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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 372 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 372 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 580, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)

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Journal Cover Journal of Economic Entomology
  [SJR: 0.894]   [H-I: 76]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0022-0493 - ISSN (Online) 1938-291X
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [372 journals]
  • Susceptibility of the Lesser Mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera:
           Tenebrionidae), From Broiler Farms of Southern Brazil to Insecticides
    • Authors: Hickmann F; de Morais A, Bronzatto E, et al.
      Abstract: The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is considered the primary insect pest in broiler farms in Brazil. In this study, we characterized the susceptibility of A. diaperinus populations from broiler farms of southern Brazil to cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos. Larvae and adults of A. diaperinus were exposed to these technical insecticides diluted in acetone in residual bioassays. A geographic variation in the susceptibility of larvae and adults of A. diaperinus to both insecticides was detected. The larval LC50 for cypermethrin ranged from 0.43 to 7.33 µg a.i./cm2. Two populations from Santa Catarina state presented higher resistance ratios of 13.6- and 17-fold. When adults were exposed to cypermethrin, the LC50 ranged from 0.46 to 4.93 µg a.i./cm2, with population SC-3 from Santa Catarina having lower susceptibility (resistance ratio of 10.7-fold). When exposed to chlorpyrifos, A. diaperinus larvae present LC50 values ranging from 0.21 to 4.30 µg a.i./cm2. Larvae from Paraná and Santa Catarina (SC-1 population) presented the highest resistance ratios, ranging from 10- to 20-fold. In adults, the LC50 of chlorpyrifos ranged from 0.17 to 5.30 µg a.i./cm2, showing a maximum resistance ratio of 31-fold in a population from Paraná state. Based on LC99 values, candidate diagnostic concentrations of 15 and 12 µg a.i./cm2 of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos, respectively, were also estimated for the resistance monitoring of A. diaperinus in Brazil. The implications of these results in Insect Resistance Management are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation of Pyrethroid Insecticides and Insect Growth Regulators Applied
           to Different Surfaces for Control of Trogoderma granarium (Coleoptera:
           Dermestidae) the Khapra Beetle
    • Authors: Arthur F; Ghimire M, Myers S, et al.
      Abstract: The khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is a serious pest of stored products and is the only stored product insect pest that triggers a quarantine response when it is found in the United States. The larvae of T. granarium feed on a wide range of dry food products of plant and animal origin, including cereals, dried fish, and museum specimens. In this study, we evaluated the residual efficacy of two pyrethroid insecticides, deltamethrin and cyfluthrin, applied on concrete, wood, painted wood, vinyl flooring tile, and metal surfaces using small and large T. granarium larvae. Residual efficacy of two insect growth regulators (IGRs), methoprene and pyriproxyfen was also evaluated on concrete, metal, and wood surfaces. In both studies, larvae were exposed with provision of a food source on the treated surfaces and residual assays were conducted at 0 months (1 d), 1, 2, and 3 months post treatment. In general, both of the pyrethroids provided a high level of control of T. granarium larvae, though small larvae were much more susceptible than large larvae. The IGRs were comparatively less effective, with more larval survival and adult emergence of exposed larvae compared with the pyrethroids. Residues of the pyrethroids and IGRs were most persistent on the metal surface. Results can be used to help to control and eradicate infestations of T. granarium when they are detected in the United States.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Rates and Patterns of Laboratory Adaptation in (Mostly) Insects
    • Authors: Hoffmann A; Ross P.
      Abstract: Insects and other invertebrates can readily adapt to a range of environmental conditions and these include conditions used in artificial rearing. This can lead to problems when mass rearing insects and mites for release as biocontrol agents or in sterile insect control programs, and when using laboratory strains to understand field population dynamics. Laboratory adaptation experiments also help to understand potential rates of trait evolution and repeatability of evolutionary changes. Here, we review evidence for laboratory adaptation across invertebrates, contrasting different taxonomic groups and providing estimates of the rate of evolutionary change across trait classes. These estimates highlight rapid changes in the order of 0.033 (median) haldanes and up to 2.4 haldanes, along with proportional changes in traits of more than 10% per generation in some cases. Traits tended to change in the direction of increased fitness for Coleoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera, but changes in Lepidoptera were often in the opposite direction. Laboratory-adapted lines tend to be more sensitive to stress, likely reflecting relaxed selection for stress-related traits. Morphological traits show smaller changes under laboratory conditions than other types of traits. Estimates of evolutionary rates slowed as more generations were included in comparisons, perhaps reflecting nonlinear dynamics although such patterns may also reflect variance differences among trait classes. The rapid rate of laboratory adaptation in some cultures reinforces the need to develop guidelines for maintaining quality during mass rearing and highlights the need for caution when using laboratory lines to represent the performance of species in vulnerability assessments.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Corrigendum to: “Effective biological control depends on life history
           strategies of both parasitoid and its host: evidence from Aphidius
           colemani–Myzus persicae System”
    • Abstract: Correction of “Khatri, D., X. Z. He, and Q. Wang. 2017. Effective biological control depends on life history strategies of both parasitoid and its host: evidence from Aphidius colemani–Myzus persicae System. Journal of Economic Entomology 110: 400–406.”
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Interaction Between Chrysocharis flacilla and Diglyphus isaea
           (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Two Parasitoids of Liriomyza Leafminers
    • Authors: Muchemi S; Zebitz C, Borgemeister C, et al.
      Abstract: Agromyzid Liriomyza leafminer flies are a major threat to horticultural production in East Africa with low natural control reported. The endoparasitoid Chrysocharis flacilla (Walker; Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was introduced from Peru into quarantine facilities at ICIPE in Kenya for a leafminer classical biological control program. Interaction assays with one of the dominant local parasitoids, Diglyphus isaea (Walker; Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), using Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard; Diptera: Agromyzidae) was assessed through sole, simultaneous and sequential releases. C. flacilla resulted to superior host parasitism rates over D. isaea. When used separately, specific parasitism rates of D. isaea and C. flacilla were 26.33 ± 2.07% and 60.27 ± 2.53% respectively but, when simultaneously used, the total parasitism rose to 72.96 ± 4.12%. Presence of C. flacilla after D. isaea reduced significantly parasitism rate of D. isaea. Both parasitoids caused separately and simultaneously additionally significant nonreproductive host mortalities of between 48.33 ± 3.75% and 69.33 ± 3.92 for D. isaea and C. flacilla respectively. Sex ratios of C. flacilla and D. isaea F1 progenies were female biased and were not affected by interspecific interactions. Implications of these results for subsequent combined use of C. flacilla and D. isaea against Liriomyza leafminers in East Africa are discussed.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Molecular Identification of Thrips Species Infesting Cotton in the
           Southeastern United States
    • Authors: Wang H; Kennedy G, Reay-Jones F, et al.
      Abstract: Traditional identification of thrips species based on morphology is difficult, laborious, and especially challenging for immature thrips. To support monitoring and management efforts of thrips as consistent and widespread pests of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), a probe-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay with crude DNA extraction was developed to allow efficient and specific identification of the primary species of thrips infesting cotton. The assay was applied to identify over 5,000 specimens of thrips (including 3,366 immatures) collected on cotton seedlings from Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia in 2016. One half of all adult samples were examined by morphological identification, which provided a statistically equivalent species composition as the qPCR method. Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was the dominant species across all the locations (76.8–94.3% of adults and 81.6–98.0% of immatures), followed by Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia (4.6–19% of adults and 1.7–17.3% of immatures) or Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in South Carolina (10.8% of adults and 7.8% of immatures). Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) were occasionally found among adults but were rarely present among immature thrips. These five species of thrips represented 98.2–100% of samples collected across the Southeast. The qPCR assay was demonstrated to be a valuable tool for large-scale monitoring of species composition of thrips at different life stages in cotton. The tool will contribute to a better understanding of thrips population structure in cotton and could assist with development and application of improved management strategies.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Tables of the Lady Beetle (Coleoptera:
           Coccinellidae) Feeding on Different Aphid Species
    • Authors: Farooq M; Shakeel M, Iftikhar A, et al.
      Abstract: Life table and predation data were collected for Coccinella septempunctata (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on three different host aphid species, Aphis craccivora (Koch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), under laboratory conditions, using age-stage, two-sex life table. The preadult developmental period of C. septempunctata was the shortest on M. persicae (21.12 d) and the longest on A. craccivora (28.81 d). Net reproductive rate (R0) ranged from 77.31 offspring per individual on A. craccivora to 165.97 offspring per individual on M. persicae. Mean generation time (T) ranged from 39.10 d on M. persicae to 51.96 d on L. erysimi. Values of the intrinsic rate of increase (r) decreased in the order M. persicae, A. craccivora, and L. erysimi (0.1302, 0.0864 and 0.0848 dˉ1, respectively). The highest finite rate of increase (λ) was observed on M. persicae (1.1391 dˉ1) and the lowest was observed on A. craccivora and L. erysimi (1.0903 and 1.0885 dˉ1, respectively). This information will be useful in relation to the mass rearing of C. septempunctata in biological control systems.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Host Plant Selection by the Wheat Bug, Nysius huttoni (Hemiptera:
           Lygaeidae) on a Range of Potential Trap Plant Species
    • Authors: Tiwari S; Dickinson N, Saville D, et al.
      Abstract: The wheat bug, Nysius huttoni L. is an endemic New Zealand pest. The seedlings of forage brassicas are highly susceptible to direct feeding damage by this insect, and this can reduce plant establishment. Prophylactic use of pesticides is the usual practice for N. huttoni management. These practices have been linked to environmental pollution, biodiversity loss, and pollinator population declines in brassicas and other crops. Habitat management of the bug utilizing potential trap crops can be a better option for its management. A series of choice, no-choice, and paired-choice tests were conducted in a controlled-temperature room to evaluate the pest’s preferences on seedlings of eight plant species. Kale plants (Brassica oleracea) were used as a potentially susceptible control, and seven non-kale plants were compared with kale as potential trap-plant species. These were: Lobularia maritima (L.) Desvaux (alyssum), Triticum aestivum L. (wheat), Phacelia tanacetifolia Bentham (phacelia), Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), Trifolium repens L. (white clover), and Medicago sativa L. (lucerne). In choice tests, wheat was the most suitable followed by alyssum, buckwheat, and phacelia, all significantly more favored than kale. In no-choice tests, alyssum was significantly more favored than kale and the other plant species except wheat and phacelia. First feeding damage was recorded on alyssum in both the above test conditions. For paired-choice tests including kale, wheat, and alyssum were significantly more suitable than brassica. These findings are important for developing agro-ecological management strategies. Alyssum followed by wheat were the most suitable trap plants for N. huttoni. These two plant species can be deployed in and around brassica fields either independently or as in a multiple trap-cropping system to reduce bug damage, minimizing or avoiding pesticides, and delivering a range of ecosystem services.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Demography and Mass-Rearing Harmonia dimidiata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
           Using Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Eggs of Bactrocera
           dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    • Authors: Yu J; Chen B, Güncan A, et al.
      Abstract: We compared rearing Harmonia dimidiata (F.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on four combinations of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and eggs of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), using the age-stage, two-sex life table. The four combinations were: both larvae and adults were reared on aphids; larvae were reared on aphids and adults were reared on fresh fruit fly eggs; larvae were reared on lyophilized fruit fly eggs and adults were reared on aphids; and larvae were reared on lyophilized eggs and adults were reared on fresh eggs. The highest intrinsic rate of increase (r = 0.1125 d−1) and net reproductive rate (R0 = 260.7 offspring) were observed when both larval and adult stages of H. dimidiata were reared on A. gossypii. When B. dorsalis eggs were used as rearing media for larvae, adults, or both, the values of r and R0 were significantly decreased. The lowest values (r = 0.0615 d−1 and R0 = 38.6 offspring) were observed when both larvae and adults were reared entirely on B. dorsalis eggs. Despite the lower r and R0 values, our results showed that B. dorsalis eggs could be considered as an adequate, less expensive alternative diet for rearing H. dimidiata because of the time and labor savings resulting from the ease of preparation and the ability to store the eggs for timely usage. The mass-rearing analysis showed that the most economical rearing system was to rear larvae on A. gossypii and adults on B. dorsalis eggs.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Degree Day Requirements for Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), a Pest of
    • Authors: Grant J; Lamp W.
      Abstract: Understanding the phenology of a new potential pest is fundamental for the development of a management program. Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), kudzu bug, is a pest of soybeans first detected in the United States in 2009 and in Maryland in 2013. We observed the phenology of kudzu bug life stages in Maryland, created a Celsius degree-day (CDD) model for development, and characterized the difference between microhabitat and ambient temperatures of both kudzu, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae) and soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill (Fabales: Fabaceae). In 2014, low population numbers yielded limited resolution from field phenology observations. We observed kudzu bug populations persisting within Maryland; but between 2013 and 2016, populations were low compared to populations in the southeastern United States. Based on the degree-day model, kudzu bug eggs require 80 CDD at a minimum temperature of 14°C to hatch. Nymphs require 545 CDD with a minimum temperature of 16°C for development. The CDD model matches field observations when factoring a biofix date of April 1 and a minimum preoviposition period of 17 d. The model suggests two full generations per year in Maryland. Standard air temperature monitors do not affect model predictions for pest management, as microhabitat temperature differences did not show a clear trend between kudzu and soybeans. Ultimately, producers can predict the timing of kudzu bug life stages with the CDD model for the use of timing management plans in soybean fields.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Learning Influences Host Versus Nonhost Discrimination and Postalighting
           Searching Behavior in the Tephritid Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha
           kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
    • Authors: Masry A; Clarke A, Cunningham J.
      Abstract: Compared with the extensive body of research on the olfactory behavior of parasitoids of leaf-feeding insects, less is known about the fine-tuning of olfactory behavior in parasitoids that use fruit-feeding insects as hosts. We investigated whether a tephritid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), could discriminate between odors of fruits infested by larvae of a host species, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), compared to fruits infested by non-host larvae, Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Female wasps showed a significant preference for nectarines infested with B. tryoni, over uninfested fruits or fruits infested with D. melanogaster. When wasps were given prior experience of host or nonhost infested fruit, females demonstrated an increased ability to discriminate between host and nonhost related odors, but only when they were conditioned on host-infested (as opposed to nonhost infested) fruit. Insects provided with both host and nonhost stimuli showed no greater discriminatory learning compared to those provided with the rewarding stimuli alone. Previous experience also influenced postalighting behavior. Naïve females, and females with experience ovipositing at the top of fruit, oriented preferentially to the top of fruits upon alighting, while those with experience ovipositing at the base of fruits showed a significant difference in orientation, with 70% of wasps orientating preferentially toward the base. Similar learning-related changes were seen in search time and probing behavior. We discuss how pre- and post-alighting learning fine-tunes the behavioral responses of foraging wasps to their local environment.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Genetic Differentiation and Structure of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera:
           Aphididae) Populations From Moist, Semiarid and Arid Areas in Northwestern
    • Authors: He Y; Liu D, Dai P, et al.
      Abstract: Drought is predicted to be more frequent, prolonged, and intensive in many areas around the globe under future warming scenarios, which can have significant impacts on aphids in different agricultural systems. However, studies on the genetic structuring process underlying changing aphid biology and ecology under drought are rare. To address the issue, we collected the wheat aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), clones from moist, semiarid, and arid areas of northwestern China and genotyped them with microsatellite markers. We found 59 multilocus genotypes from 235 collected individuals. Populations of S. avenae in different areas showed a moderately high level of genetic diversity. FIS values across all loci in all S. avenae populations were found to be negative, indicating heterozygote excess and prevalent parthenogenesis in our sampling areas. The appearance of a relatively large number of unique genotypes in Yulin provided evidence for the existence of sexual reproduction there. Based on Bayesian clustering analyses, the majority of individuals from moist and semiarid areas belonged to one cluster, whereas most individuals from arid areas fell into another cluster. We found little population structure of S. avenae in moist or semiarid areas, but a significant population structure for arid areas. Significant amounts of migration of S. avenae were found between our sampling areas although the migration was asymmetric between areas. This study provides insights into the genetic diversity, divergence, and structure of aphid populations under drought, as well as valuable information for improving aphid management strategies in drought-inflicted areas under future warming scenarios.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Resistance to Diamide Insecticides in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera:
           Plutellidae): Comparison Between Lab-Selected Strains and Field-Collected
    • Authors: Qin C; Wang C, Wang Y, et al.
      Abstract: Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.; Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is an important pest of crucifers worldwide. The extensive use of diamide insecticides has led to P. xylostella resistance and this presents a serious threat to vegetable production. We selected chlorantraniliprole (Rf) and flubendiamide (Rh) resistance strains of P. xylostella with resistance ratios of 684.54-fold and 677.25-fold, respectively. The Rf and Rh strains underwent 46 and 36 generations of lab-selection for resistance, respectively. Low cross resistance of Rh to cyantraniliprole was found. Cross resistance to chlorfenapyr, tebufenozid, and indoxacarb was not found in Rf and Rh strains. The P. xylostella ryanodine receptor gene (PxRyR) transcripts level in the Rf and Rh strains was up-regulated. Except for Rf34 and Rh36, PxRyR expression in all generations of Rf and Rh selection gradually increased with increasing resistance. Two resistant populations were field-collected from Guangzhou Baiyun (Rb) and Zengcheng (Rz) and propagated for several generations without exposure to any pesticide had higher PxRyR expression than the susceptible strain (S). In the S strain, PxRyR expression was not related to the resistance ratio. Gene sequencing found that the RyR 4946 gene site was glycine (G) in the S, Rf, and Rh strains, and was glutamate (E) with 70% and 80% frequency in the Rb and Rz populations, respectively. The 4946 gene site was substituted by valine (V) with the frequency of 30% and 20% in Rb and Rz populations, respectively. These results increase the understanding of the mechanisms of diamide insecticide resistance in P. xylostella.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Insecticidal Activity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Their
           Constituents Against Blattella germanica L. Adult
    • Authors: Yeom H; Lee H, Lee S, et al.
      Abstract: The insecticidal activities of 13 Lamiaceae plant oils and their components against adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae), were evaluated using fumigant and contact bioassay. Among the tested oils, basil, pennyroyal, and spearmint showed the strongest insecticidal activities against adult B. germanica. Insecticidal activity of pennyroyal was 100% against male B. germanica at 1.25 mg concentration in fumigant bioassay. Basil and spearmint revealed 100% and 100% insecticidal activity against male B. germanica at 5 mg concentration, but their activities reduced to 80% and 25% at 2.5 mg concentration, respectively. In contact, toxicity bioassay, basil, pennyroyal, and spearmint oils exhibited 100%, 100%, and 98% mortality against female B. germanica at 1 mg/♀, respectively. Among the constituents identified in basil, pennyroyal, and spearmint oils, insecticidal activity of pulegone was the strongest against male and female B. germanica.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Seven-Year Evaluation of Insecticide Tools for Emerald Ash Borer in
           Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Lamiales: Oleaceae) Trees
    • Authors: Bick E; Forbes N, Haugen C, et al.
      Abstract: Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is decimating ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Combatting EAB includes the use of insecticides; however, reported insecticide efficacy varies among published studies. This study assessed the effects of season of application, insecticide active ingredient, and insecticide application rate on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) (Lamiales: Oleaceae) canopy decline caused by EAB over a 5- to 7-yr interval. Data suggested that spring treatments were generally more effective in reducing canopy decline than fall treatments, but this difference was not statistically significant. Lowest rates of decline (<5% over 5 yr) were observed in trees treated with imidacloprid injected annually in the soil during spring (at the higher of two tested application rates; 1.12 g/cm diameter at 1.3 m height) and emamectin benzoate injected biennially into the stem. All tested insecticides (dinotefuran, emamectin benzoate, and imidacloprid) under all tested conditions significantly reduced the rate of increase of dieback.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Study of a New Biological Control Method Combining an Enteropathogen and a
    • Authors: Li J; Jiang L, Zhang Y, et al.
      Abstract: Solenopsis invicta (Buren; Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a species that has invaded China in recent years. Currently, S. invicta is mainly controlled by chemical treatment, though long-term use of chemical pesticides can cause serious environmental pollution. In this study, a microbial insecticide formulated for the control of S. invicta was screened for laboratory toxicity and field efficacy. The co-toxicity coefficients (CTCs) of the combination of Beauveria bassiana and thiacloprid at various mass ratios were 356.53, 251.20, 182.50, 215.03, and 143.19. When B. bassiana powder and thiacloprid were mixed at a mass ratio of 8:2, the CTC was 356.53, demonstrating a very significant synergistic effect. According to a field efficacy test, at 3 d after treatment, the efficacy of mound injection was significantly better than that of mound drenching. In this study, the insecticidal activity of pathogenic microorganisms against S. invicta was markedly enhanced by using a self-designed apparatus for mound injection of the tested preparation of a complex containing a pathogenic microbe. The results show that S. invicta can be sustainably controlled while ensuring the safety of the environment. The findings are a good reference for the promotion and application of safe control of S. invicta in the future.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • TiO2 NPs Alleviates High-Temperature Induced Oxidative Stress in Silkworms
    • Authors: Li J; Xue B, Cheng X, et al.
      Abstract: Silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.; Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), is an economically important insect, which is sensitive to the environment and susceptible to oxidative damages at high temperature. Low concentrations of TiO2 NPs (titanium dioxide nanoparticles) can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by oxidative damages in vivo. To explore whether TiO2 NPs could alleviate oxidative damages of high temperature, the effects of TiO2 NPs treatment on silkworm growth, the levels of ROS and H2O2, as well as the transcription level of antioxidant-related genes were studied at 30°C. These results showed that TiO2 NPs treatment increased silkworm body weight by 6.0% and reduced the occurrence of irregular cocoon at 30°C. TiO2 NPs treatment at 30°C decreased ROS levels in fat body and increased expression of Hsp70, SOD by 5.70-fold at 48 h, TPx by 1.61-fold, CAT by 1.81-fold. These results indicated that TiO2 NPs treatment at 30°C could promote the expression of antioxidant genes and reduce oxidative stress and provide a new method to alleviate high-temperature induced oxidative stress to silkworm.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • PCR-Based Gut Content Analysis to Detect Predation of Eriococcus ironsidei
           (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) by Coccinellidae Species in Macadamia Nut
           Orchards in Hawaii
    • Authors: Gutierrez-Coarite R; Yoneishi N, Pulakkatu-Thodi I, et al.
      Abstract: Macadamia felted coccid, Eriococcus ironsidei (Williams) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) was first found infesting macadamia trees in the island of Hawaii in 2005. Macadamia felted coccid infests all above-ground parts of trees to feed and reproduce. Their feeding activity distorts and stunts new growth which causes yellow spotting on older leaves, and when population densities become high, branch dieback occurs. Different predatory beetles have been observed in macadamia nut trees infested by E. ironsidei, the most abundant were Halmus chalybeus, Curinus coeruleus, Scymnodes lividigaster, Rhyzobius forestieri, and Sticholotis ruficeps. To verify predation of E. ironsidei by these beetles, a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers to determine presence in gut content of predators. Using these primers for PCR analysis, wild predator beetles were screened for the presence of E. ironsidei DNA. Analysis of beetles collected from macadamia orchards revealed predation by H. chalybeus, C. coeruleus, S. lividigaster, R. forestieri, and S. ruficeps on E. ironsidei. This study demonstrates that these beetles may play an important role in controlling the population of E. ironsidei, and these predators may be useful as biocontrol agents for E. ironsidei.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Characterization of Resistance to Cephus cinctus (Hymenoptera: Cephidae)
           in Barley Germplasm
    • Authors: Varella A; Talbert L, Achhami B, et al.
      Abstract: Most barley cultivars have some degree of resistance to the wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae). Damage caused by WSS is currently observed in fields of barley grown in the Northern Great Plains, but the impact of WSS damage among cultivars due to genetic differences within the barley germplasm is not known. Specifically, little is known about the mechanisms underlying WSS resistance in barley. We characterized WSS resistance in a subset of the spring barley CAP (Coordinated Agricultural Project) germplasm panel containing 193 current and historically important breeding lines from six North American breeding programs. Panel lines were grown in WSS infested fields for two consecutive years. Lines were characterized for stem solidness, stem cutting, WSS infestation (antixenosis), larval mortality (antibiosis), and parasitism (indirect plant defense). Variation in resistance to WSS in barley was compared to observations made for solid-stemmed resistant and hollow-stemmed susceptible wheat lines. Results indicate that both antibiosis and antixenosis are involved in the resistance of barley to the WSS, but antibiosis seems to be more prevalent. Almost all of the barley lines had greater larval mortality than the hollow-stemmed wheat lines, and only a few barley lines had mortality as low as that observed in the solid-stemmed wheat line. Since barley lines lack solid stems, it is apparent that barley has a different form of antibiosis. Our results provide information for use of barley in rotation to control the WSS and may provide a basis for identification of new approaches for improving WSS resistance in wheat.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Influence of Tree Size and Application Rate on Expression of Thiamethoxam
    • Authors: Langdon K; Schumann R, Stelinski L, et al.
      Abstract: Neonicotinoids are a key group of insecticides used to manage Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), in Florida citrus. Diaphorina citri is the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the presumed causal agent of huanglongbing, a worldwide disease of citrus. A two-season field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of tree size and application rate on the expression of thiamethoxam in young citrus following application to the soil. D. citri adult and nymph abundance was also correlated with thiamethoxam titer in leaves. Tree size and application rate each significantly affected thiamethoxam titer in leaf tissue. The highest mean thiamethoxam titer observed (33.39 ppm) in small trees (mean canopy volume = 0.08 m3) occurred after application of the high rate (0.74 g Platinum 75SG per tree) tested. There was a negative correlation between both nymph and adult abundance with increasing thiamethoxam titer in leaves. A concentration of 64.63 ppm thiamethoxam was required to reach a 1% probability of encountering a flush shoot with at least one adult D. citri, while 19.05 ppm was required for the same probability of encountering nymphs. The LC90 for the field population was 7.62 ppm thiamethoxam when administered through ingestion. Exposure to dosages as low as 7.62 ppm would likely result in sublethal exposure of some proportion of the population, which could exacerbate resistance development. Based on our results, subsequent work should investigate the use of neonicotinoids by foliar rather than soil application to maintain the chemical class in future insecticide management programs in Florida citrus.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Responses of Two Tea
           Cultivars to Empoasca onukii (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Infestation
    • Authors: Tian Y; Zhao Y, Zhang L, et al.
      Abstract: The tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an economically important pest of tea crops, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Ericales: Theaceae), in China. The morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes of two tea cultivars, the normal green tea cultivar ‘Fudingdabai’ and the novel chlorophyll-deficient albino cultivar ‘Huangjinya’, infested by E. onukii were investigated to determine the tolerance of different tea cultivars to E. onukii attack. E.onukii infestation affected the growth of tea plants, and decreased the shoot length, leaf area, leaf thickness, and stem diameter. Also, E. onukii infestation lowered the thicknesses of upper epidermis, palisade tissue, and spongy tissue of leaves, and the parenchyma tissue thickness and pith diameter of stem internode. E.onukii infestation reduced the chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid contents within the leaves of ‘Huangjinya,’ which further influenced the photosynthetic rate. The maximum quantum yield and actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and non-photochemical quenching in ‘Huangjinya’ were inhibited under E. onukii infestation. Peroxidase activity of E. onukii-infested ‘Huangjinya’ increased more than superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, E. onukii feeding changed the contents of free amino acids, tea polyphenols, caffeine, and catechins in leaves of ‘Huangjinya’. Overall, the light-induced albino cultivar ‘Huangjinya’ was susceptible to E. onukii while ‘Fudingdabai’ was resistant.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Seasonal Effects and the Impact of In-Hive Pesticide Treatments on
           Parasite, Pathogens, and Health of Honey Bees
    • Authors: Traver B; Feazel-Orr H, Catalfamo K, et al.
      Abstract: Honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.; Hymenoptera: Apidae), populations are in decline and their losses pose a serious threat for crop pollination and food production. The specific causes of these losses are believed to be multifactorial. Pesticides, parasites and pathogens, and nutritional deficiencies have been implicated in the losses due to their ability to exert energetic stress on bees. While our understanding of the role of these factors in honey bee colony losses has improved, there is still a lack of knowledge of how they impact the immune system of the honey bee. In this study, honey bee colonies were exposed to Fumagilin-B, Apistan (tau-fluvalinate), and chlorothalonil at field realistic levels. No significant effects of the antibiotic and two pesticides were observed on the levels of varroa mite, Nosema ceranae (Fries; Microsporidia: Nosematidae), black queen cell virus, deformed wing virus, or immunity as measured by phenoloxidase and glucose oxidase activity. Any effects on the parasites, pathogens, and immunity we observed appear to be due mainly to seasonal changes within the honey bee colonies. The results suggest that Fumagilin-B, Apistan, and chlorothalonil do not significantly impact the health of honey bee colonies, based on the factors analyzed and the concentration of chemicals tested.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Does Soil Treated with Conidial Formulations of Trichoderma spp. Attract
           or Repel Subterranean Termites'
    • Authors: Xiong H; Xue K, Qin W, et al.
      Abstract: Previous studies showed that many wood-rotting fungi were attractive to termites; however, little attention has been paid to the relationship between termites and soil fungus. In the present study, different designs of two-choice tests were conducted to investigate the behaviors of two subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (wood-feeding lower termites) and Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) (fungus-growing higher termites), in response to soil (or sand) treated with the commercial conidial formulations of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (BioWorks) and Trichoderma viride Pers. ex Fries (Shuiguxin). The short-term (1 d) choice tests showed no significant difference in termite aggregation (C. formosanus and O. formosanus) between treated and untreated soil, regardless of Trichoderma species and concentrations. However, in the long-term choice tests, C. formosanus consumed significantly more wood in the chambers containing soil treated with the conidial formulation of T. viride (1 × 108 conidia/g) than that containing untreated soil. The tunneling choice tests showed that sand treated with T. viride (1 × 106 or 1 × 108 conidia/g) or T. harzianum (1 × 106 conidia/g) significantly increased the tunneling activities of C. formosanus. However, sand treated with T. viride (1 × 106 or 1 × 108 conidia/g) had a repellent effect on O. formosanus. Our study showed that the two subterranean termites behaved differently when responding to the conidial formulations of Trichoderma.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Blue and Black Cloth Targets: Effects of Size, Shape, and Color on Stable
           Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Attraction
    • Authors: Hogsette J; Foil L.
      Abstract: Stable fly management is challenging because of the fly’s dispersal behavior and its tendency to remain on the host only while feeding. Optically attractive traps have been used to survey and sometimes reduce adult populations. Insecticide-treated blue and black cloth targets developed for tsetse fly management in Africa were found to be attractive to stable flies in the United States, and various evaluations were conducted in Louisiana and Florida. Tests using untreated targets were designed to answer questions about configuration, size, and color relative to efficacy and stability in high winds. Studies with electric grid targets and with targets paired with Olson traps showed cloth target color attraction in the following decreasing order: black > blue-black > blue. A solid black target is easier to make than a blue-black target because no sewing is involved. Attraction was not affected when flat 1-m2 targets were formed into cylinders, despite the limited view of the blue and black colors together. There was no reduction in attraction when the 1-m2 cylindrical targets were compared with smaller (63 × 30 cm high) cylindrical targets. In addition, there was no difference in attraction between the small blue-black, blue, and black targets. Significance of findings and implications of potential uses for treated targets are discussed. Target attraction was indicated by the numbers of stable flies captured on an Olson sticky trap placed 30 cm from the target. Although this system is adequate for field research, it greatly underestimates the actual numbers of stable flies attracted to treated targets.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Determination of the Baseline Susceptibility of European Populations of
           Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to Chlorantraniliprole and the
           Role of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases
    • Authors: Bosch D; Rodríguez M, Depalo L, et al.
      Abstract: The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest on pome fruit and walnut orchards worldwide. Its resistance to available insecticides has been widely reported. Chlorantraniliprole is an anthranilic diamide that was introduced in European countries in 2008–2009 and acts by activating the insect’s ryanodine receptors. The aims of this study were to determine the baseline susceptibility of European populations of C. pomonella to chlorantraniliprole, to establish the discriminant concentrations (DC) to check the possible development of resistance, and to know the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) in the possible susceptibility decrease of field populations to the insecticide. Ten field populations from Spain along with others were used to calculate the baseline response of larvae to chlorantraniliprole incorporated into the diet. A pooled probit line was calculated, and three DC were established: 0.3 mg a.i./kg (close to the LC50), 1.0 mg a.i./kg (close to the LC90), and 10 mg a.i./kg diets (threefold the LC99). The DC were used to test the susceptibility of 27 field populations from France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Spain. The corrected mortality observed in all cases ranged within the expected interval, even with Spanish populations that showed between 12.1 and 100.0% of individuals with high P450 activity. However, the mortality caused by the DC0.3 decreased as the mean P450 activity increased. Field populations resistant to other insecticides were susceptible to chlorantraniliprole. The determined baseline codling moth susceptibility is a valuable reference for tracking possible future alterations in the efficacy of the insecticide.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Reproductive Behaviors of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera:
           Cerambycidae) in the Laboratory
    • Authors: Keena M; Sánchez V.
      Abstract: The reproductive behaviors of individual pairs of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)—all combinations of three populations and three different ages—were observed in glass jars in the laboratory on Acer saccharum Marshall (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) host material. The virgin female occasionally made first contact, but mounting did not occur until the male antennated or palpated the female. If the female was receptive (older females initially less receptive than younger ones), the male mated with her immediately after mounting and initiated a prolonged pair-bond. When the female was not receptive, some males abandoned the attempt while most performed a short antennal wagging behavior. During the pair-bond, the male continuously grasped the female’s elytral margins with his prothoracic tarsi or both pro- and mesothoracic tarsi. The male copulated in a series of three to four bouts (averaging three to five copulations each) during which the female chewed oviposition sites or walked on the host. Between bouts, the female oviposited and fertile eggs were deposited as soon as 43 min after the first copulation. Females became unreceptive again after copulation and the duration of the pair-bond depended on the male’s ability to remain mounted. Some population differences were seen which may be climatic adaptations. A single pair-bond was sufficient for the female to achieve ~60% fertility for her lifetime, but female fecundity declined with age at mating. Under eradication conditions, mates will become more difficult to find and females that find mates will likely produce fewer progeny because they will be older at the time of mating.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • 12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Enhances Wheat Resistance to Hessian Fly
           (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Under Heat Stress
    • Authors: Cheng G; Chen M, Zhu L.
      Abstract: 12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) plays unique roles in plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the current study, we infested two resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Molly’ and ‘Iris’, with an avirulent Hessian fly population and determined the impact of exogenous OPDA application on wheat resistance to the insect under heat stress. We observed that Molly and Iris treated with OPDA solution prior to the heat treatment exhibited significantly enhanced insect resistance. We also measured OPDA concentrations at Hessian fly feeding sites in Molly infested with Hessian flies. We found that exogenous application of OPDA resulted in increased abundance of endogenous OPDA in Molly seedlings and that OPDA abundance in plants treated with the combination of heat and OPDA was similar to that of plants in the incompatible interaction. Our results suggest that high abundance of endogenous OPDA may be necessary for wheat under heat stress to resist to Hessian fly infestation.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Bark Colonization of Kiln-Dried Wood by the Walnut Twig Beetle: Effect of
           Wood Location and Pheromone Presence
    • Authors: Mayfield A; III, Audley J, Camp R, et al.
      Abstract: The walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a regulated pest in the United States due to its causal role in thousand cankers disease of walnut trees, including the commercially valuable eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.). Several state quarantines designed to limit spread of P. juglandis regulate movement of kiln-dried walnut lumber that contains bark. Previous research demonstrated that P. juglandis will enter and re-emerge from bark of kiln-dried, J. nigra slabs subjected to extreme beetle pressure (baited with a pheromone lure and hung in infested J. nigra trees). This study evaluated P. juglandis bark colonization of both kiln-dried and fresh J. nigra slabs, varying the presence of aggregation pheromone and relative proximity to a beetle source. Wood treatment, slab location, and pheromone presence all significantly affected P. juglandis colonization, as assessed by subsequent beetle emergence. When placed on the ground directly beneath infested trees, kiln-dried slabs were not colonized, and fresh slabs were colonized only when baited with the pheromone lure (6/14 replicates). When placed in crowns of infested trees, kiln-dried slabs were colonized only when baited with pheromone (3/14 replicates), whereas fresh slabs were colonized with and without pheromone (14/14 and 1/13 replicates, respectively). Timing of emergence indicated that beetles did not reproduce in kiln-dried bark. Results suggest that the risk of kiln-dried walnut bark becoming colonized by the P. juglandis during movement of commercial wood products is very low. This information may be useful to government agencies that administer quarantines regulating the transport of walnut lumber.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Temperature and Exposure Time in Cold Storage Reshape Parasitic
           Performance of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
    • Authors: Askari Seyahooei M; Mohammadi-Rad A, Hesami S, et al.
      Abstract: Cold storage can extend shelf life of parasitoids for use in biocontrol. However, cold storage may have negative impacts on life history traits of the parasitoids and, therefore, on their performance as biocontrol agents. Here, we examine the effect of cold storage on life history traits of Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of several economic lepidopteran pests. Newly emerged wasps were stored at three constant temperatures (3°C, 5°C, 7°C) for up to 4 wk. Both temperature and exposure time significantly affected longevity, parasitism, fecundity, and sex ratio. Significant reduction in longevity was observed at 3°C and 7°C, whereas longevity of wasps stored at 5°C remained stable up to the second week and then gradually decreased in Weeks 3 and 4. Parasitism rate also significantly decreased after cold storage at 3°C, 5°C, and 7°C (ranked from high to low). Fecundity decreased at T 3°C and T 5°C but this trait was not affected by storage at T 7°C. A significant shift in male production was observed at T 5°C in Week 3, but in Week 4, the only treatment with male biased reproduction was T 3°C. These results show that the effect of temperature and exposure time in cold storage is trait dependent. Overall, storage at 5°C for a period of 3 wk least impacted most life-history traits of H. hebetor wasps.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Packing and Postirradiation Handling of the Anastrepha ludens (Diptera:
           Tephritidae) Tapachula-7 Genetic Sexing Strain: Combined Effects of
           Hypoxia, Pupal Size, and Temperature on Adult Quality
    • Authors: Arredondo J; Ruiz L, Montoya P, et al.
      Abstract: The production of genetic sexing strains (GSS) of tephritid flies for sterile insect technique (SIT) programs convey the need to determine new conditions for packing and shipment since these flies are more susceptible to stressors than standard bisexual strains. We studied the effect of hypoxia, pupae size, and temperature on the new GSS Tapachula-7 of Anastrepha ludens flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). In one experiment, we tested the interaction size hypoxia using three pupae sizes, 6 (11.6 ± 1.1 mg), 7 (15.3 ± 1.5 mg), and 8 (17.9 ± 1.3 mg) (95% of produced pupae exhibit these categories of size), and four hypoxia periods, 12, 24, 36, 48 h and a control. In a second experiment, we tested two periods of hypoxia (24 and 48 h) and four temperatures: 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and a control (without hypoxia at laboratory temperature). Our results showed that the emergence and percent of fliers from the pupae exposed to hypoxia were adversely affected; however, emergence was higher in pupae of size 7. Treatment for 12 and 24 h hypoxia led to a higher number of fliers. In the case of the interaction of hypoxia and temperature, it was observed that those flies that emerged from the pupae exposed to hypoxia at 15 and 20°C exhibited quality control parameters similar to those that were not exposed to hypoxia. We discuss our results on the basis of the metabolic response to these factors and its application in the SIT programs.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Deltamethrin-resistant German Cockroaches Are Less Sensitive to the Insect
           Repellents DEET and IR3535 than Non-resistant Individuals
    • Authors: Mengoni S; Alzogaray R.
      Abstract: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), is a serious worldwide pest with a considerable economical and sanitary impact. It is mainly controlled by the application of synthetic insecticides, but repeated use of these substances has promoted the appearance of resistance in cockroach populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to compare the behavior of deltamethrin-susceptible (CIPEIN colony) and deltamethrin-resistant (JUBA and VGBA colonies) first instar nymphs exposed to the repellents N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) and ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate (IR3535). Firstly, the behavior of the nymphs was assessed in an experimental arena in the absence of repellents. The parameters Distance Traveled, Velocity, Mobility Time, and Time Spent (in each half of the arena) were quantified using an image analyser, and showed that the behavior elicited by the three colonies was similar. After this, the behavior of the nymphs was quantified in an arena, half of which had been treated with repellent. The repellency of DEET increased as a linear function of log concentration for the three colonies. DEET elicited repellency as from a concentration of 97.49 µg/cm2 for the CIPEIN and JUBA colonies and 194.98 µg/cm2 for the VGBA colony. The repellency of IR3535 was weaker and started at a concentration of 389.96 µg/cm2 for the CIPEIN colony, 779.92 μg/cm2 for JUBA, and 1559.84 μg/cm2 for VGBA. Finally, nymphs were exposed to 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 DEET:IR3535 mixtures, and a synergistic effect was observed only in the CIPEIN colony.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effects of Irradiation Dose on Sterility Induction and Quality Parameters
           of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)
    • Authors: Krüger A; Schlesener D, Martins L, et al.
      Abstract: Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a widely distributed pest of soft-skinned and stone fruits that is controlled mainly with pesticides. An alternative to the chemical control is the sterile insect technique (SIT), an ecologically friendly method of pest management that could be used against D. suzukii. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on reproductive sterility, ovarian morphometry, and quality parameters of D. suzukii. Full female sterility was achieved at 75 Gy, while an adequate level of male sterility (99.67%) was obtained at 200 Gy. The ovarian size showed an exponential decay in function of irradiation dose increase. There was no significant influence of irradiation dose on the quality parameters evaluated. Our data suggest that gamma radiation can be recommended to be used in an SIT program for D. suzukii.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effects of Temperature on the Development and Reproduction of Thrips
           hawaiiensis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
    • Authors: Cao Y; Li C, Yang W, et al.
      Abstract: Environmental temperature has a significant impact on insect behavior. The present study aimed to determine the effects of temperature on the development, survival, and reproduction of Thrips hawaiiensis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important flower-inhabiting thrips. These effects were evaluated at five constant temperatures (18, 21, 24, 27, and 30°C) on thrips reared in the laboratory on excised Gardenia jasminoides flowers. The developmental durations of egg, first instar, second instar, prepupa, pupa, and the entire immature stages were shortened in response to a temperature increase from 18 to 30°C. The highest generational survival rate was at 27°C (75.00%), whereas the lowest was at 18°C (46.00%). The minimum threshold and effective accumulated temperatures for completing a generation of T. hawaiiensis were 7.62°C and 171.26 degree-days, respectively. The highest fecundity (95.80) was at 27°C, but it was not significantly different than at 24°C (84.72) or 30°C (84.32). The highest oviposition rate of 5.57 eggs per female per day occurred at 27°C, which was significantly higher than at any other temperature. Both the highest intrinsic rate of increase, at 0.200, and net reproduction rate, at 44.97, for T. hawaiiensis were observed at 27°C, whereas the lowest values of 0.114 and 25.56, respectively, were observed at 18°C. These results suggest that T. hawaiiensis is well adapted to temperate conditions, with an optimal temperature range for development of 24 to 30°C, with the most suitable temperature for both development and reproduction being 27°C.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Pumpkin as an Alternate Host Plant for Laboratory Colonies of Grape
    • Authors: O’Hearn J; Walsh D.
      Abstract: The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn; Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the primary vector of Grapevine Leafroll associated Viruses (GLRaVs) in Washington State vineyards. Rearing laboratory colonies of grape mealybug has proven difficult. Several host plants were tested to determine their suitability for use as an alternate host plants for laboratory colonies of grape mealybug. Of the plants tested, colonies of grape mealybug were successful on pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo cv ‘Connecticut field’) leaves and vines. Mealybugs were able to develop from the crawler stage, through developmental instars, and adults were able to reproduce viable offspring. To date this is the only successful study to raise grape mealybugs on a cucurbit. Pumpkin appears to be a viable alternate host plant for laboratory colonies of the grape mealybug.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Longevity of Fly Baits Exposed to Field Conditions
    • Authors: Murillo A; Cox D, Mullens B.
      Abstract: Insecticidal fly baits are important tools for adult house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), control, especially on animal operations. Two house fly baits, containing either cyantraniliprole or dinotefuran, were tested on a dairy farm for attractiveness over time compared to a sugar control. Sticky trap and bucket trap house fly catches were recorded for each bait type at 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h. After 1 wk of exposure to flies and field conditions, these ‘aged’ baits were tested against fresh baits for fly visitation in the field over 1 h. House flies from each bait type (aged and fresh) were collected and kept under laboratory conditions to assess mortality over 3 d. Average visitation of individual flies to each bait type (fresh) in the field was also evaluated. Sticky traps did not show significant fly catch differences among bait types over time, however bucket trap catches did show significant differences for cyantraniliprole bait and dinotefuran bait compared to sugar at 72 h and 168 h. No significant differences among fly visitation to aged or fresh baits were found. Fresh cyantraniliprole bait and dinotefuran bait resulted in greater fly mortality compared to controls, but not compared to aged toxic baits. Average house fly visitation time was greatest for sugar and cyantraniliprole bait.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Electron Beam-Induced Sterility and Inhibition of Ovarian Development in
           the Sakhalin Pine Longicorn, Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera:
    • Authors: Cho W; Koo H, Yun S, et al.
      Abstract: The Sakhalin pine longicorn, Monochamus saltuarius (Gebler; Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an insect vector of the pine wilt nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle, and is widely distributed in central Korea. M. saltuarius is a forest pest that seriously damages Pinus densiflora (Siebold et Zucc, Pinales: Pinaceae) and Pinus koraiensis (Siebold & Zucc, Pinales: Pinaceae) forests. We examined the effect of electron beam irradiation on the mating, DNA damage and ovarian development of M. saltuarius adults and sought to identify the optimal dose for sterilizing insects. When the adults were irradiated with electron beams, both females and males were completely sterile at 200 Gy. In a reciprocal crossing experiment between unirradiated and irradiated adults, the reproductive ability of wild adults was recovered by crossing with wild adults even after crossing previously with sterile adults. When a pair of unirradiated adults (♀− × ♂−) and 10 or 20 irradiated adults (♀+ or ♂+) were kept together, the control effect was as high as 80~90%. After electron beam irradiation at 200 Gy, the DNA of M. saltuarius adults was damaged, the ovarian development of female adults was inhibited, and the level of vitellogenin was significantly decreased compared with that in unirradiated female adults. These results suggest that pine wilt disease can be effectively controlled if a large number of sterilized M. saltuarius male adults are released into the field.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Phenology of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in a California Urban Landscape
    • Authors: Ingels C; Daane K.
      Abstract: The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an invasive pest that has been resident in California since 2006. To better understand its seasonal phenology, we used baited traps to estimate nymph and adult population densities in midtown Sacramento, the focal area of the Northern California invasion. Adult H. halys populations were found soon after trapping began in February (2015–2016) or March (2014); the first egg masses for 2014, 2015, and 2016 were found on 5 May, 17 April, and 12 April, respectively, and the first nymphs were found 3 June, 19 May, and 9 May, respectively. There were two generations per year, with one peak in June and another in September. Summer temperatures above 36°C in July and August were associated with reduced catches in traps of both nymphs and adults. This extreme heat may have helped to form two clear nymph peaks and suppressed egg deposition. In 2016, two trap types and four lures were also compared. Trap type influenced season-long nymph captures, with fewer nymphs in double cone traps than pyramid traps. Lure type influenced season-long trap catch, with more nymphs and adults trapped with the Rescue lure than the AgBio Combo lure, Alpha Scents, or Trécé Pherocon Combo lures, although this difference was only associated with the capture of nymphs and we did not compare for longevity or seasonal variation. These data are discussed with respect to H. halys’ phenology from the mid-Atlantic region.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Influence of previous host plants on the reproductive success of a
           polyphagous mite pest, Halotydeus destructor (Trombidiformes:
    • Authors: Cheng X; Umina P, Hoffmann A.
      Abstract: In the evolution of phytophagous arthropods, adaptation to a single type of host plant is generally assumed to lead to a reduction in fitness on other host plant types, resulting in increasing host specialization. While this process is normally considered to be genetically based, short-term effects acting within one generation (plasticity) or across two generations (cross-generation variation) could also play a role. Here, we test these effects in the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) (Prostigmata: Penthaleidae), a major agricultural pest of multiple crop plants. Field populations of mites were collected from grasses, legumes, and broad-leaf weeds and placed into enclosures with different plant types. The survival, net reproductive output (Ro), and feeding damage of each mite population were assessed across two generations. The interaction between the origin of mites and plant type had a significant effect on parental survival, Ro, offspring development, and feeding damage. Mites collected from legumes showed higher parental survival on all host types; however, Ro, offspring development and feeding damage were all higher when mites were placed onto the same plant type from which they were collected. These patterns point to the ability of H. destructor to perform well on host plants even in the absence of genetically differentiated host races, but also the likelihood of performance trade-offs when populations are forced to rapidly change hosts within and across sequential generations.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Meta-analysis and Economic Evaluation of Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments
           and Other Prophylactic Insecticides in Indiana Maize From 2000–2015 With
           IPM Recommendations
    • Authors: Alford A; Krupke C.
      Abstract: Corn rootworm remains the key pest of maize in the United States. It is managed largely by Bt corn hybrids, along with soil insecticides and neonicotinoid seed treatments (NSTs), the latter of which are applied to virtually all conventionally (non-Bt) produced maize. Frequently, more than one of these pest-management approaches is employed at the same time. To determine the utility and relative contributions of these various approaches, a meta-analysis was conducted on plant health and pest damage metrics from 15 yr of insecticide efficacy trials conducted on Indiana maize to compare the pest-protection potential of NSTs to that of other insecticides and Bt hybrids. The probability of recovering the insecticide cost associated with each treatment was also calculated when possible. With the exception of early-season plant health (stand counts), in which the NSTs performed better than all other insecticides, the vast majority of insecticides performed similarly in all plant health metrics, including yield. Furthermore, all tested insecticides (including NSTs) reported a high probability (>80%) of recovering treatment costs. Given the similarity in performance and probability of recovering treatment costs, we suggest NSTs be optional for producers, so that they can be incorporated into an insecticide rotation when managing for corn rootworm, the primary Indiana corn pest. This approach could simultaneously reduce costs to growers, lower the likelihood of nontarget effects, and reduce the risk of pests evolving resistance to the neonicotinoid insecticides.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Synergistic and additive interactions of Serratia marcescens S-JS1 to the
           chemical insecticides for controlling Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera:
    • Authors: Niu H; Wang N, Liu B, et al.
      Abstract: The combined use of entomopathogens and chemical agents has been suggested as an alternative strategy to control pest insects. However, the effectiveness of combinations of entomopathogenic bacteria and insecticides against rice planthoppers is largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the separate and combined effects of an entomopathogenic bacterium, Serratia marcescens S-JS1, and spirotetramat or thiamethoxam insecticides against third-instar nymphs of Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the combinations caused higher mortality in the third-instar nymphs of N. lugens and produced a synergistic or additive effect compared with the treatments with either bacterial suspension or insecticide alone. Application of S-JS1 (1 × 109 cfu/ml) in combination with 20 mg/liter spirotetramat resulted in 80.5% of N. lugens nymphal mortality, compared with 52.7% in spirotetramat alone treatments, and interactions resulted in a synergistic responses. Other combination treatments of S-JS1 with either insecticide concentration all exhibited additive interactions. In further greenhouse tests, S-JS1 (1 × 109 cfu/ml) + spirotetramat (20 mg/liter) and S-JS1 (1 × 109 cfu/ml) + thiamethoxam (5 mg/liter) showed additive effects against the nymphs, and were found to be most effective relative to their individual treatments on days 5 and 9. Our results indicate that S. marcescens S-JS1 combined with insecticide may provide a promising new strategy for controlling N. lugens.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Fruit Set and Single Visit Stigma Pollen Deposition by Managed Bumble Bees
           and Wild Bees in Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae)
    • Authors: Campbell J; Daniels J, Ellis J.
      Abstract: Pollinators provide essential services for watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.; Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae). Managed bumble bees, Bombus impatiens (Cresson; Hymenoptera: Apidae), have been shown to be a useful watermelon pollinator in some areas. However, the exact contribution bumble bees make to watermelon pollination and how their contribution compares to that of other bees is unclear. We used large cages (5.4 × 2.5 × 2.4 m) to confine bumble bee hives to watermelon plants and compared fruit set in those cages to cages containing watermelons but no pollinators, and to open areas of field next to cages (allows all pollinators). We also collected data on single visit pollen deposition onto watermelon stigmas by managed bumble bees, honey bees, and wild bees. Overall, more fruit formed within the open cages than in cages of the other two treatment groups. B. impatiens and Melissodes spp. deposited the most pollen onto watermelon stigmas per visit, but all bee species observed visiting watermelon flowers were capable of depositing ample pollen to watermelon stigmas. Although B. impatiens did deposit large quantities of pollen to stigmas, they were not common within the field (i.e., outside the cages) as they were readily drawn to flowering plants outside of the watermelon field. Overall, bumble bees can successfully pollinate watermelon, but may be useful in greenhouses or high tunnels where watermelon flowers have no competition from other flowering plants that could draw bumble bees away from watermelon.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effect of Polygonum persicaria (Polygonales: Polygonaceae) Extracted
           Agglutinin on Life Table and Antioxidant Responses in Helicoverpa armigera
           (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae
    • Authors: Rahimi V; Hajizadeh J, Zibaee A, et al.
      Abstract: Plant lectins could reduce insect populations by imposing imbalances in biology and physiology. Here, an agglutinin was extracted from Polygonum persicaria L. (PPA; Polygonales: Polygonaceae) and its effects were investigated on life table parameters and antioxidant system of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). PPA significantly changed demographic parameters showing adverse effects on age-stage survival rate (Sxj), age-specific survival rate (lx), age-specific fecundity rate (mx), age stage specific fecundity (fxj), and life expectancy (exj). Also, life table parameters including net reproduction rate (R0) (Offspring/female), intrinsic rate of population increase (rm) (days−1), finite rate of increase (λ) (days−1), gross reproduction rate (GRR) (Offspring/female) significantly decreased in the PPA-treated H. armigera compared to control except for mean generation time (T) (days). Activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CA), peroxidase (POX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) increased statistically in the PPA-treated larvae compared to control while no significant difference was observed in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) activity. Moreover, ratio of RSSR/RSH and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were found to be statistically higher in PPA-treated larvae than control. The current results clearly showed that PPA not only had a negative impact on demography of H. armigera but also induced antioxidant raise by releasing free radicals. These released radicals, together with impaired digestion and absorption observed in our previous report, could be considered as a reason for reducing biological fitness of H. armigera.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Chemical Constituents of Coreopsis lanceolata Stems and Their Antitermitic
           Activity Against the Subterranean Termite Coptotermes curvignathus
    • Authors: Pardede A; Adfa M, Kusnanda A, et al.
      Abstract: Coreopsis lanceolata is an Asteraceous plant known to contain semiochemicals active against nematodes and leukemic agents. The objective of the study was to discover termite resistant constituents from C. lanceolata stems. Five compounds were isolated from C. lanceolata stems. These compounds were identified as 5-phenyl-2-(1-propynyl)-thiophene (1), 1-phenylhepta-1,3,5-tryne (2), β-sitosterol (3), succinic acid (4), and protocatechuic acid (5), respectively; they were confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. Their antitermitic effects were evaluated with the no-choice feeding test against Coptotermes curvignathus. Of the isolates, 5-phenyl-2-(1-propynyl)-thiophene (1) and 1-phenylhepta-1,3,5-tryne (2) showed strong potent antitermitic activity. Our findings suggested that compounds 1 and 2 isolated from C. lanceolata stems appears to be the active ingredients.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Resistance of Seven Cabbage Cultivars to Green Peach Aphid (Hemiptera:
    • Authors: Ahmed N; Chamila Darshanee H, Fu W, et al.
      Abstract: The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important pest of many crops in the world and a vector of more than 100 plant viruses. It is a major pest of Brassica vegetables such as Chinese cabbage in northern China. Chemical control is extensively used to manage this aphid around the world; however, development of insecticide resistance has been a major obstacle facing growers. Host plant resistance in Chinese cabbage against M. persicae has not been reported yet. In this study, we investigated the resistance categories in seven Chinese cabbage cultivars against M. persicae. The resistance categories of these cultivars included antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance related to leaf color and wax content. The cultivar ‘Yuanbao’ had antibiotic and tolerance effects on the aphid. The rate of intrinsic increase (rm) of M. persicae was lower on Yuanbao compared with the other six cultivars. Yuanbao also had the highest antibiosis against the aphid. The aphid preferred ‘Qingan 80’, which had the highest wavelength (green) in leaf color. The highest wax content was found in Yuanbao, which had a significantly negative correlation with the preference of M. persicae. The cabbage cultivar Yuanbao was resistant to M. persicae and could be used in the development of integrated pest management (IPM) programs against the aphid in the field.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Improved Sweetpotato Whitefly and Potato Psyllid Control in Tomato by
           Combining the Mirid Dicyphus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) With
           Specialist Parasitic Wasps
    • Authors: Calvo F; Torres-Ruiz A, Velázquez-González J, et al.
      Abstract: Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Bactericera cockerelli Sulcer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) are important pests in tomato, and the mirid Dicyphus hesperus Knight (Heteroptera: Miridae) has been shown as an effective predator of both pests. Although the predator was able to suppress populations of both pests, the remaining levels could still exceed tolerable levels. Thus, we here hypothesized whether the combination of D. hesperus with the specialist parasitoids Eretmocerus eremicus Rose y Zolnerowich (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) (whitefly) and Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) (psyllid) would result in better pest control on a greenhouse scale. For that, we conducted a trial in which we compared the results against B. tabaci and B. cockerelli in greenhouses treated with D. hesperus alone or the predator in combination with the specialist parasitoids. The results showed that the predator was able to establish and suppress B. tabaci and B. cockerelli in tomato, but the addition of the specialist parasitoids resulted in better and more cost-effective pest control. Implementation of this method would therefore increase the robustness and reliability of biocontrol-based integrated pest management programmes for tomato crops, over methods based exclusively on D. hesperus release.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Development of a High-Throughput Laboratory Bioassay for Testing Potential
           Attractants for Terrestrial Snails and Slugs
    • Authors: Cordoba M; Millar J, Mc Donnell R.
      Abstract: Invasive snails and slugs are among the most damaging pests of vegetables, fruits, ornamentals, grains, and forage throughout the world. Current control strategies are focused almost exclusively on molluscicides, which are ineffective under some conditions, and which can have serious nontarget effects. A major aim of this study was to develop a generic high-throughput bioassay method for use in identifying attractants for terrestrial gastropods, with the overall goal of developing attractant-based control methods for pest gastropods. Here, we demonstrate the use of the bioassay method in screening a wide variety of foodstuffs and other possible sources of attractants, using the pest snail Cornu aspersum Müller (Pulmonata, Helicidae) and the pest slug Deroceras reticulatum Müller (Pulmonata, Agriolimacidae) as test animals. Among a large number of food items and previously reported attractants tested, chopped fresh cucumber (Cucumis sativus) was the most attractive substrate for both species. Our results also showed that previous feeding experience influences subsequent food choice to some extent, but regardless of previous feeding experience, chopped cucumber was as attractive or more attractive than any other substrate tested.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Comparison of Commercial Lures and Food Baits for Early Detection of Fruit
           Infestation Risk by Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)
    • Authors: Cha D; Hesler S, Wallingford A, et al.
      Abstract: Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is one of the most serious invasive pests of berries and cherries worldwide. Several adult monitoring systems are available to time foliar application of insecticides with the expectation of detecting the presence of D. suzukii before they infest susceptible crops. We tested this by comparing four different trapping systems based on two homemade baits, apple cider vinegar (ACV) or fermenting dough, and two fermentation volatile-based commercial lures, Scentry and Trécé. Traps baited with dough or Scentry captured more D. suzukii than traps baited with ACV or Trécé in blueberries and traps baited with Trécé in raspberries. In blueberries, traps baited with Scentry, Trécé and dough provided 11–21 d of warning prior to first detection of fruit infestation. However, these traps were not as effective in summer floricane raspberries. The Scentry lure baited traps detected D. suzukii on the same week as the first detection of fruit infestation and other trapping systems detected the fly 4 to 11 d after the first detection, suggesting the need for an improved D. suzukii detection system in raspberries. Both synthetic lures (Scentry and Trécé) were significantly more selective for D. suzukii than dough bait, although the selectivity of all four tested lures/baits were relatively low at <20%. Our results suggest that in locations where D. suzukii adults are not trapped in late winter and spring, adult monitoring of D. suzukii using a sensitive trapping system may provide early warning of pending infestation risk thereby potentially reducing unnecessary insecticide applications.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Origin of Pest Lineages of the Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera:
    • Authors: Izzo V; Chen Y, Schoville S, et al.
      Abstract: Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]) is a pest of potato throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but little is known about the beetle’s origins as a pest. We sampled the beetle from uncultivated Solanum host plants in Mexico, and from pest and non-pest populations in the United States and used mitochondrial DNA and nuclear loci to examine three hypotheses on the origin of the pest lineages: 1) the pest beetles originated from Mexican populations, 2) they descended from hybridization between previously divergent populations, or 3) they descended from populations that are native to the Plains states in the United States. Mitochondrial haplotypes of non-pest populations from Mexico and Arizona differed substantially from beetles collected from the southern plains and potato fields in the United States, indicating that beetles from Mexico and Arizona did not contribute to founding the pest lineages. Similar results were observed for AFLP and microsatellite data . In contrast, non-pest populations from the states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Texas were genetically similar to U.S. pest populations, indicating that they contributed to the founding of the pest lineages. Most of the pest populations do not show a significant reduction in genetic diversity compared to the plains populations in the United States. We conclude that genetically heterogeneous beetle populations expanded onto potato from native Solanum hosts. This mode of host range expansion may have contributed to the abundant genetic diversity of contemporary populations, perhaps contributing to the rapid evolution of climate tolerance, host range, and insecticide resistance.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effects of Mosquito Control Adulticides on Sterile Cochliomyia hominivorax
           (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
    • Authors: Hribar L; Murray H, McIntire S, et al.
      Abstract: Effects of mosquito control adulticides on sterile screwworm flies, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were investigated via bottle bioassays, outdoor cage tests, and exposure to treated vegetation. In bottle bioassays, 43 μg of permethrin via dilution of Evoluer, 474.56 μg of malathion via dilution of Fyfanon, and 25 μg of naled via dilution of Dibrom Concentrate were used to challenge screwworm flies. Permethrin was more toxic to screwworm flies than was malathion, which was more toxic than naled. On succeeding days, permethrin was still lethal to the flies, whereas malathion and naled were less toxic. During outdoor cage trials, screwworm mortality declined as distance from the spray truck increased. Sterile screwworm flies were killed by lower concentrations of permethrin needed to kill black salt marsh mosquitoes, Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae). Flies exposed to treated vegetation taken from the path of the spray cloud died more quickly than did flies exposed to leaves taken 5 ft inside the canopy. Fly mortality increased as volume mean diameter of droplets increased. In spite of the toxicity of Evoluer to screwworm flies, aspects of their biology make it unlikely that mosquito control operations would affect released flies.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Attraction of Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aphidoletes
           aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to Sweet Alyssum and Assessment of
           Plant Resources Effects on their Fitness
    • Authors: Aparicio Y; Gabarra R, Arnó J.
      Abstract: The green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the most economically important aphid species affecting crops worldwide. Since many natural enemies of this aphid have been recorded, biological control of this pest might be a viable alternative to manage it. Selected plant species in field margins might help to provide the natural enemies with food sources to enhance their fitness. This study aimed to investigate if sweet alyssum, Lobularia maritima (L.) (Brassicaceae), is a potential food source for the parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the predator Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and whether this flower could contribute to enhance the biological control of M. persicae. Volatiles produced by alyssum, with and without flowers, attracted both natural enemies. This attractiveness to alyssum flowers was disrupted when compared with peach shoots recently infested with a relatively low number of aphids. When aphids were absent, parasitoids exposed to alyssum survived longer than those that fed on a sugar solution or on water. In the case of the predator, alyssum flowers did not benefit longevity since the nectaries were inaccessible to females. However, our results provide evidence that A. aphidimyza would be able to feed on nectar if accessible. The floral resource did not improve the reproductive capacity of the two natural enemies, but the 10% sugar solution increased the egg load of the predator. Provision of other sugar resources, such as flowers with exposed nectaries and extra floral nectar may also be a viable option to improve the biological control of M. persicae.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Comparative Assessment of Four Steinernematidae and Three
           Heterorhabditidae Species for Infectivity of Larval Diabrotica Virgifera
    • Authors: Geisert R; Cheruiyot D, Hibbard B, et al.
      Abstract: Larval Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were exposed to seven different entomopathogenic nematode species to test their potential infectivity in a laboratory setting. Known D. virgifera-infecting nematode species Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, Heterorhabditis megidis Poinar, Jackson & Klein, Steinernema feltiae Filipjev, and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser were tested in a concerted experiment alongside Steinernema diaprepesi Nguyen & Duncan, Steinernema riobrave Cabanillas, Poinar & Raulston, and a Missouri wild-type H. bacteriophora which have not been previously tested on D. virgifera. The species S. rarum Doucet was tested separately for D. virgifera infectivity. Third-instar D. virgifera were exposed to either 60 or 120 nematodes per larva for 6 d. Following exposure, mortality was recorded and larvae were examined to determine the presence of active nematode infections. Results indicated a significantly higher proportion of larvae with active infections from the Heterorhabditidae species and S. diaprepesi than the other Steinernematidae species for both exposure rates; mortality data indicated a similar trend. Steinernema rarum showed almost no infectivity in laboratory experiments.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Variation in Inspection Efficacy by Member States of Wood Packaging
           Material Entering the European Union
    • Authors: Eyre D; Macarthur R, Haack R, et al.
      Abstract: The use of wood packaging materials (WPMs) in international trade is recognized as a pathway for the movement of invasive pests and as the origin of most introductions of Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Europe and North America. Following several pest interceptions on WPM associated with stone imports from China, the European Union (EU) agreed to survey certain categories of imports based on the EU Combined Nomenclature Codes for imports, which are based on the international Harmonized System. Between April 2013 and March 2015, 72,263 relevant consignments were received from China in the EU and 26,008 were inspected. Harmful organisms were detected in 0.9% of the consignments, and 1.1% of the imports did not have markings compliant with the international standard for treating WPM, ISPM 15. There were significant differences between the detection rates of harmful organisms among EU member states. In member states that inspected at least 500 consignments, the rate of detection ranged from 6.9% in Austria and France to 0.0% in Spain and Poland. If this difference in detection rate is the result of differences in the methods and intensity of inspection in different member states then an approximate sevenfold increase in the interception of harmful organisms may be achieved if all states were to achieve detection rates achieved by Austria and France. The EU data from 1999 to 2014 indicated an increasing number of interceptions of Bostrichidae and Cerambycidae since 2010. This study demonstrates that there is an ongoing threat of non-native forest pests being imported on WPM.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Blends of Pheromones, With and Without Host Plant Volatiles, Can Attract
           Multiple Species of Cerambycid Beetles Simultaneously
    • Authors: Hanks L; Mongold-Diers J, Atkinson T, et al.
      Abstract: Pheromone components of cerambycid beetles are often conserved, with a given compound serving as a pheromone component for multiple related species, including species native to different continents. Consequently, a single synthesized compound may attract multiple species to a trap simultaneously. Furthermore, our previous research in east-central Illinois had demonstrated that pheromones of different species can be combined to attract an even greater diversity of species. Here, we describe the results of field bioassays in the northeastern, midwestern, southeastern, south-central, and southwestern United States that assessed attraction of cerambycids to a ‘generic’ pheromone blend containing six known cerambycid pheromone components, versus the individual components of the blend, and how attraction was influenced by plant volatiles. Nineteen species were attracted in significant numbers, with the pheromone blend attracting about twice as many species as any of the individual components. The blend attracted species of three subfamilies, whereas individual components attracted species within one subfamily. However, some antagonistic interactions between blend components were identified. The plant volatiles ethanol and α-pinene usually enhanced attraction to the blend. Taken together, these experiments suggest that blends of cerambycid pheromones, if selected carefully to minimize inhibitory effects, can be effective for sampling a diversity of species, and that plant volatiles generally enhance attraction. Such generic pheromone blends may serve as an effective and economical method of detecting incursions of exotic, potentially invasive species.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Spatial Distribution and Sampling Plans With Fixed Level of Precision for
           Citrus Aphids (Hom., Aphididae) on Two Orange Species
    • Authors: Kafeshani F; Rajabpour A, Aghajanzadeh S, et al.
      Abstract: Aphis spiraecola Patch, Aphis gossypii Glover, and Toxoptera aurantii Boyer de Fonscolombe are three important aphid pests of citrus orchards. In this study, spatial distributions of the aphids on two orange species, Satsuma mandarin and Thomson navel, were evaluated using Taylor’s power law and Iwao’s patchiness. In addition, a fixed-precision sequential sampling plant was developed for each species on the host plant by Green’s model at precision levels of 0.25 and 0.1. The results revealed that spatial distribution parameters and therefore the sampling plan were significantly different according to aphid and host plant species. Taylor’s power law provides a better fit for the data than Iwao’s patchiness regression. Except T. aurantii on Thomson navel orange, spatial distribution patterns of the aphids were aggregative on both citrus. T. aurantii had regular dispersion pattern on Thomson navel orange. Optimum sample size of the aphids varied from 30-2061 and 1-1622 shoots on Satsuma mandarin and Thomson navel orange based on aphid species and desired precision level. Calculated stop lines of the aphid species on Satsuma mandarin and Thomson navel orange ranged from 0.48 to 19 and 0.19 to 80.4 aphids per 24 shoots according to aphid species and desired precision level. The performance of the sampling plan was validated by resampling analysis using resampling for validation of sampling plans (RVSP) software. This sampling program is useful for IPM program of the aphids in citrus orchards.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Spinosad- and Deltamethrin-Induced Impact on Mating and Reproductive
           Output of the Maize Weevil Sitophilus zeamais
    • Authors: Vélez M; Botina L, Turchen L, et al.
      Abstract: Assessments of acute insecticide toxicity frequently focus on the lethal effects on individual arthropod pest species and populations neglecting the impacts and consequences of sublethal exposure. However, the sublethal effects of insecticides may lead to harmful, neutral, or even beneficial responses that may affect (or not) the behavior and sexual fitness of the exposed insects. Intriguingly, little is known about such effects on stored product insect pests in general and the maize weevil in particular. Thus, we assessed the sublethal effects of spinosad and deltamethrin on female mate-searching, mating behavior, progeny emergence, and grain consumption by maize weevils. Insecticide exposure did not affect the resting time, number of stops, and duration of mate-searching by female weevils, but their walking velocity was compromised. Maize weevil couples sublethally exposed to deltamethrin and spinosad exhibited altered reproductive behavior (walking, interacting, mounting, and copulating), but deltamethrin caused greater impairment. Curiously, higher grain consumption and increased progeny emergence were observed in deltamethrin-exposed insects, suggesting that this pyrethroid insecticide elicits hormesis in maize weevils that may compromise control efficacy by this compound. Although spinosad has less of an impact on weevil reproductive behavior than deltamethrin, this bioinsecticide also benefited weevil progeny emergence, but did not affect grain consumption. Therefore, our findings suggest caution using either compound, and particularly deltamethrin, for controlling the maize weevil, as they may actually favor this species population growth when in sublethal exposure requiring further assessments. The same concern may be valid for other insecticides as well, what deserves future attention.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Design of an Attractant for Empoasca onukii (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)
           Based on the Volatile Components of Fresh Tea Leaves
    • Authors: Bian L; Cai X, Luo Z, et al.
      Abstract: The tea leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda, is a serious pest of the tea plant. E. onukii prefers to inhabit vigorously growing tender tea leaves. The host selection of E. onukii adults may be associated with plant volatile compounds (VOCs). We sought to identify potentially attractive VOCs from tea leaves at three different ages and test the behavioral responses of E. onukii adults to synthetic VOC blends in the laboratory and field to aid in developing an E. onukii adult attractant. In darkness, the fresh or mature tea leaves of less than 1-mo old could attract more leafhoppers than the mature branches (MB) that had many older leaves (leaf age >1 mo). Volatile analysis showed that the VOC composition of the fresh leaves was the same as that of the mature leaves, but linalool and indole were not at detectable levels in VOCs from the MB. Moreover, the mass ratio differed for each common volatile in the three types of tea leaves. When under competition with volatiles from the MB, the leafhoppers showed no significant tropism to each single volatile but could be attracted by the synthetic volatile blend imitating the fresh leaves. With the removal of some volatile components, the effective synthetic volatile blend was mixed with (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and linalool at a mass ratio of 0.6:23:12.6. These three volatiles may be the key components for the host selection of E. onukii adults and could be used as an attractant in tea gardens.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Foraging Distance of the Argentine Ant in California Vineyards
    • Authors: Hogg B; Nelson E, Hagler J, et al.
      Abstract: Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), form mutualisms with hemipteran pests in crop systems. In vineyards, they feed on honeydew produced by mealybugs and soft scales, which they tend and protect from natural enemies. Few options for controlling Argentine ants are available; one of the more effective approaches is to use liquid baits containing a low dose of an insecticide. Knowledge of ant foraging patterns is required to estimate how many bait stations to deploy per unit area. To measure how far ants move liquid bait in vineyards, we placed bait stations containing sugar water and a protein marker in plots for 6 d, and then collected ants along transects extending away from bait stations. The ants moved an average of 16.08 m and 12.21 m from bait stations in the first and second years of the study, respectively. Marked ants were found up to 63 m from bait stations; however, proportions of marked ants decreased exponentially as distance from the bait station increased. Results indicate that Argentine ants generally forage at distances <36 m in California vineyards, thus suggesting that insecticide bait stations must be deployed at intervals of 36 m or less to control ants. We found no effect of insecticide on distances that ants moved the liquid bait, but this may have been because bait station densities were too low to affect the high numbers of Argentine ants that were present at the study sites.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Repellent Effects of Insecticides Against Protaphorura fimata (Collembola:
           Poduromorpha: Onychiuridae)
    • Authors: Joseph S.
      Abstract: Protaphorura fimata Gisin (Poduromorpha: Onychiuridae) is a serious pest of lettuce [Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae)] in the Salinas Valley of California. Because P. fimata is a subterranean springtail species adapted to soil environments, individuals are assumed to be able to sense and behaviorally avoid insecticide-treated soil, and this capacity could be used strategically to control P. fimata. A series of laboratory bioassays was conducted to examine the behavior of P. fimata with respect to insecticides via noncontact and contact assays. In the noncontact assay, significantly more P. fimata individuals were collected away from the insecticide source than closer to the source (P < 0.05) when clothianidin, flonicamid, bifenthrin, diamethoate, essential oils, extracts of C. subtsugae, methomyl, chlorpyrifos, zeta-cypermethrin, thiamethoxam, pyrethrins, extracts of Burkholderia spp., cyantraniliprole, and oxamyl were used as insecticides. In the contact assay, P. fimata individuals spent significantly less time on discs treated with spinetoram and lambda-cyhalothrin during each crossing than on flonicamid- and oxamyl-treated discs. P. fimata individuals changed direction more frequently while crossing discs when the discs were treated with azadirachtin, clothianidin, bifenthrin, thiamethoxam + chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos, cyantraniliprole, and lambda-cyhalothrin than when they were treated with water. In another contact assay, the number of seedlings injured by P. fimata feeding was significantly lower when germinating seeds were enclosed in a barrier treated with clothianidin, chlopyrifos, pyrethrins, and cyantraniliprole than when they were enclosed in a spinosad-treated barrier. The implications of these data for P. fimata management in the Salinas Valley are discussed.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Sexual Competitiveness, Field Survival, and Dispersal of Anastrepha
           obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fruit Flies Irradiated at Different Doses
    • Authors: Gallardo-Ortiz U; Pérez-Staples D, Liedo P, et al.
      Abstract: The sterile insect technique (SIT) is used in area-wide pest management programs for establishing low pest prevalence and/or areas free of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). The aim of this technique is to induce high levels of sterility in the wild population, for this the released insects must have a high sexual competitiveness and field dispersal. However, radiation decreases these biological attributes that do not allow it to compete successfully with wild insects. In this study the sexual competitiveness, field survival and dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart; Diptera: Tephritidae) irradiated at 0, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy were evaluated in laboratory. A dose of 60 Gy produced 98% sterility, whereas doses of 70 and 80 Gy produced 99% sterility. Sexual competitiveness was assessed in field cages, comparing males irradiated at 0, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy against wild males for mating with wild fertile females. Males irradiated at 50 and 60 Gy achieved more matings than those irradiated at 70 and 80 Gy. Wild males were more competitive than mass-reared males, even when these were not irradiated (0 Gy). There was no effect of irradiation on mating latency, yet wild males showed significantly shorter mating latency than mass-reared males. Female remating did not differ among those that mated with wild males and those that mated with males irradiated with different doses. The relative sterility index (RSI) increased from 0.25 at 80 Gy to 0.37 at 60 Gy. The Fried competitiveness index was 0.69 for males irradiated at 70 Gy and 0.57 for those irradiated at 80 Gy, which indicates that a 10 Gy reduction in the irradiation dose produces greater induction of sterility in the wild population. There were no significant differences in field survival and dispersal between flies irradiated at 70 or 80 Gy. Reducing the irradiation dose to 60 or 70 Gy could improve the performance of sterile males and the effectiveness of the SIT. Our results also distinguish between the effects of irradiation and mass-rearing on the performance of sterile males.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Toxicity of Bifenthrin and Mixtures of Bifenthrin Plus Acephate,
           Imidacloprid, Thiamethoxam, or Dicrotophos to Adults of Tarnished Plant
           Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae)
    • Authors: Jones M; Duckworth J, Robertson J.
      Abstract: To assess the toxicity of bifenthrin and four mixtures of insecticides to tarnished plant bug, we used an insecticide dip method of green bean to treat adults of a laboratory colony; mortality was assessed after 48 h. LC50s for imidacloprid, bifenthrin, acephate, thiamethoxam, and dicrotophos were 0.12, 0.39, 0.62, 0.67, and 3.96 ppm, respectively. LC75s for imidacloprid, bifenthrin, acephate, thiamethoxam, and dicrotophos were 0.61, 4.22, 5.10, 2.65, and 7.86 ppm, respectively. Based on the LC50s and LC75s, dicrotophos was much less toxic than the other chemicals tested. PoloMix software was used to determine syngerism, antagonism, or addition effects of the mixtures. Three out of four analyses of the joint action of bifenthrin plus imidacloprid or acephate or dicrotophos showed that toxicity was not independent and not correlated. For bifenthrin plus dicrotophos, observed mortality was greater than expected mortality at most concentrations suggesting synergism. Mixtures of bifenthrin plus imidacloprid and bifenthrin plus acephate showed observed mortality significantly less than expected, suggesting antagonism. LC50s for bifenthrin plus dicrotophos, acephate, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam were 0.38, 1.06, 0.17, and 0.26 ppm, respectively. LC75s for bifenthrin plus dicrotophos, acephate, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam were 13.61, 13.18, 0.67, and 0.80 ppm, respectively. Based on the LC50s and LC75s, bifenthrin plus acephate was 3- to 10-fold less toxic than the other chemicals tested. Bifenthrin plus acephate is frequently used in tank mixes to control tarnished plant bug and other cotton pests, and the effectiveness of each individual chemical appears to be reduced in one to one ratio mixtures.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • dsRNA Injection Successfully Inhibited Two Endogenous β-Glucosidases in
           Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
    • Authors: Wu W Li Z.
      Abstract: Cellulose digestion is an essential process of termites, and it is accomplished by three types of cellulases. β-Glucosidase (BG), one of the critical cellulases responsible for cellulose degradation and glucose production, has been considered as a potential target for pest management strategies. Previous experiments identified two new endogenous BG homologs, CfBG-Ia and CfBG-Ib, in the digestive system of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of RNA interference on CfBG-Ia and CfBG-Ib expression and on termite survival. We tested the expression profiles of worker termites which were injected with gene-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA, targeting one gene at a time) and a dsRNA cocktail (targeting CfBG-Ia and CfBG-Ib simultaneously). The expression of CfBG-Ib showed a sharp decline in both dsCfBG-Ib and dsRNA cocktail treatments. The expression of CfBG-Ia reduced quickly and significantly in the dsRNA cocktail treatment; while in dsCfBG-Ia treatment, it decreased on the fifth day. Results showed that treatment with the dsRNA cocktail caused greater inhibition of the transcript expression and a shorter response time. However, the expression of nontarget BG homologs was increased as the target BG homologs were being repressed during the testing period in dsRNA cocktail treatment. These results demonstrate that targeting cellulase-coding genes may be a potential strategy to inhibit termite digestion process, or at least dsRNA cocktails serve as a means for identifying the most susceptible target gene families or biological processes.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Efficacy of Two Systemic Insecticides With Stem Gall Wasp, Zapatella
           davisae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Black Oak
    • Authors: Davis M; Elkinton J.
      Abstract: Black oak, Quercus velutina Lamarck, is the dominant deciduous tree on Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts, and in recent years it has experienced widespread mortality and severe canopy loss due to infestations of a stem gall wasp, Zapatella davisae Buffington and Melika (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). A single application of systemic insecticides emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid was found to reduce or prevent further accumulation of Z. davisae damage on infested black oak during a 1-yr trial.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Effects of the Insect Growth Regulators Methoxyfenozide and
           Pyriproxyfen and the Acaricide Bifenazate on Honey Bee (Hymenoptera:
           Apidae) Forager Survival
    • Authors: Fisher A; II, Colman C, Hoffmann C, et al.
      Abstract: The honey bee (Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) contributes an essential role in the U.S. economy by pollinating major agricultural crops including almond, which depends entirely on honey bee pollination for successful nut set. Almond orchards are often treated with pesticides to control a variety of pests and pathogens, particularly during bloom. While the effects to honey bee health of some insecticides, particularly neonicotinoids, have received attention recently, the impact of other types of insecticides on honey bee health is less clear. In this study, we examined the effects to honey bee forager survival of three non-neonicotinoid pesticides widely used during the 2014 California almond bloom. We collected foragers from a local apiary and exposed them to three pesticides at the label dose, or at doses ranging from 0.5 to 3 times the label dose rate. The selected pesticides included the insect growth regulators methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen, and the acaricide bifenazate. We simulated field exposure of honey bees to these pesticides during aerial application in almond orchards by using a wind tunnel and atomizer set up with a wind speed of 2.9 m/s. Experimental groups consisting of 30–40 foragers each were exposed to either untreated controls or pesticide-laden treatments and were monitored every 24 hr over a 10-d period. Our results revealed a significant negative effect of all pesticides tested on forager survival. Therefore, we suggest increased caution in the application of these pesticides in almond orchards or any agricultural crop during bloom to avoid colony health problems.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Pest Prevalence and Evaluation of Community-Wide Integrated Pest
           Management for Reducing Cockroach Infestations and Indoor Insecticide
    • Authors: Zha C; Wang C, Buckley B, et al.
      Abstract: Pest infestations in residential buildings are common, but community-wide pest survey data are lacking. Frequent insecticide applications for controlling indoor pests leave insecticide residues and pose potential health risks to residents. In this study, a community-wide pest survey was carried out in a housing complex consisting of 258 units in 40 buildings in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It was immediately followed by implementation of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in all the cockroach-infested apartments and two bed bug apartments with the goal of eliminating pest infestations, reducing pyrethroid residues, and increasing resident satisfaction with pest control services. The IPM-treated apartments were revisited and treated biweekly or monthly for 7 mo. Initial inspection found the top three pests and their infestation rates to be as follows: German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L. [Blattodea: Blattellidae]), 28%; rodents, 11%; and bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. [Hemiptera: Cimicidae]), 8%. Floor wipe samples were collected in the kitchens and bedrooms of 20 apartments for pyrethroid residue analysis before the IPM implementation; 17 of the 20 apartments were resampled again at 7 mo. The IPM program reduced cockroach counts per apartment by 88% at 7 wk after initial treatment. At 7 mo, 85% of the cockroach infestations found in the initial survey were eliminated. The average number of pyrethroids detected decreased significantly from 6 ± 1 (mean ± SEM) and 5 ± 1 to 2 ± 1 and 3 ± 1 in the kitchens and bedrooms, respectively. The average concentrations of targeted pyrethroids residue also decreased significantly in the kitchens and bedrooms.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Levels Affect Performance and Digestive
           Physiology of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    • Authors: Borzoui E; Bandani A, Goldansaz S, et al.
      Abstract: In this study, life history and nutritional indices of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was evaluated on six food commodities: dried fig, dried wheat germ, dried white mulberry, groundnut, pistachio, and raisin, compared with artificial diet. The influence of dietary macronutrient content on digestive α-amylase was also assessed. A delay in the developmental time of P. interpunctella immature stages was detected when larvae were fed on raisin. The highest survival rate of immature stages was on the artificial diet, and the lowest was on raisin. The highest realized fecundity and fertility were recorded for the females reared on artificial diet. Overall, fourth instar P. interpunctella reared on artificial diet had the highest relative consumed and growth rate, and lowest rates were observed in larvae fed raisin. Amylolytic activity and isoform patterns varied depending on larval instar and diets, but were higher for larvae fed artificial diet with moderate carbohydrate and protein. Zymograms showed the presence of three isoforms of α-amylase in midgut extracts of P. interpunctella fed different diets. Larvae fed dried white mulberry, fig, and raisin had one (A2) α-amylase isoform. The data suggest that dietary carbohydrate and protein content induce changes in nutritional efficiency, development, and α-amylase activity. A survey of the differences in digestive enzyme activity in response to macronutrient balance and imbalance highlight their importance in the nutrition of insects.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Performance of Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Natural
           Enemy of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Eggplant
    • Authors: Salas Gervassio N; Luna M, D’Auro F, et al.
      Abstract: Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck; Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an American endoparasitoid that attacks the South American tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). The interaction between P. dignus and T. absoluta in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.; Solanales: Solanaceae) crops has demonstrated that this enemy exhibits some desirable ecological traits as an effective biological control agent of this pest. With the aim of extending the use of P. dignus to other solanaceous crops, laboratory experiments were carried out to assess some life history traits and the parasitism efficiency when parasitizing T. absoluta larvae fed on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.; Solanales: Solanaceae). Rearings and experiments were conducted at 25 ± 2°C, ≈70% RH, and 14:10 (L:D) h photoperiod, and T. absoluta was fed with eggplant. P. dignus developmental times of immature stages were lower (~ 5 d) on S. melongena than on S. lycopersicum. The female did not exhibit a pre-reproductive period, and its oviposition period lasted longer (~ 4 d) than that determined in tomato plants. Adult longevity was ca. 24 d for both sexes. Females produced ca. 61 cocoons during their lives and the maximum daily percentage of parasitism was 50% at the first day of adult emergence. Functional response of P. dignus on eggplant was density-independent of the host density offered, as in tomato plant, and the instantaneous attack rate (a′) was 0.24 attacked larvae/ available larvae, in 24 h. Our results indicate that although there are differences, P. dignus would have a similar performance in eggplant and tomato in terms of its efficacy in the control of T. absoluta.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
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