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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.075, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 3.771, h-index: 262)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 294, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 585, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.62, h-index: 53)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access  
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 59)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.199, h-index: 61)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.994, h-index: 107)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.327, h-index: 82)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.878, h-index: 80)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)

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Journal Cover Journal of Economic Entomology
  Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.894
  Citation Impact (citeScore): 76
  Number of Followers: 6  
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0022-0493 - ISSN (Online) 1938-291X
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • Acute Toxicity of Permethrin, Deltamethrin, and Etofenprox to the Alfalfa
           Leafcutting Bee
    • Authors: Piccolomini A; Whiten S, Flenniken M, et al.
      Pages: 1001 - 1005
      Abstract: Current regulatory requirements for insecticide toxicity to nontarget insects focus on the honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.; Hymenoptera: Apidae), but this species cannot represent all insect pollinator species in terms of response to insecticides. Therefore, we characterized the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides used for adult mosquito management (permethrin, deltamethrin, and etofenprox) on a nontarget insect, the adult alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.; Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in two separate studies. In the first study, the doses causing 50 and 90% mortality (LD50 and LD90, respectively) were used as endpoints and 2-d-old adult females were exposed to eight concentrations ranging from 0.0075 to 0.076 μg/bee for permethrin and etofenprox, and 0.0013–0.0075 μg/bee for deltamethrin. For the second study, respiration rates of female M. rotundata were also recorded for 2 h after bees were dosed at the LD50 values to give an indication of stress response. Results indicated a relatively similar LD50 for permethrin and etofenprox, 0.057 and 0.051 μg/bee, respectively, and a more toxic response, 0.0016 μg/bee for deltamethrin. Comparatively, female A. mellifera workers have a LD50 value of 0.024 μg/bee for permethrin and 0.015 μg/bee for etofenprox indicating that female M. rotundata are less susceptible to topical doses of these insecticides, except for deltamethrin, where both A. mellifera and M. rotundata have an identical LD50 of 0.0016 μg/bee. Respiration rates comparing each active ingredient to control groups, as well as rates between each active ingredient, were statistically different (P < 0.0001). The addition of these results to existing information on A. mellifera may provide more insights on how other economically beneficial and nontarget bees respond to pyrethroids.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy014
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Pollination Requirements of Almond (Prunus dulcis): Combining Laboratory
           and Field Experiments
    • Authors: Henselek Y; Eilers E, Kremen C, et al.
      Pages: 1006 - 1013
      Abstract: Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb; Rosales: Rosaceae) is a cash crop with an estimated global value of over seven billion U.S. dollars annually and commercial varieties are highly dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, the understanding of basic pollination requirements of the main varieties including pollination efficiency of honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus, Hymenoptera: Apidae) and wild pollinators is essential for almond production. We first conducted two lab experiments to examine the threshold number of pollen grains needed for successful pollination and to determine if varietal identity or diversity promotes fruit set and weight. Further, we examined stigma and ovules of flowers visited by Apis and non-Apis pollinators in the field to study the proportion of almond to non-almond pollen grains deposited, visitation time per flower visit, and tube set. Results indicate that the threshold for successful fertilization is around 60 pollen grains, but pollen can be from any compatible variety as neither pollen varietal identity nor diversity enhanced fruit set or weight. Andrena cerasifolii Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) was a more effective pollinator on a per single visit basis than Apis and syrphid flies. Nevertheless, Apis was more efficient than A. cerasifolii and syrphid flies as they spent less time on a flower during a single visit. Hence, planting with two compatible varieties and managing for both Apis and non-Apis pollinators is likely to be an optimal strategy for farmers to secure high and stable pollination success.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy053
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Firm Efficiency and Returns-to-Scale in the Honey Bee Pollination Services
           Industry
    • Authors: Jones Ritten C; Peck D, Ehmke M, et al.
      Pages: 1014 - 1022
      Abstract: While the demand for pollination services have been increasing, continued declines in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), colonies have put the cropping sector and the broader health of agro-ecosystems at risk. Economic factors may play a role in dwindling honey bee colony supply in the United States, but have not been extensively studied. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA), we measure technical efficiency, returns to scale, and factors influencing the efficiency of those apiaries in the northern Rocky Mountain region participating in the pollination services market. We find that, although over 25% of apiaries are technically efficient, many experience either increasing or decreasing returns to scale. Smaller apiaries (under 80 colonies) experience increasing returns to scale, but a lack of available financing may hinder them from achieving economically sustainable colony levels. Larger apiaries (over 1,000 colonies) experience decreasing returns to scale. Those beekeepers may have economic incentivizes to decrease colony numbers. Using a double bootstrap method, we find that apiary location and off-farm employment influence apiary technical efficiency. Apiaries in Wyoming are found to be more efficient than those in Utah or Montana. Further, engagement in off-farm employment increases an apiary’s technical efficiency. The combined effects of efficiency gains through off-farm employment and diseconomies of scale may explain, in part, the historical decline in honey bee numbers.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy075
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Onion Hybrid Seed Production: Relation with Nectar Composition and Flower
           Traits
    • Authors: Soto V; Caselles C, Silva M, et al.
      Pages: 1023 - 1029
      Abstract: Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the main vegetable crops. Pollinators are required for onion seed production, being honeybees the most used. Around the world, two types of onion varieties are grown: open pollinated (OP) and hybrids. Hybrids offer numerous advantages to growers, but usually have lower seed yields than OP cultivars, which in many cases compromise the success of new hybrids. As pollination is critical for seed set, understanding the role of floral rewards and attractants to pollinator species is the key to improve crop seed yield. In this study, the correlation of nectar-analyzed compounds, floral traits, and seed yield under open field conditions in two experimental sites was determined. Nectar composition was described through the analysis of sugars, phenol, and alkaloid compounds. Length and width of the style and tepals of the flowers were measured to describe floral traits. Floral and nectar traits showed differences among the studied lines. For nectar traits, we found a significant influence of the environment where plants were cultivated. Nonetheless, flower traits were not influenced by the experimental sites. The OP and the male-sterile lines (MSLs) showed differences in nectar chemical composition and floral traits. In addition, there were differences between and within MSLs, some of which were correlated with seed yield, bringing the opportunity to select the most productive MSL, using simple determinations of morphological characters like the length of the style or tepals size.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy081
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of Alternatives to an Organophosphate Insecticide with Selected
           Cultural Practices: Effects on Thrips, Frankliniella fusca, and Incidence
           of Spotted Wilt in Peanut Farmscapes
    • Authors: Marasigan K, Toews M, Kemerait R, Jr; et al.
      Pages: 1030 - 1041
      Abstract: Peanut growers use a combination of tactics to manage spotted wilt disease caused by thrips-transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). They include planting TSWV-resistant cultivars, application of insecticides, and various cultural practices. Two commonly used insecticides against thrips are aldicarb and phorate. Both insecticides exhibit broad-spectrum toxicity. Recent research has led to the identification of potential alternatives to aldicarb and phorate. In this study, along with reduced-risk, alternative insecticides, we evaluated the effect of conventional versus strip tillage; single versus twin row seeding pattern; and 13 seed/m versus 20 seed/m on thips density, feeding injury, and spotted wilt incidence. Three field trials were conducted in Georgia in 2012 and 2013. Thrips counts, thrips feeding injuriy, and incidence of spotted wilt were less under strip tillage than under conventional tillage. Reduced feeding injury from thrips was observed on twin-row plots compared with single-row plots. Thrips counts, thrips feeding injury, and incidence of spotted wilt did not vary by seeding rate. Yield from twin-row plots was greater than yield from single-row plots only in 2012. Yield was not affected by other cultural practices. Alternative insecticides, including imidacloprid and spinetoram, were as effective as phorate in suppressing thrips and reducing incidence of spotted wilt in conjunction with cultural practices. Results suggest that cultural practices and reduced-risk insecticides (alternatives to aldicarb and phorate) can effectively suppress thrips and incidence of spotted wilt in peanut.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy079
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Prey Foraging Under Sublethal Lambda-Cyhalothrin Exposure on
           Pyrethroid-Susceptible and -Resistant Lady Beetles (Eriopis connexa
           (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae))
    • Authors: D’Ávila V; Reis L, Barbosa W, et al.
      Pages: 1042 - 1047
      Abstract: Sublethal insecticide exposure may affect foraging of insects, including natural enemies, although the subject is usually neglected. The lady beetle Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is an important predator of aphids with existing pyrethroid-resistant populations that are undergoing scrutiny for potential use in pest management systems characterized by frequent insecticide use. However, the potential effect of sublethal pyrethroid exposure on this predator’s foraging activity has not yet been assessed and may compromise its use in biological control. Therefore, our objective was to assess the effect of sublethal lambda-cyhalothrin exposure on three components of the prey foraging activity (i.e., walking, and prey searching and handling), in both pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant adults of E. connexa. Both lady beetle populations exhibited similar walking patterns without insecticide exposure in noncontaminated arenas, but in partially contaminated arenas walking differed between strains, such that the resistant insects exhibited greater walking activity. Behavioral avoidance expressed as repellence to lambda-cyhalothrin was not observed for either the susceptible or resistant populations of E. connexa, but the insecticide caused avoidance by means of inducing irritability in 40% of the individuals, irrespective of the strain. Insects remained in the insecticide-contaminated portion of the arena for extended periods resulting in greater exposure. Although lambda-cyhalothrin exposure did not affect prey searching by susceptible lady beetles, prey searching was extended for exposed resistant predators. In contrast, prey handling was not affected by population or by lambda-cyhalothrin exposure. Thus, sublethal exposure to the insecticide in conjunction with the insect resistance profile can affect prey foraging with pyrethroid-exposed resistant predators exhibiting longer prey searching time associated with higher walking activity reducing its predatory performance.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy037
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Lethal and Sublethal Effects on Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera:
           Eulophidae), an Ectoparasitoid of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera:
           Triozidae), of Three Insecticides Used on Solanaceous Crops
    • Authors: Morales S; Martínez A, Viñuela E, et al.
      Pages: 1048 - 1055
      Abstract: Lethal and sublethal effects of refined soybean oil, imidacloprid, and abamectin on Tamarixia triozae (Burks; Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were assessed after exposure of the eggs, larvae, and pupae of this parasitoid to three concentrations of these active substances: the LC50 for fourth-instar Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc.; Hemiptera: Triozidae) and 50% and 100% of the minimum field-registered concentration (MiFRC). Soybean oil caused 26–61% mortality in T. triozae eggs and 6–19% in larvae; mortality in both eggs and larvae was ≤19% for imidacloprid and 4–100% for abamectin. All three compounds caused <18% mortality of T. triozae pupae, with the exception of the abamectin 50% (47%) and 100% (72%) MiFRC. The mortality of larvae and pupae derived from treated eggs was ≤39% for all three insecticides, and that of pupae derived from treated larvae was ≤10%. In general, emergence of adults developed from treated eggs, larvae, and pupae was affected more by abamectin than by the other treatments. The proportion of females derived from all three development stages was not affected by treatment with the compounds, except when the parasitoid was treated as larvae with the soybean oil 100 and 50% MiFRC (66 and 68%, respectively) or when treated as pupae with the imidacloprid LC50 and 100% MiFRC (~60%). Female longevity was generally higher than that of males. The use of imidacloprid, soybean oil, and abamectin in combination with T. triozae for pest control may be effective when the parasitoid is in the pupal stage because this stage is less susceptible than other immature stages.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy042
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Quantifying Conservation Biological Control for Management of Bemisia
           tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Cotton
    • Authors: Vandervoet T; Ellsworth P, Carrière Y, et al.
      Pages: 1056 - 1068
      Abstract: Conservation biological control can be an effective tactic for minimizing insect-induced damage to agricultural production. In the Arizona cotton system, a suite of generalist arthropod predators provides critical regulation of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (MEAM1) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and other pests. Arthropod predator and B. tabaci populations were manipulated with a range of broad-spectrum and selective insecticide exclusions to vary predator to prey interactions in a 2-yr field study. Predator to prey ratios associated with B. tabaci densities near the existing action threshold were estimated for six predator species found to be negatively associated with either adult and/or large nymphs of B. tabaci [Misumenops celer (Hentz) (Araneae: Thomisidae), Drapetis nr divergens (Diptera: Empididae), Geocoris pallens Stäl (Hemiptera: Geocoridae), Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), Chrysoperla carnea s.l. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Collops spp. (Coleoptera: Melyridae)] with the first three most consistently associated with declining B. tabaci densities. Ratios ranged from 1 M. celer per 100 sweeps to 1 B. tabaci adult per leaf to 44 D. nr. divergens per 100 sweeps to 1 large nymph per leaf disk. These ratios represent biological control informed thresholds that might serve as simple-to-use decision tool for reducing risk in the current B. tabaci integrated pest management strategy. The identification of key predators within the large, flexible food web of the cotton agro-ecosystem and estimation of predator to B. tabaci ratios clarifies the role of key predators in B. tabaci suppression, yielding potential decision-making advantages that could contribute to further improving economic and environmental sustainability of insect management in the cotton system.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy049
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Assessing Compatibility of Isaria fumosorosea and Buprofezin for
           Mitigation of Aleurodicus rugioperculatus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): An
           Invasive Pest in the Florida Landscape
    • Authors: Kumar V; Francis A, Avery P, et al.
      Pages: 1069 - 1079
      Abstract: Rugose spiraling whitefly (RSW), Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a new invasive whitefly pest in the Florida landscape, known to feed on a wide range of plants including palms, woody ornamentals, shrubs, and fruits. With the objective to find an alternative to neonicotinoid insecticides, and develop an ecofriendly management program for RSW, in the current study we evaluated the efficacy of a biopesticide containing the entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and an insect growth regulator buprofezin applied alone and in combination under laboratory and field conditions. Before assessing the two products, their compatibility was studied at six different concentrations of buprofezin. No significant inhibitive effect of buprofezin was observed on I. fumosorosea spore germination, and the average linear growth of the colony measured 14 d postinoculation. Under laboratory conditions, I. fumosorosea treatments (alone or mixed with buprofezin) provided higher RSW mortality than buprofezin alone. However, in both outdoor cage studies, the efficacy of buprofezin treatments (alone or mixed with I. fumosorosea) was higher than I. fumosorosea alone. A significant reduction in RSW population was reported for more than 5 wk in buprofezin alone and more than 7 wk in the combination treatments. In fall of 2014 and summer of 2015, the mean whitefly mortality observed during the 10-wk assessment period was 52.4 and 42.1% for I. fumosorosea, 79.6 and 79.0% for buprofezin, and 87.6 and 84.3% in mixed treatments, respectively. Results suggest that buprofezin can offer an effective alternate in the battle against invasive whiteflies such as RSW in Florida ecosystems, either as a stand-alone strategy or in an integrated approach.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy056
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Comparative Effectiveness and Injury to Tomato Plants of Three Neotropical
           Mirid Predators of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
    • Authors: van Lenteren J; Bueno V, Calvo F, et al.
      Pages: 1080 - 1086
      Abstract: Tuta absoluta (Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key pest of tomato and is quickly spreading over the world. We conducted an experiment aimed at evaluating the control capacity and risk for plant damage of three Neotropical mirid species, Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho; Hemiptera: Miridae), Engytatus varians (Distant; Hemiptera: Miridae) and Macrolophus basicornis (Stal; Hemiptera: Miridae) on T. absoluta infested tomato plants in large cages in an experimental greenhouse. During three successive periods of 9 wk each, we followed population development of the three mirids when exposed to T. absoluta, and of T. absoluta alone in separate cages in the greenhouse. We determined weekly the numbers of T. absoluta eggs and larvae per leaf, the number of mirid predators per leaf, the percentage of damaged leaves and fruits by T. absoluta, and the weight of fruits. Two of the mirid predators, C. infumatus and M. basicornis, successfully established on T. absoluta infested tomato plants and significantly reduced T. absoluta numbers, which ultimately resulted in an increased yield. These two mirid species hardly injured tomato plants or fruits as a result of plant feeding. Surprisingly, the species E. varians, which showed high predation rates in laboratory experiments, did not establish and reduce pest populations in any of the tests.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy057
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Strategies for Establishing a Rearing Technique for the Fruit Fly
           Parasitoid: Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
    • Authors: Poncio S; Nunes A, Gonçalves R, et al.
      Pages: 1087 - 1095
      Abstract: Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most important pest in South American orchards. When control measures are not adopted, this pest can cause losses of up to 100%. Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a larval-pupal endoparasitoid that can be used as a native biological control agent against A. fraterculus. This study aimed to develop a rearing technique for D. brasiliensis in larvae of A. fraterculus. Trials were carried out to: 1) determine the optimal instar for parasitism, 2) define the exposure time of larvae to parasitoids, 3) determine the density requirements of A. fraterculus larvae offered to each parasitoid, and 4) evaluate the effect of diet on adults of D. brasiliensis. In all trials, we evaluated the number of offspring, parasitism rate, and sex ratio. Moreover, in the experiment to investigate the effects of diet, we determined the longevity of males and females. In both choice and nonchoice parasitism tests, the parasitoids preferred third-instar larvae of A. fraterculus over second- and first-instar larvae. An exposure time of 12 h of A. fraterculus larvae produced larger numbers of parasitoids and higher parasitism rates. The density of 15 larvae of A. fraterculus to each female of D. brasiliensis produced a larger number of offspring. A supply of honey solution (20 and 50%) to the parasitoids yielded the highest number offspring and resulted in greater longevity. Our findings can be used to support the development of a mass rearing protocol for D. brasiliensis.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy058
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Effects of Spinosad, Imidacloprid, and Lambda-cyhalothrin on Survival,
           Parasitism, and Reproduction of the Aphid Parasitoid Aphidius colemani
    • Authors: D’Ávila V; Barbosa W, Guedes R, et al.
      Pages: 1096 - 1103
      Abstract: Insecticides can affect biological control by parasitoids. Here, we examined the lethal and sublethal effects of two conventional insecticides, imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a reduced-risk bioinsecticide, spinosad, on the aphid parasitoid Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Concentration-mortality curves generated from insecticide residue bioassays found that wasps were nearly 20-fold more susceptible to spinosad than imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin. Imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin compromised adult parasitoid longevity, but not as dramatically as spinosad: concentrations >200 ng spinosad/cm2 reduced wasp longevity by half. Imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin also compromised aphid parasitism by wasps. Although increasing imidacloprid concentrations led to increased host viability and reduced progeny production, lambda-cyhalothrin did not affect viability of parasitized hosts or parasitoid progeny production in a dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that reduced risk bioinsecticide products like spinosad can be more toxic to biological control agents than certain conventional insecticides.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy055
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Sublethal Effects of Some Insecticides on Functional Response of
           Habrobracon hebetor (Hymneoptera: Braconidae) When Reared on Two
           Lepidopteran Hosts
    • Authors: Rashidi F; Nouri-Ganbalani G, Imani S.
      Pages: 1104 - 1111
      Abstract: The effects of four commonly used pesticides, diazinon (EC 60%), phosalone (EC 35%), fipronil (Granular formulation 0.2%), and pyriproxifen (EC 10%), on functional response of Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were investigated using two lepidopteran hosts, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Heliothis viriplaca (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Laboratory bioassays determined diazinon and fipronil as highly toxic insecticides for all developmental stages of the parasitoid, while the acute toxicity of phosalone and pyriproxyfen was moderate to very low depending on the life-stage studied. Larval, pupal, and adult stages of the parasitoid were exposed to sublethal concentrations (LC30) of insecticides, and the newly mated females were used to study functional response of the parasitoid to different host densities. With a single exception, a type II functional response was found for control and all insecticide treatments on all life stages and both host species. All insecticides tended to decrease the asymptote of the functional response curve and the maximum parasitism rate, probably by negatively affecting the searching efficiency (a′) of the parasitoid. These results indicate that the control efficiency of parasitoids may be negatively affected by sublethal doses of pesticides, even though the type of functional response remains unchanged. As a potential solution, appropriate timing of pesticide application is required to avoid the antagonistic interactions with natural enemies under integrated management programs.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy069
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Combined Use of Predatory Mirids With Amblyseius swirskii (Acari:
           Phytoseiidae) to Enhance Pest Management in Sweet Pepper
    • Authors: Bouagga S; Urbaneja A, Pérez-Hedo M.
      Pages: 1112 - 1120
      Abstract: The combined release of Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) with Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) provides effective control of sweet pepper key pests, such as thrips and whiteflies. However, the management of the aphids can still be improved. Recently, the predatory mirids Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) and Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) have been found to be effective in the control of aphids, thrips and whiteflies when tested alone. Hence, integrating one of these two mirids with A. swirskii might enhance sweet pepper pest management. In this work, we began by investigating the co-occurrence of both mirid species when released together with A. swirskii. This was compared to the standard release of O. laevigatus with A. swirskii. N. tenuis and A. swirskii were involved in a bidirectional intraguild predation (IGP). On the contrary, this interaction (IGP) was apparently unidirectional in the case of M. pygmaeus with A. swirskii and O. laevigatus with A. swirskii. Both, M. pygmaeus and O. laevigatus significantly reduced the abundance of A. swirskii. Secondly, in a greenhouse experiment, where the same release combinations were tested (either N. tenuis, M. pygmaeus or O. laevigatus combined with A. swirskii), IGP seemed to be neutralized. Mirids with A. swirskii significantly suppressed thrips, whitefly, and aphid infestations. Contrarily, the combined use of O. laevigatus with A. swirskii did not reached a satisfactory control for aphids, despite the reduction in thrips and whitefly densities. Therefore, our results suggest that the use of mirids combined with A. swirskii could result in more efficient and robust biological control programs in sweet pepper crops.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy072
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Parasitoids and Predators of Physokermes hellenicus (Hemiptera:
           Coccomorpha: Coccidae) in Greece
    • Authors: Papanastasiou I; Kavallieratos N, Saitanis C, et al.
      Pages: 1121 - 1130
      Abstract: The genus Physokermes Targioni Tozzetti includes species that are distributed in the Holarctic region and feed on conifers. The recently described scale Physokermes hellenicus (Kozár and Gounari) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) is an endemic species of Greece whose host plants are fir trees of the genus Abies (Pinales: Pinaceae). It is considered as beneficial scale insect species since its honeydew secretions are exploited by honeybees leading to the production of a special honey with important physicochemical characteristics. Since there are no previous data on the natural enemies of P. hellenicus, an investigation was carried out during 2013 in forested areas of eight mountains in south and central Greece aiming to correlate the presence of P. hellenicus with certain parasitoids and predators. Seven species of Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Pteromalidae, and Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera); five species of Anthribidae and Coccinellidae (Coleoptera); and four species of Dictinidae, Linyphiidae, and Theridiidae (Araneae) were identified. Twelve of them were identified at the species level while four at the genus level. Among them Microterys lunatus (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), Pseudorhopus testaceus (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Anthribus fasciatus Forster (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) were the most abundant natural enemies of P. hellenicus adult female while Metaphycus unicolor Hoffer (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Trichomasthus sp. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) were found to parasitize P. hellenicus male nymph. Cinetata gradata (Simon) (Araneae: Linyphiidae) is reported for first time in the Greek arachnofauna. Our results suggest that the abundance of the fir scale P. hellenicus could be affected by a complex of parasitoid and predator species of different taxa. Future long-term research on these species in relation with abiotic factors would help to understand possible fluctuation of the scale’s population.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy084
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Parasitism of Two Spodoptera spp. by Microplitis prodeniae (Hymenoptera:
           Braconidae)
    • Authors: Ou-Yang Y; Zhao Y, Hopkins R, et al.
      Pages: 1131 - 1136
      Abstract: Early instar larvae of the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are recognized hosts of the parasitic wasp Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Kurian (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), although M. prodeniae has previously been regarded as monophagous. In this study, we found the immature period and longevity of M. prodeniae developing in S. exigua was similar to that in S. litura. It was shown that the development time of M. prodeniae in S. exigua was 15.1 ± 0.3 d, not significantly different from 15.0 ± 0.2 d in S. litura. The parasitism rate of M. prodeniae attacking S. exigua was significantly lower than on S. litura (65.48 ± 2.29 and 43.83 ± 2.20%, respectively), whilst the female ratio of the wasp’s offspring was not significantly different when developing on the two species. M. prodeniae females prefer to oviposit on the second- and third-instar host larvae of S. exigua, rather than other instars. The effects of development of M. prodeniae on two important lepidopterous pests are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy085
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Acceptability and Suitability of Three Liriomyza Leafminer Species as Host
           for the Endoparasitoid Chrysocharis flacilla (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)
    • Authors: Muchemi S; Zebitz C, Borgemeister C, et al.
      Pages: 1137 - 1143
      Abstract: Liriomyza leafminers represent important threats to the horticulture sector in East Africa. Parasitism rates of local parasitoids are reported to be low and the endoparasitoid, Chrysocharis flacilla (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was introduced in Kenya for a classical biological control program. Acceptability and suitability bioassays were conducted on the three economically important Liriomyza species in Africa (Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Foraging behavior, developmental time, sex ratio, parasitism rates, host pupal mortality, and body indices of C. flacilla were assessed. Results showed that the three Liriomyza leafminer species were accepted and suitable to C. flacilla. Foraging time was significantly shorter on L. trifolii than on L. sativae and L. huidobrensis. Ninety-eight per cent of females successfully oviposited in the three-host species. Female parasitoids were significantly aggressive in attempting to oviposit on L. huidobrensis than on L. sativae and L. trifolii. High parasitism rates ranging between 73 and 78% were observed from the three Liriomyza hosts, but no significant difference among hosts. C. flacilla-induced significant nonreproductive pupal mortality ranging from 23 to 35%, an attribute rare among endoparasitoids. In all three Liriomyza hosts, the parasitoid progeny was female biased. Parasitoid development period ranged between 16 and 24 d. Female parasitoids reared on L. huidobrensis were significantly bigger than those reared on L. sativae and L. trifolii. The acceptance to local Liriomyza leafminers and high host suppression ability is potential for considerations of C. flacilla in the management of Liriomyza spp. in Africa.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy088
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Effect of Cold Storage on Biological Traits of Psix saccharicola
           (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), an Egg Parasitoid of Acrosternum arabicum
           (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)
    • Authors: Forouzan F; Jalali M, Ziaaddini M, et al.
      Pages: 1144 - 1150
      Abstract: Psix saccharicola (Mani) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is a solitary egg parasitoid of the pistachio green stink bug, Acrosternum arabicum (Wagner) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which is one of the most important pests of pistachio in Iran. Augmentation of P. saccharicola field populations using mass-reared individuals may provide an alternative to conventional pesticide use for pistachio green stink bug control. Cold storage is an important component of mass-rearing protocols for optimum timing of host egg parasitization and potentially extended storage of P. saccharicola pupae prior to adult emergence. The impact of cold storage on A. arabicum eggs for various time intervals at 4.0°C was investigated. Results indicated that host eggs stored at 4.0°C for up to 60 d could be exploited by P. sacchricola, whereas no offspring were produced when eggs were stored for 120 d. The emergence rates of the F1 and F2 generations declined with increased host egg storage time. Both sex ratio and survival rate of the F2 generation decreased as the refrigeration time of host eggs increased. The impact of cold storage on P. saccharicola pupae was evaluated. Reared pupae of P. saccharicola were held for 1 wk at three temperatures and compared with a control (27 ± 1°C). Psix saccharicola pupae were tolerant to cold storage at 8 and 12°C. Cold storage adversely affected mean adult emergence at 4°C, which decreased following low temperature exposure. Furthermore, mean percentage survivorship was unaffected by storage at low temperatures in the F1 generation, but was reduced at 4°C. The sex ratio of the F1 generation became more male-biased when held at lower storage temperatures. The highest female proportion was observed at 12°C.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy087
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Effects of Irradiation Dose on Sperm Production, Insemination, and Male
           Mating Possible Period in the Sweetpotato Weevil (Coleoptera: Brentidae)
    • Authors: Hiroyoshi S; Mistunaga T, Kohama T, et al.
      Pages: 1151 - 1156
      Abstract: The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been used for the control or eradication of target insect pests. To successfully apply SIT, it is very important to clarify the effect of irradiation on male reproduction in the target pest, because their mating and spermiogenesis abilities affect the success of eradication program. The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Brentidae) is a notorious and worldwide pest of sweet potato. We investigated the effect of irradiation at five doses ranging from 0 (control) to 150 Gy on 9-d-old males. Survival rate of the control (no treatment) remained high from day 10 to 20 of adult life, whereas higher doses of irradiation reduced it, maximally by approximately 70%. Mating rates showed a similar tendency. Radiation dose neither affected sperm production nor sperm transfer at any dose, although spermiogenesis is active during the adult stage. However, radiation dose affected the lifetime total of ejaculated sperm number, likely because of fewer matings by irradiated males. These results suggest that use of a dose of 150 Gy or higher is appropriate for the final step of eradication of this weevil. At least, lower dose of irradiation may arise the inadequate sterilization, resulting in a failure of eradication program. We conclude that weekly release of sweetpotato weevil sterilized with high dose, achieving complete sterilization, could be useful for eradication program after reducing the population by male annihilation method.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox363
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Radiation of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs to Improve
           the Mass Rearing of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
           
    • Authors: Cai P; Hong J, Wang C, et al.
      Pages: 1157 - 1164
      Abstract: This study explored the potential for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae hatched from irradiated eggs as hosts for Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). B. dorsalis eggs of three different ages (12-, 24-, and 36-h old) were analyzed for hatchability, pupation rate, pupal weight, emergence rate, and sex ratio after exposure to different doses of radiation (5 and 10 Gy) at different dose rates (1 and 6 Gy/min). For the eggs of different ages exposed to radiation, only the hatchability and pupal weight of 36-h-old eggs exposed to the dose rate of 1 Gy/min were not affected; therefore, 6 Gy/min was not suitable for irradiating eggs. The viability of the parents and progenies of D. longicaudata when the parents were reared from 36-h-old eggs irradiated at nine different doses (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 Gy) under laboratory conditions were investigated. The emergence percentage, sex ratio, and longevity of parasitoids developed from irradiated eggs were similar to those reared from nonirradiated hosts. A significant increase in larva mortality was observed for the eggs irradiated at doses above 25 Gy, and no redundant adult flies emerged at doses above 15 Gy. Hence, for B. dorsalis eggs to be applied in the mass rearing of D. longicaudata, the age of 36 h and a dose of 20–25 Gy are the optimal parameters. The results reveal that hosts and parasitoids need not be separated, enabling a reduction in cost, labor, and time and resulting in an improved mass rearing procedure for D. longicaudata.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy032
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of Low-Temperature Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Oriental
           Fruit Fly in Loquat Fruit
    • Authors: Liu T; Li L, Li B, et al.
      Pages: 1165 - 1170
      Abstract: Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel; Diptera: Tephritidae), is recognized as a quarantine pest and a threat to Chinese loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit exports. Since loquat fruit is very sensitive to methyl bromide (MB) fumigation and cold treatment, in this study, low-temperature phosphine (PH3) fumigation was investigated to develop an alternative phytosanitary treatment method. Tolerance tests showed that the third instar was the most tolerant of all life stages of B dorsalis to PH3 gas at 8°C. Toxicity assay with 500–3000 ppm PH3 and subsequent probit analysis showed that 2000 ppm PH3 was optimal for fumigation and 152.75 h of treatment duration were required to achieve 99.9968% mortality. In the verification test, 144 and 168 h of treatment duration with 2000 ppm PH3 completely killed 35,277 and 35,134 B. dorsalis third instars, respectively. However, 13 live larvae were found after 120 h of treatment. Furthermore, these treatments reduced fruit respiration rates while causing no adverse effects on other fruit quality parameters, including firmness, soluble solid content, and titratable acidity over 192 h storage at 8°C. The results strongly suggest that low-temperature PH3 fumigation could be used for the postharvest control of B. dorsalis in loquat fruit.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy029
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Low-Temperature Fumigation of Harvested Lettuce Using a Phosphine
           Generator
    • Authors: Liu Y.
      Pages: 1171 - 1176
      Abstract: A research-scale phosphine generator, QuickPHlo-R, from United Phosphorus Ltd. (Mumbai, India) was tested to determine whether it was suitable for low-temperature fumigation and oxygenated phosphine fumigation of harvested lettuce. Vacuum cooled Iceberg and Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were fumigated in 442-liter chambers at 2°C for 24 and 72 h for control of western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)] and lettuce aphid [Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely) (Homoptera: Aphididae)]. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for 48 h under 60% O2 was also conducted at 2°C with Iceberg and Romaine lettuce for control of lettuce aphid. The generator completed phosphine generation in 60–90 min. Complete control of western flower thrips was achieved in 24-h treatment, and the 48-h oxygenated fumigation, and 72-h regular fumigation treatments completely controlled lettuce aphid. Lettuce quality was evaluated 14 d after fumigation. There was increased incidence of brown stains on fumigated Iceberg lettuce, and the increases were more obvious in longer (≥48 h) treatments. Both Iceberg and Romaine lettuce from all treatments and controls had good visual quality even though there was significantly higher brown stain incidence on fumigated Iceberg lettuce in ≥48-h treatment and significant differences in quality score for both Iceberg and Romaine lettuce in the 72-h treatment. The brown stains were likely due to the high sensitivity of lettuce to carbon dioxide. The study indicated that QuiPHlo-R phosphine generator has potential in low-temperature phosphine fumigation due to the quick establishment of desired phosphine levels, efficacy in pest control, and reasonable safety to product quality.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy038
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Microwave Use in the Control of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera:
           Pyralidae) in Dried Fig and Raisin and Effects on Fruit Sensory
           Characteristics
    • Authors: Sadeghi R; Mirabi Moghaddam R, Seyedabadi E.
      Pages: 1177 - 1179
      Abstract: Microwave heating is an environmentally friendly method for killing pest insects and here its efficacy in the control of a pest species of dried fig and raisin was assessed. Dried fig and raisin samples were infested with Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae and heated in a microwave oven at power outputs of 450, 720, and 900 W for 20, 30, 40, and 50 s. Following exposure to the microwave treatments, larval mortality and changes to organoleptic properties, which indicate consumer preference and include aroma, color, sweetness, acerbity, fragility, stiffness, and overall acceptability, were assessed. Our results showed mortality rates were greatest with the highest degree and duration of microwave exposure, where 100% mortality was recorded at 900 W with an exposure time of 50 s. The sensory evaluations of the fruit showed that microwave heating had some effect on aroma, color, fragility, sweetness, and overall acceptability, but no effect on acerbity and stiffness in dried fig, whereas in raisin, there were no impacts on acerbity, stiffness, or sweetness, but aroma, color, fragility, and overall acceptability were affected. We conclude that application of lower intensities of microwave treatment may provide acceptable levels of pest control in stored dried fruit without an associated trade-off in the reduction in quality of sensory attributes.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy070
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Control of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera:
           Drosophilidae) in Strawberries
    • Authors: Yang X; Liu Y.
      Pages: 1180 - 1184
      Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation was conducted to determine the efficacy of controlling spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in strawberries and the effects on postharvest quality of strawberries under ultralow oxygen conditions at 2°C. Eight-hour fumigations with 1.0 and 3.0% NO were tested against different life stages of the insect to determine an effective treatment, and a 16-h fumigation was tested to determine the impact on strawberry quality. Complete control of eggs and larvae in strawberries was achieved in an 8-h fumigation with 3.0% NO, and the treatment achieved 98.8% mortality of pupae. The first and second instars were more susceptible to NO and were completely controlled with 1.0% NO fumigation. The 16-h fumigation treatment with 3.0% NO had no negative impact on strawberry quality as there were no significant differences from the control in berry damage score. The NO fumigation, however, significantly reduced mold 2 wk after fumigation, indicating that NO fumigation had potential to preserve strawberry quality. The results of this study demonstrated that NO fumigation is effective for control of SWD and safe to strawberries, and therefore, NO fumigation has potential to control SWD on harvested strawberries.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy074
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Postharvest Irradiation Treatment for Quarantine Control of Western Flower
           Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
    • Authors: Nicholas A; Follett P.
      Pages: 1185 - 1189
      Abstract: The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of fresh horticultural produce and as such is considered a biosecurity risk in many countries from which it is absent. Information is needed on the radiation tolerance of important surface pests of quarantine importance such as F. occidentalis so that phytosanitary irradiation treatments for exported fresh commodities can be lowered to below the 400 Gy generic treatment currently approved for most insects in the United States and Australia. Lowering the dose will help minimize any product quality problems, reduce costs, and shorten treatment time. In large-scale confirmatory trials conducted in two independent laboratories in Hawaii and Australia, a dose of 250 Gy (measured doses 222–279 Gy) applied to adult F. occidentalis on green beans resulted in no reproduction in 5,050 treated individuals. At 250 Gy, the effective dose is significantly below the 400 Gy generic dose, demonstrating that irradiation at this lowered level is an effective method for the disinfestation of F. occidentalis from fresh horticultural produce.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy073
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Vertical Distribution and Daily Flight Periodicity of Ambrosia Beetles
           (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida Avocado Orchards Affected by Laurel
           Wilt
    • Authors: Menocal O; Kendra P, Montgomery W, et al.
      Pages: 1190 - 1196
      Abstract: Ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado ((Persea americana Mill. [Laurales: Lauraceae])) due to their association with pathogenic fungal symbionts, most notably Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), the causal agent of the laurel wilt (LW) disease. We evaluated the interaction of ambrosia beetles with host avocado trees by documenting their flight height and daily flight periodicity in Florida orchards with LW. Flight height was assessed passively in three avocado orchards by using ladder-like arrays of unbaited sticky traps arranged at three levels (low: 0–2 m; middle: 2–4 m; high: 4–6 m). In total, 1,306 individuals of 12 Scolytinae species were intercepted, but six accounted for ~95% of the captures: Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Euplatypus parallelus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Hypothenemus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The primary vector of R. lauricola, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was not detected. Females of X. volvulus showed a preference for flight at low levels and X. bispinatus for the low and middle levels; however, captures of all other species were comparable at all heights. At a fourth orchard, a baiting method was used to document flight periodicity. Females of X. saxesenii and Hypothenemus sp. were observed in flight 2–2.5 h prior to sunset; X. bispinatus, X. volvulus, and X. affinis initiated flight at ~1 h before sunset and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at 30 min prior to sunset. Results suggest that ambrosia beetles in South Florida fly near sunset (when light intensity and wind speed decrease) at much greater heights than previously assumed and have species-specific patterns in host-seeking flight.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy044
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Methyl-isoeugenol, a Highly Attractive Male Lure for the Cucurbit Flower
           Pest Zeugodacus diversus (Coquillett) (syn. Bactrocera diversa) (Diptera:
           Tephritidae: Dacinae)
    • Authors: Royer J; Khan M, Mayer D.
      Pages: 1197 - 1201
      Abstract: Effective male fruit fly attractants, such as cue lure (CL) and methyl eugenol (ME), are important in the monitoring and management of pest species through lure and kill techniques of trapping and male annihilation. However, some species are only weakly responsive to these lures, making their detection and control difficult. Zeugodacus diversus (Coquillett), a pest of cucurbit flowers in Asia, is weakly attracted to ME. Recently in Australia and Papua New Guinea, the eugenol analogues isoeugenol, methyl-isoeugenol, and dihydroeugenol were found to be effective attractants for species with a weak response to ME and CL, as well as several nonresponsive species. Additionally, studies from the early 1900s indicated that Z. diversus was attracted to isoeugenol. To determine if these eugenol analogues may be more effective attractants for Z. diversus, we field tested them in Bangladesh in comparison to ME, as well as CL and zingerone. Z. diversus was significantly more attracted to all three eugenol analogues than ME, with it most attracted to methyl-isoeugenol. Its attraction to methyl-isoeugenol was 49 times greater than its attraction to ME (respective means 23.58 flies/trap/day (FTD) and 0.48 FTD). Z. diversus was also consistently trapped at methyl-isoeugenol at all trap clearances including when populations were low, whereas it was only trapped at ME at 6 out of the 13 clearances. This study demonstrates that methyl-isoeugenol is a highly attractive lure for Z. diversus and would be a valuable inclusion as an attractant in monitoring and male annihilation programs.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy068
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Seasonal Reproductive Performance and Pre-diapausing Mating Status of
           Female Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae) Collected in Fields
    • Authors: Rahman M; Kim E, Lim U.
      Pages: 1202 - 1209
      Abstract: Two unexplained phenomena are found in Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae): the first is that it tends to enter reproductive diapause much earlier in the season and to occur on host plants until late fall before finding hibernation site. The second is that they emerge in early spring when primary food sources such as leguminous plants are unavailable. To understand these phenological trends, the reproductive seasonality of both field-collected and laboratory-reared R. pedestris were compared under conditions of with/without food or access to mates. Females collected in spring or fall produced very few eggs in laboratory. But, when food sources were provided, all the bugs produced more eggs. Eggs also hatched normally except those produced by the females collected in fall. This indicates that females collected in the spring were already mated while those collected in the fall were not, most likely because they were in reproductive diapause. Similarly, when food was provided, all laboratory-reared bugs produced eggs, regardless of diapause status, with longer preoviposition period in diapausing bugs which might be due to the termination of reproductive diapause, but only eggs from mated females hatched. In conclusion, while spring reproduction (oviposition and egg hatch) of R. pedestris can occur in the presence of food resources, any lack of food can be limiting factor impeding these activities. In fall, reproduction is greatly reduced even when food resources are available, and under these conditions failure of females to become mated, due to reproductive diapause, is likely the limiting factor.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy101
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Winter Survival, Feeding
           Activity, and Reproduction Rates Based on Episodic Cold Shock and Winter
           Temperature Regimes
    • Authors: Lowenstein D; Walton V.
      Pages: 1210 - 1218
      Abstract: Globally distributed nonnative insects thrive by having a generalist diet and persisting across large latitudinal gradients. Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a cold-tolerant invasive species that enters reproductive diapause in temperate North American and European climates. While it can survive the acute effects of subzero (°C) temperatures, it is poorly understood how exposure to infrequent cold temperatures affects postdiapause survival and behavior. We studied the impacts of episodic cold shock at temperatures of −6 to −2 (°C) at the onset of H. halys diapause, followed by an extended overwintering period. These conditions simulated three distinct climates, with above-freezing, near-freezing, and below-freezing daily low temperatures, to explore a range of possible effects on H. halys. We measured mortality regularly and evaluated postdiapause feeding damage and fecundity in each treatment. Postdiapause survival rates ranged from 40 to 50% in all treatments, except for −6°C. At this temperature, fewer than 25% H. halys survived. Feeding damage was greatest in the warmest simulated climate. The highest number of egg masses was laid under subfreezing episodic cold shock conditions. The controlled diapause simulations suggest that brief exposure to cold temperatures as low as −4°C does not have immediate or long-term effects on H. halys mortality. Exposure to cold temperatures may, however, increase postdiapause fecundity. These data provide insight into the impacts of cold exposure on postdiapause survival, reproduction, and feeding and can help predict H. halys-related crop risk based on preceding winter conditions.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy093
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Various Pesticides on Trichogramma achaeae
           (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)
    • Authors: Fontes J; Roja I, Tavares J, et al.
      Pages: 1219 - 1226
      Abstract: Little information is available regarding the lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides on Trichogramma achaeae (Nagaraja and Nagarkatti; Hymenoptera: Tricogrammatidae) during integrated management of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), an important pest for tomato production. Twenty-two pesticides sprayed on Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs were evaluated on the mortality of adult parasitoids upon contact with the hosts 24 h after the treatments and their sublethal effects on the parasitoids were assessed in laboratory conditions. Tests were carried out with fresh solutions at the recommended concentration. According to the International Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control (IOBC) standards, chlorpyrifos is harmful to the parasitoid; merthiocarb, methomyl, spinosad lambda-cyhalothrin, and acrinatrin are moderately harmful; and chlorantraniliprole, lufenuron, hexythiazox, cyromazine and Bacillus thuringiensis have no effect on the parasitoid. Sulfur is slightly harmful, and azoxystrobin is harmless. Chlorpyrifos was the most lethal among these pesticides and killed all females in less than 24 h. All other pesticides affected the biological parameters of T. achaeae to varying degrees. Regarding the lethal and sublethal effects, merthiocarb and spinosad killed all female offspring in less than 24 h; lambda-cyhalothrin and sulfur reduced the number of parasitized eggs; and acrinatrin, deltamethrin and azoxystrobin affected the emergence rate. After that, we can recommend the use of chlorantraniliprole and B. thuringiensis to control Lepidoptera, cyromazine to control Diptera, pirimicarb to control Homoptera, hexythiazox to control mites and azoxystrobin can be used as fungicide in an integrated pest management program with mass released of T. achaeae.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy064
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Fusarium graminearum Mycotoxins in Maize Associated With Striacosta
           albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Injury
    • Authors: Smith J; Limay-Rios V, Hooker D, et al.
      Pages: 1227 - 1242
      Abstract: Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has become a key pest of maize, Zea mays (L.), in Ontario, Canada which is challenging to control due to its lack of susceptibility to most Bt-maize events. Injury by S. albicosta may exacerbate Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe; Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) infection through provision of entry points on the ear. The objectives of this study were to: investigate the relationship between injury by S. albicosta and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation; evaluate non-Bt and Bt-maize hybrids, with and without insecticide and fungicide application; and determine optimal insecticide-fungicide application timing for reducing S. albicosta injury and DON accumulation. The incidence of injury by S. albicosta and ear rot severity were found to increase DON concentrations under favorable environmental conditions for F. graminearum infection. Incidence of S. albicosta injury was more important than severity of injury for DON accumulation which may be due to larval consumption of infected kernels. The Vip3A × Cry1Ab event provided superior protection from the incidence and severity of S. albicosta injury compared to non-Bt or Cry1F hybrids. Insecticide application to a Vip3A × Cry1Ab hybrid did not reduce injury further; however, lower severity of injury was observed for non-Bt and Cry1F hybrids when pyrethroids or diamides were applied at early VT or R1 stages. DON concentrations were reduced with application of prothioconazole fungicide tank-mixed with insecticide at late VT (before silk browning) or when insecticide was applied at early VT followed by prothioconazole at R1. The application of an insecticide/fungicide tank-mix is the most efficient approach for maize hybrids lacking high-dose insecticidal proteins against S. albicosta and F. graminearum tolerance. Results demonstrate that reducing the risk of DON accumulation requires a strategic approach to manage complex associations among S. albicosta, F. graminearum and the environment.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy005
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Effects of Moth Age and Rearing Temperature on the Flight Performance of
           the Loreyi Leafworm, Mythimna loreyi (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in Tethered
           and Free Flight
    • Authors: Qin J; Liu Y, Zhang L, et al.
      Pages: 1243 - 1248
      Abstract: To understand the migratory flight behaviors of the loreyi leafworm, Mythimna loreyi Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), both tethered (flight distance, time, and velocity) and free-flight activity (flight action, duration, and frequency) of adults at different ages, sexes, and temperatures were investigated using computer-controlled insect flight mills and an autonomous flight monitoring system. Tethered flight activity differed significantly among ages and rearing temperature, but not sex. Newly emerged adults (the first day after emergence) displayed the lowest flight time, distance, and speed. However, flight performance increased with age, peaking at 3 d. Relatively strong flight performance was maintained up to 5 d postemergence and then declined significantly by day 6. There was no significant difference in flight performance between sexes for 3-d-old moths. Adults reared as larvae at 24°C averaged significantly longer flight duration and distance than those reared at other temperatures. Both lower and higher rearing temperatures negatively affected tethered flight. Similar results among age and rearing temperature treatments were observed in autonomous free-flight tests. During 12-h free-flight tests, flight activity peaked from 6 to 10 h after beginning of darkness. Free-flight activity of 1- and 6-d-old adults was significantly less than that of 3-, 4-, and 5-d-old adults. Adults reared at 24°C showed significantly greater free-flight action, duration, and frequency than those reared at other temperatures. The results suggest that M. loreyi may be a migratory species.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy076
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Impact of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Field Corn (Poales:
           Poaceae) Yield and Grain Quality
    • Authors: Bibb J; Cook D, Catchot A, et al.
      Pages: 1249 - 1255
      Abstract: Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), commonly infests field corn, Zea mays (L.). The combination of corn plant biology, corn earworm behavior in corn ecosystems, and field corn value renders corn earworm management with foliar insecticides noneconomical. Corn technologies containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were introduced that exhibit substantial efficacy against corn earworm and may reduce mycotoxin contamination in grain. The first generation Bt traits in field corn demonstrated limited activity on corn earworm feeding on grain. The pyramided corn technologies have greater cumulative protein concentrations and higher expression throughout the plant, so these corn traits should provide effective management of this pest. Additionally, reduced kernel injury may affect physical grain quality. Experiments were conducted during 2011–2012 to investigate corn earworm impact on field corn yield and grain quality. Treatments included field corn hybrids expressing the Herculex, YieldGard, and Genuity VT Triple Pro technologies. Supplemental insecticide treatments were applied every 1–2 d from silk emergence until silk senescence to create a range of injured kernels for each technology. No significant relationship between the number of corn earworm damaged kernels and yield was observed for any technology/hybrid. In these studies, corn earworm larvae did not cause enough damage to impact yield. Additionally, no consistent relationship between corn earworm damage and aflatoxin contamination was observed. Based on these data, the economic value of pyramided Bt corn traits to corn producers, in the southern United States, appears to be from management of other lepidopteran insect pests including European and southwestern corn borer.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy082
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Revisiting the Distribution of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera:
           Notodontidae) and T. pityocampa ENA Clade in Greece
    • Authors: Avtzis D; Petsopoulos D, Memtsas G, et al.
      Pages: 1256 - 1260
      Abstract: In the present work, we sampled individuals of the processionary pine moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis and Schiffermüller; Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) from different areas of Greece between 2014 and 2016. These samples were sequenced for a 760-bp long mtDNA COI locus and the haplotypes retrieved clearly showed that the occurrence of T. pityocampa in Greece is being considerably restricted, with only 8 individuals out of the 221 exhibiting T. pityocampa haplotypes and the rest being identified as T. pityocampa ENA clade haplotypes. To that, one haplotype in particular exhibited the highest abundance and broadest geographic distribution, occurring both in mainland and on islands. Our data suggest a rather recent and rapid population expansion of the ENA clade in Greece and a concomitant recent displacement of T. pityocampa. It thus seems that the relation between T. pityocampa and T. pityocampa ENA clade needs to be further and thorough analyzed before the taxonomic status of T. pityocampa ENA clade can be concluded with confidence.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy047
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Mineral Oil on Potato Pests
    • Authors: Galimberti A; Alyokhin A.
      Pages: 1261 - 1267
      Abstract: Mineral oil is a product used to reduce Potato Virus Y transmission in potato fields. However, there is little information available about other effects that oil may have on insect pests of potato. To better understand how mineral oil affects potato pests, we performed a series of experiments testing the effects of oil on mortality, behavior, and development of potato aphids, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), green peach aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). All three species showed negative behavioral responses to oil-treated potato foliage. Oil treatment also increased aphid mortality. Colorado potato beetle mortality was not affected, but developing on oil-treated potato plants resulted in prolonged development and smaller adults. Additionally, oil acted synergistically with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae); Colorado potato beetle larvae were killed more rapidly when sprayed with both products compared with when sprayed with B. bassiana alone. Based on these results, mineral oil has the potential for expanded use in potato IPM programs.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy046
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Field Experiment of a Three-Chemical Controlled-Release Dispensers to
           Attract Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
    • Authors: Jaffe B; Landolt P.
      Pages: 1268 - 1274
      Abstract: Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were shown to be attracted to a three-chemical kairomonal lure consisting of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractiveness of C. pomonella to this combination of attractants, and to decrease material costs associated with the controlled-release of these chemicals. The lure was most effective when pear ester was released from a separate dispenser than when combined acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide. We found that acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide can be combined into one device without decreasing C. pomonella trap catches and that there is minimal pear release rate before trap catch is negatively affected. A sachet-based controlled-release system of pear ester, acetic acid, n-butyl sulfide is a cost-effective alternative to a vial and septa controlled-release system and allows for easier quantification of ideal release rates. A reduction in material costs associated with management are important in promoting the adoption of attract-and-kill and mass-trapping paradigms for C. pomonella management. These findings also have important consequences in interpreting studies that use different loads of pear ester, and emphasize the need to better understand the release rates of attractants.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy045
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Assessing the Risk of Establishment of Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera:
           Tephritidae) in the United States and Globally
    • Authors: Wakie T; Yee W, Neven L.
      Pages: 1275 - 1284
      Abstract: The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) (Rosaceae) in Europe and Asia. In 2016, R. cerasi was detected in Ontario, Canada, and in 2017 in New York State, USA, the first records of this pest in North America. The initial detections in Canada caused concern for the major cherry-growing states of Michigan, Washington, Oregon, and California in the United States. Establishment of R. cerasi in the United States could restrict cherry exports to other markets and increase costs needed for fly control, but it is unknown if R. cerasi can establish in U.S. commercial cherry regions. Here, we used the CLIMEX ecological niche model to determine the risk of establishment of R. cerasi in the United States and globally. Within the United States under a no-irrigation scenario, R. cerasi would establish in the East and West Coasts; however, under an irrigation scenario, its distribution would expand to the major cherry-growing regions in the interior of central and eastern Washington and in California. Results also showed that if introduced, R. cerasi would likely establish in eastern China, Japan, the Koreas, Australia, New Zealand, South America, South Africa, Mexico, and Canada. Host plant (Prunus spp. and Lonicera spp. [Caprifoliaceae]) presence, although not included in models, would affect fly establishment. Our results stress the importance of surveying for R. cerasi to prevent its spread and establishment within the United States and other countries.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy054
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Estimating Monitoring Trap Plume Reach and Trapping Area for Drosophila
           suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Michigan Tart Cherry
    • Authors: Kirkpatrick D; Gut L, Miller J.
      Pages: 1285 - 1289
      Abstract: Central-monitoring trap, multiple point release-recapture experiments were used to interpret Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) catch in a monitoring trap baited with a Scentry Biologicals commercial D. suzukii lure deployed in Michigan tart cherry orchards. The plume reach was found to be short (<3 m), while the maximum dispersive distance for 95% of the released D. suzukii was projected to be ca. 90 m, so as to yield a trapping area of 2.7 ha. These data were consistent across two growing seasons and provide the first information about the dispersal distance and monitoring trap efficacy in a fruit crop setting for D. suzukii. Catch data per single monitoring trap can now be used to estimate absolute pest density in cherries. Alarmingly, catching one D. suzukii in a monitoring trap translates to approximately 192 D. suzukii per trapping area of 2.7 ha (26 per acre). Thus, by the time D. suzukii catch becomes detectable, it is very probable that the population is already above the tolerable damage threshold, suggesting control measures should immediately be taken if the fruit is in a vulnerable stage. Caution should be taken when extrapolating these results from cherry because the measured values may differ in other crop systems.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy062
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • An Ecoinformatics Approach to Field-Scale Evaluation of Insecticide
           Effects in California Citrus: Are Citrus Thrips and Citrus Red Mite
           Induced Pests'
    • Authors: Livingston G; Hack L, Steinmann K, et al.
      Pages: 1290 - 1297
      Abstract: Experimental approaches to studying the consequences of pesticide use, including impacts on beneficial insects, are vital; however, they can be limited in scale and realism. We show that an ecoinformatics approach that leverages existing data on pesticides, pests, and beneficials across multiple fields can provide complementary insights. We do this using a multi-year dataset (2002–2013) on pesticide applications and density estimates of two pests, citrus thrips (Scirtothrips citri (Moulton [Thysanoptera: Thripidae])) and citrus red mites (Panonychus citri McGregor [Acari: Tetranychidae]), and a natural enemy (Euseius spp. predatory mites) collected from citrus groves in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Using correlative analyses, we investigated the long-term consequences of pesticide use on S. citri and P. citri population densities to evaluate the hypothesis that the pest status of these species is largely due to the disruption of natural biological control—i.e., these are induced pests. We also evaluated short-term pesticide efficacy (suppression of citrus thrips and citrus red mite populations immediately post-application) and asked if it was correlated with the suppression of Euseius predator populations. Although the short-term efficacy of different pesticides varied significantly, our dataset does not suggest that the use of citrus pesticides suppressed Euseius densities or worsened pest problems. We also find that there is no general trade-off between pesticide efficacy and pesticide risk to Eusieus, such that highly effective and minimally disruptive compounds were available to citrus growers during the studied time period.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy067
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Improvements in Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)
           Trapping Systems
    • Authors: Navarro-Llopis V; Primo J, Vacas S.
      Pages: 1298 - 1305
      Abstract: Improved trap efficacy is crucial for implementing control methods for red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier; Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), based on trapping systems, such as mass trapping, attract and infect or attract and sterilize techniques. Although new trap designs have been proposed and aggregation pheromone dispensers have been optimized, aspects such as the use of co-attractants (molasses) and trap placement are still not well defined and standardized. The efficacy of three concentrations of molasses and different formulations to reduce water evaporation in traps was studied in different field trials to improve trapping systems and to prolong trap servicing periods. In addition, the performance of installing groups of traps or single traps was also evaluated with the aim of improving the attracted/captured weevils ratio. Our results showed that captures increased when molasses were added at 15% to the water contained in the trap and that a thin layer of oil, created by adding 2–3% of paraffinic oil to water, was able to effectively reduce evaporation and prolong trap servicing periods. Moreover, 3.5-fold more weevils were captured when placing five traps instead of one at the same trapping point. Results obtained allow improved efficacy and may have an impact in the economic viability of trapping systems and, therefore, in integrated pest management programs.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy065
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Temperature Alters the Response to Insecticides in Drosophila suzukii
           (Diptera: Drosophilidae)
    • Authors: Saeed N; Tonina L, Battisti A, et al.
      Pages: 1306 - 1312
      Abstract: Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in Europe and is a major threat to the soft fruit industry. Because of an ample temperature range, the pest spans from low to high elevation crops in mountain areas of the Southern Alps. Starting from field observations on the variable efficacy of insecticides under different temperatures, experiments were designed to test the efficacy of chemical families of insecticides available against this pest. Pyrethroids and spynosins proved to be the most effective under all temperature conditions (14, 22, and 30°C) in all assays. Organophosphates and neonicotinoids showed significantly lower efficacy at low temperatures, indicating that they are not suitable to protect crops under those conditions. The management of the pest in cold habitats, which are suitable for the cultivation of high-quality berries as for example in mountain farming systems, is constrained by a limited number of molecules available for fruit protection. Temperature has to be considered among factors affecting the decision-making process for the choice of registered formulations to be used in pest control.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy080
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Management of Blueberry Maggot With High Temperatures
    • Authors: Vincent C; Lemoyne P, Lafond J.
      Pages: 1313 - 1317
      Abstract: High temperatures were investigated to manage blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax Curran; Diptera: Tephritidae) in field and postharvest situations. To estimate lethal combinations of high temperatures/duration of exposure, blueberry maggot pupae were immersed in water at various temperatures during either 1 or 30 s in the laboratory. Treatments such as 70°C (1 s) or 55°C (30 s) caused 100% mortality of blueberry maggot pupae. In a lowbush blueberry field, soil temperatures at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm depth were measured with thermocouples following the passage of a flamethrower attached to a tractor in the fall. While the temperatures reached up to ca. 80°C for ca. 1 s at the soil surface, they were <10°C at depths of 3, 4, and 5 cm. In field situations, the energy required to kill all pupae would be expensive to deliver with a flamethrower and this would also cause environmental concerns. An example of application concerning the use of high temperatures in a postharvest situation is discussed, notably immersion of reusable containers in hot water in compliance with Canadian Food Inspection Agency Directive D-02-04 (2015) to prevent dissemination of R. mendax in uninfested areas.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy089
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Effect of Physiological State on Female Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)
           Attraction to Host and Food Odor in the Field
    • Authors: Vargas R; Piñero J, Miller N.
      Pages: 1318 - 1322
      Abstract: Foraging behavior of wild female melon fly, Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae Coquillett, a worldwide pest of economically important cucurbit crops, was examined through mark and recapture studies in both wild (Kona: dominated by the invasive weed ivy gourd, Coccinea grandis [L.] Voigt [Cucurbitaceae]), and cultivated (Kapoho: dominated by papaya, Carica papaya L. [Caricaceae] orchards) habitats on Hawaii Island. In particular, the extent to which wild melon flies and color-marked F2 females responded to cucumber odor and Solulys yeast hydrolysate laced with ammonium acetate (1%, wt/vol) according to sexual maturity stage and degree of protein hunger was documented. Kona results indicated that more wild and color-marked F2 females responded to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. [Cucurbitaceae]) odor than to protein odor with the exception of captured wild flies without eggs, which responded similarly to protein bait and cucumber odor. Results with captured wild females and color-marked F2 females in Kapoho suggested a significant preference for cucumber odor over protein odor regardless of whether or not they had eggs in their ovaries with the exception of protein-deprived color-marked F2 females, which responded to both odors in equal numbers. Implications of these new findings based on wild melon flies in natural habitats are discussed with respect to integrated pest management control strategies with protein bait sprays used in Hawaii. The possibility of adding cucurbit volatiles to protein-based baits is discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy092
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of Low-Energy Microwaves Technology (Termatrac) for Detecting
           Western Drywood Termite in a Simulated Drywall System
    • Authors: Taravati S.
      Pages: 1323 - 1329
      Abstract: Detecting drywood termites in structures is very challenging. Microwaves technology (Termatrac T3i) is a nondestructive method for detecting drywood termites in structures. Termatrac device and its mobile application provide a bar as well as a line graph when detecting insect movements, but interpreting these graphs is very subjective. In this paper, Termatrac’s output signal is quantified using a new method to study the effect of wall layers, wood type, and termite density on signal strength measured as area under curve in a simulated drywall system in laboratory. Two experiments were conducted on Termatrac T3i at its maximum sensitivity (Gain: 10). In experiment I, HEXBUG Nano was used as a source of movement/vibration and two wood types were used in which the wall layers significantly predicted signal strength, but wood type did not. In experiment II, two different densities of live western drywood termites, Incisitermes minor (Hagen) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae), were used to study the effect of termite density on signal strength. Interestingly, termite density did not significantly predict signal strength. The maximum reliable wood depth for detecting termites was 5 cm. Microwaves produced by Termatrac also showed good penetration into drywall and produced detectable signals even on a single drywood termite which confirms manufacturer’s claim. Suggestions on using and improving microwaves technology for detecting termites is provided which can potentially be applied to other types of insects and noninsect animals.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy063
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Development of Multiplex Nested PCR for Simultaneous Detection of
           Ectoparasitic Fungi Laboulbeniopsis termitarius and Antennopsis gallica on
           Reticulitermes speratus (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae)
    • Authors: Guswenrivo I; Tseng S, Scotty Yang C, et al.
      Pages: 1330 - 1336
      Abstract: Laboulbeniopsis termitarius (Thaxt) and Antennopsis gallica (Buchli and Heim) are two of the most common ectoparasitic fungi found on the body surface of termites. While visual observation under a dissecting microscope is a common method used to screen for such fungi, it generally requires a large number of termites and is thus very time consuming. In this study, we develop a fast, efficient protocol to detect fungal infection on the termite Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe). Species-specific primers were designed based on sequence data and amplified using a number of universal fungus primer pairs that target partial sequences of the 18s rRNA gene of the two fungi. To detect these fungi in a robust yet economic manner, we then developed a multiplex nested polymerase chain reaction assay using species-specific primers. Results suggested that both fungi could be successfully detected, even in cases where L. termitarius was at low titer (e.g., a single thallus per termite). The new method described here is recommended for future surveys of these two fungi, as it is more sensitive, species specific, and faster than visual observation, and is likely to facilitate a better understanding of these fungi and their dynamics in host populations.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy091
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Effects of White Mulberry (Morus alba) Heartwood Extract Against
           Reticulitermes flavipes (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae)
    • Authors: Hassan B; Mankowski M, Kirker G, et al.
      Pages: 1337 - 1345
      Abstract: Heartwood extract from white mulberry (Morus alba L.) (Rosales: Moraceae) were investigated for antitermitic activity against Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) in laboratory experiments. An ethanol:toluene (2:1) solvent system was used to remove extract from heartwood shavings. A concentration-dependent feeding response and mortality were observed for termites exposed to a concentration series range of 1.25 to 10 mg/ml of extract based on their dry weight. Results showed that maximum termite mortality occurred at 10 mg/ml. Based on the concentration series data, LC50 was calculated at 1.71 mg/ml. In filter paper feeding and repellency assays, extract significantly decreased the total number of gut protozoa compared with untreated and solvent controls. After feeding on filter paper treated at 10 mg/ml for 2 wk, protozoan populations were reduced by >55%. In choice and no-choice tests with mulberry heartwood, greater wood loss from termite feeding was found on solvent extracted blocks compared with nonextracted. Complete (100%) mortality was observed after feeding on nonextracted blocks compared with extracted blocks. Heartwood extract from white mulberry imparted resistance to vacuum pressure treated, nondurable southern pine and cottonwood. At every concentration tested, 100% mortality was observed after feeding on extract-treated southern pine or cottonwood. GC-MS analysis of extract showed high levels of the phenol compound, resorcinol. Results indicated that heartwood extract from white mulberry have antitermitic properties and might be potentially valuable in the development of environmentally benign termiticides.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy098
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Acaricide-Mediated Competition Between the Sibling Species Tetranychus
           cinnabarinus and Tetranychus urticae
    • Authors: Lu W; Hu Y, Wei P, et al.
      Pages: 1346 - 1353
      Abstract: The carmine spider mite (Tetranychus cinnabarinus [Acarifonnes: Tetranychidae]) and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae [Acarifonnes: Tetranychidae]) are two notorious pests of agricultural crops. Control of these pests has been dependent upon using different kinds of acaricides. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential responses of these two pest species collected from crops in the same field to acaricide treatments. Field trials have shown that without spraying acaricides, T. cinnabarinus will displace T. urticae. However, the application of abamectin has the potential to change the composition of spider mite complexes and facilitate the interspecific competition of T. urticae against T. cinnabarinus when both are fed on cowpeas and eggplants. Moreover, T. urticae is more prone to develop resistance than T. cinnabarinus when selected in the laboratory using cyflumetofen or fenpropathrin. After 20 generations of acaricide selection, the activities of detoxifying enzymes were considerably higher in T. urticae with more detoxifying enzymes upregulated after selection in this species. The results of this study demonstrate that differential responses to acaricide treatments have made it possible for T. urticae to overcome the competitive advantage present in T. cinnabarinus during the absence of acaricide application.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy030
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Electroantennogram Responses to Plant Volatiles Associated with
           Fenvalerate Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella
           (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
    • Authors: Houjun T; Lin S, Chen Y, et al.
      Pages: 1354 - 1360
      Abstract: The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is the main destructive insect pest of brassica vegetables around the world, and has developed resistance to numerous insecticides. Although host plant volatiles are important in pest control, the mechanism of low-level insecticide resistance in P. xylostella due to plant volatiles has not been examined. Here, electroantennograms (EAGs) were used to compare the responses of adult male and female DBMs of a susceptible strain (S-strain) and a derived resistant strain, Fen-R-strain (6.52-fold more resistant than the S-strain), to different concentrations of nine plant volatiles. We found significantly different relative EAG responses between S-strain and Fen-R-strain males to different concentrations of methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate, and octanal. The relative EAG responses of S-strain and Fen-R-strain females to different concentrations of β-myrcene, methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate, and allyl isothiocyanate were significantly different. Fen-R-strain females showed lower EAG responses to most of the tested plant volatiles (at concentrations of 1:10) than males, except for allyl isothiocyanate. A larger difference in relative EAG response to α-farnesene and β-myrcene was found between S-strain and Fen-R-strain females than between males of the two strains. A larger difference in relative EAG response to octanal, nonanal, and octan-1-ol was found between S-strain and Fen-R-strain males than between females of the two strains. These results illustrate the relationship between the function of plant volatiles and resistance in an insect pest species, and provide a scientific basis for resistance evolutionary theory in pest management research.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy022
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A Genetic Survey of Pyrethroid Insecticide Resistance in Aphids in New
           Brunswick, Canada, with Particular Emphasis on Aphids as Vectors of Potato
           virus Y
    • Authors: MacKenzie T; Arju I, Poirier R, et al.
      Pages: 1361 - 1368
      Abstract: Aphids are viral vectors in potatoes, most importantly of Potato virus Y (PVY), and insecticides are frequently used to reduce viral spread during the crop season. Aphids collected from the potato belt of New Brunswick, Canada, in 2015 and 2016 were surveyed for known and novel mutations in the Na-channel (para) gene, coding for the target of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. Specific genetic mutations known to confer resistance (kdr and skdr) were found in great abundance in Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), which rose from 76% in 2015 to 96% in 2016. Aphids other than M. persicae showed lower frequency of resistance. In 2015, 3% of individuals contained the resistance mutation skdr, rising to 13% in 2016 (of 45 species). Several novel resistance mutations or mutations not before reported in aphids were identified in this gene target. One of these mutations, I936V, is known to confer pyrethroid resistance in another unrelated insect, and three others occur immediately adjacent and prompt similar chemical shifts in the primary protein structure, to previously characterized mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance. Most novel mutations were found in species other than M. persicae or others currently tracked individually by the provincial aphid monitoring program, which were determined by cytochrome C oxidase I (cox1) sequencing. Through our cox1 DNA barcoding survey, at least 45 species of aphids were discovered in NB potato fields in 2015 and 2016, many of which are known carriers of PVY.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy035
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Pyraclostrobin Impairs Energetic Mitochondrial Metabolism and Productive
           Performance of Silkworm (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) Caterpillars
    • Authors: Nicodemo D; Mingatto F, Carvalho A, et al.
      Pages: 1369 - 1375
      Abstract: Silkworm cocoon production has been reduced due to a number of problems other than those inherent in sericulture, such as diseases, malnutrition, and inappropriate management. The use of pesticides in areas surrounding mulberry fields can contaminate these plants and consequently harm caterpillars. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the application of the fungicide pyraclostrobin in mulberry plants interferes with the mitochondrial bioenergetics and the productive performance of silkworms. Mulberry plants were treated with pyraclostrobin (0, 100, 200, and 300 g ha−1). After 30 d of fungicide application, fifth instar caterpillars were fed with leaves from the treated plants. We evaluated in vitro and in vivo mitochondrial bioenergetics of mitochondria from the head and intestines, as well as the feed intake and mortality rate of the caterpillars and the weight of fresh cocoons and cocoons shells. At doses of 50 µM (in vitro) and 200 g ha−1 (in vivo), pyraclostrobin inhibited oxygen consumption in state 3, dissipated membrane potential, and inhibited ATP synthesis in mitochondria. Pyraclostrobin acted as a respiratory chain inhibitor, affecting mitochondrial bioenergetics. The fungicide did not interfere with food consumption but negatively affected mortality rate and weight of cocoons. Mulberry leaves contaminated with pyraclostrobin negatively impact the mitochondrial bioenergetics of silkworms and cocoon production.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy060
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Comparative Bio-Efficacy and Synergism of New Generation Polyfluorobenzyl
           and Conventional Pyrethroids Against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera:
           Culicidae)
    • Authors: Sarkar M; Akulwad A, Kshirsagar R, et al.
      Pages: 1376 - 1381
      Abstract: Intensive exposure to insecticides has resulted in the evolution of insecticide resistance in the mosquitoes. We tested the bio-efficacy of two Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory strains differentially bio-responsive to pyrethroids to understand the comparative efficacy of different polyfluorobenzyle and conventional pyrethroid molecules and the role of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in synergizing these molecules in increased tolerance of mosquitoes to these molecules. We have taken deltamethrin (α-cyano pyrethroid with phenoxybenzyl moiety); permethrin (phenoxybenzyl pyrethroid without an α-cyano group); transfluthrin, dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin (polyfluorinated benzyl compounds); and prallethrin (modified cyclopentadienone compound) for this study. We found higher bio-efficacy in dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin compared with transfluthrin against tested mosquito strains. We found that transfluthrin exhibited synergism with PBO, which supports the hypothesis that P450 enzymes could play a role in the detoxification process of transfluthrin, which was earlier not believed. However, other polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids with a 4-(methoxymethyl) phenyl capping in the tetrafluorobenzyl ring (dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin) exhibit greater synergism with PBO compared with transfluthrin. Further study is required to understand the mechanism for higher synergistic ratios in polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids with 4-(methoxymethyl) phenyl moiety and ascertain the possible involvement of novel mechanisms that may involve in developing resistance. This is the first report of comparative bio-efficacy of multiple polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids and PBO synergism against mosquitoes.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy100
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Differential Expression of P450 Genes and nAChR Subunits Associated With
           Imidacloprid Resistance in Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
           
    • Authors: Zhang Y; Liu B, Zhang Z, et al.
      Pages: 1382 - 1387
      Abstract: Imidacloprid is a key insecticide used for controlling sucking insect pests, including the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, Fallén) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), an important agricultural pest of rice. A strain of L. striatellus (YN-ILR) developed 21-fold resistance when selected with imidacloprid on a susceptible YN strain. An in vitro study on piperonyl butoxide synergism indicated that enhanced detoxification mediated by cytochrome P450s contributed to imidacloprid resistance to some extent, and multiple P450 genes showed altered expression in the imidacloprid-resistant YN-ILR strain compared with the susceptible YN strain (CYP425B1-CYP6BD10 had 1.51- to 11.45-fold higher expression, CYP4CE2-CYP4DD1V2 had 0.12- to 0.57-fold lower expression). While there were no mutations in target nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes, subunits of Lsα1, Lsβ1, and Lsβ3 in the YN-ILR strain showed 3.86-, 4.39-, and 2.59-fold higher expression and Lsa8 displayed 0.38-fold lower expression than the YN strain. Moreover, 21-fold moderate imidacloprid resistance in individuals of L. striatellus did not produce a fitness cost. The findings suggest that L. striatellus has the capacity to develop resistance to imidacloprid through P450 detoxification and potential target nAChR expression changes, and moderate imidacloprid resistance was not associated with a fitness cost.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy051
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Bioefficacy of Insect Growth Regulators Against Aedes albopictus (Diptera:
           Culicidea) From Sarawak, Malaysia: A Statewide Survey
    • Authors: Lau K; Chen C, Lee H, et al.
      Pages: 1388 - 1394
      Abstract: The susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidea) larvae collected from 13 districts in Sarawak state, Malaysia was evaluated against five insect growth regulators (IGRs) namely, methoprene, pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron. Field populations of Ae. albopictus were susceptible to methoprene, pyriproxyfen, cyromazine and novaluron with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging from 0.19–0.38, 0.05–0.14, 0.50–0.95, and 0.75–1.00, respectively. Nevertheless, tolerance towards diflubenzuron (0.33–1.33) was observed in this study. In general, these IGRs exhibited promising results and can be used as alternative control agents against field populations of Ae. albopictus in Sarawak, Malaysia.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy071
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • New Insights into the Methylation Status of Virulent Diuraphis noxia
           (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes
    • Authors: Breeds K; Burger N, Botha A.
      Pages: 1395 - 1403
      Abstract: Epigenetic modifications provide a means for aphid biotype development that a lack of genetic variation, owing to an anholocyclic reproduction lifecycle, fails to do. Here we present data on the DNA methylation status in four South African Russian wheat aphids (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjomov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes expressing different levels of virulence against its host, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae, Triticeae). The DNA methylation status of these biotypes was determined through the use of methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis, restriction site-specific fluorescence labeling–a novel technique, and measuring relative global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. The least virulent RWA biotype, SA1, was methylated, while biotypes displaying intermediate virulence, SA2 and SA3, exhibited intermediate levels of hemimethylation. The genome of the most virulent RWA biotype, SAM, seems to be hypomethylated, which is likely attained through the process of demethylation.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy039
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Genetic Variation of Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations
           Detected Using Microsatellite Markers in Iran
    • Authors: Golikhajeh N; Naseri B, Razmjou J, et al.
      Pages: 1404 - 1410
      Abstract: In order to understand the population genetic diversity and structure of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a serious pest of sugar beet in Iran and the world, we genotyped 133 individuals from seven regions in Iran using four microsatellite loci. Significant difference was seen between the observed and expected heterozygosity in all loci. A lower observed heterozygosity than expected heterozygosity indicated a low heterozygosity in these populations. The value of F showed a high genetic differentiation, so that the mean of Fst was 0.21. Molecular analysis variance showed significant differences within and among populations with group variance accounted for 71 and 21%, respectively. No correlation was found between pair-wise Fst and geographic distance by Mantel test. Bayesian clustering analysis grouped all regions to two clusters. These data suggested that a combination of different factors, such as geographic distance, environmental condition, and physiological behavior in addition to genetic factors, could play an important role in forming variation within and between S. exigua populations.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy050
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Alimentary Tract Transcriptome Analysis of the Tea Geometrid, Ectropis
           oblique (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)
    • Authors: Wang J; Lin G, Batool K, et al.
      Pages: 1411 - 1419
      Abstract: Ectropis oblique Prout (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is one of the main pests that damages the tea crop in Southeast Asia. To understand the molecular mechanisms of its feeding biology, transcriptomes of the alimentary tract (AT) and of the body minus the AT of E. oblique were successfully sequenced and analyzed in this study. A total of 36,950 unigenes from de novo sequences were assembled. After analysis using six annotation databases (e.g., Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome, and NCBI nr), a series of putative genes were found for this insect species that were related to digestion, detoxification, the immune system, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) receptors. From this series of genes, 21 were randomly selected to verify the relative expression levels of transcripts using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results will provide an invaluable genomic resource for future studies on the molecular mechanisms of E. oblique, which will be useful in developing biological control strategies for this pest.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy010
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Expression Profiles and Functional Characterization of Two Odorant-Binding
           Proteins From the Apple Buprestid Beetle Agrilus mali (Coleoptera:
           Buprestidae)
    • Authors: Cui X; Liu D, Sun K, et al.
      Pages: 1420 - 1432
      Abstract: The apple buprestid beetle, Agrilus mali Matsumura (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), can respond to various volatiles, but the underlying mechanism of odorant perception for this insect is poorly understood. Here, we cloned A. mali’s odorant-binding proteins 3 (AmalOBP3) and 8 (AmalOBP8) and characterized their expression patterns and binding profiles. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that AmalOBP3 and AmalOBP8 were distributed in the classic and minus-C OBP subfamily, respectively. AmalOBP3 was specifically and abundantly expressed in antennae of both sexes. AmalOBP8 displayed high transcript levels in antennae of both sexes, abdomens of males, and wings of both sexes. Both AmalOBPs exhibited much higher expression in male antennae than in female antennae, suggesting that they could be important in perception of male-specific olfactory cues (e.g., some sex pheromones). Out of the 40 odorant ligands tested, AmalOBP3 and AmalOBP8 bound to 15 and 21 different odorants, respectively, indicating a distinct and selective binding profile for them. Both AmalOBPs seemed to have very strong binding affinity to aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes with 12 to 15 carbon atoms. Alcohols, esters, and terpenoids were more likely to be good ligands for both AmalOBPs than aldehydes and alkanes. Together with its broad expression in different tissues, strong binding with higher numbers of putative ligands for AmalOPB8 means that this protein can have more extensive functional roles in chemosensation of A. mali. Our results provide insights into the molecular basis of chemosensation in A. mali, as well as a basis for developing detection, monitoring, and management tools for this serious pest.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy066
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Increasing Temperature Reduces Wheat Resistance Mediated by Major
           Resistance Genes to Mayetiola destructor (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)
    • Authors: Tang G; Liu X, Chen G, et al.
      Pages: 1433 - 1438
      Abstract: Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a destructive pest of wheat and is mainly controlled by deploying resistant cultivars. Unfortunately, wheat resistance to Hessian fly is often lost when temperatures rise to a certain level. This study analyzed temperature sensitivity of 20 wheat cultivars that contain different resistance (R) genes. The lowest temperatures at which the percentage of resistant plants fell below 50% in an assay were 18°C for ‘D6647 H17’ (921680D1–7) (containing the R gene H17), 20°C for ‘Redland’ (H18), 22°C for ‘84702B14-1-3-4-3’ (H19), 24°C for ‘Carol’ (H3) and ‘Sincape90’ (H29), 26°C for ‘Erin’ (H5), ‘Jori 13’ (H20), and ‘PI59190’ (H28), 28°C for ‘Joy’ (H10), ‘KS99WGRC42’ (Hdic), ‘Karen’ (H11), ‘Caldwell’ (H6), and ‘Seneca’ (H7H8), 30°C for ‘KS85WGRC01’ (H22) and ‘KS92WGRC20’ (H25), 32°C for ‘Molly’ (H13), and 34°C for ‘Iris’ (H9). The three cultivars ‘H32 Synthetic’ (H32), ‘81602C5-3-3-8-1’ (H15), and ‘KS93WGRC26’ (H26) exhibited the most resistance to temperature increases. The percentages of resistant plants remained above 50% at 36°C for these three cultivars, the highest temperature that can be tested without significantly damaging wheat plant growth. The temperature sensitivity of R gene-mediated fly resistance is also strongly affected by genetic background of wheat cultivars that contain a specific R gene. Our data should provide useful information for breeding wheat resistance to control Hessian fly damage in different regions based on historic temperature data.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy048
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A Comparative Assessment of the Response of Two Species of Cucumber
           Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Visual and Olfactory Cues and
           Prospects for Mass Trapping
    • Authors: Piñero J.
      Pages: 1439 - 1445
      Abstract: Spotted (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardii) and striped (Acalymma vittatum) cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of field-grown cucurbits in most areas of the United States where these crops are grown. This study aimed at quantifying, using a comparative approach, the behavioral response of A. vittatum and D. u. howardii to visual and olfactory cues associated with different trap types. In a first field study, Pherocon corn rootworm (CRW) traps baited with a 5-component floral-based lure (= AgBio lure) captured significantly more A. vittatum than traps baited with any other commercial lure. When used in combination with yellow sticky cards, the AgBio lure outperformed the other lures except for the Trécé lure TRE8274. Subsequent tests revealed that the response of both cucumber beetle species to the AgBio lure was positively associated with increases in the amount of lure used. In the last series of tests that involved color discrimination by the beetles, traps constructed using 3.8-liter jugs painted yellow outperformed the CRW trap. Results from on-farm research, conducted at a commercial vegetable farm, confirmed the beetles’ visual preference for yellow, and also revealed an excellent performance of the mass trapping system, which kept cucumber beetle densities in the cash crop below economic thresholds. Combined findings indicate that the mass trapping system developed can be implemented as part of a broader IPM program aimed at managing cucumber beetles.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy094
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Sampling Transgenic Corn Producing Bt Toxins for Corn Earworm Injury
    • Authors: Reay-Jones F; Bilbo T, Reisig D.
      Pages: 1446 - 1453
      Abstract: Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., hybrids expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt near isolines were sampled for injury from Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) in North and South Carolina from 2012 to 2017. A total of 7,260 ears were sampled, with an average kernel injury from H. zea feeding of 1.22 ± 0.02 (SEM) cm2. The χ2 statistics for observed and Poisson predicted distributions of the area of kernel injury indicated nonrandom distributions for all hybrids (P < 0.0001), which were confirmed by all variance to mean ratios (ID) being significantly greater than one. Slopes b of Taylor’s power law and β of Iwao’s patchiness regressions for the area of kernel injury were all either not significantly (P > 0.05) different from a value of one or significantly (P < 0.05) less than a value of one. Within each family of hybrids, relationships between proportions of ear samples with injury and area of kernel injury were similar among Bt and non-Bt hybrids. For the same level of injury, to reach a population estimate within 10% of the mean (Dx = 0.1), the number of sample units required was large (>100), particularly at low levels of injury. Sample sizes for estimates within 30% of the mean (Dx = 0.3) were considerable smaller. Sample size for Bt hybrids relative to non-Bt hybrids varied with the levels of injury and with family. Our study has provided the first sampling recommendations for population estimates of H. zea injury to corn ears.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy099
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Effects of Storage and Granary Weevil Infestation on Gel Electrophoresis
           and Protein Solubility Properties of Hard and Soft Wheat Flours
    • Authors: Keskin Ş; Yalçın E, Özkaya H.
      Pages: 1454 - 1460
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of storage and granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.; Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation on pH, protein solubility (PS) and gel electrophoresis properties of meal and roller-milled flours of hard (Ceyhan-99 cv.) and soft (Eser cv.) wheat cultivars, respectively, after 6 mo of storage. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique was applied for studying the electrophoretic properties. Hard and soft wheats were infested with non-sexed S. granarius at a rate of two adults/ kg, and stored for 6 mo at 30 ± 1°C and 70 ± 5% RH. The pest-free wheat samples were used as control. The infested and its control samples were collected monthly, and after cleaning the granary weevils, they were hammer-milled or roller-milled in order to get meal flours and roller-milled flours, respectively. The effect of infestation on the storage proteins was more obvious in meal flours than that of the roller-milled flours. Granary weevil feeding resulted secreting of hydrolyzing enzymes and increased the acidity of flours; subsequently the breaking and releasing of some storage proteins generally caused a decrease in pH and an increase in PS values of the meal flours of wheat cultivars. SDS-PAGE results generally indicated that towards the end of storage, the insect population, that greatly increased, caused minor protein depletions resulting decreasing protein band intensities between 113 and 58 kDa of hard wheat meal flour and 101 and 40 kDa of soft wheat roller-milled flour. Consequently, the potential effect of changes probably occurred in high molecular weight glutenin subunits of both wheat cultivars.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy041
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Distribution of the Related Weevil Species Sitophilus oryzae and S.
           zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Farmer Stored Grains of China
    • Authors: Wu F; Yan X.
      Pages: 1461 - 1468
      Abstract: Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are major insect pests of farm-stored grains in China. Moreover, their respective distribution and prevalence are not yet assessed for grain storage facilities in China. The two species are often difficult to identify by morphology because they are immature or their presence is only evident from fragments. Species-specific primers were, therefore, designed based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of 34 populations found throughout China and three foreign populations. Following the validation of this molecular-based approach for species identification, the distribution of the two species in China was determined from 68 different grain storage facilities. The results indicate that S. zeamais is prevalent throughout the country whereas S. oryzae is mainly present in the south and the center of China. It is believed that this distribution pattern is in function of ecological adaptation, mostly determined by temperature and the grain species. This is the first report of its kind, demonstrating the distribution of S. zeamais and S. oryzae in grain storage facilities throughout China and analyzed by species-specific primers of COI.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy061
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Monitoring of the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera:
           Bruchidae), Feeding Activity in Cowpea Seeds: Advances in Sensing
           Technologies Reveals New Insights
    • Authors: Bittner J; Balfe S, Pittendrigh B, et al.
      Pages: 1469 - 1475
      Abstract: Cowpea provides a significant source of protein for over 200 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa. The cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is a major pest of cowpea as the larval stage attacks stored cowpea grains, causing postharvest loss. Cowpea bruchid larvae spend all their time feeding within the cowpea seed. Past research findings, published over 25 yr ago, have shown that feeding activity of several bruchids within a cowpea seed emit mechanical vibrations within the frequency range 5–75 kHz. This work led to the development of monitoring technologies that are both important for basic research and practical application. Here, we use newer and significantly improved technologies to re-explore the nature of the vibration signals produced by an individual C. maculatus, when it feeds in cowpea seeds. Utilizing broadband frequency sensing, individual fourth-instar bruchid larvae feeding activities (vibration events) were recorded to identify specific key emission frequencies. Verification of recorded events and association to actual feeding activities was achieved through mass measurements over 24 h for a series of replicates. The measurements identified variable peak event emission frequencies across the replicate sample set ranging in frequency from 16.4 to 26.5 kHz. A positive correlation between the number of events recorded and the measured mass loss of the cowpea seed was observed. The procedure and verification reported in this work provide an improved basis for laboratory-based monitoring of single larval feeding. From the rich dataset captured, additional analysis can be carried out to identify new key variables of hidden bruchid larval activity.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy086
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of Light Attraction for the Stored-Product Psocids, Liposcelis
           entomophila, Liposcelis paeta, and Liposcelis brunnea
    • Authors: Diaz-Montano J; Campbell J, Phillips T, et al.
      Pages: 1476 - 1480
      Abstract: Psocids have become global pests of stored commodities as they can cause considerable economic losses. These insects are difficult to control because they have developed resistance to many chemical insecticides. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate alternative integrated pest management (IPM) approaches, such as the use of light attraction for monitoring and/or controlling psocids. Light attraction has been studied for Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) but not for other psocid species. In this study, we investigated the response of adults of three psocid species (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae), Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein), Liposcelis paeta Pearman, and Liposcelis brunnea Motschulsky, to six wavelengths of light from light-emitting diode (LED) in paired-choice pitfall tests. L. entomophila females and males were not attracted to any of the wavelengths tested. L. paeta females responded positively to two ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths (351 and 400 nm) and to green light (527 nm), while males did not respond to any light. L. brunnea females and males responded positively to all six wavelengths evaluated. Most of the LEDs that elicited positive responses to L. paeta females and L. brunnea females and males were also preferred when these lights were presented against brewer’s yeast, a food attractant highly preferred by several psocid species. Females of L. paeta and L. brunnea were attracted to white light when compared with a blank, but females of L. entomophila were not attracted to white light compared to a blank.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy104
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Susceptibility of Different Life Stages of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera:
           Tenebrionidae) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) to
           Cold Treatment
    • Authors: Athanassiou C; Arthur F, Kavallieratos N, et al.
      Pages: 1481 - 1485
      Abstract: Laboratory tests were carried out to examine the efficacy of different exposure intervals (2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d) on different life stages (adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs) of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), the confused flour beetle, and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), the saw-toothed grain beetle (adults, larvae, and eggs) to 0, −5, −10, and −15°C. Larvae and pupae of T. confusum were more cold-tolerant than eggs or adults. Exposure to temperatures of −10°C for 1 d will kill nearly 100% of all life stages of T. confusum. O. surinamensis was more cold-tolerant than T. confusum. Adults of O. surinamensis were not killed when exposed for 1 d at −5°C, but egg hatch was drastically reduced after 2 h of exposure at the same temperature. Eggs and adults of O. surinamensis were more cold-tolerant than larvae. Our study indicates that target insect species and life stage, temperature, and exposure interval should all be considered when cold treatment is selected as a control strategy against T. confusum and O. surinamensis. Facility managers can use these data in planning cold treatments.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy103
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Biological Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) in
           Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    • Authors: Martins L; Lara A, Ferreira M, et al.
      Pages: 1486 - 1489
      Abstract: Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is considered to be one of the major pest insects in fruit orchards worldwide. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) strains are widely used as biological control agents and show high biological activity against different insect species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of different strains of B. thuringiensis against A. fraterculus larvae and adults. Bioassays were performed using suspensions of bacterial spores/crystals of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), kurstaki (Btk), and oswaldocruzi (Bto) strains at three concentrations [2 × 107, 2 × 108, and 2 × 109 colony-forming units per ml (CFU ml−1)]. At a concentration of 2 × 109 CFU ml−1, a significant larval effect (mortality 60%) was observed when compared with the control treatment. Larvae that ingested spore/crystal suspensions of Bti, Btk, or Bto bacterial strains exhibited significant larval and pupal deformations, leading to a significant decrease (~50%) in the completion of the insects’ biological cycle (egg to adult). The B. thuringiensis strains (Bti, Btk, or Bto) at a concentration of 2 × 109 CFU ml−1 in combination with one food attractant (BioAnastrepha 3% or CeraTrap 1.5%) in formulations of toxic baits provided high mortality (mortality > 85%) of A. fraterculus adults 7 d after treatment. However, the Btk strain in combination with CeraTrap 1.5% caused mortality of 40%. On the basis of these results, the native bacterial strains Bti, Btk, and Bto were considered to be promising candidates as biological control agents against A. fraterculus.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox364
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A ddPCR Assay for Identification of Autographa gamma (Noctuidae:
           Plusiinae) in Bulk Trap Samples
    • Authors: Zink F; Tembrock L, Timm A, et al.
      Pages: 1490 - 1495
      Abstract: The silver Y moth [Autographa gamma (Linneaus) (Noctuidae: Plusiinae)] is a pervasive crop pest in its native range but has not been found in moth surveys in the United States. Specimens of A. gamma are often intercepted at U.S. ports of entry, so the risk of introduction of this invasive species is high. Currently, identification of Plusiinae adults captured in domestic surveys is done by morphlogical comparison; however, this method is time consuming and misidentifications have occurred in the past. A recent study outlined a real-time PCR assay capable of rapidly identifying individual A. gamma specimens using CO1. This same study provided preliminary data for a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay capable of processing bulk trap samples. Here, we develop and test a ddPCR assay for detecting a single A. gamma in a trap sample of 200 individual moths. This assay will drastically reduce the time and cost needed to screen domestic trap samples for A. gamma.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy052
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Detecting Specific Resource Use by Drosophila suzukii (Diptera:
           Drosophilidae) Using Gut Content Analysis
    • Authors: Diepenbrock L; Lundgren J, Sit T, et al.
      Pages: 1496 - 1500
      Abstract: Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive, highly polyphagous pest of soft-skinned fruits throughout much of the world. A better understanding of the ecology of adult flies, including their nutritional resources, is needed to advance ecologically based management approaches. In this study, we evaluate the capability of polymerase chain reaction-based gut content analysis to detect a known food resource from DNA extracted from laboratory-reared flies. Using strawberry as a focal host and available DNA primers, we validated that DNA from this host could be detected for up to 7 d post-consumption. With the development of specific primers for additional hosts, we expect that this technique will enable researchers to better understand how D. suzukii adults use, and move between, nutritional resources.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy077
      Issue No: Vol. 111, No. 3 (2018)
       
 
 
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