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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 231, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 502, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Journal of Economic Entomology
  [SJR: 0.894]   [H-I: 76]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0022-0493 - ISSN (Online) 1938-291X
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Journal of Economic Entomology April 2017 Volume 110 Number 2 - Front
    • Authors: Furnacalis O.
      Abstract: Photo courtesy of Jingfei Guo, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Plant Protection.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
  • Information for Contributors
    • PubDate: 2017-04-10
  • Subscriptions Page
    • PubDate: 2017-04-10
  • Journal of Economic Entomology April 2017 Volume 110 Number 2 - TOC
    • PubDate: 2017-04-10
  • Erythritol and Lufenuron Detrimentally Alter Age Structure of Wild
           Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Populations in Blueberry and
    • Authors: Sampson BJ; Marshall DA, Smith BJ, et al.
      Abstract: We report on the efficacy of 0.5 M (61,000 ppm) erythritol (E) in Truvia Baking Blend, 10 ppm lufenuron (L), and their combination (LE) to reduce egg and larval densities of wild populations of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) infesting fields of rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) and blackberries (Rubus sp.). Formulations included the active ingredients (lufenuron, erythritol, or both), sugar (in control and erythritol treatments), and Dawn hand-soap applied to plants with pressurized 3-gallon garden spray tanks. The three chemical treatments (E, L, and LE) had no effect on D. suzukii ovipositing in blackberry and blueberry fruit, but they did reduce larval infestation by 75%, particularly densities of first and second instars. Erythritol and lufenuron were equally efficacious compounds as a D. suzukii ovicide and larvicide, but they did not display additive or synergistic activity. Extremely high larval mortality in control fruits show an age structure heavily skewed toward egg output.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
  • Effect of Sweeteners on the Survival of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera:
    • Authors: Zhang X; Chen S, Li Z, et al.
      Abstract: The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, is a serious agricultural, ecological, and public health pest in its invaded range. Chemical insecticides have been widely used for the prevention and control of this notorious pest. To search for novel, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly materials for fire ant control, we tested various sweeteners for their toxicity to S. invicta. The S. invicta that were fed erythritol, aspartame, and saccharin exhibited significantly higher mortality rates than those fed other sweeteners. After 72 h, the mortality of the workers that were fed 0.1 or 0.2 g/ml erythritol was above 80%. For males, females, and larvae, mortality was close to 100% after 9 d at high concentrations. Dose-dependent effects of erythritol were observed for workers, males, females, and larvae at the concentrations tested. Rapid transfer of toxicity among the fire ant colony was also observed. Our results suggest that erythritol can be developed as an additive ingredient in baits.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
  • Physiological Responses Induced by Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera:
           Crambidae) Feeding in Maize and Their Effects on O. furnacalis Performance
    • Authors: Guo J; Guo J, He K, et al.
      Abstract: Plants damaged by herbivorous insects often respond by mounting a series of defense responses that can inhibit the insect’s fitness. Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a major insect pest in maize throughout much of Asia, Australia, and the western Pacific islands. We examined the effects of O. furnacalis-induced maize defenses on O. furnacalis fitness, and explained the effects from biochemical changes that occur in maize leaves in response to O. furnacalis feeding. The results of the age-stage, two-sex life table showed that significantly longer larval and pupal life spans, and total preoviposition period (TPOP) occurred. A decrease in the longevity and fecundity of female adults was observed in O. furnacalis fed on O. furnacalis-damaged leaves. The mean generation time (T), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and intrinsic rate of increase (r) were also correspondingly affected. Biochemical assays indicated that 24 h of O. furnacalis herbivory resulted in decreased levels of the benzoxazinoids, 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA), and 2-(2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (DIMBOA-Glc), and a corresponding increase in 2-(2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (HDMBOA-Glc). Maize also exhibited higher activities of the defensive enzymes—peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO)—after 24 h of herbivory. We concluded that exposure to O. furnacalis-damaged leaves had an inhibitory impact on the fitness of the neonate to pupa stages of O. furnacalis. The observed higher level of HDMBOA-Glc and higher enzymatic activities of POD, SOD, CAT, and PPO may account, in part, for the observed inhibitory effects on O. furnacalis fitness.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
  • Ecology, Life History, and Management of Tropilaelaps Mites
    • Authors: de Guzman LI; Williams GR, Khongphinitbunjong K, et al.
      Abstract: Parasitic mites are the major threat to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera L. For much of the world, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman single-handedly inflicts unsurmountable problems to A. mellifera beekeeping. However, A. mellifera in Asia is also faced with another genus of destructive parasitic mite, Tropilaelaps. The life history of these two parasitic mites is very similar, and both have the same food requirements (i.e., hemolymph of developing brood). Hence, parasitism by Tropilaelaps spp., especially Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Tropilaelaps clareae, also results in death of immature brood or wing deformities in infested adult bees. The possible introduction of Tropilaelaps mites outside their current range heightens existing dilemmas brought by Varroa mites. In this review, we provide historic, as well as current information on the taxonomic status, life history, distribution and host range, diagnosis, and control of Tropilaelaps mites. Because the biology of Tropilaelaps mites is not well known, we also suggest areas of research that demand immediate attention. Any biological information about Tropilaelaps mites will provide useful information for the development of control measures against them.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
  • Impact of Thiamethoxam Seed Treatment on Growth and Yield of Rice, Oryza
    • Authors: Lanka SK; Senthil-Nathan SS, Blouin DJ, et al.
      Abstract: Neonicotinoid seed treatments are widely used in agriculture. In rice, Oryza sativa L., in the southern United States, neonicotinoid seed treatments are used to manage early-season populations of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel. In addition to their effects on pests, neonicotinoid seed treatments may benefit crop plants directly by increasing plant growth or altering plant responses to stresses. As part of an effort to assess the overall benefits of thiamethoxam seed treatment in rice, rice emergence, growth, and yield were evaluated. In a growth chamber, rice emergence from the soil was 1–2 d more rapid from treated than untreated seeds. These laboratory results were supported by field experiments that revealed higher stand counts from thiamethoxam-treated plots than from untreated plots. Yields from thiamethoxam treatments were no higher than those from untreated plots under conditions in which weevil larvae were absent, a result inconsistent with the hypothesis that thiamethoxam imparts direct yield benefits. In a series of field experiments conducted to compare the relationship between weevil larval densities and rice yields in plots treated with several rates of thiamethoxam or chlorantraniliprole (another widely used seed treatment insecticide), the relationship between weevil density and yield did not differ markedly among both seed treatments. Overall yields from both seed treatments did not differ significantly, despite more effective control in chlorantraniliprole-treated plots. These results provide strong support for effect of thiamethoxam on early-season growth of rice, but only weak support for its direct effect on rice yields.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
  • Development of an Attract-and-Kill Strategy for Drosophila suzukii
           (Diptera: Drosophilidae): Evaluation of Attracticidal Spheres Under
           Laboratory and Field Conditions
    • Authors: Rice KB; Short BD, Leskey TC.
      Abstract: Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive, polyphagous fruit fly that attacks soft-skinned fruits. Originally from Asia, D. suzukii has successfully invaded the United States and the European and South American countries. At present, calendar-based insecticide applications are used to combat D. suzukii. Here, we evaluate a behaviorally based attract-and-kill management technique using attracticidal spheres to reduce D. suzukii infestations in raspberries. In laboratory bioassays aimed at identifying effective toxicants, attracticidal spheres containing dinotefuran at 1.0% a.i. killed 100% of D. suzukii within 5 min. Spinetoram, spinosad, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin (CS) and lambda-cyhalothrin (WG), all at 1.0% a.i., killed 100% of D. suzukii within 24 h. In field trials, statistically equivalent infestation rates were recorded in raspberry plots protected by attracticidal spheres containing 1.0% a.i. spinetoram compared with standard weekly insecticide applications. In field trials using 1.0% a.i. dinotefuran, attracticidal spheres decreased D. suzukii infestations compared with control plots, but insecticide applications were more effective at reducing D. suzukii infestations, although differences in harvesting practices likely affected fly population densities and infestation rates in both years. Attracticidal spheres effectively attract and kill D. suzukii and reduce infestations rates under field conditions, indicating that this behavioral strategy holds promise in D. suzukii management.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
  • Deltamethrin-Incorporated Nets as an Integrated Pest Management Tool for
           the Invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)
    • Authors: Kuhar TP; Short BD, Krawczyk GG, et al.
      Abstract: Long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), which have insecticide incorporated within the fibers, have been widely used for control of malaria and other insect-vectored diseases. Only recently have researchers begun exploring their use for control of agricultural pests. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of a deltamethrin-incorporated LLIN, ZeroFly (Vestergaard–Frandsen, Washington, DC) for control of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål). In the lab, exposure to the ZeroFly net for 10 s resulted in >90% mortality of H. halys nymphs and >40% mortality of H. halys adults. Longer exposure to the net resulted in higher mortality. In another experiment, a 15-cm2 sheet of ZeroFly net placed inside of the stink bug trap provided long-lasting kill of H. halys adults equal to or better than standard dichlorvos kill strip. Potential for the use of ZeroFly nets for H. halys IPM is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
  • Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Infestations in Tree
           Borders and Subsequent Patterns of Abundance in Soybean Fields
    • Authors: Aigner BL; Kuhar TP, Herbert DA, et al.
      Abstract: The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the Mid-Atlantic United States. In order to assess the influence of nonmanaged wooded borders on H. halys infestation patterns in soybean, 12 soybean fields in Orange and Madison Counties, VA, were sampled each week from July to October in 2013 or 2014 for H. halys. At each location, five 2-min visual counts of H. halys life stages were made on tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima Mill.) and other favorable host trees along a wooded border, on the adjacent soybean edge, 15 m into the soybean field, and 30 m into the field. Seasonal data showed a clear trend at all locations of H. halys densities building up on A. altissima-dominated wooded borders in July, then, gradually moving into adjacent soybean field edges later in the summer. Halyomorpha halys did not move far from the invading field edge, with approximately half as many bugs being present at 15 m into the field and very few being detected 30 m into the field. These results have implications for continued monitoring and management using field border sprays, particularly on edges adjacent to woods.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
  • Evaluation of Different Applications of Ethanedinitrile (C 2 N 2 ) in
           Various Fumigation Chambers for Control of Monochamus alternatus
           (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Naturally Infested Logs
    • Authors: Lee B; Park C, Ren Y.
      Abstract: Monochamus alternatus Hopeis is an important vector of nematode pests of timber in Korea, particularly Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle. Previously, we reported that ethanedinitrile (C2N2) has the potential to replace methyl bromide and metam sodium to control M. alternatus larvae and B. xylophilus under low-temperature (
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
  • Relative Susceptibility of Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera:
           Gracillariidae) to Commonly Used Insecticides in Maharashtra, India
    • Authors: George A; Rao CN, Ghike S, et al.
      Abstract: Foliar application of insecticides has been the most commonly followed practice to manage Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton in nurseries and flush leaves in citrus groves. Leaf dip bioassays were conducted against insecticides, viz., acephate 75SP, dimethoate 30EC, abamectin 1.9EC, fenvalerate 20EC, imidacloprid 17.8SL, and thiamethoxam 25WG, and were tested against P. citrella larvae for their susceptibility. Among six insecticides tested on second-instar P. citrella larvae collected from Nagpur mandarin/acid lime cultivars during 2013–2016, abamectin was the most toxic insecticide for the initial year (LC50 values ranged from 20.99 to 49.00 ppm), while dimethoate (LC50 of 36.57–160.95 ppm) and thiamethoxam (39.90–71.96 ppm) were consistently effective against P. citrella larvae for the rest of the period. Resistance ratio (RR) values calculated based on the baseline susceptible culture, viz., abamectin (1.24–2.33), acephate (1.03–2.31), fenvalerate (1.54–3.45), dimethoate(1.28–5.63), imidacloprid (1.29–8.64), and thiamethoxam (1.05–1.80), indicated that the current RR values were in low levels (RR 
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
  • Insecticidal Properties of Essential Oils and Some of Their Constituents
           on the Turkestan Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattidae)
    • Authors: Gaire S; O’Connell M, Holguin FO, et al.
      Abstract: The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0.34 mg/nymph and a LC50 of 27.6 mg/liter air, respectively. Contact toxicity was also observed in assays with trans-Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, and p-Cymene. Methyl eugenol and geraniol had limited fumigant toxicity. The essential oils from red thyme, clove bud, and Java citronella exhibited toxicity against nymphs. Cockroaches avoided fresh dry residues of thymol and essential oils. Chemical analysis of the essential oils confirmed high contents of effective essential oil constituents. Our results demonstrated that essential oils and some of their constituents have potential as eco-friendly insecticides for the management of Turkestan cockroaches.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
  • The Use of F 2 Screening for Detection of Resistance to Emamectin
           Benzoate, Chlorantraniliprole, and Indoxacarb in Australian Populations of
           Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    • Authors: Bird LJ; Drynan LJ, Walker PW.
      Abstract: The ability to effectively detect changes in susceptibility to insecticides is an integral component of resistance management strategies and is highly dependent upon precision of methods deployed. Between 2013 and 2016, F2 screens were performed for detection of resistance alleles in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) to emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, and indoxacarb in major cropping regions of eastern Australia. Resistance to emamectin benzoate was not detected. There were low but detectable levels of survival at discriminating concentrations of chlorantraniliprole and indoxacarb. Alleles conferring an advantage to chlorantraniliprole were present at a frequency of 0.0027 (95% CI 0.0012–0.0064; n = 1,817). Alleles conferring an advantage to indoxacarb were present at a frequency of 0.027 (95% CI 0.020–0.035; n = 1,863). Complementation tests for allelism in six of seven positive indoxacarb tests indicated that resistance was due to alleles present at the same locus. The majority (88%) of lines that tested positive for indoxacarb resistance deviated from a model of recessive inheritance. Pheromone-caught male moths contributed significantly greater numbers of F2 lines compared with moths derived from field-collected eggs or larvae. There was no difference in the detectability of indoxacarb resistance in F2 lines from pheromone-caught moths compared with moths derived from immature stages collected from the field and reared to adult under laboratory conditions. Therefore, we recommend the use of pheromone traps for sourcing insects for F2 screening as a more cost- and time-efficient alternative to traditional methods of sampling.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
  • Profiling Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Transcript Expression of
           the Biotypes SA1 and SAM Feeding on Various Triticum aestivum Varieties
    • Authors: Burger NV; Venter EE, Botha AM.
      Abstract: The intimate relationship between an aphid and its host is mediated by the composition of the secreted saliva. In the present study, aphid heads were sampled and transcript profiling conducted after aphids were fed on their preference host and transferred to a variety of preference and nonpreference hosts. It was found that the virulent Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotype SAM was able to selectively up-regulate more transcripts when confronted with feeding on a variety of hosts, than was the case with the less virulent D. noxia biotype SA1, suggesting increased genomic regulation when coping with a stressful environment. Collectively, the observed transcriptomic changes are supported by previous findings that host changes induce significant changes in the proteome of phytophagous hemipterans, unlike in many other entomophagous generalist species. The current data suggest that highly specialized hemipterans may be able to counter plant defenses with inducible salivary transcripts with resulting protein biosynthesis, as demonstrated here.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
  • Sequential Sampling Plan of Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
           in Cotton Plants
    • Authors: Grigolli JJ; Souza LA, Mota TA, et al.
      Abstract: The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most important pests of cotton production worldwide. The objective of this work was to develop a sequential sampling plan for the boll weevil. The studies were conducted in Maracaju, MS, Brazil, in two seasons with cotton cultivar FM 993. A 10,000-m2 area of cotton was subdivided into 100 of 10- by 10-m plots, and five plants per plot were evaluated weekly, recording the number of squares with feeding + oviposition punctures of A. grandis in each plant. A sequential sampling plan by the maximum likelihood ratio test was developed, using a 10% threshold level of squares attacked. A 5% security level was adopted for the elaboration of the sequential sampling plan. The type I and type II error used was 0.05, recommended for studies with insects. The adjustment of the frequency distributions used were divided into two phases, so that the model that best fit to the data was the negative binomial distribution up to 85 DAE (Phase I), and from there the best fit was Poisson distribution (Phase II). The equations that define the decision-making for Phase I are S0 = −5.1743 + 0.5730N and S1 = 5.1743 + 0.5730N, and for the Phase II are S0 = −4.2479 + 0.5771N and S1 = 4.2479 + 0.5771N. The sequential sampling plan developed indicated the maximum number of sample units expected for decision-making is ∼39 and 31 samples for Phases I and II, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
  • Insecticide Susceptibility in Asian Honey Bees ( Apis cerana (Hymenoptera:
           Apidae)) and Implications for Wild Honey Bees in Asia
    • Authors: Yasuda M; Sakamoto Y, Goka K, et al.
      Abstract: To conserve local biodiversity and ensure the provision of pollination services, it is essential to understand the impact of pesticides on wild honey bees. Most studies that have investigated the effects of pesticides on honey bees have focused on the European honey bee (Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)), which is commonly domesticated worldwide. However, the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) is widely distributed throughout Asia, and toxicity data are lacking for this species. This study aimed to fill this important knowledge gap. In this study, we determined the acute contact toxicity in A. cerana to various pesticides, including neonicotinoids, fipronil, organophosphorus, synthetic pyrethroids, carbamate, and anthranilic diamide. Based on the test duration of 48 h of contact LD50 tests, A. cerana was most sensitive to dinotefuran (0.0014 μg/bee), followed by thiamethoxam (0.0024 μg/bee) and fipronil (0.0025 μg/bee). Dinotefuran is used extensively in Asia, thereby potentially creating a substantial hazard. More generally, A. cerana was approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than was A. mellifera to most of the pesticides evaluated. The results of our study suggest that neonicotinoid pesticides should not be considered as a single group that acts uniformly on all honey bees, and that more careful management strategies are required to conserve A. cerana populations than A. mellifera.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
  • Resistance Monitoring for Eight Insecticides on the Sweetpotato Whitefly
           (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China
    • Authors: Wang S; Zhang Y, Yang X, et al.
      Abstract: The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is an important pest of many crops worldwide. Because control of B. tabaci still depends on the application of insecticides in China, monitoring the insecticide resistance of B. tabaci populations is essential for achieving control and for managing resistance. In this study, field populations of B. tabaci on vegetables were collected in three regions of China in 2011, 2012, and 2013. The resistance of these populations (all of which were determined to belong to biotype Q) to eight insecticides (abamectin, spinetoram, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, nitenpyram, chlorpyrifos, and bifenthrin) was assessed by the leaf-dip method. No resistance to abamectin and spinetoram was detected. All of the B. tabaci populations exhibited resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides; the resistance was 3.6- to 125.0-fold greater than that of a susceptible reference strain. The traditional insecticides chlorpyrifos and bifenthrin had very low toxicity. Bemisia tabaci specimens in some regions exhibited annual differences in resistance to some of the insecticides. The data presented will be helpful for making decisions on the proper insecticide usage in the field.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
  • Response of the Formosan Subterranean Termite to Neighboring Con-Specific
           Populations After Baiting With Noviflumuron
    • Authors: Bernard S; Osbrink W, Su N.
      Abstract: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki are economically important subterranean termites, particularly in the Southeastern United States where they are considered invasive. Where two C. formosanus populations met, aggressive encounters resulted in blockages in tunnels, but reinvading termites unblocked obstructions or constructed new tunnels. Experiments in planar arenas in which one population of C. formosanus was baited resulted in elimination of baited termites and subsequent reinvasion of territory by neighboring termites. Territories held by unbaited neighboring termites increased significantly, nearly doubling after reinvasion. Reinvading termites consumed baits left by baited colonies and were eliminated.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
  • Implicating ABC Transporters in Insecticide Resistance: Research
           Strategies and a Decision Framework
    • Authors: Gott RC; Kunkel GR, Zobel ES, et al.
      Abstract: Pest insects damage crops, transmit diseases, and are household nuisances. Historically, they have been controlled with insecticides, but overuse often leads to resistance to one or more of these chemicals. Insects gain resistance to insecticides through behavioral, metabolic, genetic, and physical mechanisms. One frequently overlooked strategy is through the use of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC transporters, present in all domains of life, perform natural excretory functions, thus the exploitation of these transporters to excrete insecticides and contribute to resistance is highly plausible. Previous work has implicated ABC transporters in some cases of insecticide resistance. Proposed herein is a framework meant as a formal guide for more easily incorporating the analysis of ABC transporters into existing resistance monitoring using suggested simple research methods. This framework functions as a simple decision tree and its utility is demonstrated using case examples. Determining a role for ABC transporters in insecticide resistance would help to shape future resistance management plans and guide the design of new insecticides.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
  • Effect of the Insecticide Dinotefuran on the Ultrastructure of the Flight
           Muscle of Female Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    • Authors: Liu MG; Jiang CX, Mao MM, et al.
      Abstract: Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major migratory pest of rice crops in Asia. The ultrastructure of the flight muscle directly affects the flight ability of insects. The ultrastructure of the flight muscle of some insects can be affected by insecticides. However, the ultrastructure of the flight muscle of S. furcifera and the effect of insecticides on the flight muscle of S. furcifera are not well understood. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of the insecticide dinotefuran on the ultrastructure of the flight muscle of S. furcifera females. In this study, the cross-sectional area and the diameter of the myofibril cross-sections of dinotefuran-treated S. furcifera females increased with the number of days after emergence (DAE), and they were higher than in untreated females. The sarcomere length of myofibrils increased with the number of DAE, and it differed from that of the untreated females. On the first day after emergence, the higher the concentration of dinotefuran, the smaller was the extent of decrease. On the third day after emergence, the higher the concentration of dinotefuran, the larger was the extent of enhancement. For the percentage of mitochondria, those of LC10 and LC20 dinotefuran-treated S. furcifera females increased with the number of DAE and were higher than in untreated females. LC10 dinotefuran-treated S. furcifera females exhibited the largest increase. Thus, our results suggest that the flight ability of S. furcifera increased with time. Some concentrations of dinotefuran can enhance the flight capacity of S. furcifera.
      PubDate: 2017-02-25
  • X-ray Irradiation Control of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella
           intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the Exportation of Freshly Cut Lily
    • Authors: Koo H; Yun S, Kim H, et al.
      Abstract: Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) is the most representative bulb flower, and it is the third most important flower in the flower industry of South Korea after rose and chrysanthemum. To determine the efficacy of X-ray irradiation for use in quarantine processing, two species of flower thrips (Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)) were placed in the top, middle, and bottom locations of lily boxes and irradiated with different X-ray doses. After irradiation with an X-ray dose of 150 Gy, the egg hatching of the two flower thrips was completely inhibited at every location in the lily boxes, and the irradiated F. intonsa and F. occidentalis nymphs failed to emerge as adult in every location of the lily boxes. When the adults were irradiated at 150 Gy, the fecundity of the two flower thrips was markedly lower than that of the untreated control groups. The F1 generation failed to hatch at the top and middle locations, whereas the F1 generation of both F. intonsa and F. occidentalis was not suppressed at the bottom locations, even at 200 Gy. However, hatching was perfectly inhibited at 300 Gy of X-ray irradiation. Also, X-rays did not affect the postharvest physiology of cut lilies. Therefore, a minimum dose of 300 Gy is recommended for the control of F. intonsa and F. occidentalis for the exportation of lily.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
  • Efficacy of Insect Growth Regulators and Diamide Insecticides for Control
           of Stem Borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Sugarcane
    • Authors: Wilson BE; VanWeelden MT, Beuzelin JM, et al.
      Abstract: Field experiments assessed control of the stem borers, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) and Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) with selected insect growth regulators and diamide insecticides. Tebufenozide, novaluron, chlorantraniliprole, and flubendiamide were evaluated for D. saccharalis control in four field experiments in Louisiana between 2009 and 2014. Aerial application of the same insecticides was evaluated for control of E. loftini in commercial sugarcane fields in southern Texas in 2012 and 2015. Stalk injury from D. saccharalis in nontreated plots ranged from 7.4–28.1% bored internodes across the four experiments. All insecticides reduced D. saccharalis injury compared with nontreated plots (39.1–99.4% reduction). Better control was achieved with novaluron, flubendiamide, and chlorantraniliprole than with tebufenozide. Pheromone trap-assisted scouting for E. loftini in Texas sugarcane helped to time insecticide applications. Reduced E. loftini injury was observed in diamide-treated plots (3.6–4.7% bored internodes) compared with nontreated controls (13.1%), but not in novaluron- (6.0%) or tebufenozide-treated (8.3%) plots in the 2012 experiment. Significant E. loftini injury was present prior to the aerial insecticide application in 2015, and differences in overall injury were not detected among treatments. However, chlorantraniliprole reduced injury to the top portion of sugarcane stalks. None of the insecticides improved sugar yields in 2012 or 2015. Results suggest insect growth regulators and diamide insecticides fit well in D. saccharalis management programs in Louisiana sugarcane. These chemistries also have potential to improve control of E. loftini, but more research into application strategies is needed to achieve consistent efficacy.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
  • Does Florivory by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Cause Yield
           Loss in Soybeans'
    • Authors: Reisig D; Suits R, Burrack H, et al.
      Abstract: Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), corn earworm, is a damaging insect pest of many crops, including soybeans. An economic threshold for soybeans during the pod-filling stages exists to prevent economic damage to seeds. However, the impact of florivory (flower feeding) by H. zea larvae on seed yield is poorly understood and there is no economic threshold for flowering-stage soybeans. Four small plot experiments were conducted in North Carolina during 2011 and 2012 to assess the impact of H. zea feeding during the flowering stages of determinate soybeans on various yield components. Helicoverpa zea densities were manipulated with insecticides and various planting dates of soybeans and monitored weekly. Helicoverpa zea naturally infested the plots after flowering began and were allowed to feed until R3; they were eliminated from all plots from R3 to maturity. In some sites, H. zea densities exceeded the podding economic threshold during the flowering stages, but yield did not differ among treatments. During 2012, florivory from H. zea was measured directly by counting injured flowers. There was a negative yield relationship between both injured flower number and cumulative flower number. Moreover, H. zea densities were related to both a decrease in cumulative flowers and an increase in injured flowers, even though a direct linkage between H. zea density and yield loss was not observed. Without knowing the preferred tissue types and performance of early-instar larvae on soybeans, it is possible that H. zea density may not be the best measurement for developing an economic threshold in flowering soybeans.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
  • Floral Strips Attract Beneficial Insects but Do Not Enhance Yield in
           Cucumber Fields
    • Authors: Quinn NF; Brainard DC, Szendrei ZZ.
      Abstract: Natural enemies and pollinators require nutritional and habitat resources that are often not found in conventional agricultural fields. The addition of flowering plants within agroecosystems may provide the resources necessary to support beneficial insects at the local scale. We hypothesized that insect pollinator and natural enemy abundance would increase in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plots containing flower strips and that the effect would be greatest in the crop rows closest to the flower strips. Three flower treatments were tested: 1) buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), 2) yellow mustard (Brassica hirta), 3) sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima), and cucumbers as a control. Flowers were planted within a commercial cucumber field in 20-m-long strips in a randomized complete block design with six replications in the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Some floral treatments successfully attracted more beneficial insects than others, but the beneficials did not disperse out to the cucumber plants. Cucumber yield was unaffected by flowers with one exception: in 2015, cucumber yield in the sweet alyssum plots were greater than those in plots with no flowers. Our research indicates that adding flowers to cucumber fields to increase services from beneficial insects needs to be further investigated to better understand the effect of factors such as relative flowering strip size.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
  • Monitoring Trends in Insecticide Resistance of Field Populations of
           Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Guizhou Province, China,
    • Authors: Jin J; Jin D, Li W, et al.
      Abstract: Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is a migratory insect that is one of the most important pest species on rice in many Asian countries. Control of S. furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) primarily depends on the use of chemical insecticides, and with this extensive reliance on pesticides, determining the degree of resistance of S. furcifera populations to the chemicals used for its control is essential. In this study, the resistance level to six conventional insecticides in five populations of S. furcifera from Guizhou Province was monitored yearly using the rice-stem dipping method in 2012–2015 to precisely understand current resistance levels and to estimate trends in the development of insecticide resistance in S. furcifera in Guizhou. Overall, S. furcifera from five regions in Guizhou showed a trend toward decreased susceptibility to isoprocarb (resistance ratio [RR] 0.82–3.59), susceptibility to low resistance against thiamethoxam (RR 0.27–9.69), susceptibility to moderate resistance to imidacloprid (RR 0.71–26.06), and decreased susceptibility to moderate resistance to chlorpyrifos (RR 4.63–19.58). The resistance to pymetrozine (RR 10.48–84.65) was moderate to high, and that to buprofezin (RR 6.36–412.43) was low to very high. In conclusion, the use of buprofezin and pymetrozine to control S. furcifera should be reduced in Guizhou Province, whereas prudent use at a reasonable frequency of chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid can continue. Isoprocarb and thiamethoxam are the best choices for effective management of S. furcifera. Rotations using alternative insecticides with different modes of action are recommended for regions in which resistance is at a moderate level.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
  • Enhanced Pest Ant Control With Hydrophobic Bait *
    • Authors: Vander Meer RK; Milne DE.
      Abstract: The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren), left most of its natural enemies behind in South America when it arrived in Mobile, AL, in the 1930s and spread rapidly throughout the southeastern United States, reaching population levels up to 10 times those found in South America. The large population densities and propensity for disturbed habitats led to direct conflict with human activities. Bait control methods were first developed for fire ants in the early 1960s and little has changed in the subsequent decades, despite the drawback that the bait carrier rapidly breaks down when wet. The southeast United States is wet; thus, bait labels have various guidance-restricting applications based on potential wet conditions. Here we compare a hydrophobic fire ant bait to the equivalent standard bait formulation and demonstrate in a paired-mound field experiment under natural wet conditions in Florida (heavy dew on ground), a significant advantage for the hydrophobic bait. An effective hydrophobic ant bait would extend the utility of current bait insecticides to wet conditions and also fill an important gap in our ability to control invasive pest ant species that thrive in wet tropical and subtropical habitats, e.g., Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger), the little fire ant.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
  • Population Dynamics of the Wheat Curl Mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) During the
           Heading Stages of Winter Wheat
    • Authors: McMechan AJ; Hein GL.
      Abstract: The wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer) is the only known vector of three viruses in wheat—Wheat streak mosaic virus, Wheat mosaic virus, and Triticum mosaic virus. The economic impact of this disease complex is linked to the presence of suitable hosts prior to winter wheat maturing in early summer and the movement of wheat curl mite from wheat to oversummering hosts prior to wheat harvest. Previous research has documented the prevalence and density of mite populations on maturing wheat heads; however, these studies were limited to a few late stages of wheat. A study was conducted to evaluate mite population densities across all stages of head development to determine when wheat curl mites are most abundant and the relative increase in abundance over time. In addition, a study was conducted to evaluate the impact of rainfall on mite populations during wheat heading. A final study was conducted to determine the potential for direct infestation of seedlings germinating from wheat curl mite-infested wheat heads. Results showed a rapid buildup in mite populations from low densities in early heading and peaking at the hard dough stage, with nearly all wheat heads having some mite presence. In addition, high mite populations resulted in direct infestation of germinated seedlings from the early through hard dough stages. Rainfall applications had no observable impact on mite population densities in wheat heads. These results demonstrate the increased potential for mites to infest hosts prior to winter wheat maturing and illustrate the increased risk for these hosts to serve as oversummering hosts.
      PubDate: 2017-02-19
  • Geographic Variation of Diapause Induction Rates in Trichogramma
           drendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in China
    • Authors: Zhang J; Desneux N, Benelli G, et al.
      Abstract: Diapause variation is a key factor affecting the development and success of parasitoids employed as biological control agents. Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura is mass-reared for biocontrol purposes in several countries around the world. Here we investigated the rate of diapause induction in three populations of T. dendrolimi from different regions in China: Heilongjiang (44° 55′ N, 128° 26′ E; HLJ), Liaoning (40° 18′ N, 123° 22′ E; LN), and Jiangsu province (32° 30′ N, 120° 09′ E; JS). We measured the rates of diapause induction for populations from each region when exposed to temperatures of 8, 10, 12, and 14 °C, for periods ranging from 5 to 35 d. Results showed that both the temperature and exposure duration influenced diapause induction in the three populations of T. dendrolimi. The HLJ and LN populations showed the highest percentage of diapause under 12 and 10 °C, regardless of time period tested. After 20 d at 12 and 10 °C, 97.42% and 95.94% of individuals of HLJ and LN, respectively, entered diapause. After treatment for 20–35 d under 8 °C, or 15–25 d under 10 °C, the diapause rate of LN was higher than those of the other two populations. In contrast, the higher temperatures (12–14 °C) induced diapause rapidly and steadily in HLJ. The diapause rate of JS was low for all temperatures and time periods. After 30 d at 12 °C, the JS population reached its highest diapause rate (29.56%). Our results showed significant variance in diapause rates among geographically distinct populations of T. dendrolimi in response to various abiotic conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-19
  • Effective Biological Control Depends on Life History Strategies of Both
           Parasitoid and Its Host: Evidence from Aphidius colemani – Myzus
           persicae System
    • Authors: Khatri D; He XZ, Wang Q.
      Abstract: Mechanisms behind the success and failure of aphid biological control using parasitoids are largely unknown, probably because of the lack of knowledge of life history strategies of the insects involved. Here, we measured and compared life history strategies of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), providing essential information for evaluation of the potential of A. colemani to control M. persicae. Our results show that one A. colemani female parasitized ≈220 aphids within 1 wk regardless of the aphid age. Almost all aphids parasitized at 
      PubDate: 2017-02-19
  • Susceptibility of Seven Selected Tomato Cultivars to Tuta absoluta
           (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): Implications for Its Management
    • Authors: Ghaderi S; Fathipour Y, Asgari S.
      Abstract: Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious pest originating from South America that affects tomato production in many countries, particularly in Iran (since 2010). In this study, by using age-stage, two-sex life-table parameters, the resistance of seven tomato cultivars, namely, ‘Primo Early’, ‘Rio Grande’, ‘Cal JN3’, ‘Petomech’, ‘Early Urbana Y’, ‘Super 2270’, and ‘Super Strain B’ to T. absoluta, was evaluated under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h). Larval and pupal periods were longest on Early Urbana Y, 13.86 and 6.52 d, respectively, and shortest on Cal JN3, 10.92 and 5.5 d, respectively. The longest and shortest development times of immature stages lasted 26.42 and 20.83 d on Early Urbana Y and Cal JN3, respectively. Male and female adult longevity was longest on Early Urbana Y, 30.42 and 38.52 d, respectively, and shortest on Cal JN3, 11.67 and 18.8 d, respectively. The net reproductive rate (R0) ranged between 80.94 (Cal JN3) and 45.87 (Primo Early) offspring. The lowest and the highest values of the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) were on Early Urbana Y and Cal JN3, 0.1052 and 0.1522 and 1.1109 and 1.1644 d−1, respectively. The mean generation time (T) on different cultivars varied from 30.47 to 37.28 d. Our results indicated that Cal JN3 was the most susceptible to infestation and Primo Early and Early Urbana Y were the most resistant to T. absoluta among the tomato cultivars tested.
      PubDate: 2017-02-19
  • Transcriptional responses of detoxification genes to four plant
           allelochemicals in Aphis gossypii
    • Authors: Li F; Ma K, Liang P, et al.
      Abstract: Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) can damage a variety of agricultural crops, so it is very important for cotton aphids to evolve adaptive mechanisms to various allelochemicals from host plants. Our results aim to provide a fundamental and rich resource for exploring aphid functional genes in A. gossypii. A transcriptome data set and five expression profile data sets of A. gossypii samples were analyzed by Illumina sequencing platform. In total, 53,763,866 reads were assembled into 1,963,516 contigs and 28,555 unigenes. Compared with the control, 619 genes were significantly up- or downregulated in the treatment group by 2-tridecanone. There were 516, 509, and 717 of differential expression genes in tannic acid, quercetin, and gossypol treatment groups, respectively. Furthermore, there were 4 of 54 putative cytochrome P450 genes and 1 of 7 putative carboxylesterases downregulated in all treatment groups by four plant allelochemicals. When aphids fed on 2-tridecanone, tannic acid, and quercetin, only one P450 gene was upregulated. These results show that plant allelochemical stress can induce differential gene expression in A. gossypii. The differential response information of gene expression based on a large-scale sequence would be useful to reveal molecular mechanisms of adaptation for A. gossypii to plant allelochemicals.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
  • Comparative Transcriptional Analysis of the Host-Specialized Aphids Aphis
           gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    • Authors: Zhang Y; Lei H, Miao N, et al.
      Abstract: Host specialization is an ubiquitous character in aphid populations. Many polyphagous aphid populations usually consist of several subpopulations that have strong fidelity to a specific host or a subset of host range. Host specialization is an evolutional result of food habit of insects. However, genetic basis and molecular mechanism of host specialization are still unclear. In this study, we presented a comparative analysis on global gene expression profiles of three lineages of Aphis gossypii Glover: cotton-specialized (CO), cucurbit-specialized (CU), and CU reared on cowpea (CU-cowpea), using RNA-Seq method. More than 157 million clean reads and 38,398 different unigenes were generated from transcriptomes of these three aphid lineages. The 1,106 down- and 2,835 up-regulated genes were found between CO and CU, and 812 down- and 14,492 up-regulated genes between CU-cowpea and CU. Differentially expressed genes between CO and CU were enriched in sugar metabolism, immune system process, pathogen infection or symbiosis, and salivary secretion. Genes associated with cytochrome P450, major facilitator superfamily, and salivary effector were differentially expressed between CO and CU, which might be involved in determining host specialization. UDP-glycosyltransferases genes were sensitive to host shift. Carboxylesterases and digestion-related protease genes were related to both the host specialization and host shift of aphids. Expression levels of 22 out of 24 genes of CO and CU measured by RT-qPCR method were as similar as the results from RNA-seq method. This study provides a road map for future study on molecular mechanism of host specialization in aphids.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
  • Economic Injury Level and Demography-Based Control Timing Projection of
           Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at Different Growth Stages of
           Arachis hypogaea
    • Authors: Tuan S; Lee C, Tang L, et al.
      Abstract: Spodoptera litura (F.), one of the most devastating pests in many Asian countries, is normally controlled by relying on chemical insecticides. To encourage an integrated pest management approach, we determined the economic injury level (EIL) for S. litura on peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., by larval infestation with late instars at different crop growth stages. The cumulative consumption rate of the fifth- and sixth-instars was used as the relative unit for the “Spodoptera injury equivalent” (SIE). The yield of marketable pods significantly decreased from 6.19 to 1.63 g.plant−1 as larval infestation intensity increased throughout the entire cropping season. When supplemented with timely applications of the insecticide, indoxacarb, an oxadiazine insecticide, the EIL values obtained in the larval infestation trial ranged from 3.26 to 13.47 SIE per 20 plants depending on the timing of initial infestation. The economic threshold (ET) for late instars, i.e., multiplying the EIL by 0.75, could not be utilized as a control timing index for the outbreak of injurious larvae population because of the time-lag. When the occurrence of natural mortality in the egg to pupal stage was considered, the ETs were adjusted to reflect the average survivorship. ETs of 27.3, 55.9, 51.3, and 112.6 eggs.m−2 were recommended at the early vegetative growth, blooming/pegging, pod-setting, and pod-filling stages, respectively, for initiating control measures. By simulating the pest population with the program, Timing-MSChart, we integrated the stage-specific EILs and ETs with the life-table data of S. litura on peanut and then proposed a demography-based control timing.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
  • An Overview of Mechanisms of Cry Toxin Resistance in Lepidopteran Insects
    • Authors: Peterson BB; Bezuidenhout CC, Van den Berg JJ.
      Abstract: Arthropods have the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides and insecticidal traits in genetically modified crops. Resistance development among Lepidoptera is a common phenomenon, and a repertoire of resistance mechanisms to various Cry toxins have been identified from laboratory, greenhouse, and field studies in this insect order. Elucidation of such resistance mechanisms is crucial for developing IRM (insect resistance management) strategies to ensure sustainable use of genetically modified crops. This mini review provides a comprehensive overview of mechanisms of resistance that have been reported for lepidopteran pests. This study demonstrated that resistance mechanisms are highly complex, and the most common mechanism of resistance is altered binding sites. It is yet to be established whether all these altered binding sites are regulated by an MAPK signaling pathway, which might suggest a universal mechanism of resistance in lepidopterans.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16
  • More Virulent Offspring Result From Hybridization of Invasive Aphid
           Species, Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae), With Diuraphis tritici
           Endemic to the United States
    • Authors: Puterka GJ.
      Abstract: The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), invaded the United States in 1986 and soon became a significant pest of wheat. Diuraphis tritici (Gillette) is native to the United States and was firmly established on wild grasses before the arrival of Russian wheat aphid. Both species are known to coinfest the same grass hosts, during the time they enter the sexual phase in the fall, mate, and produce overwintering eggs. Therefore, we induced males and females under greenhouse conditions in the fall and conducted studies in the laboratory to determine if these two species interbred and produced viable offspring. Fitness and virulence to Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat and barley entries were also compared among the hybrid progeny and both parents. Diuraphis tritici produced males and females in October. Diuraphis noxia biotype RWA8 produced enough oviparae to conduct crossing experiments. No males occurred in the D. noxia colony making it only possible to crossbreed D. tritici males with RWA8 oviparae and to inbreed D. tritici. No difference in egg production per female (2.0–2.5) or percent egg hatch (23.1–27.0%) was found between crosses. However, progeny survival after hatch for D. tritici inbreds (33.3%) was much higher than the D. tritici × D. noxia crosses (0.25%). Only one hybrid survived to reproductive adult. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) indicated the hybrid (0.18) was less fit than both parents (0.24–0.29). The hybrid line produced damage ratings to the 16 cereal entries similar to D. tritici but was more virulent to wheat and barley entries than both parents.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
  • A Laboratory Evaluation of Chemigation to Manage Stink Bugs (Hemiptera:
    • Authors: Wei X; Roberts PM, Porter WM, et al.
      Abstract: Application of insecticides for stink bug management through overhead irrigation, also called chemigation, could reduce application costs, soil compaction, and applicator exposure, while enabling growers to treat multiple fields simultaneously. The objective of these laboratory experiments was to compare knockdown, survival, and efficacy of insecticides when appropriately diluted for ground sprayer and chemigation applications. Treatments included water, bifenthrin [0.11 kg (AI)/ha] and dicrotophos [0.56 kg (AI)/ha] diluted for a ground sprayer (93.5 liters/ha), bifenthrin and dicrotophos diluted for chemigation (25,396 liters/ha), and bifenthrin and dicrotophos plus adjuvants diluted for ground sprayer or chemigation. Two- to 14-day-old adults of Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Halyomorpha halys (Stål) were briefly submerged in appropriately diluted insecticides and then introduced into a disposable petri dish with or without food. Dishes were placed in a growth chamber provisioned with digital video cameras to monitor knockdown and feeding after insecticide exposure. Knockdown was visually assessed at 24 h after treatment followed by mortality and recovery from knockdown at 48 h after treatment. All stink bugs were knocked down within 1 h and never recovered when exposed at ground sprayer dilutions. However, many bugs survived chemigation dilutions. Less than half of the stink bugs were knocked down when exposed to dicrotophos (with or without adjuvants) and survival ranged from 17 to 77%, compared to 7–90% survival when exposed to bifenthrin at chemigation dilutions. These results strongly suggest that chemigation applications for stink bug management need to be closely examined.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11
  • Standardized Sampling Plan for the Thrips Frankliniella schultzei
           (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Watermelon Crops
    • Authors: Barbosa Pinto C; Almeida Sarmento R, Visintin da Silva Galdino T, et al.
      Abstract: Sampling plans are essential components of integrated pest management programs. The thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is an important pest of watermelon crops. Despite the importance of sampling plans and of F. schultzei as a pest of watermelon crops, no research has been previously conducted on this subject for this crop. The objective of this work was to create a standardized sampling plan for F. schultzei in watermelon crops. Over two consecutive years, weekly samplings were performed in commercial watermelon crops. The aim of these assessments was to select the best sampling unit and the best sampling technique for F. schultzei assessment and to determine the number of samples necessary for a standardized sampling plan for this pest. In watermelon crops in the vegetative, flowering, and fruiting stages, the ideal location for sampling F. schultzei was the most apical leaf of the branches. The best sampling technique was a direct count of F. schultzei individuals. The F. schultzei sampling plan involved the evaluation of 69 samples per plot. The execution duration of this sampling plan in 1- to 15-ha plots was
      PubDate: 2017-02-11
  • Distribution and Persistence of Sterile Screwworms (Diptera:
           Calliphoridae) Released at the Panama–Colombia Border
    • Authors: Skoda SR; Phillips PL, Sagel A, et al.
      Abstract: The sterile insect technique is used by the Comisión Panamá – Estados Unidos para la Erradicación y Prevención del Gusano Barrenador del Ganado (COPEG) to maintain a barrier at the border of Panama and Colombia to prevent screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), from South America reinfesting North America. Before studying the distribution and persistence of sterilized, mass-produced screwworms released in the barrier zone, the utility of applying fluorescent dust (∼1.0 mg/fly) to pupae and to newly emerged adults was evaluated to determine the potential effect on fly survival. The flight ability of flies collected from two adult emergence/collection systems (enclosed towers and open chambers) and treated with low (∼0.20 mg/fly) or high (∼1.0 mg/fly) amounts of fluorescent powder was compared. The distribution and persistence of sterile screwworms marked with fluorescent powder (∼0.20 mg/fly), after collection from the same two adult emergence/collection systems, was compared after their release in the barrier zone. The results demonstrated that: 1) fluorescent dust did not negatively affect sterile screwworm longevity or flight ability; 2) no differences were detected between sterile flies collected from the two emergence systems; and 3) sterile screwworms distributed evenly in the barrier zone and persisted for > 6 d. This information was useful in implementing the use of a new sterile fly emergence/collection system and deploying a new strain by COPEG for the barrier zone maintenance program; it will be valuable for evaluating alternative release strategies of sterile screwworms by the eradication and barrier maintenance program.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11
  • Corrigendum
    • Abstract: Correction of “S. G. Gautam, G. P. Opit, and E. Hosoda. 2016. Phosphine resistance in adult and immature life stages of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) populations in California.”
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
  • Combination Phenyl Propionate/Pheromone Traps for Monitoring Navel
           Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Almonds in the Vicinity of Mating
    • Authors: Burks CS.
      Abstract: Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating monitoring and management of this key pest. Phenyl propionate is an attractant used to capture adults in the presence of mating disruption, completely suppressing pheromone traps, and lures combining phenyl propionate with a pheromone lure (PPO-combo lure) synergize trap capture in the presence of mating disruption. In this study, laboratory and field trials of different phenyl propionate dispensers indicate a useful life of six weeks. Controlled experiments found similar numbers of adults captured in phenyl propionate and PPO-combo lures in the presence of varying levels of mating disruption intensity. A subsequent trial compared monitoring of field plots at various distances from fields under commercial mating disruption for much of the growing season with pheromone and PPO-combo lures. Although there was some evidence of partial suppression of capture in PPO-combo traps closer to mating disruption compared with lures farther away, there was no failure of detection as occurred with pheromone lures. The ratio of adults in pheromone and PPO-combo traps varied with proximity from treated fields. These results indicate that, in addition to monitoring in mating disruption plots, phenyl propionate lures can be useful for insuring against failure of detection of navel orangeworm pressure in areas where mating disruption is widely used.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
  • Study of Synergism, Antagonism, and Resistance Mechanisms in
           Insecticide-Resistant Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)
    • Authors: Ullah S; Ejaz M, Ali Shad S.
      Abstract: Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) is an economic and key pest of the Malvaceae family widely distributed in the world. Significant field resistance to cypermethrin (26.69-fold), chlorpyrifos (32.60-fold), methomyl (10.87), acetamiprid (20.63-fold), fipronil (5.84-fold), and spirotetramat (116.02-fold) has been reported. Cypermethrin combined with methomyl and spirotetramat, methomyl with spirotetramat, acetamiprid with spirotetramat, and fipronil with spirotetramat had synergistic effects (combination index, (CI) in a laboratory population of O. hyalinipennis named Lab-PK. Methomyl combined with acetamiprid and acetamiprid with fipronil had synergistic effects on O. hyalinipennis in a field in Multan named Field-POP. Cypermethrin combined with methomyl and spirotetramat; chlorpyrifos with methomyl, acetamiprid, and spirotetramat; methomyl with acetamiprid and spirotetramat; and fipronil with spirotetramat also had synergistic effects on O. hyalinipennis in Field-POP. Enzyme inhibitors piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate significantly increased the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, methomyl, acetamiprid, and spirotetramat to O. hyalinipennis in Field-POP, suggesting a monooxygenase- and esterase-based resistance mechanism. However, fipronil did not synergize with PBO and DEF. This study suggests that insecticide mixtures showing synergism must be determined for insecticide resistance management and other strategies such as rotations, mosaics, and cultural control should also be considered for the management of O. hyalinipennis.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
  • Maximizing Information Yield From Pheromone-Baited Monitoring Traps:
           Estimating Plume Reach, Trapping Radius, and Absolute Density of Cydia
           pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Michigan Apple
    • Authors: Adams CG; Schenker JH, McGhee PS, et al.
      Abstract: Novel methods of data analysis were used to interpret codling moth (Cydia pomonella) catch data from central-trap, multiple-release experiments using a standard codlemone-baited monitoring trap in commercial apple orchards not under mating disruption. The main objectives were to determine consistency and reliability for measures of: 1) the trapping radius, composed of the trap’s behaviorally effective plume reach and the maximum dispersive distance of a responder population; and 2) the proportion of the population present in the trapping area that is caught. Two moth release designs were used: 1) moth releases at regular intervals in the four cardinal directions, and 2) evenly distributed moth releases across entire approximately 18-ha orchard blocks using both high and low codling moth populations. For both release designs, at high populations, the mean proportion catch was 0.01, and for the even release of low populations, that value was approximately 0.02. Mean maximum dispersive distance for released codling moth males was approximately 260 m. Behaviorally effective plume reach for the standard codling moth trap was 
      PubDate: 2017-01-28
  • Treating Prey With Glyphosate Does Not Alter the Demographic Parameters
           and Predation of the Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
    • Authors: Saska P; Skuhrovec J, Lukáš J, et al.
      Abstract: Glyphosate is an herbicide that is used worldwide with potential environmental risks to nontarget organisms. We applied an age–stage, two-sex life table approach to assess the sublethal effects of short-term oral exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide on the life table parameters and biocontrol potential of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Aphids (Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae)) treated with herbicide (an isopropylamine-salt of glyphosate) at low recommended, maximum recommended, and double the maximum recommended concentration for agricultural situations, and untreated controls were offered to the fourth instar of H. axyridis for 24 h. Development, consumption, and fecundity were measured daily until death. We detected minor differences in the hatching rate and mean generation time, whereas the longevity, fecundity, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and consumption were unaffected across treatments. We conclude that biocontrol potential of H. axyridis was not affected by acute oral intoxication by a glyphosate-based herbicide during the larval stage for 24 h under the study design.
      PubDate: 2017-01-28
  • Letter to the Editor
    • Authors: Chi H.
      Abstract: Dear Prof. Trumble,
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
  • Lethal Effects of the Insect Growth Regulator Cyromazine Against Three
           Species of Filth Flies, Musca domestica , Stomoxys calcitrans , and Fannia
           canicularis (Diptera: Muscidae) in Cattle, Swine, and Chicken Manure
    • Authors: Donahue WA, Jr; Showler AT, Donahue MW, et al.
      Abstract: The presence of various species of filth flies is a widespread problem where livestock, including poultry, are maintained and where manure accumulates. The house fly, Musca domestica L.; the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.); and the little house fly, Fannia canicularis (L.) (each Diptera: Muscidae), the target pests in our study, can mechanically spread diseases, and S. calcitrans can bite cattle, causing losses in meat and milk production. Chemical control is widely used to suppress filth flies, but resistance to conventional insecticides has become problematic. Hence, an alternative approach, insect growth regulators (IGRs), has been adopted by many livestock producers. We assessed the ability of the IGR cyromazine in granular and granular-based aqueous formulations to suppress the three muscid species from developing in poultry, cattle, and swine manure collected from commercial livestock production facilities. Each of the two formulations provided either strong or complete control of the pests for the 4-wk duration of the study, excluding the granular formulation that provides control of only F. canicularis developing in poultry manure for 2 wk. The two cyromazine-based IGR formulations appear to be effective tools that, if rotated appropriately with other insecticides, can be incorporated into integrated pest management strategies for filth fly suppression.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
  • Effects of Different Surfaces and Insecticide Carriers on Residual
    • Authors: Dang K; Singham G, Doggett SL, et al.
      Abstract: The performance of five insecticides (bendiocarb, deltamethrin, DDT, malathion, and imidacloprid) using three application methods (oil-based insecticide films on filter paper, and acetone-based insecticide deposits on two substrates: filter paper and glass) was assessed against a susceptible strain of Cimex lectularius (L.) and two resistant strains of Cimex hemipterus (F.). Substrate type significantly affected (P 
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
  • A Multiplex PCR Assay for Differentiating Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle
           (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) From Oriental Flower Beetle (Coleoptera:
           Scarabaeidae) in Early Life Stages and Excrement
    • Authors: Watanabe SS; Melzer MJ.
      Abstract: The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), is a major pest of coconut and other palm trees. An incipient coconut rhinoceros beetle population was recently discovered on the island of Oahu, Hawaii and is currently the target of a large, mutiagency eradication program. Confounding this program is the widespread presence of another scarab beetle on Oahu, the oriental flower beetle, Protaetia orientalis (Gory and Percheron 1833). Eggs, early life stages, and fecal excrement of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle are morphologically indistinguishable, thereby creating uncertainty when such specimens are discovered in the field. Here, we report the development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting cytochrome oxidase I of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle that can rapidly detect and distinguish between these insects. This assay also features an internal positive control to ensure DNA of sufficient quantity and quality is used in the assay, increasing its reliability and reducing the chances of false negative results.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
  • Selection and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Expression Analysis Using
           qRT-PCR in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    • Authors: Xu J; Lu M, Cui Y, et al.
      Abstract: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a valuable tool for estimating gene expression; however, the validity is largely dependent on the selection of stable reference genes. The suitability of various reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis was evaluated in, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). The ΔCt method, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to evaluate the suitability of nine candidate reference genes for normalizing gene expression in larval tissues and organs and during high and low temperature stress. The ΔCt method, geNorm, and NormFinder produced similar stability rankings; H3, UBI, and EF1 were the most stable reference genes for monitoring gene expression in larval tissue and organs, and EF1, TUB, and AK were the optimal genes for thermal stress. However, for thermal stress, RPS11 was the most stable gene based on BestKeeper. To validate these recommendations, the expression profile of the gene encoding heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) was investigated. Hsp60 transcript levels showed significant differences when normalized to the most versus least stable reference genes. These results further confirm the importance of testing reference genes using the selected experimental parameters. The reference genes identified in the present study will improve the quality of gene expression data obtained for C. suppressalis and will facilitate future studies aimed at understanding the biology of this important insect pest.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
  • An Additional Phytosanitary Cold Treatment Against Ceratitis capitata
           (Diptera: Tephritidae) in ‘Oroblanco’ Citrus Fruit
    • Authors: Gazit Y; Kaspi R.
      Abstract: For ‘Oroblanco’ (‘Sweetie’), the sweet seedless pummelo–grapefruit hybrid, when exported from Israel to Japan, the standard cold treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is conducted at ≤ 1.5 °C, for 16 d. In recent years, the transportation means of exported citrus was changed from reefer vessels to individual refrigerated containers, where the fruit bulk is relatively small and may be exposed to temperature fluctuations and to the risk of chilling injuries. To reduce this risk, Israel proposed to Japan to increase the treatment temperature and extend its duration to 2.2 °C and 18 d, respectively. This study shows that the proposed treatment effectively kills the third instar larva of C. capitata, in Oroblanco.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: Correction of “Samayoa, A. C., W. T. Chen, and S. Y. Hwang. 2016. Survival and development of Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae): A biodegradation agent of organic waste. Journal of Economic Entomology.”
      PubDate: 2017-01-13
  • Wheat Genotypes With Combined Resistance to Wheat Curl Mite, Wheat Streak
           Mosaic Virus , Wheat Mosaic Virus , and Triticum Mosaic Virus
    • Authors: Chuang W; Rojas L, Khalaf L, et al.
      Abstract: The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, (WCM) is a global pest of bread wheat that reduces yields significantly. In addition, WCM carries Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, family Potyviridae, genus Tritimovirus), the most significant wheat virus in North America; High Plains wheat mosaic virus (HPWMoV, genus Emaravirus, formerly High plains virus); and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, family Potyviridae, genus Poacevirus). Viruses carried by WCM have reduced wheat yields throughout the U.S. Great Plains for >50 yr, with average yield losses of 2-3% and occasional yield losses of 7-10%. Acaricides are ineffective against WCM, and delayed planting of winter wheat is not feasible. Five wheat breeding lines containing Cmc4, a WCM resistance gene from Aegilops tauschii, and Wsm2, a WSMV resistance gene from wheat germplasm CO960293-2 were selected from the breeding process and assessed for phenotypic reaction to WCM feeding, population increase, and the degree of WSMV, HPWMoV, and TriMV infection. Experiments determined that all five lines are resistant to WCM biotype 1 feeding and population increase, and that two breeding lines contain resistance to WSMV, HPWMoV, and TriMV infection as well. These WCM-, WSMV-, HPWMoV-, and TriMV-resistant genotypes can be used improve management of wheat yield losses from WCM–virus complexes.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13
  • Presence and Prevalence of Raffaelea lauricola , Cause of Laurel Wilt, in
           Different Species of Ambrosia Beetle in Florida, USA
    • Authors: Ploetz RC; Konkol JL, Narvaez T, et al.
      Abstract: We summarize the information available on ambrosia beetle species that have been associated in Florida with Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, the primary symbiont of Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and cause of laurel wilt. In total, 14 species in Ambrosiodmus, Euwallacea, Premnobius, Xyleborus, Xyleborinus, and Xylosandrus were either reared from laurel wilt-affected host trees or trapped in laurel wilt-affected stands of the same, and assayed for R. lauricola. In six collections from native species in the southeastern United States [Persea borbonia (L.), Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg., and Persea humilis Nash] and four from avocado (Persea americana Mill.), extracted mycangia or heads (taxa with mandibular mycangia) or intact bodies (taxa with mycangia in other locations) were surface-disinfested before assays on a semi-selective medium for the isolation of Raffaelea (CSMA+). Raffaelea lauricola was identified based on its characteristic phenotype on CSMA+, and the identity of a random subset of isolates was confirmed with taxon-specific microsatellite markers. The pathogen was recovered from 34% (246 of 726) of the individuals that were associated with the native Persea spp., but only 6% (58 of 931) of those that were associated with avocado. Over all studies, R. lauricola was recovered from 10 of the ambrosia beetle species, but it was most prevalent in Xyleborus congeners. This is the first record of R. lauricola in Ambrosiodmus lecontei Hopkins, Xyleborinus andrewesi (Blandford), and Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff. The potential effects of R. lauricola’s promiscuity are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
  • The Effects of a Modified Hot Water Treatment on Anastrepha ludens
           (Diptera: Tephritidae)-Infested Mango
    • Authors: Hernández E; Aceituno-Medina M, Toledo J, et al.
      Abstract: The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is a quarantine pest in mango (Mangifera indica L.) that can be controlled by using a hot water treatment (HWT). This treatment is normally followed by a 30-min hydrocooling (HYC) process that reduces the negative effects that the treatment has on fruit quality. However, if hot water-treated fruits are immediately immersed in water at 21 °C, the survival rate of third-instar A. ludens may be increased. The current approved treatment protocol states that if HYC is used, then treated fruit should undergo an additional 10-min HWT or on platform for 30 min before HYC. We aimed to determine the efficacy of HWT without an additional 10-min treatment before being subjected to HYC, while taking into consideration that the most important conditions are the temperature of the fruit core throughout treatment and the type of infestation, either oviposition or inoculation. Two experimental tests were conducted. Our first aim was to determine the effectiveness of HWT followed by HYC using three varieties and different size classes of mangoes (‘Ataulfo’ 200–375 and 401–570 g; ‘Tommy Atkins’ 401–500 and 501–700 g; ‘Kent’ 401–500 g). The four treatment combinations used to test HWT and immediate HYC at 21 °C were 1) HWT, 2) HWT/HYC, 3) HWT + 10 min/HYC, and 4) HWT/30 min on platform/HYC; an independent experiment was used for each variety. The second aim was to validate the HWT/HYC combination by performing confirmatory tests in commercial packing houses. The results showed that as long as the mango core temperature reached 45 °C during the HWT, it was not necessary to add the 10-min treatment to the HWT before HYC at 21 °C was applied. To ensure that the larvae are subjected to the HWT treatment for sufficient time to be lethal, the temperature of the fruit core throughout the treatment must be recorded.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
  • Modeling Environmental Influences in the Psyllaephagus bliteus
           (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) –Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera:
           Aphalaridae) Parasitoid–Host System
    • Authors: Margiotta MM; Bella SS, Buffa FF, et al.
      Abstract: Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) is an invasive psyllid introduced into the Mediterranean area, where it affects several species of Eucalyptus. Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a specialized parasitoid of this psyllid that was accidentally introduced into Italy in 2011. We developed a model of this host–parasitoid system that accounts for the influence of environmental conditions on the G. brimblecombei population dynamics and P. bliteus parasitism rates in the natural ecosystem. The Lotka–Volterra-based model predicts non-constant host growth and parasitoid mortality rates in association with variation in environmental conditions. The model was tested by analyzing sampling data collected in Naples in 2011 (before the parasitoid was present) and defining several environmental patterns, termed Temperature-Rain or T-R patterns, which correspond to the host growth rate. A mean value of the host growth rate was assigned to each T-R pattern, as well as a variation of the parasitoid mortality rate based on temperature thresholds. The proposed model was applied in simulation tests related to T-R patterns carried out with a data series sampled between June 2014 and July 2015 in five Italian sites located in Campania, Lazio, Sicily, and Sardinia regions. The simulation results showed that the proposed model provides an accurate approximation of population trends, although oscillation details may not be apparent. Results predict a 64% reduction in G. brimblecombei population density owing to P. bliteus parasitoid activity. Our results are discussed with respect to features of the host–parasitoid interaction that could be exploited in future biological control programs.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
  • Effects of Carriers, Emulsifiers, and Biopesticides for Direct Silk
           Treatments on Caterpillar Feeding Damage and Ear Development in Sweet Corn
    • Authors: Westgate PJ; Schultz BB, Hazzard RV.
      Abstract: In the northeastern United States, control of Lepidopteran pests of sweet corn, particularly corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)], is difficult using organic methods. The direct application of corn oil and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to corn silk has been shown to reduce ear damage from corn earworm in past studies; these studies sought to optimize this method by evaluating additional carrier and biopesticide mixtures that comply with the United States Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and National Organic Standards. Carriers, which are liquids used to dissolve the biopesticide and deliver it into the tip of the ear, may have phytotoxic or insecticidal properties. Experiments conducted from 2001 to 2005 evaluated caterpillar damage and ear development effects from carriers (vegetable and paraffinic oils and carrageenan), biopesticides (Bt, spinsosad, and neem), and three emulsifiers in various combinations when applied directly to the tips of the ears 5–7 d after silk initiation. There were no effects of emulsifiers on ear quality, except for slight reduction in caterpillar damage in one of the two years. There were no differences among corn, soy, canola, and safflower oils in corn earworm control or tip development. The carrageenan carrier had the least effect upon ear development as measured by the length of nonpollinated kernels at the tip, compared to corn oil or paraffinic oil (JMS Stylet Oil), which caused the greatest tip damage as well as an oily discoloration. The carrier–pesticide combinations with the best ear quality overall were spinosad in carrageenan or corn oil, and Bt in carrageenan.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
  • Effects of Bt Corn and Egg Density on Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera:
           Chrysomelidae) Adult Emergence and Estimation of Effective Bt Dose
    • Authors: Campbell LA; Prasifka PL, Storer NP, et al.
      Abstract: Since 2003, rootworm-protected transgenic corn has been commercially deployed in the United States as a principal method of control of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Durability of this technology depends partly on larval mortality (“dose”) exerted by the traits, but density-dependent mortality can confound calculations of dose. Research reported here examined the effects of density-dependent mortality on adult emergence and estimates of trait dose. At sites in Illinois and Indiana, western corn rootworm eggs were infested at four densities on non-Bt corn and at a single density on corn hybrids with transgenic events MON 88017 (VT Triple PRO), DAS-59122-7 (Herculex Insect Protection), and MON 88017 × DAS-59122-7 (SmartStax corn). Beetles were collected weekly in large emergence cages. Density-dependent mortality and the effect of Bt traits were examined using percent survival from egg to adult, sex ratio, and beetle mass. Beetle emergence from Bt treatments was very low, and percent survival from non-Bt treatments was greatest at the lowest egg density (410 eggs per row-meter). Therefore, emergence from the lowest infestation density on non-Bt corn was used to estimate the effective dose of the Bt treatments. Sex ratio and beetle mass were unaffected by density-dependent effects and were not consistently affected by Bt traits. Dose was estimated at 97.4–99.3% for MON 88017, 98.8–99.9% for DAS-59122-7, and 99.7–100.0% for MON 88017 × DAS-59122-7. This study confirms the need to account for density-dependent mortality when estimating dose of corn rootworm protection events even at relatively low egg infestation densities.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
  • Effect of Resin Ducts and Sap Content on Infestation and Development of
           Immature Stages of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera:
           Tephritidae) in Four Mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) Cultivars
    • Authors: Guillén L; Adaime R, Birke A, et al.
      Abstract: We determined the influence of resin ducts, sap content, and fruit physicochemical features of four mango cultivars (Criollo, Manila, Ataulfo, and Tommy Atkins) on their susceptibility to the attack of the two most pestiferous fruit fly species infesting mangoes in Mexico: Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart). We performed three studies: 1) analysis of resin ducts in mango fruit exocarp to determine the density and area occupied by resin ducts in each mango cultivar, 2) assessment of mango physicochemical features including fruit sap content, and 3) a forced infestation trial under field conditions using enclosed fruit-bearing branches to expose mangoes to gravid A. ludens or A. obliqua females. Infestation rates, development time from egg to prepupae and pupae, pupal weight, and percent of adult emergence, were assessed. ‘Ataulfo’ and ‘Tommy Atkins’ cultivars exhibited the highest resin duct density and sap content, the lowest infestation rate, and had a negative effect on immature development and pupal weight. In sharp contrast, ‘Manila’ and ‘Criollo’ cultivars, with the lowest resin duct density and sap content, were highly susceptible to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. We conclude that sap content and the number, size, and distribution of resin ducts as well as firmness in mango fruit exocarp are all involved in the resistance of mango to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
  • Effect of the Presence of Live or Dead Insects on Subsequent Captures of
           Six Stored-Product Beetle Species: The Relative Species Matters
    • Authors: Athanassiou CG; Kavallieratos NG, Campbell JF.
      Abstract: In trapping programs prior capture of individuals of the same or different species may influence subsequent attractiveness of the trap. To evaluate this process with stored-product insects, the effect of the presence of dead or alive adults in traps on the behavioral responses of six stored-product insect species, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, T. castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), S. granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) and O. mercator (Fauvel) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), was studied in choice tests under laboratory conditions. Two series of tests were carried out. In the first series, the choice was between either alive or dead adults of same species and blank (no adults). Overall, dead adults had the strongest influence, increasing the response of S. oryzae, S. granarius, O. surinamensis, and O. mercator and decreasing the response of the two Tribolium species. Presence of alive adults generally did not result in a response different from blank, except for T. castaneum and O. surinamensis that had a reduced response. In the second series of tests, the choice was between alive or dead individuals of the species vs. alive or dead individuals of its relative cogeneric species. For choices between alive individuals, S. oryzae, S. granarius, and O. surinamensis showed a preference for alive individuals of the same species vs. the cogeneric species, and for all the other species there was no preference. For choices between dead individuals, T. castaneum exhibited a preference for individuals of the same species, while S. oryzae, S. granarius, and O. mercator showed a preference for individuals of the cogeneric species, and all other combinations did exhibit a preference. Our results suggest that traps containing alive and dead individuals of the same and other species can seriously affect the response and capture of additional insects.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
  • Pollination Reservoirs in Lowbush Blueberry (Ericales: Ericaceae)
    • Authors: Venturini EM; Drummond FA, Hoshide AK, et al.
      Abstract: Pollinator-dependent agriculture heavily relies upon a single pollinator—the honey bee. To diversify pollination strategies, growers are turning to alternatives. Densely planted reservoirs of pollen- and nectar-rich flowers (pollination reservoirs, hereafter “PRs”) may improve pollination services provided by wild bees. Our focal agroecosystem, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), exists in a simple landscape uniquely positioned to benefit from PRs. First, we contrast bee visitation rates and use of three types of PR. We consider the effects of PRs on wild bee diversity and the composition of bumble bee pollen loads. We contrast field-level crop pollination services between PRs and controls four years postestablishment. Last, we calculate the time to pay for PR investment. Social bees preferentially used clover plantings; solitary bees preferentially used wildflower plantings. On average, bumble bee pollen loads in treatment fields contained 37% PR pollen. PRs significantly increased visitation rates to the crop in year 4, and exerted a marginally significant positive influence on fruit set. The annualized costs of PRs were covered by the fourth year using the measured increase in pollination services. Our findings provide evidence of the positive impact of PRs on crop pollination services.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
  • Larvicidal and Growth-Inhibitory Activity of Entomopathogenic Bacteria
           Culture Fluids Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
    • Authors: Luiz Rosa da Silva J; Undurraga Schwalm F, Eugênio Silva C, et al.
      Abstract: Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika are important vector-borne diseases, and Aedes aegypti L. is their main transmitter. As the disease management is mainly based on mosquito control strategies, the search for alternative and cost-effective approaches is ongoing. The Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens are symbiotically associated with entomopathogenic nematodes and are highly pathogenic for insect larvae. After we have recently confirmed the toxicity of these bacteria in Ae. aegypti larvae, we here evaluated the toxic activity of culture fluids on the development of this mosquito species. Larval susceptibility was assessed by exposing larvae to different concentrations of P. luminescens or X. nematophila culture fluids to confirm whether secondary metabolites might cause the mosquitos’ death. Xenorhabdus nematophila culture fluid was more effective and stable during the mosquito pathogenicity bioassays compared to that of P. luminescens. Larval mortality started a few hours after exposure of the insects to the fluids. Furthermore, the residual effect of larvicidal activity of X. nematophila fluid persisted at full efficiency for 4 d. Particularly, larval mortality was still higher than 50% for up to 8 d. Exposure of larvae to a sublethal dose of X. nematophila fluid delayed pupation as well as emergence of adult mosquitoes and caused cumulative larval mortality higher than 90% by day 14. Here, we describe for the first time the use of stable culture fluids and therefore secondary metabolites of P. luminescens and X. nematophila as a promising basis for the use as biopesticide for control of Ae. aegypti in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
  • Self- and Conspecific Discrimination Between Unparasitized and Parasitized
           Green Peach Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae), by Aphelinus asychis
           (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)
    • Authors: Liang Q; Jia Y, Liu T.
      Abstract: Aphelinus asychis Walker (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary koinobiont endoparasitoid, which parasitizes the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Host discrimination is the ability of a parasitoid to distinguish between unparasitized and parasitized hosts, so parasitoids can avoid wasting eggs and time. We determined the influence of host density (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 aphids per experienced parasitoid during a 24-h period) on egg distribution, and tested the effects of different time intervals (0, 24, 48, and 72 h) between successive ovipositions on host discrimination between unparasitized and self- or conspecific-parasitized aphids. The results demonstrated that superparasitism decreased with increasing host density. Egg distributions were nonrandom at all host densities, and the observed number of self-superparasitized hosts was lower than expected at all host densities. At 0-h interval, most parasitoids used only antennation to examine and reject parasitized aphids, which might be associated with an external marker. At longer time intervals (≥24 h), A. asychis most often used antennation followed by ovipositor insertion to examine and reject previously parasitized aphids, probably responding to an internal, from chemical substances injected during the first oviposition or changes in host quality associated with parasitism. The results showed that host discrimination in A. asychis was mediated by two consecutive cues, the first external and the second internal, with the relevancy of each depending on the time interval between two ovipositions. Consequently, A. asychis was able to discriminate between unparasitized and self- or conspecific-parasitized M. persicae, but always engaged in some superparasitism.
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
  • Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms Associated With the Resistance of the
           European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Lambda-Cyhalothrin and
           First Monitoring Tool
    • Authors: Siegwart M; Thibord J, Olivares J, et al.
      Abstract: The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)) is one of the most serious corn pest in Europe where it is controlled with pesticides, in particular, pyrethroids. First control failures with this chemical family occurred on the field in 2008 in the center of France, and the first resistance case was described in 2012. In the present study, we investigate resistance mechanisms involved in seven French populations of O. nubilalis collected in the field. Resistances to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were confirmed, with a higher resistance ratio for lambda-cyhalothrin (63.79 compared to 7.67). Resistance to the two active compounds was correlated except for one population, indicating a high probability of cross-resistance. Analyses of the activity of three major families of detoxification enzymes in resistant individuals showed a significant increase of the average MFO activity in males of four populations (activity ratios of 2.76–5.73) and higher GST activity in females of two other populations (activity ratios 4.48 and 5.21). Molecular investigation of the sodium channel gene sequence showed the presence of the kdr mutation in a highly resistant individual. We designed a PCR-RFLP screening tool to search for this mutation in the field, and we found it in five populations but not in the susceptible one. The resistance of O. nubilalis to pyrethroids in France seems to result from a combination of resistance mechanisms, possibly as a consequence of a selection pressure with an exceptional duration (almost 40 yr old).
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
  • Temperature-Dependent Development and Thermal Sensitivity of Blaptica
           dubia (Blattodea: Blaberidae)
    • Authors: Wu H; Hu X, Appel AG.
      Abstract: Temperature-dependent development of nymphs of the Dubia cockroach, Blaptica dubia Serville, was described using constant-temperature data collected from laboratory experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C. Simple linear regression models were developed based on the data from each instar. Degree-days required to complete a particular life stage were estimated as 457.5, 668, 1,031, 1,317, 1,515, 1,429, and 2,071 for instars 1–7, respectively. Nymphs developed to adulthood at 20, 25, and 30 °C, but all died before developing into fifth instar at 35 °C and into second instar at 40 °C. Critical thermal maximum (CTMax) and critical thermal minimum (CTMin) of B. dubia were also measured for each instar. CTMax ranged from 44.8 to 49.9 °C for fourth and second instars, respectively. CTMin ranged from approximately −2 °C for seventh instar to − 3.1 °C for second instar. There was no relationship between body mass (instar) and CTMax; however, CTMin was positively correlated with body mass. These results could be used to control the development rate of B. dubia and adjust the optimal rearing temperature for B. dubia in a given situation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-26
  • Repellent Activity of Apiaceae Plant Essential Oils and their Constituents
           Against Adult German Cockroaches
    • Authors: Lee H; Kim G, Choi W, et al.
      Abstract: We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches.
      PubDate: 2016-12-26
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: Correction of “Moore, S. D., Kirkman, W., Albertyn, S., and Hattingh, V. 2016. Comparing the use of laboratory-reared and field-collected Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae for demonstrating efficacy of postharvest cold treatments in citrus fruit. Journal of Economic Entomology 109(4):1571–1577.”
      PubDate: 2016-12-12
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