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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 510, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Journal of Economic Entomology
  [SJR: 0.894]   [H-I: 76]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0022-0493 - ISSN (Online) 1938-291X
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Journal of Economic Entomology June 2017 Volume 110 Number 3 - Front Cover
    • Authors: Boukouvala MC.
      Abstract: Larvae of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, in procession on trunk of Pinus halepensis for pupation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox009
  • Subscriptions Page
    • PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox011
  • Journal of Economic Entomology June 2017 Volume 110 Number 3 - TOC
    • PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox012
  • Role of Human Action in the Spread of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    • Authors: Owen R.
      First page: 797
      Abstract: The increased annual losses in European honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in North America and some other countries is usually attributed to a range of factors including pathogens, poor nutrition, and insecticides. In this essay, I will argue that the global trade in honey bees and migratory beekeeping practices within countries has enabled pathogens to spread quickly. Beekeepers’ management strategies have also contributed to the spread of pathogens as well as the development of resistance to miticides and antibiotics, and exacerbated by hobby beekeepers. The opportunities for arresting honey bee declines rest as strongly with individual beekeepers as they do with the dynamics of disease.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox075
  • The Synergistic Effects of Almond Protection Fungicides on Honey Bee
           (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Forager Survival
    • Authors: Fisher A; II, Coleman C, Hoffmann C, et al.
      First page: 802
      Abstract: The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) contributes ∼$17 billion annually to the United States economy, primarily by pollinating major agricultural crops including almond, which is completely dependent on honey bee pollination for nut set. Almond growers face constant challenges to crop productivity owing to pests and pathogens, which are often controlled with a multitude of agrochemicals. For example, fungicides are often applied in combination with other products to control fungal pathogens during almond bloom. However, the effects of fungicides on honey bee health have been so far understudied. To assess the effects of some of the top fungicides used during the 2012 California almond bloom on honey bee forager mortality, we collected foragers from a local apiary and exposed them to fungicides (alone and in various combinations) at the label dose, or at doses ranging from 0.25 to 2 times the label dose rate. These fungicides were Iprodione 2SE Select, Pristine, and Quadris. We utilized a wind tunnel and atomizer set up with a wind speed of 2.9 m/s to simulate field-relevant exposure of honey bees to these agrochemicals during aerial application in almond fields. Groups of 40–50 foragers exposed to either untreated controls or fungicide-laden treatments were monitored daily over a 10-d period. Our results showed a significant decrease in forager survival resulting from exposure to simulated tank mixes of Iprodione 2SE Select, as well as synergistic detrimental effects of Iprodione 2SE Select in combination with Pristine and Quadris on forager survival.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox031
  • Population Growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Colonies of
           Russian and Unselected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Stocks as Related
           to Numbers of Foragers With Mites
    • Authors: DeGrandi-Hoffman G; Ahumada F, Danka R, et al.
      First page: 809
      Abstract: Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) is an external parasite of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and a leading cause of colony losses worldwide. Varroa populations can be controlled with miticides, but mite-resistant stocks such as the Russian honey bee (RHB) also are available. Russian honey bee and other mite-resistant stocks limit Varroa population growth by affecting factors that contribute to mite reproduction. However, mite population growth is not entirely due to reproduction. Numbers of foragers with mites (FWM) entering and leaving hives also affect the growth of mite populations. If FWM significantly contribute to Varroa population growth, mite numbers in RHB colonies might not differ from unselected lines (USL). Foragers with mites were monitored at the entrances of RHB and USL hives from August to November, 2015, at two apiary sites. At site 1, RHB colonies had fewer FWM than USL and smaller phoretic mite populations. Russian honey bee also had fewer infested brood cells and lower percentages with Varroa offspring than USL. At site 2, FWM did not differ between RHB and USL, and phoretic mite populations were not significantly different. At both sites, there were sharp increases in phoretic mite populations from September to November that corresponded with increasing numbers of FWM. Under conditions where FWM populations are similar between RHB and USL, attributes that contribute to mite resistance in RHB may not keep Varroa population levels below that of USL.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox069
  • A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
           Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects
           Beekeeper Profits
    • Authors: Bixby M; Baylis K, Hoover SE, et al.
      First page: 816
      Abstract: Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock. Historically, the only method for identifying desirable traits in honey bees to improve breeding was through observation of bee behavior. A team of Canadian scientists have recently identified markers in bee antennae that correspond to behavioral traits in bees and can be tested for in a laboratory. These scientists have demonstrated that this marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to produce hygienic, pathogen-resistant honey bee colonies. Based on this research, we present a beekeeping case study where a beekeeper’s profit function is used to evaluate the economic impact of adopting colonies selected for hygienic behavior using MAS into an apiary. Our results show a net profit gain from an MAS colony of between 2% and 5% when Varroa mites are effectively treated. In the case of ineffective treatment, MAS generates a net profit benefit of between 9% and 96% depending on the Varroa load. When a Varroa mite population has developed some treatment resistance, we show that MAS colonies generate a net profit gain of between 8% and 112% depending on the Varroa load and degree of treatment resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox077
  • How Efficient Is Apis cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Pollinating Cabbage,
           Brassica oleracea var . capitata ' Pollination Behavior, Pollinator
           Effectiveness, Pollinator Requirement, and Impact of Pollination
    • Authors: Stanley J; Sah K, Subbanna A, et al.
      First page: 826
      Abstract: Cabbage is a cross-pollinated crop because of sporophytic self-incompatibility, and honey bees play an important role in its pollination. Though Asian honey bees, Apis cerana F., are used in pollination of cabbage, the rate of visitation, behavior, pollinator efficacy, and impact on seed-set are to be determined. Apis cerana occupy a share of 19.18% of all the flower visitors of cabbage in natural habitat of North Western Indian Himalayas. Pollination behavior in terms of peak activity, flowers processed per unit time, time spent per flower, and time spent in search of flowers are studied separately for both pollen and nectar foragers. Pollinator effectiveness as measured by seed set in flowers excluded from bee visitation, single bee visit, and unrestricted pollinator visits was 0.11. Studies on the impact of A. cerana bee pollination in cabbage seed production revealed an increase of 17.28% in siliqua per panicle, with 26.11% increase in seed yield. For assessing the requirement of A. cerana to pollinate one hectare of cabbage, flower availability and the speed with which the pollen and nectar foragers process the flowers are taken into consideration. A forager is estimated to pollinate 4,780 flowers a day, but cabbage flower requires 9.09 visits of A. cerana for optimum seed set. Thus, a maximum of 4,999 bee foragers or 8.33 colonies are needed to effectively pollinate 1 ha of cabbage. Though A. cerana is a good pollinator, our findings suggest that it is not an ideal pollinator of cabbage.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox115
  • Agricultural Landscape and Pesticide Effects on Honey Bee (Hymenoptera:
           Apidae) Biological Traits
    • Authors: Alburaki M; Steckel SJ, Williams MT, et al.
      First page: 835
      Abstract: Sixteen honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies were placed in four different agricultural landscapes to study the effects of agricultural landscape and exposure to pesticides on honey bee health. Colonies were located in three different agricultural areas with varying levels of agricultural intensity (AG areas) and one nonagricultural area (NAG area). Colonies were monitored for their performance and productivity for one year by measuring colony weight changes, brood production, and colony thermoregulation. Palynological and chemical analyses were conducted on the trapped pollen collected from each colony and location. Our results indicate that the landscape’s composition significantly affected honey bee colony performance and development. Colony weight and brood production were significantly greater in AG areas compared to the NAG area. Better colony thermoregulation in AG areas’ colonies was also observed. The quantities of pesticides measured in the trapped pollen were relatively low compared to their acute toxicity. Unexplained queen and colony losses were recorded in the AG areas, while colony losses because of starvation were observed in the NAG area. Our results indicate that landscape with high urban activity enhances honey bee brood production, with no significant effects on colony weight gain. Our study indicates that agricultural crops provide a valuable resource for honey bee colonies, but there is a trade-off with an increased risk of exposure to pesticides.
      PubDate: 2017-04-08
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox111
  • The Cuticle Protein Gene MPCP4 of Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae)
           Plays a Critical Role in Cucumber Mosaic Virus Acquisition
    • Authors: Liang Y; Gao X.
      First page: 848
      Abstract: Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) is one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. In addition to sucking phloem sap, M. persicae also transmits Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) as a vector in a nonpersistent manner. At present, the infection mechanism remains unclear, especially the process of aphid virus acquisition. In this study, we isolated four M. persicae cuticle protein genes (MPCP1, MPCP2, MPCP4, and MPCP5) from M. persicae. The relative amount of the gene encoding Cucumber mosaic virus capsid protein (CMV CP) and the transcript levels of these four cuticle protein genes were investigated in aphid virus acquisition by feeding the tobacco preinfested by CMV. The relative expression of MPCP1, MPCP2, and MPCP4 were significantly higher than MPCP5 at 24 h after aphids feeding on virus-infested tobacco. Yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated that the protein encoded by MPCP4 gene was closely associated with the CMV CP through the direct interaction. Moreover, the ability of M. persicae to acquire CMV was suppressed by RNA interference of MPCP4. All these lines of evidence indicate that MPCP4, as a viral putative receptor in the stylet of aphid, plays an important role in aphid acquisition of CMV.
      PubDate: 2017-02-19
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox025
  • The Influence of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Migratory
           Events on the Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus Epidemics
    • Authors: Wu Y; Zhang G, Chen X, et al.
      First page: 854
      Abstract: Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) caused serious rice losses. After the first outbreak in 2009 in northern Vietnam and southern China, the virus ravaged crops again on enormous scales in 2010, but infections have decreased sharply since 2011. We presumed that the sudden epidemics and fadeout of SRBSDV would be closely related to the migratory events of the insect vector, Sogatella furcifera. This study sought the source area of SRBSDV using the trajectory analysis method, and revealed the relationship between SRBSDV dynamics and migration of S. furcifera populations via an in-depth analysis of meteorological background of S. furcifera migration fields. The results showed that Northern Vietnam was the direct virus source area of the SRBSDV infection in China, and South Central Coast of Vietnam was the original source area of SRBSDV. Southwesterly winds were prevalent in spring of 2010 and carried large numbers of viruliferous S. furcifera to China from northern Vietnam. This infestation of S. furcifera was the direct cause of the SRBSDV outbreak in China in 2010. In 2011, the winter–spring temperatures were abnormally low and southeasterly and easterly winds dominated; therefore, the number of viruliferous S. furcifera that entered China was small, and consequently, the occurrence area of SRBSDV was rapidly reduced. The return of viruliferous S. furcifera to South Central Coast of Vietnam was an important factor that affected the occurrence scale of SRBSDV in the following year.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox062
  • The Role of the Beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera:
           Curculionidae) in the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Mango Wilt
    • Authors: Galdino T; Ferreira D, Santana Júnior P, et al.
      First page: 865
      Abstract: The knowledge of the spatiotemporal dynamics of pathogens and their vectors is an important step in determining the pathogen dispersion pattern and the role of vectors in disease dynamics. However, in the case of mango wilt little is known about its spatiotemporal dynamics and the relationship of its vector [the beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing 1914)] to these dynamics. The aim of this work was to determine the spatial-seasonal dynamic of H. mangiferae attacks and mango wilt in mango orchards and to verify the importance of H. mangiferae in the spatiotemporal dynamics of the disease. Two mango orchards were monitored during a period of 3 yr. The plants in these orchards were georeferenced and inspected monthly to quantify the number of plants attacked by beetles and the fungus. In these orchards, the percentage of mango trees attacked by beetles was always higher than the percentage infected by the fungus. The colonization of mango trees by beetles and the fungus occurred by colonization of trees both distant and proximal to previously attacked trees. The new plants attacked by the fungus emerged in places where the beetles had previously begun their attack. This phenomenon led to a large overlap in sites of beetle and fungal occurrence, indicating that establishment by the beetle was followed by establishment by the fungus. This information can be used by farmers to predict disease infection, and to control bark beetle infestation in mango orchards.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox063
  • Insecticidal Effects on the Spatial Progression of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl
           Virus and Movement of Its Whitefly Vector in Tomato
    • Authors: Dempsey MM; Riley DG, Srinivasan RR.
      First page: 875
      Abstract: Commercial management of whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) typically relies on insecticide control of whitefly vectors as a first line of defense. We quantified this effect in crop tunnel studies, with validation in a tomato field setting. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-infected and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)-infested source plants were planted at the beginning of tunneled rows to serve as inoculum source, so that movement of whiteflies and TYLCV symptoms could be tracked down the length of the tunnel over time. Tunnel study results showed that proximity to the source plant was a more important factor than insecticide treatments. Insecticide-treated tomato transplants did tend to suppress whitefly incidence and slowed TYLCV movement in comparison with the untreated check; however, tomato plants planted closer to the source plant had higher incidence of whiteflies and TYLCV infection, regardless of treatment. In a large tomato plot study with a controlled inoculum source, insecticide treatments significantly reduced the spread of TYLCV. When uninhibited by insecticide treatment, 80% of the TYLCV spread was restricted to <15 m from the source plant (<11 m in the validation study), with insecticide treatment generally reducing the distance and magnitude of this spread.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox061
  • Interactions Between Cassava Mosaic Geminiviruses and Their Vector,
           Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
    • Authors: Boni SB; Rugumamu CP, Gerling D, et al.
      First page: 884
      Abstract: The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is the vector of the cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) that cause cassava mosaic disease (CMD). Synergistic interactions between B. tabaci and CMGs have been hypothesized as a cause of whitefly “super-abundance,” which has been a key factor behind the spread of the severe CMD pandemic through East and Central Africa. The current study investigated this hypothesis by conducting experiments with CMD-susceptible cassava varieties infected with different CMGs in both the north-western Lake Zone region (pandemic affected) and the eastern Coast Zone where CMD is less severe. Male and female pairs of B. tabaci were placed in clip cages for 48 h on plants of three cassava varieties at each of the two locations. There were significantly more eggs laid on CMG-infected than on CMG-free plants in the Lake Zone, whereas in Coast Zone, there were no significant differences. There were no significant differences in proportions, mortality, and development duration of immature stages of B. tabaci among virus states and cassava variety in the two locations. The overall number of eggs was significantly higher with longer development duration of the immature stages in the Lake than in the Coast Zone, whereas mortality was significantly higher in the Coast than in the Lake Zone. Based on these results, it is concluded that there was no net positive synergistic interaction between CMGs and B. tabaci for either lowland coastal or mid-altitude inland populations. Consequently, other factors seem more likely to be the cause of the “super-abundance,” and require further investigation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox064
  • Characterization of Direct Current-Electrical Penetration Graph Waveforms
           and Correlation With the Probing Behavior of Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus
           (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), the Insect Vector of Sugarcane White Leaf
    • Authors: Roddee JJ; Kobori YY, Yorozuya HH, et al.
      First page: 893
      Abstract: The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is an important vector of phytoplasma causing white leaf disease in sugarcane. Thus, the aim of our study was to understand and describe the stylet-probing activities of this vector while feeding on sugarcane plants, by using direct current (DC) electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring. The EPG signals were classified into six distinct waveforms, according to amplitude, frequency, voltage level, and electrical origin of the observed traces during stylet penetration into the host plant tissues (probing). These six EPG waveforms of probing behavior comprise no stylet penetration (NP); stylet pathway through epidermis, mesophyll, and parenchymal cells (waveform A); contact at the bundle sheath layer (waveform B); salivation into phloem sieve elements (waveform C); phloem sap ingestion (waveform D); and short ingestion time of xylem sap (waveform E). The above waveform patterns were correlated with histological data of salivary sheath termini in plant tissue generated from insect stylet tips. The key findings of this study were that M. hiroglyphicus ingests the phloem sap at a relatively higher rate and for longer duration from any other cell type, suggesting that M. hiroglyphicus is mainly a phloem-feeder. Quantitative comparison of probing behavior revealed that females typically probe more frequently and longer in the phloem than males. Thus, females may acquire and inoculate greater amounts of phytoplasma than males, enhancing the efficiency of phytoplasma transmission and potentially exacerbating disease spreading. Overall, our study provides basic information on the probing behavior and transmission mechanism of M. hiroglyphicus.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox090
  • Evaluation of Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) for Control of
           Eotetranychus kankitus (Acari: Tetranychidae)
    • Authors: Li Y; Liu M, Zhou H, et al.
      First page: 903
      Abstract: Eotetranychus kankitus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important pest in Chinese citrus orchards. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of Neoseiulus barkeri (Hughes) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) for the biological control of E. kankitus. A two-sex life table of E. kankitus and N. barkeri was constructed to estimate development and fecundity. The functional response and stage-specific predation rate were analyzed to evaluate predation capacity. In addition, a timing model was used to project populations of E. kankitus with release of N. barkeri. Results showed that N. barkeri was able to develop and reproduce when fed on E. kankitus. The functional responses of N. barkeri on different stages of E. kankitus all fit the Holling II disc equation. When mixed stages of E. kankitus coexisted, N. barkeri mainly consumed larvae and nymphs. Based on the life tables and stage-specific predation rates, population projection revealed the stage structure and growth rate of N. barkeri on E. kankitus. Although E. kankitus had the higher growth rate, it was maintained at a low population level for several weeks after release of N. barkeri. The results highlighted the potential for utilizing N. barkeri as a biological control agent of E. kankitus.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox056
  • Does Long-Term Feeding on Alternative Prey Affect the Biological
           Performance of Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the Target
           Spider Mites'
    • Authors: Li Y; Zhang G, Tian C, et al.
      First page: 915
      Abstract: The predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri (Hughes) is a good biological control agent for many small sucking pests. We aimed to determine whether rearing long term on alternative prey versus target prey species affected the performance of N. barkeri. Therefore, we investigated the prey preference, life tables, and population parameters of N. barkeri between alternative prey Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) and three species of spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus citri (McGregor), and Eotetranychus kankitus Ehara. We found that N. barkeri preferred the tetranychid mites to the alternative prey. Between the tetranychid mites, the predator consumed more P. citri and E. kankitus than T. urticae. When reared on T. urticae, the total developmental time and longevity of N. barkeri were the longest, whereas the intrinsic rate of increase was the lowest, indicating that the biotic fitness of predatory mite preyed on target of T. urticae was higher than on alternative prey of T. putrescentiae. However, total developmental time, longevity, and fecundity did not differ between N. barkeri reared on T. putrescentiae and P. citri, although these parameters were higher than those for mites reared on E. kankitus, indicating that the predatory mite reared on T. putrescentiae may not be affected to control P. citri, and that coexistence of P. citri and E. kankitus may enhance the control efficiency of N. barkeri. Altogether, our results demonstrated that long-term feeding on the alternative prey T. putrescentiae did not affect the performance of the predatory mite N. barkeri on various target spider mites.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox055
  • Evaluation of Natural Additives to Enhance the Persistence of Spodoptera
           littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Nucleopolyhedrovirus ( Spli MNPV)
           Under Field Conditions in Saudi Arabia
    • Authors: Dwi Sutanto K; El Salamouny S, Tufail M, et al.
      First page: 924
      Abstract: Nucleopolyhedrovirus is an effective biocontrol agent but for its biggest disadvantage of short persistence under sunlight conditions. In this study, 10 plant extracts were evaluated as ultraviolet (UV) protectants to improve the persistence of Spodoptera littoralis multiple-embedded nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) against cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval). In the primary lab screening test, 5 out of 10 additives (cloves, henna, green tea, pomegranate, and grape extracts) presented a high rate of virus protection with original activity remaining (OAR) percentage of 100%, 97%, 91%, 90.6%, and 77%, respectively, when used at a concentration of 1% and exposed to UVB for a period of 1 h. A secondary screening was then performed with these best five extracts at a concentration of 0.5% and for an exposure timing of 5 h to UVB. Among these, clove and henna that showed highest protection with OAR values of 96.6% and 76.5%, respectively, were selected for the field trials. When applied on cabbage in the field during sunny summer conditions, clove and henna extracts enhanced the persistence of SpliMNPV by twofold. These findings are encouraging to be applied in the field studies.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox085
  • Direct and Indirect Effects of Pesticides on the Insidious Flower Bug
           (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Under Laboratory Conditions
    • Authors: Herrick NJ; Cloyd RA.
      First page: 931
      Abstract: Greenhouse producers are interested in integrating natural enemies along with pesticides to suppress western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), populations. The insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say), is a commercially available natural enemy of western flower thrips. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments to determine the direct and indirect effects of 28 pesticides (insecticides, miticides, and fungicides), 4 pesticide mixtures, and 4 surfactants (36 total treatments plus a water control) on the adult O. insidiosus survival and predation on western flower thrips adults under laboratory conditions. The number of live and dead O. insidiosus adults was recorded after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The results of the study indicate that the fungicides (aluminum tris, azoxystrobin, fenhexamid, and kresoxim-methyl), insect growth regulators (azadirachtin, buprofezin, kinoprene, and pyriproxyfen), botanicals (Capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, soybean oil; and rosemary, rosemary oil, peppermint oil, and cottonseed oil), and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae) were minimally directly harmful to adult O. insidiosus, with 80% to 100% adult survival. However, abamectin, spinosad, pyridalyl, chlorfenapyr, tau-fluvalinate, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam directly affected O. insidiosus survival after 96 h (0–60% adult survival). The pesticide mixtures of abamectin + spinosad and chlorfenapyr + dinotefuran reduced adult survival (20% and 0%, respectively, after 48 h). Furthermore, the surfactants were not directly harmful to O. insidiosus adults. All western flower thrips adults were killed by the surviving adult O. insidiosus after 48 h, indicating no indirect effects of the pesticides on predation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox093
  • Upregulation of a Trypsin-Like Serine Protease Gene in Antheraea pernyi
           (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) Strains Exposed to Different Pathogens
    • Authors: Sun Y; Wang Y, Liu W, et al.
      First page: 941
      Abstract: Antheraea pernyi Guérin-Méneville is used for silk production and as a food resource. Its infection by exogenous pathogens, including microsporidia, fungi, bacteria, and virus, can lead to silkworm diseases, causing major economic losses. A trypsin-like serine protease gene (TLS) was found in A. pernyi transcriptome data resulting from two different infection experiments. The cDNA sequence of ApTLS was 1,020 bp in length and contained an open reading frame of 774 bp encoding a 257-amino acid protein (GenBank KF779933). The present study investigated the expression patterns of ApTLS after exposure to different pathogens, and in four different A. pernyi strains. Semiquantitative RT-PCR indicated that ApTLS was expressed in all developmental stages and was most expressed in the midgut. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated ApTLS was upregulated in the midgut of A. pernyi exposed to nucleopolyhedrovirus (ApNPV), Nosema pernyi, Enterococcus pernyi, and Beauveria bassiana infections, and the highest gene expression level was found under ApNPV infection. The strain Shenhuang No. 2 presented the lowest infection rate and the highest ApTLS gene expression level when exposed to ApNPV. Thus, ApTLS seems to be involved in innate defense reactions in A. pernyi.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox096
  • The Effects of Temperature and Host Age on the Fecundity of Four
           Trichogramma Species, Egg Parasitoids of the Cnaphalocrocis medinalis
           (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    • Authors: Tian J; Wang Z, Wang G, et al.
      First page: 949
      Abstract: The Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) is one of the most important rice pests in Asia and is difficult to control by chemical insecticides due to its rapid development of resistance. To screen potential species for biological control of C. medinalis, we investigated the effects of temperature (20, 24, 28, 32, and 36 °C) and host age (1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old) on the fecundity of four Trichogramma spp. on C. medinalis eggs. Our results indicated that C. medinalis eggs were acceptable to T. japonicum, T. chilonis, T. dendrolimi, and T. ostriniae, though no eggs were parasitized at 36 °C. There were no significant differences in parasitism among the four Trichogramma species under the tested temperature regions, except at 20 °C where parasitism by T. japonicum was significantly higher than that by T. chilonis and T. ostriniae. However, T. japonicum had significantly more progeny than the other three Trichogramma species at 32 °C. All four Trichogramma species performed well on 1-, 2-, and 3-d-old C. medinalis eggs, but parasitism on 4-d-old eggs was significantly reduced. Trichogramma japonicum parasitized the highest number of C. medinalis eggs on different aged hosts and had more progeny than the other Trichogramma species, especially on 3-d-old hosts. In conclusion, T. japonicum exhibited better performance on C. medinalis eggs than the other three Trichogramma species and could be considered as our most suitable Trichogramma candidate for control of C. medinalis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-08
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox108
  • Cold Disinfestation of “Hass” Avocado ( Persia americana ) of Three
           Species of Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)— Ceratitis capitata ,
           Ceratitis rosa , and Ceratitis cosyra
    • Authors: Ware AB; du Toit CN.
      First page: 954
      Abstract: The avocado industry is important in South Africa, but access to certain markets is impeded by the presence of phytosanitary pests. One of the ways of securing entry to these markets is to demonstrate that a mitigating treatment will result in there being a negligible chance of accidental importation. In cold treatment comparative studies at 0 °C and 2 °C of immature stages of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis rosa Karsch, and Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) in “Hass” avocado, the third instar of C. cosyra was shown to be the most cold tolerant. This larval life stage was used in a large-scale trial to test treatment efficacy at 2 °C, a temperature known to be the better for fruit quality. There were no survivors from the 49,795 individual fruit fly larvae subjected to the cold treatment at 2 °C for 20 d. It is argued that, although this level of assessment falls short of the Probit 9 level normally required for fruit fly, they are rarely found in avocado fruit and that the level of disinfestation obtained is more than sufficient to achieve quarantine security.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox068
  • Sugar Diet Affects Odor Reception but Variation in Sugar Concentration
           Plays Minimal Role in the Response of the Parasitoid, Microplitis
           croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), to Host-Related Plant Volatiles
    • Authors: Burrows M; Morawo T, Fadamiro H.
      First page: 971
      Abstract: Parasitoids utilize various sugar resources in nature, and rely on odor cues from plants to locate their food and hosts. However, lack of sugar in the diet may negatively impact odor reception in parasitoids, thus affecting foraging efficiency. We used Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval endoparasitoid of Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a model species to test the hypothesis that variation in sugar diet of parasitoids affects their olfactory response to host-related odors. Heliothis virescens is a major pest of cotton and other important crops. Response of female M. croceipes fed different diet treatments (i.e., 40%, 20%, 10%, or 0% sucrose/water solution [w/v]) to select cotton volatiles were tested in electroantennogram (EAG) and Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The following cotton plant odors were tested: cis-3-hexenol, α-pinene, 50/50 v/v binary mixture of cis-3-hexenol and α-pinene, and H. virescens-infested cotton. Sucrose-fed parasitoids showed higher EAG response to the binary mixture and host-infested plant volatile extract, compared with sucrose-starved (0% sucrose) parasitoids. However, there was no significant difference in EAG response of parasitoids to odor treatments among individuals fed 40%, 20%, or 10% sucrose. In a Y-tube olfactometer, female M. croceipes fed 40% sucrose were significantly more attracted to host-infested cotton than to a control (no plant). However, parasitoids were not significantly attracted to other odor stimuli. These results suggest that the availability of sugar diet affects odor reception in M. croceipes but variation in sugar concentration probably plays a minimal role in olfactory response of M. croceipes to host-related odors.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox048
  • Survivorship of Z-Pheromone Race European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera:
           Crambidae) on a Range of Host Plants Varying in Defensive Chemistry
    • Authors: Fisher KE; Mason CE, Flexner J, et al.
      First page: 978
      Abstract: The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), was introduced in North America in the early 1900s and became a major pest of corn. After its introduction, it was found on > 200 other plant hosts, but corn remained its primary host. Early life history studies indicated that European corn borer had the potential of a wide host range. For nearly 80 yr before the introduction of Bt corn, the European corn borer was a major pest of corn in North America. This study investigated the growth and survivorship of the Z-pheromone race European corn borer on a range of hosts that vary in defensive chemistries and historic degree of infestation to better understand the current host plant range of Z-pheromone race of O. nubilalis. The plants tested include sweet corn, cry1F Bt field corn, non-Bt corn, cucumber, tomato, and green bean. Experiments were conducted in the growth chamber, greenhouse, and field to determine survival under different conditions. In most cases, results supported the expected outcome, with significantly higher survival on non-Bt corn hosts than the other hosts tested. Neonate larvae fed exclusively on leaves of green bean exhibited intermediate survival, whereas third-instars fed on only leaves of cucumber survived intermediately. Larvae on Bt corn and tomato had comparable low survival rates, overall suggesting that the defensive features of tomato are about as effective as Cry1F Bt corn. Non-Bt corn was found to be the most suitable host plant, overall for European corn borer among those tested.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox066
  • Flight Performance of Ctenoplusia agnata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    • Authors: Fu X; Zhao S, Li C, et al.
      First page: 986
      Abstract: Ctenoplusia agnata (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive polyphagous pest of cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. The effect of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of C. agnata is crucial for a better understanding of its transregional migration. In this study, the flight performance of C. agnata moths at different ages, temperatures, and relative humidity (RH) levels, was examined by tethering individual moths to computerized flight mills for a 24-h scotophase. The results showed that 1) C. agnata had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was most pronounced in 3-d-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly as the moth got older. 2) For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was most pronounced at 24–28 °C. 3) There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was most pronounced at RH of 60–75%. 4) For 3-d-old moths under the optimum conditions (24 °C and 75% RH) throughout the 24-h scotophase, the total flight distance reached 69.01 ± 2.13 km (females) and 62.15 ± 2.31 km (males), and the total flight duration reached 14.11 ± 0.79 h (females) and 13.08 ± 0.70 h (males), which suggests that C. agnata has a strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox080
  • Evaluation of Food Lures for Capture and Monitoring of Anastrepha
           fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Temperate Fruit Trees
    • Authors: Rosa J; Arioli CJ, Santos J, et al.
      First page: 995
      Abstract: The Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the main pest of fruit trees grown in temperate climates in the southern region of Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the major commercial food lures used in Brazil for trapping and monitoring of A. fraterculus in plum, pear, and feijoa orchards. The assessed lures were hydrolyzed proteins of animal origin (CeraTrap) and plant origin (BioAnastrepha), torula yeast + borax (Torula), and grape juice. Response variables included the rate of adult capture (flies per trap per day, FTD) and the percentage of females captured. We also evaluated the number of times the weekly capture rate exceeded the traditional threshold of 0.5 FTD for each lure. Traps baited with grape juice, currently used for monitoring A. fraterculus in Southern Brazil, captured fewer adults and a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures. CeraTrap trapped a greater number of A. fraterculus adults and, in some cases, a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures in pears. Traps baited with CeraTrap had greater capture rates (FTD), particularly during the stages of fruit maturation and harvest, and even in years with low population density of A. fraterculus, thus demonstrating greater sensitivity in the detection of this pest. These results show that, in order to detect and monitor the presence of A. fraterculus in plum, feijoa, and pear crops, protein-based lures are superior to grape juice, especially the animal protein CeraTrap.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox084
  • Behavioral Response of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera:
           Pentatomidae) to Semiochemicals Deployed Inside and Outside Anthropogenic
           Structures During the Overwintering Period
    • Authors: Morrison WR; III, Acebes-Doria A, Ogburn E, et al.
      First page: 1002
      Abstract: The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive species from Asia capable of causing severe agricultural damage. It can also be a nuisance pest when it enters and exits anthropogenic overwintering sites. In recent years, pheromone lures and traps for H. halys have been developed and used to monitor populations in field studies. To date, no study has investigated the applicability of these monitoring tools for use indoors by building residents during the overwintering period. Herein, we 1) assessed when in late winter (diapause) and spring (postdiapause) H. halys begins to respond to its pheromone (10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol), 2) evaluated whether pheromone-based tools can be used reliably for monitoring H. halys adults in unheated and heated buildings, and 3) elucidated the potential for indoor management using pheromone-baited traps. A 2-yr trapping study suggested that H. halys began to respond reliably to pheromone-baited traps after a critical photoperiod of 13.5 h in the spring. Captures before that point were not correlated with visual counts of bugs in buildings despite robust populations, suggesting currently available pheromone-baited traps were ineffective for surveillance of diapausing H. halys. Finally, because baited traps captured only 8–20% of the adult H. halys known to be present per location, they were not an effective indoor management tool for overwintering H. halys. Our study contributes important knowledge about the capacity of H. halys to perceive its pheromone during overwintering, and the ramifications thereof for building residents with nuisance problems.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox097
  • Cypermethrin Formulation (Ustad-10 EC) Induces Genotoxicity via Apoptosis,
           Affects Nutritional Physiology, and Modulates Immune Response in Silkworm
           Philosamia ricini (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)
    • Authors: Kalita M; Haloi K, Devi D.
      First page: 1010
      Abstract: Cypermethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide with high insecticidal activity, low mammalian toxicity, and biodegradability. The present study aimed to determine the acute toxicity and evaluate the secondary toxic effects of a commercial formulation of cypermethrin on silkworm Philosamia ricini Hutt of Northeast India. The potential genotoxicity of cypermethrin on silkworm hemocyte was examined by comet assay, caspase activation, and annexin V affinity assay. Alteration in nutritional physiology and histoarchitecture of the gut region was evaluated. Additionally, immunotoxicological effect of cypermethrin was studied by phenoloxidase (PO), lysozyme assay, and abundance of circulating hemocytes. The LC50 value at 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-h exposure period was recorded as 185.96, 105.34, 72.42, and 58.41 µg/liter, respectively. Approximately sevenfold increase in mean comet tail length was observed at 24 h posttreatment with sublethal concentrations of cypermethrin. Cypermethrin also induced apoptosis and activated caspase reaction in silkworm hemocytes. Moreover, a significant decrease in digestive enzyme activity was observed at higher concentrations of cypermethrin. In cypermethrin-exposed groups, alteration in histoarchitecture was also observed in the form of ruptured microvilli and thin, deformed, fused mucous layer. The PO enzyme and lysozyme enzyme activity was also altered with sublethal concentration of cypermethrin. Total hemocyte count was reduced to 10587.10, 10052.30, 9234.30, and 8842.60 per mm3 with 10, 20, 30, and 40 µg/liter, respectively. The results offer new insights into the negative consequences of very low concentrations of cypermethrin formulations on nonmulberry silkworm of Northeast India.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox044
  • Separate and Combined Effects of Mentha piperata and Mentha pulegium
           Essential Oils and a Pathogenic Fungus Lecanicillium muscarium Against
           Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    • Authors: Ebadollahi A; Davari M, Razmjou J, et al.
      First page: 1025
      Abstract: In the present study, the toxicity of essential oils of Mentha piperata L. and Mentha pulegium L. and pathogenicity of Lecanicillium muscarium (Zare & Gams) were studied in the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. Analyses of the essential oils by GC–MS indicated limonene (27.28%), menthol (24.71%), menthone (14.01%), and carvol (8.46%) in the M. piperata essential oil and pulegone (73.44%), piperitenone (5.49%), decane (4.99%), and limonene (3.07%) in the essential oil of M. pulegium as the main components. Both essential oils and the pathogenic fungus had useful toxicity against A. gossypii. Probit analysis indicated LC50 values (lethal concentrations to kill 50% of population; 95% confidence limits in parentheses) of M. piperata and M. pulegium essential oils as 15.25 (12.25–19.56) and 23.13 (19.27–28.42) µl/liter air, respectively. Susceptibility to the pathogenic fungus increased with exposure time. Aphid mortality also increased when the essential oils were combined with L. muscarium, although the phenomena was additive rather than synergistic. Mycelial growth inhibition of L. muscarium exposed to the essential oils was also very low. Based on our results, M. piperata and M. pulegium essential oils and the pathogenic fungus L. muscarium have some potential for management of A. gossypii.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox065
  • Susceptibility of MED-Q1 and MED-Q3 Biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera:
           Aleyrodidae) Populations to Essential and Seed Oils
    • Authors: Samuel Fogné D; Olivier G, Bassolé IN, et al.
      First page: 1031
      Abstract: Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of many agricultural and ornamental crops in tropical and subtropical regions causing damages that result in important economic losses. Insecticides are commonly used in greenhouses or fields to control B. tabaci populations leading to rapid evolution of resistance that render treatments inefficient. Therefore, and for environmental and human health concerns, other approaches must be developed for this pest management. In the present study, we compare, using the leaf dip method, the toxicity of three essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum, and Hyptis spicigera) and three seed oils (Lannea microcarpa, Lannea acida, and Carapa procera) with three chemical insecticides (acetamiprid, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) on adults. Two B. tabaci biotypes (MED-Q1 and MED-Q3) belonging to the Mediterranean species and collected in Burkina Faso were used. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–flame ionization detector. We showed that these two biotypes have different levels of resistance to the three insecticides, MED-Q3 being more sensitive than MED-Q1. Moreover, they differ in the frequency of resistance alleles to insecticides, especially for organophosphates, as these alleles are almost fixed in MED-Q1. On the other hand, the two biotypes prove to be more susceptible to the plant extracts than to insecticides except for chlorpyrifos-ethyl, with essential oils that showed the highest insecticidal activities. Monoterpenes content were the most abundant and showed the highest insecticidal activities. Our results indicated that essential oils, but also seed oils, have the potential to constitute an alternative strategy of pest management.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox100
  • Effectiveness of Microbial and Chemical Insecticides for Supplemental
           Control of Bollworm on Bt and Non-Bt Cottons
    • Authors: Little NS; Luttrell RG, Allen KC, et al.
      First page: 1039
      Abstract: Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of microbial and chemical insecticides for supplemental control of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on non-Bt (DP1441RF) and Bt (DP1321B2RF) cottons. Neonate and 3rd instar larvae survival was evaluated on leaf tissue treated with microbial and chemical insecticides including a commercial formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel), a Heliothis (Helicoverpa) nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV; Gemstar), λ-cyhalothrin (Karate Z), and chlorantraniliprole (Prevathon). Residual activity of insecticides was measured in a small plot field experiment. The performance of microbial insecticides, with the exception of a mid-rate of Dipel with neonate larvae, was comparable with that of chemical treatments on non-Bt cotton leaves with regard to 1st and 3rd instar bollworm mortality at 10 d and pupal eclosion at 20-d post treatment. Production-level field evaluations of supplemental bollworm control in non-Bt and Bt cottons with NPV, λ-cyhalothrin, and chlorantraniliprole were also conducted. During both years of the field study, all chemical and microbial treatments were successful in suppressing bollworm larval densities in non-Bt cotton below economic threshold levels. Overall, net returns above bollworm control, regardless of treatment, were negatively correlated with larval abundance and plant damage. In addition, there was no economic benefit for supplemental control of bollworms in Bt cotton at the larval densities observed during this study. These data provide benchmark comparisons for insect resistance management with microbial and chemical insecticides in Bt and non-Bt cottons and strategic optimization of the need to spray non-Bt and Bt cotton in IRM programs.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tow323
  • Application of Pheromone Traps for Managing Hessian Fly (Diptera:
           Cecidomyiidae) in the Southern Great Plains
    • Authors: Knutson AE; Giles KL, Royer TA, et al.
      First page: 1052
      Abstract: The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say, is an important pest of winter wheat in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. As larvae feed behind the leaf sheath, infestations often go undetected until crop damage is evident, and there are no remedial actions that can prevent economic loss once a field is infested. The recent discovery of the sex-attractant pheromone of the Hessian fly provides an opportunity to use pheromone traps to detect and monitor adult activity and potentially better manage this pest. Adult male Hessian fly activity was monitored during 4 yr at six locations from northcentral Oklahoma, 36° N latitude, south to central Texas, 31° N latitude. In Oklahoma, trap captures were low in the fall, no flies were captured during the winter, and the largest number of flies was captured in the spring. However, in southcentral Texas, adults were captured throughout the fall, winter, and in the spring when trap captures were again the greatest. The relationship between trap captures and density of Hessian fly larvae per tiller was investigated during the fall and spring. Although large numbers of adults (>100 per trap per day) were often captured, economic infestation of larvae rarely developed. Results identify optimum times for field sampling to determine immature Hessian fly infestations in wheat in Oklahoma and Texas.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox088
  • Field Trial Performance of Herculex XTRA (Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) and SmartStax
           (Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 + Cry3Bb1) Hybrids and Soil Insecticides Against
           Western and Northern Corn Rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
    • Authors: Johnson KD; Campbell LA, Lepping MD, et al.
      First page: 1062
      Abstract: Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are important insect pests in corn, Zea mays L. For more than a decade, growers have been using transgenic plants expressing proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to protect corn roots from feeding. In 2011, western corn rootworm populations were reported to have developed resistance to Bt hybrids expressing Cry3Bb1 and later found to be cross-resistant to hybrids expressing mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab. The identification of resistance to Cry3 (Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, and eCry3.1Ab) hybrids led to concerns about durability and efficacy of products with single traits and of products containing a pyramid of a Cry3 protein and the binary Bt proteins Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1. From 2012 to 2014, 43 field trials were conducted across the central United States to estimate root protection provided by plants expressing Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 alone (Herculex RW) or pyramided with Cry3Bb1 (SmartStax). These technologies were evaluated with and without soil-applied insecticides to determine if additional management measures provided benefit where Cry3 performance was reduced. Trials were categorized for analysis based on rootworm damage levels on Cry3-expressing hybrids and rootworm feeding pressure within each trial. Across scenarios, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 hybrids provided excellent root protection. Pyramided traits provided greater root and yield protection than non-Bt plus a soil-applied insecticide, and only in trials where larval feeding pressure exceeded two nodes of damage did Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 single-trait hybrids and pyramided hybrids show greater root protection from the addition of soil-applied insecticides.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox099
  • Assessing Flight Potential of the Invasive Asian Longhorned Beetle
           (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) With Computerized Flight Mills
    • Authors: Lopez VM; Hoddle MS, Francese JA, et al.
      First page: 1070
      Abstract: The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae), is an invasive woodborer that poses a serious threat to urban and natural landscapes. In North America, this beetle is a quarantine pest, and populations are subject to eradication efforts that consist of the identification, removal, and destruction of infested host material, and removal or prophylactic treatment of high-risk host plant species. To enhance Asian longhorned beetle eradication protocols in landscapes with extensive host availability, we assessed the dispersal potential of male and female adults of varying age, mating, and nutritional status using computerized flight mills. In total, 162 individuals were tethered to computerized flight mills for a 24-h trial period to collect information on total distance flown, flight times and velocities, and number and duration of flight bouts. Adult Asian longhorned beetles (in all treatments) flew an average of 2,272 m within a 24-h period, but are capable of flying up to 13,667 m (8.5 miles). Nutrition and age had the greatest impacts on flight, with Asian longhorned beetle adults >5 d of age that had fed having greater overall flight performance than any other group. However, mating status, sex, and body size (pre-flight weight and elytron length) had a minimal effect on flight performance. This information will be useful for refining quarantine zones surrounding areas of infestation, and for providing greater specificity as to the risk the Asian longhorned beetle poses within invaded regions.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox046
  • First Report of Mating Disruption With an Aggregation Pheromone: A Case
           Study With Tetropium fuscum (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
    • Authors: Sweeney J; Silk PJ, Rhainds M, et al.
      First page: 1078
      Abstract: Tetropium fuscum (F.), native to Europe and established in Nova Scotia, Canada, since at least 1990, is considered a low-to-moderate threat to spruce (Picea spp.) forests in North America and regulated as a quarantine pest by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. We tested broadcast applications of the aggregation pheromone racemic (5E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-ol (fuscumol), formulated at 10% concentration in Hercon Bio-Flakes (Hercon International, Emigsville, PA), for efficacy in disrupting T. fuscum mating and suppressing populations. Two applications of 2.5–2.75 kg Bio-Flakes (250–275 g a.i.) per ha per season significantly reduced trap catches and mating success (2009, 2010, 2012): about 30% of females trapped in treated plots had mated compared with 60% of females trapped in untreated plots. Similar reductions in mating success were observed in 2011 with one or two 4.5 kg/ha applications of Bio-Flakes. Mean densities of T. fuscum colonizing sentinel bait logs or girdled trees were 36% lower in pheromone-treated plots than in untreated plots, but the difference was not statistically significant. Lack of population suppression may have been because mated females immigrated into treated plots or because populations were so high that despite a 50% reduction in mating success, absolute numbers of mated females were sufficient to infest our bait logs or trees. This is the first demonstration of insect mating disruption via broadcast application of an aggregation pheromone. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption has potential to slow the spread of invasive cerambycids by targeting low-density outlier populations near or beyond the leading edge of an infestation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tow308
  • Evaluation of Pheromone Trap Devices for the Capture of Thaumetopoea
           pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) in Southern Europe
    • Authors: Athanassiou CG; Kavallieratos NG, Pardo D, et al.
      First page: 1087
      Abstract: The development of reliable monitoring techniques can offer valuable sources of knowledge on the control of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Nevertheless, there is a knowledge gap on the simultaneous large-scale monitoring of T. pityocampa male adult population by using novel trap devices. Thus, the influence of type of trap device on the capture of male adults of T. pityocampa was evaluated in four areas with pine trees in southern Europe; two in Greece (Thessaly and Attica), one in Italy (Molise), and one in Spain (Valencia). Six different novel trap devices, i.e., Prototype 1, Prototype 2, Prototype 3, Prototype 4, Prototype 5, and Prototype 6, were tested during 2015 between July and November. In general, the male adult catches lasted longer in the two sites of Greece compared with Molise and Valencia. Hence, in Thessaly, captures started in early August and remained at high levels until late September. In Attica, captures started in mid-August and lasted until early November. In contrast, for both Molise and Valencia, most of the male adults were captured in August, while male adult catches were recorded until September. From the trap devices tested, Prototype 1 was found superior than the other devices, regardless of the area, with the exception of Valencia, where there were no differences in the overall captures among Prototype 1, Prototype 5, and Prototype 6. In most of the combinations tested, there was a positive and significant correlation among captures of T. pityocampa in pairs of different trap devices, indicating that most of them gave similar population fluctuations. Our results suggest that Prototype 1 should be selected for the monitoring of T. pityocampa male adult population.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox050
  • Optimizing Use of Girdled Ash Trees for Management of Low-Density Emerald
           Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Populations
    • Authors: Siegert NW; McCullough DG, Poland TM, et al.
      First page: 1096
      Abstract: Effective survey methods to detect and monitor recently established, low-density infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), remain a high priority because they provide land managers and property owners with time to implement tactics to slow emerald ash borer population growth and the progression of ash mortality. We evaluated options for using girdled ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees for emerald ash borer detection and management in a low-density infestation in a forested area with abundant green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Across replicated 4-ha plots, we compared detection efficiency of 4 versus 16 evenly distributed girdled ash trees and between clusters of 3 versus 12 girdled trees. We also examined within-tree larval distribution in 208 girdled and nongirdled trees and assessed adult emerald ash borer emergence from detection trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site. Overall, current-year larvae were present in 85–97% of girdled trees and 57–72% of nongirdled trees, and larval density was 2–5 times greater on girdled than nongirdled trees. Low-density emerald ash borer infestations were readily detected with four girdled trees per 4-ha, and 3-tree clusters were as effective as 12-tree clusters. Larval densities were greatest 0.5 ± 0.4 m below the base of the canopy in girdled trees and 1.3 ± 0.7 m above the canopy base in nongirdled trees. Relatively few adult emerald ash borer emerged from trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site through the following summer, suggesting removal or destruction of girdled ash trees may be unnecessary. This could potentially reduce survey costs, particularly in forested areas with poor accessibility.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox092
  • Development of Microsatellites for Population Genetic Analyses of the
           Granulate Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    • Authors: Husseneder C; Park J, Werle CT, et al.
      First page: 1107
      Abstract: Limited male dispersal and local mating in ambrosia beetles are expected to result in extreme inbreeding and highly structured populations. In this study, we developed microsatellite markers for the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), for use in future studies into population and family structure of this invasive pest species. We employed de novo next-generation sequencing to generate whole genome shotgun sequences for the characterization of microsatellite loci. Approximately 6% of the 84,024 contigs generated from Hi-Seq Illumina 2x250bp sequencing contained microsatellites with at least four repeats of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexamers. Primers were synthesized for 40 microsatellite loci with trimer repeat units. Twenty-four primer pairs yielded consistent PCR products of unique loci and were validated for population genetic application using three sample groups each containing 20 X. crassiusculus individuals from Mississippi. Thirteen loci were found to be polymorphic with up to five alleles per population. The two beetle sample groups from Pearl River County (Poplarville and McNeill) belonged genetically to the same population. The population from Lamar County (Purvis) was genetically distinct, separated by a moderate genetic distance (FST = 0.11) and five unique alleles (with >5% frequency). Consistent with the perceived mating structure (incest of females with flightless males), the populations showed homozygote excess at most loci, as indicated by the coefficients of inbreeding (FIT = 0.45 and FIS = 0.37) and high mean relatedness among individuals (r = 0.15).
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox094
  • Control of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) With Allyl
           Isothiocyanate Under Field and Greenhouse Conditions
    • Authors: Shi C; Hu J, Xie W, et al.
      First page: 1127
      Abstract: The botanical compound allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is toxic to many microorganisms and insects. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of AITC on the Bradysia odoriphaga Yang et Zhang (Diptera: Sciaridae) and the seeds and seedlings of the Chinese chive. Allyl isothiocyanate was toxic to all four developmental stages of B. odoriphaga. The adult was significantly more sensitive to AITC than the other three stages, which exhibited no significant differences to one another in sensitivity to the chemical. The control efficacy of AITC against B. odoriphaga was far superior in the greenhouse than the field. In addition, seedling survival was higher in the greenhouse compared with that in the field. In the absence of B. odoriphaga, seed germination and seedling growth of Chinese chives were inhibited by 16 µl/liter of AITC, and significant inhibition occurred under higher doses of AITC. These results indicate that AITC could be used to control B. odoriphaga during cultivation of Chinese chives.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tow303
  • Oecophylla longinoda (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Lead to Increased Cashew
           Kernel Size and Kernel Quality
    • Authors: Anato FM; Sinzogan AC, Offenberg JJ, et al.
      First page: 1133
      Abstract: Weaver ants, Oecophylla spp., are known to positively affect cashew, Anacardium occidentale L., raw nut yield, but their effects on the kernels have not been reported. We compared nut size and the proportion of marketable kernels between raw nuts collected from trees with and without ants. Raw nuts collected from trees with weaver ants were 2.9% larger than nuts from control trees (i.e., without weaver ants), leading to 14% higher proportion of marketable kernels. On trees with ants, the kernel: raw nut ratio from nuts damaged by formic acid was 4.8% lower compared with nondamaged nuts from the same trees. Weaver ants provided three benefits to cashew production by increasing yields, yielding larger nuts, and by producing greater proportions of marketable kernel mass.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox054
  • Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Some Chemical and Biological Insecticides
           on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Eggs and Neonates
    • Authors: Nozad-Bonab ZZ; Hejazi MJ, Iranipour Sh, et al.
      First page: 1138
      Abstract: Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is one of the serious pests of tomatoes. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of some chemical and biological insecticides on T. absoluta. The insecticides tested were diazinon, dichlorvos, chlorantraniliprole, deltamethrin, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, spinosad, abamectin, indoxacarb, Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin. Sublethal effects for the most effective insecticides tested, namely, abamectin, spinosad, chlorantraniliprole, and indoxacarb were assessed, and life table parameters were calculated. Chlorantraniliprole had the highest lethal effect on T. absoluta followed by spinosad, abamectin, and indoxacarb. On the other hand, imidacloprid was not considerably effective on T. absoluta eggs. Metarhizium anisopliae was 11 and 518 times more effective on the eggs and newly hatched larvae than B. bassiana and B. thuringiensis, respectively. Chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, abamectin, and indoxacarb affected life table parameters of T. absoluta significantly (α = 0.05). Spinosad had the highest sublethal effect on T. absoluta followed by abamectin, chlorantraniliprole, and indoxacarb. The results revealed that chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, abamectin, and indoxacarb had considerable lethal and sublethal effects on T. absoluta, and if they perform similarly in commercial greenhouses and fields, they would be suitable candidates to be considered in IPM programs for this pest.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox079
  • Interspecific Competition Between Ceratitis capitata and Two Bactrocera
           Spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) Evaluated via Adult Behavioral Interference
           Under Laboratory Conditions
    • Authors: Liu H; Zhang C, Hou B, et al.
      First page: 1145
      Abstract: The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is considered one of the most invasive tephritid species. It has spread and established populations successfully throughout many of the tropical temperate regions, partially owing to the increase in global trading activity that facilitates diffusion of species. However, C. capitata has never been detected in China, even though some areas of the country have favorable climate and ample food resources. Historically, some researchers have hypothesized that the principal reasons for its absence are the defenses mounted by native Bactrocera species against C. capitata. We evaluated the modes and strengths of interspecific competition between C. capitata and two Bactrocera species (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel and Bactrocera correcta Bezzi) by conducting experiments on behavioral interference between the adults of these fruit fly species. Under appropriate conditions, the two Bactrocera species showed a distinct advantage in competition for oviposition, noticeably suppressing C. capitata. Although no mating interference between C. capitata and the two Bactrocera species was observed, the role of interference competition in the prevention of C. capitata invasion is still worthy of being discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox083
  • Evaluation of Attractants for Monitoring Drosophila suzukii (Diptera:
    • Authors: Frewin AJ; Renkema J, Fraser H, et al.
      First page: 1156
      Abstract: Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is an economically important pest of soft and small fruit crops. Unlike other drosophilid flies, D. suzukii is capable of infesting ripe and partially ripe fruit, which poses a significant pest management challenge, as there is no tolerance for infested or damaged fruit in the marketplace. As a result, producers in many regions rely on calendar-scheduled insecticide applications for D. suzukii management. In order to develop an integrated pest management approach, better tools for monitoring adult fly populations are needed. Over two growing seasons in southern Ontario, we evaluated three commercial (Pherocon SWD dual-lure, Suzukii Trap, and Scentry Lure) and two homemade baits (apple cider vinegar and yeast + sugar water) for their ability to capture D. suzukii in raspberry and highbush blueberry fields. In general, commercial attractants captured D. suzukii earlier in the growing season and in greater numbers, with fewer nontarget captures, compared with homemade baits. Scentry Lure tended to perform better than other attractants, capturing D. suzukii earlier and in larger numbers during peak harvest. Pherocon SWD dual-lure was highly specific to D. suzukii. The combination of Scentry Lure with Suzukii Trap had possible synergistic effects, as numbers of D. suzukii captured to the combined treatment were more than additive. Using commercial attractants improves D. suzukii monitoring and will allow growers to improve the timing of insecticide applications with D. suzukii activity in the field.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox081
  • Efficacy and Mode of Action of Kaolin in the Control of Empoasca vitis and
           Zygina rhamni (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Vineyards
    • Authors: Tacoli F; Pavan F, Cargnus E, et al.
      First page: 1164
      Abstract: During 2015, the influence of kaolin applications and bunch-zone leaf removal on the grapevine leafhoppers, Empoasca vitis (Göthe) and Zygina rhamni Ferrari, and their egg parasitoids (Anagrus spp.) was tested in four vineyards of northeastern Italy. The mode of action of kaolin on E. vitis nymphs was also investigated in the laboratory. In the treated plots, kaolin was applied at a rate of 2% w/v on two occasions separated by 5–6 d. In two vineyards, it was applied either on the whole canopy or the bunch zone at the beginning of the E. vitis second generation (preventive criterion), and in the other two vineyards, it was applied to the whole canopy at the peak of the E. vitis third generation (curative criterion). Both the preventive and curative kaolin applications caused a significant decrease in the populations of E. vitis and Z. rhamni nymphs. The effect of the preventive applications was persistent and was associated with reduced E. vitis leaf symptoms. Kaolin did not influence the activity of Anagrus spp. Bunch-zone leaf removal did not affect leafhopper populations. Laboratory experiments showed that inhibition of feeding was the main mode of action through which kaolin affected nymph populations. Based on these outcomes, kaolin could be a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides in controlling grapevine leafhoppers.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox105
  • Differences in Climbing Ability of Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus
           (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)
    • Authors: Kim D; Billen J, Doggett SL, et al.
      First page: 1179
      Abstract: The climbing abilities of two bed bug species, Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.), were determined by evaluating their escape rates from smooth surface pitfall traps using four commercial bed bug monitors (Verifi Bed Bug Detector, ClimbUp Insect Interceptor, BlackOut Bed Bug Detector, and SenSci Volcano Bed Bug Detector). All detectors were used in the absence of lures or attractants. Unlike C. lectularius, adult C. hemipterus were able to escape from all traps. On the other hand, no or a low number nymphs of both species escaped, depending on the evaluated traps. Examination of the vertical friction force of adults of both species revealed a higher vertical friction force in C. hemipterus than in C. lectularius. Scanning electron microscope micrograph observation on the tibial pad of adult bed bugs of C. hemipterus showed the presence of a greater number of tenent hairs on the tibial pad than on that of adult C. lectularius. No tibial pad was found on the fourth and fifth instars of both species. Near the base of the hollow tenent hairs is a glandular epithelium that is better developed in adult C. hemipterus than in adult C. lectularius. This study highlights significant morphological differences between C. lectularius and C. hemipterus, which may have implications in the monitoring and management of bed bug infestations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox039
  • Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Detection in Low-Income, High-Rise
           Apartments Using Four or Fewer Passive Monitors
    • Authors: Vail KM; Chandler JG.
      First page: 1187
      Abstract: Bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., management in low-income, high-rise housing for the elderly and disabled can be difficult. Early detection is key to slowing their spread, and reducing management cost and time needed for control. To determine the minimum number of passive monitors needed to detect low-level bed bug infestations in this environment, we evaluated three monitors placed one, two, or four per apartment in a 3 by 3 experimental design. One sticky monitor, The Bedbug Detection System, and the two pitfall monitors, ClimbUp Insect Interceptors BG and BlackOut BedBug Detectors, were evaluated. Bed bugs were trapped by the ClimbUp Insect Interceptors BG and the BlackOut BedBug Detector in 88% and 79% of apartments, respectively, but only in 39% of the apartments monitored with The Bedbug Detection System. The Bedbug Detection System required significantly longer time to detect bed bugs than either the ClimbUp Insect Interceptor BG or the BlackOut BedBug Detector. With the less effective Bedbug Detection System data removed from analyses, detection rates ranged from 80 to 90%, with no significant differences among one, two, or four monitors per apartment. Results indicate it is especially important to include a bed placement when only placing a few monitors. Future work should compare the combination of cursory visual inspections with various monitor numbers and placements per apartment to determine the most efficient, cost-effective system that will be accepted and implemented in low-income housing.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox053
  • Detection of Reduced Susceptibility to Chlorfenapyr- and
           Bifenthrin-Containing Products in Field Populations of the Bed Bug
           (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)
    • Authors: Ashbrook AR; Scharf ME, Bennett GW, et al.
      First page: 1195
      Abstract: Insecticide resistance is a major impediment for effective control of Cimex lectularius L. Previous resistance detection studies with bed bugs have focused on certain pyrethroid, neonicotinoid, organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbamate insecticides. Within the pyrethroid class, resistance studies have mostly been limited to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and alpha- and beta-cyfluthrin. The goal of this study was to develop diagnostic concentration bioassays for assessing bed bug susceptibility levels to chlorfenapyr- and bifenthrin-containing products. First, glass vial and filter paper bioassay methods were compared for their utility in susceptibility monitoring. Statistical comparison of toxicity data between bioassays indicated that the vial assay was less confounded by assay susbtrate effects, required less insecticide, and was faster, especially for chlorfenapyr. Next, using vial diagnostic concentrations (LC99) for each insecticide, 10 laboratory-adapted field strains and the Harlan lab-susceptible strain were screened for susceptibility to chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin. The results of this study reveal recent bed bug susceptibility levels to certain chlorfenapyr- and bifenthrin-containing products. Reduced susceptibility was detected in three and five field strains to chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin, respectively. Detection of reduced susceptibility suggests that certain strains may be segregating toward greater chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin resistance. These results merit continuous resistance monitoring efforts to detect chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin susceptibility shifts. Additionally, to reduce insecticide selection pressures and delay resistance development, adoption of integrated bed bug control strategies that combine chemical and nonchemical methods is recommended.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox070
  • Insecticide Resistance of Several Field-Collected German Cockroach
           (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) Strains
    • Authors: Wu X; Appel AG.
      First page: 1203
      Abstract: German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), remain one of the most difficult indoor insect species to control because of its ability to develop resistance to insecticides. The toxicity and resistance levels of five technical-grade insecticides (permethrin, chlorpyrifos, propoxur, imidacloprid, and fipronil) were determined for adult males of seven strains of the German cockroach, a laboratory-reared susceptible strain (S) and six field-collected strains (B, D, E, G, H, and I). Using topical application methods, fipronil was the most toxic insecticide to all seven strains. The LD50 values of fipronil in the susceptible strain (S) and the field-collected strains B, D, E, G, H, and I were 1.33, 2.62, 11.53, 5.07, 7.66, 5.15, and 10.15 ng/insect, respectively. The field-collected strains were most resistant to permethrin among the five insecticides, except for strain H. The resistance ratios of strains B, D, E, G, and I to permethrin were 31.8, 37.3, 51.9, 34.9, and 37.5, respectively. With a resistance ratio of 6.4, the field-collected strain H was most resistant to chlorpyrifos. The field-collected strains were not significantly resistant to propoxur. Strains B, H, and I were not significantly resistant to imidacloprid when compared with the susceptible strain. Based on the different resistance ratios for each insecticide, we conclude that there are high rates of insecticide resistance in German cockroaches from Franklin County, NC, and that the field-collected strains most likely had different treatment histories.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox072
  • Development of Diagnostic Insecticide Concentrations and Assessment of
           Insecticide Susceptibility in German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)
           Field Strains Collected From Public Housing
    • Authors: Fardisi M; Gondhalekar AD, Scharf ME.
      First page: 1210
      Abstract: Insecticide resistance in German cockroaches (Blattella germanica (L.)) has been a barrier to effective control since its first documentation in the 1950s. A necessary first step toward managing resistance is to understand insecticide susceptibility profiles in field-collected strains so that active ingredients (AIs) with lowest resistance levels can be identified. As a first step in this study, diagnostic concentrations (DCs) were determined for 14 insecticide AIs based on lethal concentrations that killed 99% or 90% of the individuals from a susceptible lab strain (JWax-S). Next, cockroaches were collected from two low-income multifamily housing complexes in Danville, IL, and Indianapolis, IN, and used to establish laboratory strains. These strains were screened against the 14 AI-DCs in vial bioassays, and susceptibility profiles were determined by comparing percent mortalities between the field strains relative to the JWax-S strain. Results revealed lowest resistance of field strains to boric acid, abamectin, dinotefuran, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and chlorfenapyr. For the AIs hydramethylnon and imidacloprid, field strains did not display survivorship different than the lab strain, but >90% mortality was never achieved. Lastly, both field strains displayed resistance to indoxacarb, fipronil, acetamiprid, beta-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, but at varying levels. These results satisfy two objectives. First, baseline monitoring DCs were established for 14 insecticides presently registered for use against cockroaches, which represents a useful resource. Second, our findings reveal insecticide AIs with lowest resistance levels for use in forthcoming field studies that will investigate impacts of different insecticide deployment strategies on resistance management and evolution in cockroach field populations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox076
  • Evaluation of the Potential for Secondary Kill for Ingested Insecticides
           in the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)
    • Authors: Matos YK; Sierras A, Schal C.
      First page: 1218
      Abstract: Baits are a preferred method of urban pest management. Baits enable more targeted insecticide applications with a fraction of the active ingredient used in residual sprays. Bait translocation by foragers, and consequent secondary kill of nonforagers, enhances bait effectiveness in social insects, and in other group-living species like German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.). We investigated the potential for secondary kill in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.), another gregarious species, using a liquid bait. We first investigated whether blood-fed adults enhance nymph survivorship within aggregations by increasing the local relative humidity (RH) and providing fecal nutrients. Higher RH (50% and 95%) resulted in greater survivorship of first instars compared with 0% RH. Therefore, in subsequent experiments, we controlled RH to decouple its effect on nymph survivorship from effects of fecal nutrients. The presence of fed or unfed adults did not increase unfed first instar survivorship, suggesting that if nymphs ingested feces, its nutritional benefits were minimal. Nymph survivorship was unaffected by the presence of adult males fed fipronil or clothianidin, suggesting that unlike in cockroaches, highly effective insecticides might not be effective as secondary kill toxicants in bed bugs. To directly compare secondary kill in first-instar bed bugs and B. germanica, we exposed both to insecticide-laden adult B. germanica feces. Whereas first-instar B. germanica died in the presence of insecticide-laden feces, bed bugs did not. We, therefore, conclude that secondary kill with neuroactive insecticides will likely not be a significant factor in bed bug population suppression.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox082
  • Spirotetramat Resistance Selected in the Phenacoccus solenopsis
           (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): Cross-Resistance Patterns, Stability, and
           Fitness Costs Analysis
    • Authors: Ejaz M; Ali Shad S.
      First page: 1226
      Abstract: The Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a major agricultural and horticultural pest of crops throughout the world. To develop a better resistance management strategy for P. solenopsis, we conducted a study on life history parameters of different populations of this pest, one selected with spirotetramat (Spiro-SEL), an unselected (UNSEL) population, and their reciprocal crosses. We also studied the cross-resistance and the stability of spirotetramat resistance. The Spiro-SEL of P. solenopsis exhibited a 328.69-fold resistance compared to the susceptible population (Lab-PK). The Spiro-SEL population also displayed a moderate level of cross-resistance to profenofos and bifenthrin and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin. Resistance to spirotetramat in Spiro-SEL was unstable in the absence of selection. The study of life history parameters showed that there was a significant reduction in fitness parameters of Spiro-SEL population with a relative fitness value of 0.14. There was a significant decrease in survival rate, pupal weight, fecundity, egg hatching percentage, male and female generation time, intrinsic rate of population increase of males and females, biotic potential, and mean relative growth rate. It is concluded that selection with spirotetramat had marked effect on resistance development in P. solenopsis and upon removal of selection pressure spirotetramat resistance declined significantly, indicating unstable resistance. Development of resistance led to high fitness costs for the spirotetramat-selected population. Our study may provide the basic information on spirotetramat resistance and its mechanism to help develop the resistance management strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox045
  • Field-Evolved Resistance of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to
           Carbodiimide and Neonicotinoids in Pakistan
    • Authors: Ahmad M; Khan RA.
      First page: 1235
      Abstract: The evolution of resistance to carbodiimide (a toxic metabolite of diafenthiuron) and four neonicotinoids imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and thiacloprid in the Pakistani populations of sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) was monitored from 1996 to 2015 using a leaf-dip bioassay. Diafenthiuron, imidacloprid, and acetamiprid were introduced into Pakistani agriculture in mid-1990s and heavily used since then, because B. tabaci resistance and consequently control failures to conventional insecticides such as organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids were widespread during the 1990s. According to the current studies, resistance to carbodiimide, imidacloprid, and acetamiprid during 1996–2010 and to thiamethoxam during 1999–2007 remained very low, but then it rose sharply, and by the year 2015, the B. tabaci resistance increased to very high levels. Among neonicotinoids, thiacloprid was the latest introduction in Pakistan in 2002. There was no thiacloprid resistance in 2002 and 2003, a low to moderate resistance during 2004–2006, and a very high resistance during 2007–2010 that even exceeded resistance to previous neonicotinoids. We may conclude that diafenthiuron and neonicotinoids remained effective against B. tabaci for 15 yr following their intensive use under field conditions, before a significant resistance, leading to their field failures, occurred in Pakistan.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox058
  • Nitrogen Rate Effects on Cry3Bb1 and Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1 Expression in
           Transgenic Corn Roots, Resulting Root Injury, and Corn Rootworm Beetle
    • Authors: Leaf TM; Ostlie KR.
      First page: 1243
      Abstract: Nitrogen (N) application rates have been recommended historically for maximum economic yield of corn (Zea mays L.), but not for optimal expression or impacts of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner) Cry protein(s) on target insects. This study explored the need to adjust N rates to optimize expression of corn rootworm-active Bt (Bt-RW) protein(s) in a single and a pyramided trait hybrid and resulting impacts on beetle emergence and root injury, under field conditions. The experiment featured a factorial treatment arrangement in a split-plot randomized complete block design with six N rates as the main plots and three hybrids (MON88017 expressing Cry3Bb1, MON88017 x DAS-59122 expressing Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1, and a non-Bt-RW hybrid) as the subplots. Corn roots were sampled at the beginning of, and after, peak larval feeding to determine Bt-expression levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Beetles were collected every 2–3 d during emergence using cut-plant emergence cages. Cry3Bb1 expression was significantly reduced when little or no N was applied. Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 expression was highly variable and unaffected by N rate. Beetle emergence increased with N rate in the non-Bt-RW hybrid while root injury declined. Provided Bt-RW hybrids had sufficient applied N, root injury was relatively low. Results indicate that N management could affect Bt-RW expression and success of insect resistance management plans provided N is applied at rates that enhance production of susceptible beetles emerging from the non-Bt-RW (refuge) hybrid, and achieve optimal expression and efficacy of Bt traits.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox078
  • Selection, Realized Heritability, and Fitness Cost Associated With
           Dimethoate Resistance in a Field Population of Culex quinquefasciatus
           (Diptera: Culicidae)
    • Authors: Alam M; Waqas Sumra M, Ahmad D, et al.
      First page: 1252
      Abstract: Mosquitoes are known to be vectors of numerous diseases leading to human morbidity and mortality at large scale in the world. Insecticide resistance has become a serious concern in controlling the insect vectors of public health importance. Dimethoate is an organophosphate insecticide used to control different insect pests including mosquitoes. Biological parameters of susceptible, unselected, and dimethoate-selected strains of Culex quinquefasciatus Say were studied in the laboratory to recognize resistance development potential and associated fitness cost. The dimethoate-selected strain showed 66.48-fold resistance to dimethoate compared with the susceptible strain after three continuous selections of generations. Realized heritability estimates of dimethoate resistance in Cx. quinquefasciatus yielded a value of 0.19. In dimethoate-selected strain, the biological traits including larval weight, survival from first instar to pupae, fecundity, number of next-generation larvae, relative fitness, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and biotic potential were significantly reduced as compared with the unselected strain. However, adult longevity, mean relative growth rate, weight of egg raft, female ratio, pupal duration, and emergence rate of the dimethoate-selected strain did not differ significantly compared with that of the unselected strain. This study provides useful information to devise retrospective management strategy for dimethoate resistance in Cx. quinquefasciatus.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox049
  • Comparative Transcriptomics of Buzura suppressaria (Lepidoptera:
           Geometridae) Assembled De Novo Yield Insights Into Response After Buzura
           suppressaria Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Infection
    • Authors: Luo J; Zhong Y, Zhu J, et al.
      First page: 1259
      Abstract: Buzura suppressaria Guenee (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a defoliator that seriously harms eucalyptus trees in South China. Buzura suppressaria nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BsNPV) is a baculovirus that infects B. suppressaria with high specificity and efficiency. Transcriptomes of B. suppressaria were sequenced before and after BsNPV infection using an Illumina-based platform to probe for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of B. suppressaria after viral infection. On average, ∼57.4 million high-quality clean reads were generated and assembled de novo into 69,761 unigenes. The NCBI nonredundant protein, Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Gene ontology (GO), and Cluster of Orthologous Groups databases were used to annotate unigenes through NCBI BLAST; 33,575 unigenes (48.1%) were then mapped to at least one of these databases, and 4,366 unigenes (6.3%) were mapped to all databases. Differential expression analysis showed that 25,212 unigenes were upregulated and 22,880 unigenes were downregulated in at least one pairwise comparison. Control versus 48 h had more DEGs than other two pairwise comparisons in either the GO or KEGG database, because the number of regulated gene would increase as BsNPV infected more tissues and would decrease as more tissues were disabled. To ascertain B. suppressaria immune response to BsNPV infection, DEGs were annotated to the GO and KEGG databases. In total, 89 GO categories are related to immune response and 1,007 DEGs are annotated to these GO categories. Furthermore, 7 downregulated DEGs and 37 upregulated were obtained simultaneously in all three groups. These DEGs were considered to possess a central role throughout viral infection.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tow298
  • EF-1α DNA Sequences Indicate Multiple Origins of Introduced Populations
           of Essigella californica (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    • Authors: Théry T; Brockerhoff EG, Carnegie AJ, et al.
      First page: 1269
      Abstract: Aphids in the pine-feeding Nearctic genus Essigella (Sternorrhyncha, Aphididae, Lachninae) have been introduced in Europe, North Africa, Oceania, and South America. Mitochondrial, nuclear, and endosymbiont DNA sequences of 12 introduced populations from three continents confirm they all belong to Essigella californica (Essig, 1909). Intron sequence variation of the nuclear gene EF-1α has revealed the existence of four distinct groups. Group I gathers one population from China, where the species is newly reported, and several from Europe (France and Italy); Group II is represented by one population from Argentina; Group III includes two populations from Southern Australia with one from New Zealand; and Group IV corresponds to five populations from Eastern and South-Eastern Australia. These results indicate that introduced populations of E. californica have at least four source populations. They also show that intron variation of EF-1α can be a method to discriminate populations of asexually reproducing aphids.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox026
  • Genetic Population Structure of Dastarcus helophoroides (Coleoptera:
           Bothrideridae) From Different Long-Horned Beetle Hosts Based on Complete
           Sequences of Mitochondrial COI
    • Authors: Zhang Z; Chang Y, Li M.
      First page: 1275
      Abstract: Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) is an important natural enemy of long-horned beetles in China, Japan, and Korea. In this study, the genetic sequence of cytochrome oxidase subunit Ι was used to investigate the genetics and relationships within and among D. helophoroides populations collected from five different geographic locations. We used principal component analysis, heatmap, and Venn diagram results to determine the relationship between haplotypes and populations. In total, 26 haplotypes with 51 nucleotide polymorphic sites were defined, and low genetic diversity was found among the different populations. Significant genetic variations were observed mainly within populations, and no correlation was found between genetic distribution and geographical distance. Low pairwise fixation index values (–0.01424 to 0.04896) and high gene flows show that there was high gene exchange between populations. The codistributed haplotype DH01 was suggested to be the most ancestral haplotype, and other haplotypes were thought to have evolved from it through several mutations. In four of the populations, both common haplotypes (DH01, DH03, and DH22) and unique haplotypes were found. Low genetic diversity among different populations is related to a relatively high flight capacity, host movement, and human-aided dispersal of D. helophoroides. The high gene exchange and typically weak population genetic structure among five populations, especially among populations of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), Monochamus alternatus (Hope), and Massicus raddei (Blessig), may suggest that these populations cross naturally in the field.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox059
  • A Chemosensory Protein Gene Si-CSP1 Associated With Necrophoric Behavior
           in Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
    • Authors: Qiu H; Cheng D.
      First page: 1284
      Abstract: Necrophoric behavior is essential to colony health in social insects. Little is known about the genes that are responsible for necrophoric behavior. Here, we show that a chemosensory protein gene Si-CSP1 was expressed significantly higher in the antennae than in other tissues such as the legs and heads of Solenopsis invicta Buren workers. Furthermore, Si-CSP1-silenced workers moved significantly fewer corpses of their nestmates than normal workers. Finally, Si-CSP1-silenced workers exhibited weaker antennal responses to oleic acid and linoleic acid than controls. These results suggest that Si-CSP1 functions by sensing oleic acid and linoleic acid associated with dead colony members and regulating the necrophoric behavior of workers in S. invicta
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox095
  • Oviposition Preference and Larval Performance of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis
           (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on Rice Genotypes
    • Authors: Liao C; Chen C.
      First page: 1291
      Abstract: Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée is a noxious rice pest during cultivated periods. Cnaphalocrocis medinalis moths lay eggs on leaf surfaces, and larvae longitudinally roll the leaves to hide inside the leaf buds and feed on the upper epidermis and mesophyll tissues. In this study, we evaluated the female oviposition preference and larval performance of C. medinalis on six insect-resistant and six insect-susceptible rice genotypes. Female moth choice and no-choice oviposition preferences were studied. The number of eggs laid on the leaf varies among selected rice genotypes; however, female adults prefer to lay more eggs on both some resistant and susceptible rice genotypes. Furthermore, newly hatched larvae showed no observed differences in preference for both specific resistant and susceptible rice genotypes. The time taken by larvae for leaf selection varied significantly after inoculation on different genotypes at the maximum tillering and heading stages of rice plants. Compared with susceptible genotypes, leaf selection time was prolonged in resistant genotypes. In addition, the time taken for folding primary vegetative and flag leaves by larvae varied among the selected rice genotypes; larvae required more time to fold leaves of resistant than susceptible genotypes. In host antibiosis tests, larval and pupal survival and pupal weight were higher in susceptible than resistant genotypes. The results showed that the time required by larvae for leaf rolling and host antibiosis should be considered as the most crucial factors for rice genotypes resistant to C. medinalis.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox071
  • Isolation of Early-Responsive MicroRNA From Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera:
           Aphididae)-Resistant Wheat
    • Authors: Nicolis V; Greyling S, Venter E.
      First page: 1298
      Abstract: The Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov) is an economically important pest of small grains in many countries. The past decades have seen the deployment of resistance-carrying wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to control D. noxia. However, the emergence of resistance-breaking biotypes is negating this strategy. The role that noncoding RNA (ncRNA) molecules play in the wheat–D. noxia interaction has not been studied to date. This study aimed to isolate differentially regulated microRNA from a resistant and susceptible near-isogenic wheat line after aphid infestation. Twenty-seven identified miRNA were mostly related to stress-linked miRNA, and their predicted targets were linked with known D. noxia-feeding regulated proteins. These included transcription factors, signaling proteins, carbohydrate metabolism, and disease resistance pathways. Gene expression of three putative miRNAs and a predicted nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat gene with an identified miRNA target site in the NB-ARC domain displayed differential regulation between the resistant and susceptible plants. This study marks the initial investigation into understanding the role of ncRNA in a D. noxia-resistant wheat line after infestation and reports a correlation between a miRNA and its putative target for this interaction.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox103
  • Repellent Effects of Different Celery Varieties in Bemisia tabaci
           (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype Q
    • Authors: Tu H; Qin Y.
      First page: 1307
      Abstract: Y-tube olfactometer and net cages experiments were used to investigate the repellent effects of different celery varieties in biotype Q of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae). Y-tube olfactometer tests showed that whiteflies have strong repellent behavior to different celery varieties. Intercropping different celery varieties with cucumbers had significant repellent effects and oviposition deterrent effects in whiteflies. Results obtained demonstrated that the Western Europe celery varieties, Juventus and Ventura, and the Chinese celery variety, Jinnan, had good repellent efficacy against the whitefly. D-Limonene, β-myrcene, and (E)-β-ocimene might be the main active components in celery that affected the selection behavior of B. tabaci. In Western Europe celery varieties, D-limonene was the main volatile component for the repellent effects in B. tabaci; however, the two Chinese celery varieties that showed repellent effects had relatively higher volatilization quantities of β-myrcene than of D-limonene.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox110
  • Predator Preference for Bt-Fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera:
           Noctuidae) Prey: Implications for Insect Resistance Management in Bt Maize
           Seed Blends
    • Authors: Svobodová ZZ; Burkness EC, Skoková Habuštová OO, et al.
      First page: 1317
      Abstract: Understanding indirect, trophic-level effects of genetically engineered plants, expressing insecticidal proteins derived from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), is essential to the ecological risk assessment process. In this study, we examine potential indirect, trophic-level effects of Bt-sensitive prey using the predator, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), feeding upon Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) larvae, which had delayed development (lower body mass) following ingestion of Cry1Ab maize leaves. We found no adverse effects on development and survival when H. axyridis larvae were fed S. frugiperda larvae that had fed on Cry1Ab maize tissue. Presence of Cry1Ab in H. axyridis decreased considerably after switching to another diet within 48 h. In a no-choice assay, H. axyridis larvae consumed more Bt-fed S. frugiperda than non-Bt-fed larvae. Preference for S. frugiperda feeding on Bt maize was confirmed in subsequent choice assays with H. axyridis predation on Bt-fed, 1–5-d-old S. frugiperda larvae. We suggest that H. axyridis preferred prey, not based on whether it had fed on Bt or non-Bt maize, but rather on larval mass, and they compensated for the nutritional deficiency of lighter larvae through increased consumption. Pest larvae with variable levels of resistance developing on Bt diet are often stunted versus sensitive larvae developing on non-Bt diet. It is possible that such larvae may be preferentially removed from local field populations. These results may have implications for insect resistance management and may be played out under field conditions where seed blends of Bt and non-Bt hybrids are planted.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox098
  • Laboratory and Field Age of Aqueous Grape Juice Bait and Capture of
           Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)
    • Authors: Epsky ND; Gill MA.
      First page: 1326
      Abstract: Volatile chemicals produced by actively fermenting aqueous grape juice bait have been found to be highly attractive to the African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta. This is a highly dynamic system and time period of fermentation is an important factor in bait efficacy. A series of field tests were conducted that evaluated effects of laboratory versus field fermentation and sampling period (days after placement [DAP]) on bait effectiveness as the first step in identifying the chemicals responsible for attraction. Tests of traps with bait that had been aged in the laboratory for 0, 3, 6, and 9 d and then sampled 3 DAP found higher capture in traps with 0- and 3-d-old baits than in traps with 6- or 9-d-old baits. To further define the time period that produced the most attractive baits, a subsequent test evaluated baits aged for 0, 2, 4, and 6 d in the laboratory and sampled after 1–4 DAP, with traps sampled and bait discarded at the end of each DAP period. The highest capture was in traps with 4-d-old bait sampled 1 DAP, with the second best capture in traps with 0-d-old bait sampled 3 DAP. However, there tended to be fewer flies as DAP increased, indicating potential loss of identifiable flies owing to decomposition in the actively fermenting solutions. When traps were sampled and bait recycled daily, the highest capture was in 2- and 4-d-old baits sampled 1 DAP and in 0-d-old baits sampled 2–4 DAP. Similar patterns were observed for capture of nontarget drosophilids.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox057
  • A Temperature-Dependent Phenology Model for Liriomyza huidobrensis
           (Diptera: Agromyzidae)
    • Authors: Mujica N; Sporleder M, Carhuapoma P, et al.
      First page: 1333
      Abstract: Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) is an economically important and highly polyphagous worldwide pest. To establish a temperature-dependent phenology model, essential for understanding the development and growth of the pest population under a variety of climates and as part of a pest risk analysis, L. huidobrensis life-table data were collected under laboratory conditions at seven constant temperatures on its host faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Several nonlinear equations were fitted to each life stage to model the temperature-dependent population growth and species life history and finally compile an overall temperature-dependent pest phenology model using the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM) software. Liriomyza huidobrensis completed development from egg to adult in all temperatures evaluated, except at 32 °C, which was lethal to pupae. Eggs did not develop at 35 °C. Mean development time of all immature stages decreased with increasing temperature. Nonlinear models predicted optimal temperature for immature survival between 20–25 °C (32–38% mortality of all immature stages). Life-table parameters simulated at constant temperatures indicated that L. huidobrensis develops within the range of 12–28 °C. Simulated life-table for predicting the population dynamics of L. huidobrensis under two contrasting environments showed that lowland temperatures at the coast of Peru (250 m.a.s.l.) presented better conditions for a potential population increase than highland (3,400 m.a.s.l.) conditions. The presented model linked with Geographic Information Systems will allow pest risk assessments in different environmental regions to support the regulation of pest movement to prevent pest entry into not-yet invaded regions as well as to implement effective management strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox067
  • Large-Scale Evaluation of Association Between Pheromone Trap Captures and
           Cotton Boll Infestation for Pink Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
    • Authors: Carrière Y; Antilla L, Liesner L, et al.
      First page: 1345
      Abstract: Although transgenic cotton producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a cornerstone for pink bollworm control in some countries, integrated pest management remains important for bolstering sustainability of Bt cotton and is critical for controlling pink bollworm where Bt cotton is not available or where this pest has evolved resistance to Bt cotton. Here, we used data on moth captures in gossyplure-baited pheromone traps and boll infestations for 163 Bt and 152 non-Bt cotton fields from Arizona to evaluate accuracy of chemical control decisions relying on moth trapping data and capacity of Bt cotton to suppress survival of offspring produced by moths. Assuming an economic injury level of 12% boll infestation, the accuracy of decisions based on moth captures corresponding to economic thresholds of 6%, 8%, and 10% boll infestation increased from 44.7% to 67.1%. The association between moth captures and boll infestation was positive and significant for non-Bt cotton fields but was not significant for Bt cotton fields. Although chemical control decisions based on trapping data were only moderately accurate, pheromone traps could still be valuable for determining when moth populations are high enough to trigger boll sampling to more rigorously evaluate the need for insecticide sprays.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox086
  • Walking Responses of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to
           Its Aggregation Pheromone and Odors of Wheat Infestations
    • Authors: Stevenson BJ; Cai LL, Faucher CC, et al.
      First page: 1351
      Abstract: The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a worldwide pest of stored grains. Using “Y”-tube olfactometry we studied the response of T. castaneum to odors from simulated wheat infestations containing conspecifics, and infestations containing the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Tribolium castaneum larvae were significantly attracted to odors from all three test species. Tribolium castaneum adults were attracted to grains infested by R. dominica and flour infested by T. castaneum but repelled from grains infested by S. granarius. Further behavioral analysis with pheromones showed that T. castaneum were significantly attracted to their aggregation pheromone, dimethyldecanal (DMD), but not to the R. dominica aggregation pheromone, a mixture of dominicalure 1 and 2. Female T. castaneum adults were attracted to ∼50-fold less DMD than larvae and 100-fold less than male adults, suggesting they are more sensitive to DMD. This study improves our understanding of T. castaneum behaviors to infested grain volatile compounds and pheromones, and may help develop new control methods for grain pest species.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox051
  • Geographic Variation in Phosphine Resistance Among North American
           Populations of the Red Flour Beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
    • Authors: Cato AJ; Elliott B, Nayak MK, et al.
      First page: 1359
      Abstract: The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), is a common stored-product pest found worldwide. Phosphine, hydrogen phosphide (PH3), is the most commonly used fumigant for stored grains, for which genetically based resistance has been recorded for several pest species. This study assessed phosphine resistance in 25 T. castaneum populations from across the United States and Canada using a discriminating dose bioassay. Dose–mortality assays were conducted with adults from seven of these populations to categorize weak and strong resistance phenotypes. Phosphine resistance was detected in 12 out of the 25 populations, and the frequency of resistance within populations varied from 2% in Victoria, TX, to 100% in Red Level, AL. Two resistant populations from Kansas that had been sampled three years earlier were found to have similar resistance frequencies in the current study. None of the four Canadian populations had any detectable resistance among the insects tested. Resistance ratio calculations from LC50 value in resistant populations relative to the LC50 for the laboratory susceptible strain allowed resistance phenotypes to be assigned as either weak resistance, at 5- to 26-fold resistance relative to susceptible, or strong resistance at 95- to 127-fold relative to susceptible. This study suggests that proper resistance assessment techniques can help to determine occurrence of phosphine resistance in populations of T. castaneum and can further characterize the strength of resistance present. These data can be used to support resistance management programs that consider either cessation or modification of phosphine fumigation to control T. castaneum.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox091
  • Seasonal Patterns of Stored-Product Insects at a Rice Mill
    • Authors: McKay T; White AL, Starkus LA, et al.
      First page: 1366
      Abstract: The temporal and spatial patterns in flight activity outside of a rice mill were evaluated for the lesser grain borer [Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)], warehouse beetle [Trogoderma variabile Ballion], cigarette beetle [Lasioderma serricorne (F.)], and Indian meal moth [Plodia interpunctella (Hüϋbner)] to determine critical times of year when the mill would be vulnerable to invasion. Insect activity was monitored using pheromone-baited glue traps (N = 99) from June 2008 to October 2010. Traps were placed along exterior walls of all major buildings and along the fence around the perimeter of the facility. Trogoderma variabile was the most abundant species, with flight activity between mid-March and November. No activity of T. variabile was observed during December through March. Rhyzopertha dominica was also abundant, with activity in mid-April through October. A few adult R. dominica were captured in traps during winter months in the first year of study. Trap captures for all four species increased with an increase in temperature and can be described by linear equations. Knowing seasonal patterns in insect activity allows rice facilities to better understand when facilities are most vulnerable to pest activity. However, this study demonstrates that more research is needed to address how insects are immigrating and emigrating within and around a rice mill.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox089
  • Phosphine Resistance in Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera:
           Laemophloeidae) Collected From Grain Storage Facilities in Oklahoma, USA
    • Authors: Konemann CE; Hubhachen ZZ, Opit GP, et al.
      First page: 1377
      Abstract: Phosphine gas (PH3) is one of the most commonly used fumigants for controlling stored-grain pests worldwide. We estimated the discriminating dose for Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae) adult insects using a laboratory susceptible strain. This discriminating dose was then used to determine presence or absence of PH3 resistance (resistance frequencies) in 19 field-collected populations of C. ferrugineus from Oklahoma, United States. The discriminating dose was estimated as 56.2 ppm of PH3 over a 20-h exposure period at 25 °C. Discriminating dose bioassay results showed that PH3 resistance was present in all 19 populations of C. ferrugineus tested. However, five populations—Stillwater (Stil), Enid Terminal 1 (ET-1), Enid Terminal 2 (ET-2), Johnson-Enid population (JE), and DK Farm 20 population (DK Farm 20) had ≥90% resistance frequencies. LC99 values estimated by probit analyses of dose–response mortality data for the laboratory susceptible strain (Lab-S), JE, and DK Farm 20 were 7.3, 636.4, and 968.6 ppm, respectively, over a 3-d exposure period. The level of resistance in DK Farm 20, the most resistant population, was 133.5 times that of the susceptible laboratory strain. This study shows that PH3 resistance in C. ferrugineus may be widespread in Oklahoma. Based on this study, there is a need for a wider PH3 resistance survey in grain-growing regions of Oklahoma and United States. Furthermore, results show there is a need to develop PH3 resistance management strategies for C. ferrugineus and other stored-product insect pest species to combat resistance and ensure continued effective future use of PH3.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox101
  • The Knight Stick Trap and Knight Stick Sticky Wraps: New Tools for Stable
           Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Management
    • Authors: Hogsette JA; Kline DL.
      First page: 1384
      Abstract: Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), management can be difficult, especially in situations where pesticide usage is restricted or disallowed. Traps have been used for monitoring stable flies, but have rarely been used for management. The Knight Stick (KS) trap recently became available, and preliminary studies indicated that it might be an improvement to traps currently in use. The Olson Sticky Fly trap was chosen as the control trap for the purpose of comparisons. Both traps attract stable flies by alteration of light waves and capture flies on a sticky wrap covering the trap base. The KS trap captured 3× more stable flies than the Olson trap, whereas the Olson trap base covered with the KS Sticky wrap captured 3–5× more stable flies than the Olson trap base with the standard Olson Sticky wrap. This indicated inherent attraction from the KS Sticky wrap. This was supported when KS Tank wraps, a larger version of the KS Sticky wraps, applied to 51 kg of liquid propane (LP) tanks on Mosquito Magnet Independence traps producing CO2, captured significantly more stable flies and significantly more stable flies per square centimeter of sticky wrap than Olson Sticky Sleeve wraps applied to the LP tanks. In a final study, when two configurations of KS Tank wraps were applied to white plastic barrels and compared with three standard KS traps, mean numbers of stable flies captured were numerically similar. The significance of findings and potential uses for the traps are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox042
  • Evaluation of Hematobin as a Vaccine Candidate to Control Haematobia
           irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) Loads in Cattle
    • Authors: Breijo MM; Rocha SS, Ures XX, et al.
      First page: 1390
      Abstract: The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), is a blood-sucking livestock ectoparasite responsible for substantial livestock losses. In the present work, the potential use of recombinant hematobin (HTB), a horn fly salivary protein, as an antigen for cattle vaccination was investigated. In this trial, horn fly loads and H. irritans’s blood intake were assessed in vaccinated (n = 4) and control (n = 4) crossbred dark-coated steers, which were naturally infected. The vaccinated group received a 1 ml subcutaneous injection of 100 µg of HTB protein emulsified in 500 µl of Incomplete Freund Adjuvant (AIF) on days 0 and 30. The control group received on the same days 1 ml of distilled water emulsified in 500 µl of AIF. The vaccinated group had significantly more HTB-specific IgG antibodies after the HTB booster and had a lower fly load than the control group (206 ± 23 vs. 285 ± 23 flies per animal, respectively). Blood intake by H. irritans did not differ between groups. In summary, these results suggest that vaccinating cattle with HTB could reduce cattle H. irritans load.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox104
  • Corrigendum
    • First page: 1394
      Abstract: Correction of “Cao, G., M. Jia, X. Zhao, L. Wang, X. Tu, G. Wang, X. Nong, and Z. Zhang. 2016. Low temperature storage of eggs improve the development and reproduction of Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae). J. Econ. Entomol. 109(5): 1061–1068.”
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox073
  • Corrigendum
    • First page: 1395
      Abstract: Correction of “Dang, K., G. V. Singham, S. L. Doggett, D. G. Lilly, and C. Y. Lee. 2017. Effects of different surfaces and insecticide carriers on residual insecticide bioassays against bed bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). J. Econ. Entomol.”
      PubDate: 2017-04-22
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox106
  • Erratum
    • First page: 1396
      Abstract: Correction of “Venturini, E. M., F. A. Drummond, A. K. Hoshide, A. C. Dibble, L. B. Stack. 2016. Pollination Reservoirs in Lowbush Blueberry (Ericales: Ericaceae). J. of Econ. Entomol.”
      PubDate: 2017-04-28
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox074
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