed that either LlHsfA3A or LlHsfA3B overexpression altered normal proline accumulation. During heat treatments, proline increased in wild-type Arabidopsis plants, but no such increase was detected in transgenic plants that showed better basal or acquired thermotolerance. Under salt stress, proline accumulation was decreased in Arabidopsis and lily with the overexpression of LlHsfA3A or LlHsfA3B. Proline catabolism was activated by overexpression, and both LlHsfA3A and LlHsfA3B affected proline oxidation via regulation of AtbZIP11, AtbZIP44, and AtbZIP53 to activate AtproDH1 and AtproDH2 in transgenic Arabidopsis. Taken together, our results suggested that overexpression of LlHsfA3A or LlHsfA3B caused opposite effects on heat and salt tolerance, which may implicate proline catabolism.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase function at very early symbiont perception:
           a local nodulation control under stress conditions'
    • Authors: Robert G; Muñoz N, Alvarado-Affantranger X, et al.
      Abstract: Root hair curling is an early and essential morphological change required for the success of the symbiotic interaction between legumes and rhizobia. At this stage rhizobia grow as an infection thread within root hairs and are internalized into the plant cells by endocytosis, where the PI3K enzyme plays important roles. Previous observations show that stress conditions affect early stages of the symbiotic interaction, from 2 to 30 min post-inoculation, which we term as very early host responses, and affect symbiosis establishment. Herein, we demonstrated the relevance of the very early host responses for the symbiotic interaction. PI3K and the NADPH oxidase complex are found to have key roles in the microsymbiont recognition response, modulating the apoplastic and intracellular/endosomal ROS induction in root hairs. Interestingly, compared with soybean mutant plants that do not perceive the symbiont, we demonstrated that the very early symbiont perception under sublethal saline stress conditions induced root hair death. Together, these results highlight not only the importance of the very early host-responses on later stages of the symbiont interaction, but also suggest that they act as a mechanism for local control of nodulation capacity, prior to the abortion of the infection thread, preventing the allocation of resources/energy for nodule formation under unfavorable environmental conditions.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Down-regulation of respiration in pear fruit depends on temperature
    • Authors: Ho Q; Hertog M, Verboven P, et al.
      Abstract: The respiration rate of plant tissues decreases when the amount of available O2 is reduced. There is, however, a debate on whether the respiration rate is controlled either by diffusion limitation of oxygen or through regulatory processes at the level of the transcriptome. We used experimental and modelling approaches to demonstrate that both diffusion limitation and metabolic regulation affect the response of respiration of bulky plant organs such as fruit to reduced O2 levels in the surrounding atmosphere. Diffusion limitation greatly affects fruit respiration at high temperature, but at low temperature respiration is reduced through a regulatory process, presumably a response to a signal generated by a plant oxygen sensor. The response of respiration to O2 is time dependent and is highly sensitive, particularly at low O2 levels in the surrounding atmosphere. Down-regulation of the respiration at low temperatures may save internal O2 and relieve hypoxic conditions in the fruit.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • MiRNA160 is associated with local defense and systemic acquired resistance
           against Phytophthora infestans infection in potato
    • Authors: Natarajan B; Kalsi H, Godbole P, et al.
      Abstract: To combat pathogen infection, plants employ local defenses in infected sites and elicit systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in distant tissues. MicroRNAs have been shown to play a significant role in local defense, but their association with SAR is unknown. In addition, no such studies of the interaction between potato and Phytophthora infestans have been reported. We investigated the role of miR160 in local and SAR responses to P. infestans infection in potato. Expression analysis revealed induced levels of miR160 in both local and systemic leaves of infected wild-type plants. miR160 overexpression and knockdown plants exhibited increased susceptibility to infection, suggesting that miR160 levels equivalent to those of wild-type plants may be necessary for mounting local defense responses. Additionally, miR160 knockdown lines failed to elicit SAR, and grafting assays indicated that miR160 is required in both local and systemic leaves to trigger SAR. Consistently, SAR-associated signals and genes were dysregulated in miR160 knockdown lines. Furthermore, analysis of the expression of defense and auxin pathway genes and direct regulation of StGH3.6, a mediator of salicylic acid–auxin cross-talk, by the miR160 target StARF10 revealed the involvement of miR160 in antagonistic cross-talk between salicylic acid-mediated defense and auxin-mediated growth pathways. Overall, our study demonstrates that miR160 plays a crucial role in local defense and SAR responses during the interaction between potato and P. infestans.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A transcription factor network responsive to high CO2/hypoxia is involved
           in deastringency in persimmon fruit
    • Authors: Zhu Q; Gong Z, Wang M, et al.
      Abstract: Plant responses to anaerobic environments are regulated by ethylene-response factors (ERFs) in both vegetative and productive organs, but the roles of other transcription factors (TFs) in hypoxia responses are poorly understood. In this study, eight TFs (DkbHLH1, DkMYB9/10/11, DkRH2-1, DkGT3-1, DkAN1-1, DkHSF1) were shown to be strongly up-regulated by an artificial high-CO2 atmosphere (1% O2 and 95% CO2). Dual-luciferase assays indicated that some TFs were activators of previously characterized DkERFs, including DkMYB10 for the DkERF9 promoter, DkERF18/19 and DkMYB6 for the DkERF19 promoter, and DkERF21/22 for the DkERF10 promoter. Yeast one-hybrid and cis-element mutagenesis confirmed these physical interactions with one exception. The potential roles of these TFs in persimmon fruit deastringency were analysed by investigating their transient over-expression (TOX) in persimmon fruit discs, which indicated that DkMYB6TOX, DkMYB10TOX, DkERF18TOX, and DkERF19TOX were all effective in causing insolubilization of tannins, concomitantly with the up-regulation of the corresponding genes. These results indicated that multiple TFs of different classes are responsive to high-CO2/hypoxia in fruit tissues, and that a TF–TF regulatory cascade is involved in the hypoxia responses involving the Group VII DkERF10, and DkERFs and DkMYBs.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
 
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