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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 526, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Annals of Botany
  [SJR: 1.912]   [H-I: 124]   [35 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-7364 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8290
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Content Snapshots
    • PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcx092
  • Polyploidy and interspecific hybridization: partners for adaptation,
           speciation and evolution in plants
    • Authors: Alix K; Gérard PR, Schwarzacher T, et al.
      First page: 183
      Abstract: AbstractBackground Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication is now recognized as being present in almost all lineages of higher plants, with multiple rounds of polyploidy occurring in most extant species. The ancient evolutionary events have been identified through genome sequence analysis, while recent hybridization events are found in about half of the world’s crops and wild species. Building from this new paradigm for understanding plant evolution, the papers in this Special Issue address questions about polyploidy in ecology, adaptation, reproduction and speciation of wild and cultivated plants from diverse ecosystems. Other papers, including this review, consider genomic aspects of polyploidy.Approaches Discovery of the evolutionary consequences of new, evolutionarily recent and ancient polyploidy requires a range of approaches. Large-scale studies of both single species and whole ecosystems, with hundreds to tens of thousands of individuals, sometimes involving ‘garden’ or transplant experiments, are important for studying adaptation. Molecular studies of genomes are needed to measure diversity in genotypes, showing ancestors, the nature and number of polyploidy and backcross events that have occurred, and allowing analysis of gene expression and transposable element activation. Speciation events and the impact of reticulate evolution require comprehensive phylogenetic analyses and can be assisted by resynthesis of hybrids. In this Special Issue, we include studies ranging in scope from experimental and genomic, through ecological to more theoretical.Conclusions The success of polyploidy, displacing the diploid ancestors of almost all plants, is well illustrated by the huge angiosperm diversity that is assumed to originate from recurrent polyploidization events. Strikingly, polyploidization often occurred prior to or simultaneously with major evolutionary transitions and adaptive radiation of species, supporting the concept that polyploidy plays a predominant role in bursts of adaptive speciation. Polyploidy results in immediate genetic redundancy and represents, with the emergence of new gene functions, an important source of novelty. Along with recombination, gene mutation, transposon activity and chromosomal rearrangement, polyploidy and whole-genome duplication act as drivers of evolution and divergence in plant behaviour and gene function, enabling diversification, speciation and hence plant evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcx079
  • Impact of transposable elements on polyploid plant genomes
    • Authors: Vicient CM; Casacuberta JM.
      First page: 195
      Abstract: AbstractBackground The growing wealth of knowledge on whole-plant genome sequences is highlighting the key role of transposable elements (TEs) in plant evolution, as a driver of drastic changes in genome size and as a source of an important number of new coding and regulatory sequences. Together with polyploidization events, TEs should thus be considered the major players in evolution of plants.Scope This review outlines the major mechanisms by which TEs impact plant genome evolution and how polyploidy events can affect these impacts, and vice versa. These include direct effects on genes, by providing them with new coding or regulatory sequences, an effect on the epigenetic status of the chromatin close to genes, and more subtle effects by imposing diverse evolutionary constraints to different chromosomal regions. These effects are particularly relevant after polyploidization events. Polyploidization often induces bursts of transposition probably due to a relaxation in their epigenetic control, and, in the short term, this can increase the rate of gene mutations and changes in gene regulation due to the insertion of TEs next to or into genes. Over longer times, TE bursts may induce global changes in genome structure due to inter-element recombination including losses of large genome regions and chromosomal rearrangements that reduce the genome size and the chromosome number as part of a process called diploidization.Conclusions TEs play an essential role in genome and gene evolution, in particular after polyploidization events. Polyploidization can induce TE activity that may explain part of the new phenotypes observed. TEs may also play a role in the diploidization that follows polyploidization events. However, the extent to which TEs contribute to diploidization and fractionation bias remains unclear. Investigating the multiple factors controlling TE dynamics and the nature of ancient and recent polyploid genomes may shed light on these processes.
      PubDate: 2017-07-02
      DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcx078
  • Allo-allo-triploid Sphagnum × falcatulum : single individuals contain
           most of the Holantarctic diversity for ancestrally indicative markers
    • Authors: Karlin EF; Smouse PE.
      First page: 221
      Abstract: AbstractBackground and Aims Allopolyploids exhibit both different levels and different patterns of genetic variation than are typical of diploids. However, scant attention has been given to the partitioning of allelic information and diversity in allopolyploids, particularly that among homeologous monoploid components of the hologenome. Sphagnum × falcatulum is a double allopolyploid peat moss that spans a considerable portion of the Holantarctic. With monoploid genomes from three ancestral species, this organism exhibits a complex evolutionary history involving serial inter-subgeneric allopolyploidizations.Methods Studying populations from three disjunct regions [South Island (New Zealand); Tierra de Fuego archipelago (Chile, Argentina); Tasmania (Australia)], allelic information for five highly stable microsatellite markers that differed among the three (ancestral) monoploid genomes was examined. Using Shannon information and diversity measures, the holoploid information, as well as the information within and among the three component monoploid genomes, was partitioned into separate components for individuals within and among populations and regions, and those information components were then converted into corresponding diversity measures.Key Results The majority (76 %) of alleles detected across these five markers are most likely to have been captured by hybridization, but the information within each of the three monoploid genomes varied, suggesting a history of recurrent allopolyploidization between ancestral species containing different levels of genetic diversity. Information within individuals, equivalent to the information among monoploid genomes (for this dataset), was relatively stable, and represented 83 % of the grand total information across the Holantarctic, with both inter-regional and inter-population diversification each accounting for about 5 % of the total information.ConclusionsSphagnum ×falcatulum probably inherited the great majority of its genetic diversity at these markers by reticulation, rather than by subsequent evolutionary radiation. However, some post-hybridization genetic diversification has become fixed in at least one regional population. Methodology allowing statistical analysis of any ploidy level is presented.
      PubDate: 2017-01-14
      DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcw269
  • Ecological range shift in the polyploid members of the South American
           genus Fosterella (Bromeliaceae)
    • Authors: Paule J; Wagner ND, Weising K, et al.
      First page: 233
      Abstract: AbstractBackground and Aims The distribution of polyploidy along a relatively steep Andean elevation and climatic gradient is studied using the genus Fosterella L.B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae) as a model system. Ecological differentiation of cytotypes and the link of polyploidy with historical biogeographic processes such as dispersal events and range shift are assessed.Methods 4′,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of nuclei and flow cytometry were used to estimate the ploidy levels of 159 plants from 22 species sampled throughout the distribution range of the genus. Ecological differentiation among ploidy levels was tested by comparing the sets of climatic variables. Ancestral chromosome number reconstruction was carried out on the basis of a previously generated phylogeographic framework.Key Results This study represents the first assessment of intrageneric, intraspecific and partially intrapopulational cytotype diversity in a genus of the Bromeliaceae family. In Fosterella, the occurrence of polyploidy was limited to the phylogenetically isolated penduliflora and rusbyi groups. Cytotypes were found to be ecologically differentiated, showing that polyploids preferentially occupy colder habitats with high annual temperature variability (seasonality). The combined effects of biogeographic history and adaptive processes are presumed to have shaped the current cytotype distribution in the genus.Conclusions The results provide indirect evidence for both adaptive ecological and non-adaptive historical processes that jointly influenced the cytotype distribution in the predominantly Andean genus Fosterella (Bromeliaceae). The results also exemplify the role of polyploidy as an important driver of speciation in a topographically highly structured and thus climatically diverse landscape.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04
      DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcw245
  • On the allopolyploid origin and genome structure of the closely related
           species Hordeum secalinum and Hordeum capense inferred by molecular
    • Authors: Cuadrado Á; de Bustos A, Jouve N.
      First page: 245
      Abstract: Abstract Background and Aims To provide additional information to the many phylogenetic analyses conducted within Hordeum, here the origin and interspecific affinities of the allotetraploids Hordeum secalinum and Hordeum capense were analysed by molecular karyotyping. Methods Karyotypes were determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) to distinguish the sub-genomes Xa and I, plus fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)/non-denaturing (ND)-FISH to determine the distribution of ten tandem repetitive DNA sequences and thus provide chromosome markers. Key Results Each chromosome pair in the six accessions analysed was identified, allowing the establishment of homologous and putative homeologous relationships. The low-level polymorphism observed among the H. secalinum accessions contrasted with the divergence recorded for the sub-genome Xa of the H. capense accessions. Although accession H335 carries an intergenomic translocation, its chromosome structure was indistinguishable from that of H. secalinum. ConclusionHordeum secalinum and H. capense accession H335 share a hybrid origin involving Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum as the Xa genome donor and an unidentified I genome progenitor. Hordeum capense accession BCC2062 either diverged, with remodelling of the Xa sub-genome, or its Xa genome was donated by a now extinct ancestor. A scheme of probable evolution shows the intricate pattern of relationships among the Hordeum species carrying the Xa genome (including all H. marinum taxa and the hexaploid Hordeum brachyantherum).
      PubDate: 2017-01-30
      DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcw270
  • Untangling the reticulate history of species complexes and horticultural
           breeds in Abelia (Caprifoliaceae)
    • Authors: Landrein S; Buerki S, Wang H, et al.
      First page: 257
      Abstract: AbstractBackground and Aims The genetic and morphological consequences of natural selection and selective breeding are explored in the genus Abelia. The genus consists of ornamental shrubs endemic to China, which have been bred to create attractive and diverse cultivars.Methods DNA fingerprinting (AFLP) and DNA sequence data are used to investigate the genetic diversity among 46 accessions of Abelia (22 natural taxa and 24 horticultural breeds). In the cultivated varieties these data are used to explore taxon boundaries, hybridisation and backcrossing. The genetic analysis dataset is also used to investigate morphological variation within natural species complexes and subsequently to inform a taxonomic treatment.Key ResultsAbelia comprises five species: A. forrestii, A. schumannii, A. macrotera, A. uniflora and A. chinensis and has a total of 11 varieties. Abelia uniflora and A. macrotera do not occur in sympatry and are disjunctly distributed to the east and west of the A. chinensis distribution range. Abelia chinensis is widespread in eastern China and creates hybrids and introgressive taxa, including A. uniflora, along the contact zones with the previous taxa. Abelia `Maurice Foster' is a horticultural variety collected from wild stocks in Sichuan (China). Bayesian clustering methods (inferred in STRUCTURE based on AFLP data) indicate admixture between A. macrotera and A. schumannii in this variety. Hybridization probably occurred in the wild where these progenitor taxa co-occur and naturally form hybrids. AFLP results also reveal that a few diagnostic morphological characters such as sepal number or inflorescence structure were transferred between natural species and this is mirrored by taxa such as in Abelia `Saxon Gold' and A. forrestii.Conclusions Studying both natural and cultivated species from the same group has helped understanding both differentiation mechanisms and how to improve cultivated plants in the future by studying which morphological characters are transferred between species and which taxa may already have arisen through hybridisation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcw279
  • Origin and genetic differentiation of pink-flowered Sorbus hybrids in the
           Western Carpathians
    • Authors: Uhrinová V; Zozomová-Lihová J, Bernátová D, et al.
      First page: 271
      Abstract: AbstractBackground and Aims Diversity of the genus Sorbus has been affected by interspecific hybridizations. Pink-flowered hybrid species have been insufficiently studied so far. They comprise bigenomic hybrid species derived from crosses S. aria s.l. × S. chamaemespilus and trigenomic ones, where S. aucuparia was involved as well. The main objective of the present study was to reconstruct their hybrid origins as well as to assess genetic distinction among several morphologically recognized hybrid species.Methods Samples from putative maternal species and eight pink-flowered and two white-flowered hybrid species were collected in the Western Carpathians and the Sudetes. In total, 370 specimens were analysed. Six chloroplast microsatellites were used to infer parentage, whereas nuclear amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were employed for the identification of clones and patterns of genetic variation. Ploidy levels were estimated by flow cytometry on a subset of 140 individuals.Key Results Genetic data supported their hybrid origins proposed based on flower and leaf morphology, and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) revealed recurrent origins (S. caeruleomontana, S. haljamovae), even from bidirectional hybridization events (S. zuzanae). All bigenomic and trigenomic hybrid species (except triploid S. zuzanae) were found to be tetraploid. In addition to polyploidy, low genetic variation and the presence of clones within and among populations were observed, suggesting predominantly apomictic reproduction of the hybrid species. Most of the described hybrid species appeared also genetically distinct.Conclusions The data suggest that multiple hybridization events in the Western Carpathian Sorbus have led to the formation of separate, partially reproductively isolated genetic lineages, which may or may not be discriminated morphologically. Even bidirectional hybridization can produce individuals classified to the same taxon based on phenotype. For some hybrid taxa, hybridization pathways were proposed based on their genetic proximity to parental species and differences in genome sizes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcx013
  • The Mediterranean: the cradle of Anthoxanthum (Poaceae) diploid diversity
    • Authors: Chumová Z; Záveská E, Mandáková T, et al.
      First page: 285
      Abstract: AbstractBackground and Aims Knowledge of diploid phylogeny and ecogeography provide a foundation for understanding plant evolutionary history, diversification patterns and taxonomy. The genus Anthoxanthum (vernal grasses, Poaceae) represents a taxonomically intricate polyploid complex with large phenotypic variation and poorly resolved evolutionary relationships. The aims of the study were to reveal: (1) evolutionary lineages of the diploid taxa and their genetic differentiation; (2) the past distribution of the rediscovered ‘Mediterranean diploid’; and (3) possible migration routes of diploids in the Mediterranean.Methods A combined approach involving sequencing of two plastid regions (trnL-trnF and rpl32-trnL), nrDNA ITS, rDNA FISH analyses, climatic niche characterization and spatio-temporal modelling was used.Key Results Among the examined diploid species, only two well-differentiated evolutionary lineages were recognized: Anthoxanthum gracile and A. alpinum. The other taxa – A. aristatum, A. ovatum, A. maderense and the ‘Mediterranean diploid’ – form a rather intermixed group based on the examined molecular data. In situ rDNA localization enabled identification of the ancestral Anthoxanthum karyotype, shared by A. gracile and two taxa from the crown group. For the studied taxa, ancestral location probabilities for six discrete geographical regions in the Mediterranean were proposed and likely scenarios of gradual expansion from them were suggested. Modelling past and present distributions shows that the ‘Mediterranean diploid’ has already been occurring in the same localities for 120 000 years.Conclusions Highly congruent results were obtained and dated the origin and first diversification of Anthoxanthum to the Miocene. The later divergence probably took place in the Pleistocene and started polyploid evolution within the genus. The most recent diversification event is still occurring, and incomplete lineage sorting prevents full diversification of taxa at the molecular level, despite clear separation based on climatic niches. The ‘Mediterranean diploid’ is hypothesized to be a possible relic of the most recent common ancestor of Anthoxanthum due to their sharing of ancestral features.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcx021
  • Evolutionary dynamics of mixed-ploidy populations in an annual herb:
           dispersal, local persistence and recurrent origins of polyploids
    • Authors: Čertner M; Fenclová E, Kúr P, et al.
      First page: 303
      Abstract: AbstractBackground and Aims Despite the recent wealth of studies targeted at contact zones of cytotypes in various species, some aspects of polyploid evolution are still poorly understood. This is especially the case for the frequency and success rate of spontaneous neopolyploidization or the temporal dynamics of ploidy coexistence, requiring massive ploidy screening and repeated observations, respectively. To fill this gap, an extensive study of spatio-temporal patterns of ploidy coexistence was initiated in the widespread annual weed Tripleurospermum inodorum (Asteraceae).Methods DNA flow cytometry along with confirmatory chromosome counts was employed to assess ploidy levels of 11 018 adult individuals and 1263 ex situ germinated seedlings from 1209 Central European populations. The ploidy screening was conducted across three spatial scales and supplemented with observations of temporal development of 37 mixed-ploidy populations.Key Results The contact zone between the diploid and tetraploid cytotypes has a diffuse, mosaic-like structure enabling common cytotype coexistence from the within-population to the landscape level. A marked difference in monoploid genome size between the two cytotypes enabled the easy distinction of neotetraploid mutants from long-established tetraploids. Neotetraploids were extremely rare (0·03 %) and occurred solitarily. Altogether five ploidy levels (2x–6x) and several aneuploids were discovered; the diversity in nuclear DNA content was highest in early ontogenetic stages (seedlings) and among individuals from mixed-ploidy populations. In spite of profound temporal oscillations in cytotype frequencies in mixed-ploidy populations, both diploids and tetraploids usually persisted up to the last census.Conclusions Diploids and tetraploids commonly coexist at all spatial scales and exhibit considerable temporal stability in local ploidy mixtures. Mixed-ploidy populations containing fertile triploid hybrids probaby act as effective generators of cytogenetic novelty and may facilitate inter-ploidy gene flow. Neopolyploid mutants were incapable of local establishment.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcx032
  • Hybridization drives evolution of apomicts in Rubus subgenus Rubus :
           evidence from microsatellite markers
    • Authors: Šarhanová P; Sharbel TF, Sochor M, et al.
      First page: 317
      Abstract: AbstractBackground and AimsRubus subgenus Rubus is a group of mostly apomictic and polyploid species with a complicated taxonomy and history of ongoing hybridization. The only polyploid series with prevailing sexuality is the series Glandulosi, although the apomictic series Discolores and Radula also retain a high degree of sexuality, which is influenced by environmental conditions and/or pollen donors. The aim of this study is to detect sources of genetic variability, determine the origin of apomictic taxa and validate microsatellite markers by cloning and sequencing.Methods A total of 206 individuals from two central European regions were genotyped for 11 nuclear microsatellite loci and the chloroplast trnL–trnF region. Microsatellite alleles were further sequenced in order to determine the exact repeat number and to detect size homoplasy due to insertions/deletions in flanking regions.Key Results The results confirm that apomictic microspecies of ser. Radula are derived from crosses between sexual series Glandulosi and apomictic series Discolores, whereby the apomict acts as pollen donor. Each apomictic microspecies is derived from a single distinct genotype differing from the parental taxa, suggesting stabilized clonal reproduction. Intraspecific variation within apomicts is considerably low compared with sexual series Glandulosi, and reflects somatic mutation accumulation. While facultative apomicts produce clonal offspring, sexual species are the conduits of origin for new genetically different apomictic lineages.Conclusions One of the main driving forces of evolution and speciation in the highly apomictic subgenus Rubus in central Europe is sexuality in the series Glandulosi. Palaeovegetation data suggest that initial hybridizations took place over different time periods in the two studied regions, and that the successful origin and spread of apomictic microspecies of the series Radula took place over several millennia. Additionally, the cloning and sequencing show that standard evaluations of microsatellite repeat numbers underestimate genetic variability considering homoplasy in allele size.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcx033
  • Colchicine application significantly affects plant performance in the
           second generation of synthetic polyploids and its effects vary between
    • Authors: Münzbergová Z.
      First page: 329
      Abstract: AbstractBackground and Aims Understanding the direct consequences of polyploidization is necessary for assessing the evolutionary significance of this mode of speciation. Previous studies have not studied the degree of between-population variation that occurs due to these effects. Although it is assumed that the effects of the substances that create synthetic polyploids disappear in second-generation synthetic polyploids, this has not been tested.Methods The direct consequences of polyploidization were assessed and separated from the effects of subsequent evolution in Vicia cracca, a naturally occurring species with diploid and autotetraploid cytotypes. Synthetic tetraploids were created from diploids of four mixed-ploidy populations. Performance of natural diploids and tetraploids was compared with that of synthetic tetraploids. Diploid offspring of the synthetic tetraploid mothers were also included in the comparison. In this way, the effects of colchicine application in the maternal generation on offspring performance could be compared independently of the effects of polyploidization.Key Results The sizes of seeds and stomata were primarily affected by cytotype, while plant performance differed between natural and synthetic polyploids. Most performance traits were also determined by colchicine application to the mothers, and most of these results were largely population specific.Conclusions Because the consequences of colchicine application are still apparent in the second generation of the plants, at least the third-generation polyploids should be considered in future comparisons. The specificities of the colchicine-treated plants may also be caused by strong selection pressures during the creation of synthetic polyploids. This could be tested by comparing the initial sizes of plants that survived the colchicine treatments with those of plants that did not. High variation between populations also suggests that different polyploids follow different evolutionary trajectories, and this should be considered when studying the effects of polyploidization.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcx070
  • Polyploid species rely on vegetative reproduction more than diploids: a
           re-examination of the old hypothesis
    • Authors: Herben T; Suda J, Klimešová J.
      First page: 341
      Abstract: AbstractBackground and Aims Polyploidy is arguably the single most important genetic mechanism in plant speciation and diversification. It has been repeatedly suggested that polyploids show higher vegetative reproduction than diploids (to by-pass low fertility after the polyploidization), but there are no rigorous tests of it.Methods Data were analysed by phylogenetic regressions of clonal growth parameters, and vegetative reproduction in culture on the ploidy status of a large set of species (approx. 900) from the Central European Angiosperm flora. Further, correlated evolution of ploidy and clonal traits was examined to determine whether or not polyploidy precedes vegetative reproduction.Key Results The analyses showed that polyploidy is strongly associated with vegetative reproduction, whereas diploids rely more on seed reproduction. The rate of polyploid speciation is strongly enhanced by the existence of vegetative reproduction (namely extensive lateral spread), whereas the converse is not true.Conclusions These findings confirm the old hypothesis that polyploids can rely on vegetative reproduction which thus may save many incipient polyploids from extinction. A closer analysis also shows that the sequence of events begins with development of vegetative reproduction, which is then followed by polyploidy. Vegetative reproduction is thus likely to play an important role in polyploid speciation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
      DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcx009
  • Multiple and asymmetrical origin of polyploid dog rose hybrids ( Rosa L.
           sect. Caninae (DC.) Ser.) involving unreduced gametes
    • Authors: Herklotz VV; Ritz CM.
      First page: 209
      Abstract: AbstractBackground and Aims Polyploidy and hybridization are important factors for generating diversity in plants. The species-rich dog roses (Rosa sect. Caninae) originated by allopolyploidy and are characterized by unbalanced meiosis producing polyploid egg cells (usually 4x) and haploid sperm cells (1x). In extant natural stands species hybridize spontaneously, but the extent of natural hybridization is unknown. The aim of the study was to document the frequency of reciprocal hybridization between the subsections Rubigineae and Caninae with special reference to the contribution of unreduced egg cells (5x) producing 6x offspring after fertilization with reduced (1x) sperm cells. We tested whether hybrids arose by independent multiple events or via a single or few incidences followed by a subsequent spread of hybrids.Methods Population genetics of 45 mixed stands of dog roses across central and south-eastern Europe were analysed using microsatellite markers and flow cytometry. Hybrids were recognized by the presence of diagnostic alleles and multivariate statistics were used to display the relationships between parental species and hybrids.Key Results Among plants classified to subsect. Rubigineae, 32 % hybridogenic individuals were detected but only 8 % hybrids were found in plants assigned to subsect. Caninae. This bias between reciprocal crossings was accompanied by a higher ploidy level in Rubigineae hybrids, which originated more frequently by unreduced egg cells. Genetic patterns of hybrids were strongly geographically structured, supporting their independent origin.Conclusions The biased crossing barriers between subsections are explained by the facilitated production of unreduced gametes in subsect. Rubigineae. Unreduced egg cells probably provide the highly homologous chromosome sets required for correct chromosome pairing in hybrids. Furthermore, the higher frequency of Rubigineae hybrids is probably influenced by abundance effects because the plants of subsect. Caninae are much more abundant and thus provide large quantities of pollen. Hybrids are formed spontaneously, leading to highly diverse mixed stands, which are insufficiently characterized by the actual taxonomy.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcw217
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