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Showing 1 - 200 of 369 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 494, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)
J. of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Annals of Botany
  [SJR: 1.912]   [H-I: 124]   [33 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-7364 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8290
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [369 journals]
  • Content Snapshots
    • PubDate: 2017-03-31
  • Plant Cuttings: news in Botany
    • PubDate: 2017-03-31
  • Increased fire frequency promotes stronger spatial genetic structure and
           natural selection at regional and local scales in Pinus halepensis Mill
    • Authors: Budde KB; González-Martínez SC, Navascués M, et al.
      Abstract: Background and Aims The recurrence of wildfires is predicted to increase due to global climate change, resulting in severe impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Recurrent fires can drive plant adaptation and reduce genetic diversity; however, the underlying population genetic processes have not been studied in detail. In this study, the neutral and adaptive evolutionary effects of contrasting fire regimes were examined in the keystone tree species Pinus halepensis Mill. (Aleppo pine), a fire-adapted conifer. The genetic diversity, demographic history and spatial genetic structure were assessed at local (within-population) and regional scales for populations exposed to different crown fire frequencies.Methods Eight natural P. halepensis stands were sampled in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, five of them in a region exposed to frequent crown fires (HiFi) and three of them in an adjacent region with a low frequency of crown fires (LoFi). Samples were genotyped at nine neutral simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and at 251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from coding regions, some of them potentially important for fire adaptation.Key Results Fire regime had no effects on genetic diversity or demographic history. Three high-differentiation outlier SNPs were identified between HiFi and LoFi stands, suggesting fire-related selection at the regional scale. At the local scale, fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) was overall weak as expected for a wind-pollinated and wind-dispersed tree species. HiFi stands displayed a stronger SGS than LoFi stands at SNPs, which probably reflected the simultaneous post-fire recruitment of co-dispersed related seeds. SNPs with exceptionally strong SGS, a proxy for microenvironmental selection, were only reliably identified under the HiFi regime.Conclusions An increasing fire frequency as predicted due to global change can promote increased SGS with stronger family structures and alter natural selection in P. halepensis and in plants with similar life history traits.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
  • Predicting habitat affinities of herbaceous dicots to soil wetness based
           on physiological traits of drought tolerance
    • Authors: Belluau M; Shipley B.
      Abstract: Background and Aims Soil water availability is an important mechanism filtering plant species but the functional basis of this filtering in herbaceous dicots is poorly studied. The authors address three questions: Which physiological traits best predict different levels of drought tolerance or avoidance in herbaceous dicots' To what degree can species' habitat preferences along the gradient of soil moisture availability be predicted by their physiological responses to drought' What are the direct and indirect relationships between the physiological traits and how do they interact to determine the species' habitat preferences'Methods Twenty-five species of herbaceous dicots whose field distributions span a gradient of soil moisture from continually moist to dry were chosen. Under controlled conditions, watering was stopped in a treatment group, the plants were monitored until death of the above-ground tissues and compared with a control group watered at field capacity. Fourteen traits related to plant water economy were measured, including stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis and the visual wilting of leaves. Traits were then analysed using a cumulative link model and path analysis.Key Results Five physiological traits (stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis measured at soil field capacity, water use efficiency, stomatal conductance and soil water potential measured when leaves begin to wilt) related to the ability to acquire resources (when water is not limiting) or conserve water (when it is limiting) best predicted different levels of drought tolerance or avoidance in herbaceous dicots.Conclusions Species’ habitat preferences can be fairly predicted by their physiological responses to drought (R2 = 0·48). Strong direct and indirect relationships between the five identified traits (plus net photosynthesis at wilting and the time until death) led to synergistic and antagonistic relationship in a path analysis model. To allow better prediction of species distributions along a wetness gradient, the next step would be to link these physiological traits to more accessible functional traits.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
  • Stomatal cell wall composition: distinctive structural patterns associated
           with different phylogenetic groups
    • Authors: Shtein I; Shelef Y, Marom Z, et al.
      Abstract: Background and Aims Stomatal morphology and function have remained largely conserved throughout ∼400 million years of plant evolution. However, plant cell wall composition has evolved and changed. Here stomatal cell wall composition was investigated in different vascular plant groups in attempt to understand their possible effect on stomatal function.Methods A renewed look at stomatal cell walls was attempted utilizing digitalized polar microscopy, confocal microscopy, histology and a numerical finite-elements simulation. The six species of vascular plants chosen for this study cover a broad structural, ecophysiological and evolutionary spectrum: ferns (Asplenium nidus and Platycerium bifurcatum) and angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Commelina erecta) with kidney-shaped stomata, and grasses (angiosperms, family Poaceae) with dumbbell-shaped stomata (Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum).Key Results Three distinct patterns of cellulose crystallinity in stomatal cell walls were observed: Type I (kidney-shaped stomata, ferns), Type II (kidney-shaped stomata, angiosperms) and Type III (dumbbell-shaped stomata, grasses). The different stomatal cell wall attributes investigated (cellulose crystallinity, pectins, lignin, phenolics) exhibited taxon-specific patterns, with reciprocal substitution of structural elements in the end-walls of kidney-shaped stomata. According to a numerical bio-mechanical model, the end walls of kidney-shaped stomata develop the highest stresses during opening.Conclusions The data presented demonstrate for the first time the existence of distinct spatial patterns of varying cellulose crystallinity in guard cell walls. It is also highly intriguing that in angiosperms crystalline cellulose appears to have replaced lignin that occurs in the stomatal end-walls of ferns serving a similar wall strengthening function. Such taxon-specific spatial patterns of cell wall components could imply different biomechanical functions, which in turn could be a consequence of differences in environmental selection along the course of plant evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31
  • Nectar replenishment maintains the neutral effects of nectar robbing on
           female reproductive success of Salvia przewalskii (Lamiaceae), a plant
           pollinated and robbed by bumble bees
    • Authors: Ye Z; Jin X, Wang Q, et al.
      Abstract: Background and Aims It has been suggested that the dynamics of nectar replenishment could differ for flowers after being nectar robbed or visited legitimately, but further experimental work is needed to investigate this hypothesis. This study aimed to assess the role of nectar replenishment in mediating the effects of nectar robbing on pollinator behaviour and plant reproduction.Methods Plant–robber–pollinator interactions in an alpine plant, Salvia przewalskii, were studied. It is pollinated by long-tongued Bombus religiosus and short-tongued B. friseanus, but robbed by B. friseanus. Nectar production rates for flowers after they were either robbed or legitimately visited were compared, and three levels of nectar robbing were created to detect the effects of nectar robbing on pollinator behaviour and plant reproduction.Key Results Nectar replenishment did not differ between flowers that had been robbed or legitimately visited. Neither fruit set nor seed set was significantly affected by nectar robbing. In addition, nectar robbing did not significantly affect visitation rate, flowers visited within a plant per foraging bout, or flower handling time of the legitimate pollinators. However, a tendency for a decrease in relative abundance of the pollinator B. religiosus with an increase of nectar robbing was found.Conclusions Nectar robbing did not affect female reproductive success because nectar replenishment ensures that pollinators maintain their visiting activity to nectar-robbed flowers. Nectar replenishment might be a defence mechanism against nectar robbing to enhance reproductive fitness by maintaining attractiveness to pollinators. Further studies are needed to reveal the potential for interference competition among bumble bees foraging as robbers and legitimate visitors, and to investigate variation of nectar robbing in communities with different bumble bee species composition.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31
  • Genetic analyses of the inheritance and expressivity of autonomous
           endosperm formation in Hieracium with different modes of embryo sac and
           seed formation
    • Authors: Henderson ST; Johnson SD, Eichmann J, et al.
      Abstract: Background and Aims Apomixis, or asexual seed formation, in polyploid Hieracium subgenus Pilosella species results in clonal progeny with a maternal genotype. An aposporous embryo sac forms mitotically from a somatic cell, without prior meiosis, while embryo and endosperm formation is fertilization independent (autonomous). The latter two developmental components are tightly linked in Hieracium. Recently, two plants, AutE196 and AutE24, were identified from two different crosses. Both form embryo sacs via the sexual route by undergoing meiosis, and embryo development requires fertilization; however, 18 % of embryo sacs can undergo autonomous endosperm (AutE) formation. This study investigated the qualitative and quantitative inheritance of the AutE trait and factors influencing phenotype expressivity. An additional focus was to identify the linkage group bearing the AutE locus in AutE196.Methods Crosses and cytology were used to examine the inheritance of AutE from AutE24 and AutE196, and to reintroduce apomictic components into AutE plants, thereby changing the ploidy of developing embryo sacs and increasing the dosage of AutE loci. Markers from a Hieracium apomict linkage map were examined within a backcrossed AutE196 mapping population to identify the linkage group containing the AutE196 locus.Key Results Qualitative autonomous endosperm in the AutE24 line was conferred by a single dominant locus, and the trait was transmitted through male and female gametes in AutE196 and AutE24. Expressivity of the trait did not significantly increase when AutE loci from AutE196 and AutE24 were both present in the progeny, within embryo sacs formed via apospory, or sexually derived embryo sacs with increased ploidy. It remains unclear if these are identical loci.Conclusions The qualitative trait of autonomous endosperm formation is conferred by single dominant loci in AutE196 and AutE24. High expressivity of autonomous endosperm formation observed in apomicts requires additional genetic factors. Potential candidates may be signals arising from fertilization-independent embryo formation.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27
  • How does climate influence xylem morphogenesis over the growing
           season' Insights from long-term intra-ring anatomy in Picea abies
    • Authors: Castagneri D; Fonti P, von Arx G, et al.
      Abstract: Background and Aims During the growing season, the cambium of conifer trees produces successive rows of xylem cells, the tracheids, that sequentially pass through the phases of enlargement and secondary wall thickening before dying and becoming functional. Climate variability can strongly influence the kinetics of morphogenetic processes, eventually affecting tracheid shape and size. This study investigates xylem anatomical structure in the stem of Picea abies to retrospectively infer how, in the long term, climate affects the processes of cell enlargement and wall thickening.Methods Tracheid anatomical traits related to the phases of enlargement (diameter) and wall thickening (wall thickness) were innovatively inspected at the intra-ring level on 87-year-long tree-ring series in Picea abies trees along a 900 m elevation gradient in the Italian Alps. Anatomical traits in ten successive tree-ring sectors were related to daily temperature and precipitation data using running correlations.Key Results Close to the altitudinal tree limit, low early-summer temperature negatively affected cell enlargement. At lower elevation, water availability in early summer was positively related to cell diameter. The timing of these relationships shifted forward by about 20 (high elevation) to 40 (low elevation) d from the first to the last tracheids in the ring. Cell wall thickening was affected by climate in a different period in the season. In particular, wall thickness of late-formed tracheids was strongly positively related to August–September temperature at high elevation.Conclusions Morphogenesis of tracheids sequentially formed in the growing season is influenced by climate conditions in successive periods. The distinct climate impacts on cell enlargement and wall thickening indicate that different morphogenetic mechanisms are responsible for different tracheid traits. Our approach of long-term and high-resolution analysis of xylem anatomy can support and extend short-term xylogenesis observations, and increase our understanding of climate control of tree growth and functioning under different environmental conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27
  • Pollen tube access to the ovule is mediated by glycoprotein secretion on
           the obturator of apple ( Malus × domestica , Borkh)
    • Authors: Losada JM; Herrero M.
      Abstract: Background and Aims Within the ovary, the obturator bridges the pathway of the pollen tube from the style to the ovule. Despite its widespread presence among flowering plants, its function has only been studied in a handful of species, and the molecules involved in pollen tube–obturator cross-talk have not been explored hitherto. This work evaluates the involvement of glucans and glycoproteins on pollen tube growth in the obturator of apple flowers (Malus × domestica).Methods Pollen tube kinetics were sequentially examined in the pistil and related to changes occurring on the obturator using histochemistry and inmunocytochemistry. To discriminate between changes in the obturator induced by pollen tubes from those developmentally regulated, both pollinated and unpollinated pistils were examined.Key Results Pollen tube growth rates were slow in the stigma, faster in the style and slow again in the ovary. The arrival of pollen tubes at the obturator was concomitant with the secretion of proteins, saccharides and glycoprotein epitopes belonging to extensins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). While some of these secretions – extensins and AGPs labelled by JIM13 – were developmentally regulated, others – AGPs labelled by JIM8 – were elicited by the presence of pollen tubes. Following pollen tube passage, all these glycoproteins were depleted.Conclusions The results show a timely secretion of glycoproteins on the obturator surface concomitant with pollen tube arrival at this structure. The fact that their secretion is depleted following pollen tube passage strongly suggests their role in regulating pollen tube access to the ovule. Remarkably, both the regulation of the secretion of the different glycoproteins, as well as their association with the performance of pollen tubes exhibit similarities with those observed in the stigma, in line with their common developmental origin.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27
  • Nutrient foraging strategies are associated with productivity and
           population growth in forest shrubs
    • Authors: Caplan JS; Stone BG, Faillace CA, et al.
      Abstract: Background and Aims Temperate deciduous forest understoreys are experiencing widespread changes in community composition, concurrent with increases in rates of nitrogen supply. These shifts in plant abundance may be driven by interspecific differences in nutrient foraging (i.e. conservative vs. acquisitive strategies) and, thus, adaptation to contemporary nutrient loading conditions. This study sought to determine if interspecific differences in nutrient foraging could help explain patterns of shrub success and decline in eastern North American forests.Methods Using plants grown in a common garden, fine root traits associated with nutrient foraging were measured for six shrub species. Traits included the mean and skewness of the root diameter distribution, specific root length (SRL), C:N ratio, root tissue density, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and foraging precision. Above- and below-ground productivity were also determined for the same plants, and population growth rates were estimated using data from a long-term study of community dynamics. Root traits were compared among species and associations among root traits, measures of productivity and rates of population growth were evaluated.Key Results Species fell into groups having thick or thin root forms, which correspond to conservative vs. acquisitive nutrient foraging strategies. Interspecific variation in root morphology and tissue construction correlated with measures of productivity and rates of cover expansion. Of the four species with acquisitive traits, three were introduced species that have become invasive in recent decades, and the fourth was a weedy native. In contrast, the two species with conservative traits were historically dominant shrubs that have declined in abundance in eastern North American forests.Conclusions In forest understoreys of eastern North America, elevated nutrient availability may impose a filter on species success in addition to above-ground processes such as herbivory and overstorey canopy conditions. Shrubs that have root traits associated with rapid uptake of soil nutrients may be more likely to increase in abundance, while species without such traits may be less likely to keep pace with more productive species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
  • Metabolic and physiological adjustment of Suaeda maritima to combined
           salinity and hypoxia
    • Authors: Behr JH; Bouchereau A, Berardocco S, et al.
      Abstract: Background and AimsSuaeda maritima is a halophyte commonly found on coastal wetlands in the intertidal zone. Due to its habitat S. maritima has evolved tolerance to high salt concentrations and hypoxic conditions in the soil caused by periodic flooding. In the present work, the adaptive mechanisms of S. maritima to salinity combined with hypoxia were investigated on a physiological and metabolic level.Methods To compare the adaptive mechanisms to deficient, optimal and stressful salt concentrations, S. maritima plants were grown in a hydroponic culture under low, medium and high salt concentrations. Additionally, hypoxic conditions were applied to investigate the impact of hypoxia combined with different salt concentrations. A non-targeted metabolic approach was used to clarify the biochemical pathways underlying the metabolic and physiological adaptation mechanisms of S. maritima.Key Results Roots exposed to hypoxic conditions showed an increased level of tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle intermediates such as succinate, malate and citrate. During hypoxia, the concentration of free amino acids increased in shoots and roots. Osmoprotectants such as proline and glycine betaine increased in concentrations as the external salinity was increased under hypoxic conditions.Conclusions The combination of high salinity and hypoxia caused an ionic imbalance and an increase of metabolites associated with osmotic stress and photorespiration, indicating a severe physiological and metabolic response under these conditions. Disturbed proline degradation in the roots induced an enhanced proline accumulation under hypoxia. The enhanced alanine fermentation combined with a partial flux of the TCA cycle might contribute to the tolerance of S. maritima to hypoxic conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20
  • A water availability gradient reveals the deficit level required to affect
           traits in potted juvenile Eucalyptus globulus
    • Authors: McKiernan AB; Potts BM, Hovenden MJ, et al.
      Abstract: Background and aims Drought leading to soil water deficit can have severe impacts on plants. Water deficit may lead to plant water stress and affect growth and chemical traits. Plant secondary metabolite (PSM) responses to water deficit vary between compounds and studies, with inconsistent reports of changes to PSM concentrations even within a single species. This disparity may result from experimental water deficit variation among studies, and so multiple water deficit treatments are used to fully assess PSM responses in a single species.Methods Juvenile Eucalyptus globulus were grown for 8 weeks at one of ten water deficit levels based on evapotranspiration from control plants (100 %). Treatments ranged from 90 % of control evapotranspiration (mild water deficit) to 0 % of control evapotranspiration (severe water deficit) in 10 % steps. Plant biomass, foliar abscisic acid (ABA) levels, Ψleaf, leaf C/N, selected terpenes and phenolics were quantified to assess responses to each level of water deficit relative to a control.Key Results Withholding ≥30 % water resulted in higher foliar ABA levels and withholding ≥40 % water reduced leaf water content. Ψleaf became more negative when ≥60 % water was withheld. Plant biomass was lower when ≥80 % water was withheld, and no water for 8 weeks (0 % water) resulted in plant death. The total oil concentration was lower and C/N was higher in dead and desiccated juvenile E. globulus leaves (0 % water). Concentrations of individual phenolic and terpene compounds, along with condensed tannin and total phenolic concentrations, remained stable regardless of water deficit or plant stress level.Conclusions These juvenile E. globulus became stressed with a moderate reduction in available water, and yet the persistent concentrations of most PSMs in highly stressed or dead plants suggests no PSM re-metabolization and continued ecological roles of foliar PSMs during drought.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
  • Plant carnivory beyond bogs: reliance on prey feeding in Drosophyllum
           lusitanicum (Drosophyllaceae) in dry Mediterranean heathland habitats
    • Authors: Paniw MM; Gil-Cabeza EE, Ojeda FF.
      Abstract: Background and Aims In a cost–benefit framework, plant carnivory is hypothesized to be an adaptation to nutrient-poor soils in sunny, wetland habitats. However, apparent exceptions to this cost–benefit model exist, although they have been rarely studied. One of these exceptions is the carnivorous subshrub Drosophyllum lusitanicum, which thrives in Mediterranean heathlands on dry sandstone soils and has relatively well-developed, xeromorphic roots. Here, the roles of leaf (carnivory) and root (soil) nutrient uptake in growth promotion of this particular species were assessed.Methods In a greenhouse experiment, plants were fed with laboratory-reared fruit flies (Drosophila virilis) and received two concentrations of soil nutrients in a factorial design. Above-ground plant growth and final above- and below-ground dry biomass after 13 weeks were recorded. Nutrient uptake via roots was also evaluated, using stable nitrogen isotope analysis.Key Results Insect feeding resulted in significantly higher growth and above- and below-ground biomass compared with soil fertilization. No additional benefits of fertilization were discernable when plants were insect-fed, indicating that roots were not efficient in nutrient absorption.Conclusions The first evidence of strong reliance on insect prey feeding in a dry-soil carnivorous plant with well-developed roots is provided, suggesting that carnivory per se does not preclude persistence in dry habitats. Instead, the combination of carnivory and xeromorphic root features allows Drosophyllum to thrive on non-waterlogged soils. New evidence is added to recent research emphasizing the role of root systems of carnivorous plants in explaining their distribution, partly challenging the cost–benefit hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2017-01-08
  • Gibberellins regulate iron deficiency-response by influencing iron
           transport and translocation in rice seedlings ( Oryza sativa )
    • Authors: Wang B; Wei H, Xue Z, et al.
      Abstract: Background and aims Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones with diverse functions. However, there has been little information on the role of GAs in response to plant nutrient deficiency.Methods To evaluate the roles of GAs in regulation of Fe homeostasis, the effects of GA on Fe accumulation and Fe translocation in rice seedlings were investigated using wild-type, a rice mutant (eui1) displaying enhnaced endogenous GA concentrations due to a defect in GA deactivation, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsEUI.Key Results Exposure to Fe-deficient medium significantly reduced biomass of rice plants. Both exogenous application of GA and an endogenous increase of bioactive GA enhanced Fe-deficiency response by exaggerating foliar chlorosis and reducing growth. Iron deficiency significantly suppressed production of GA1 and GA4, the biologically active GAs in rice. Exogenous application of GA significantly decreased leaf Fe concentration regardless of Fe supply. Iron concentration in shoot of eui1 mutants was lower than that of WT plants under both Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions. Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, alleviated Fe-deficiency responses, and overexpression of EUI significantly increased Fe concentration in shoots and roots. Furthermore, both exogenous application of GA and endogenous increase in GA resulting from EUI mutation inhibited Fe translocation within shoots by suppressing OsYSL2 expression, which is involved in Fe transport and translocation.Conclusions The novel findings provide compelling evidence to support the involvement of GA in mediation of Fe homeostasis in strategy II rice plants by negatively regulating Fe transport and translocation.
      PubDate: 2017-01-08
  • Small genomes and large seeds: chromosome numbers, genome size and seed
           mass in diploid Aesculus species (Sapindaceae)
    • Authors: Krahulcová A; Trávníček P, Krahulec F, et al.
      Abstract: Background and AimsAesculus L. (horse chestnut, buckeye) is a genus of 12–19 extant woody species native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. This genus is known for unusually large seeds among angiosperms. While chromosome counts are available for many Aesculus species, only one has had its genome size measured. The aim of this study is to provide more genome size data and analyse the relationship between genome size and seed mass in this genus.Methods Chromosome numbers in root tip cuttings were confirmed for four species and reported for the first time for three additional species. Flow cytometric measurements of 2C nuclear DNA values were conducted on eight species, and mean seed mass values were estimated for the same taxa.Key Results The same chromosome number, 2n = 40, was determined in all investigated taxa. Original measurements of 2C values for seven Aesculus species (eight taxa), added to just one reliable datum for A. hippocastanum, confirmed the notion that the genome size in this genus with relatively large seeds is surprisingly low, ranging from 0·955 pg 2C–1 in A. parviflora to 1·275 pg 2C–1 in A. glabra var. glabra.Conclusions The chromosome number of 2n = 40 seems to be conclusively the universal 2n number for non-hybrid species in this genus. Aesculus genome sizes are relatively small, not only within its own family, Sapindaceae, but also within woody angiosperms. The genome sizes seem to be distinct and non-overlapping among the four major Aesculus clades. These results provide an extra support for the most recent reconstruction of Aesculus phylogeny. The correlation between the 2C values and seed masses in examined Aesculus species is slightly negative and not significant. However, when the four major clades are treated separately, there is consistent positive association between larger genome size and larger seed mass within individual lineages.
      PubDate: 2017-01-08
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