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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 285, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 577, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Journal of Economic Entomology
  [SJR: 0.894]   [H-I: 76]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0022-0493 - ISSN (Online) 1938-291X
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Rice Field Spiders in China: A Review of the Literature
    • Authors: Yang H; Peng Y, Tian J, et al.
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Many laboratory and field studies have been conducted on rice field spiders in China. There are 375 species, 108 genera, and 22 families of rice field spiders distributed within the major rice growing areas and 17 dominant species. The biological and ecological characteristics of 17 rice field spider species have been reported in detail. The biology and ecology of these species show significant differences among regions, farmland habitats, and agricultural practices. Future research should focus on rice field habitat diversity, enhancing the insecticide resistance of dominant spider populations, implementing large-scale breeding of spiders and augmentative release, breeding more leaf dominant species, conducting biosafety assessment of spiders in transgenic crops.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox319
  • Yield Losses in Transgenic Cry1Ab and Non-Bt Corn as Assessed Using a
           Crop-Life-Table Approach
    • Authors: Silva G; Picanço M, Ferreira L, et al.
      First page: 218
      Abstract: In this study, we constructed crop life tables for Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) Cry1Ab and non-Bt corn hybrids, in which yield-loss factors and abundance of predaceous arthropods were recorded during 2 yr at two locations. Corn kernel/grain was the yield component that had the heaviest losses and that determined the overall yield loss in the corn hybrids across years and locations. Yield losses in both corn hybrids were primarily caused by kernel-destroying insects. Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were the key loss factors at one location, while at the other, the key loss factor was the silk fly larvae, Euxesta spp. (Diptera: Ulidiidae). Although the realized yield of corn grains was not different (P > 0.05) between Cry1Ab and non-Bt corn hybrids, the Bt corn hybrid reduced (P < 0.05) the damage by H. zea and S. frugiperda in three of the four field trials, particularly at the location where Lepidoptera were the key loss factors. As expected, no reduction in the abundance of predaceous arthropods was observed in Cry1Ab corn fields. Various species of natural enemies were recorded, particularly the earwig Doru luteipes (Scudder) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae), which was the most abundant and frequent predaceous insect. These results indicate that integration of pest management practices should be pursued to effectively minimize losses by kernel-destroying insects during corn reproductive stages when growing non-Bt or certain low-dose Bt corn cultivars for fall armyworm and corn earworm, such as those producing Cry1Ab or other Cry toxins.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox346
  • Billbug (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae: Sphenophorus spp.) Seasonal Biology
           and DNA-Based Life Stage Association in Indiana Turfgrass
    • Authors: Duffy A; Powell G, Zaspel J, et al.
      First page: 304
      Abstract: Eleven species of billbugs (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae: Sphenophorus spp. Schönherr) infest managed turfgrass in North America. However, the regional variation in species composition remains unresolved and the seasonal phenology of several species has not been well documented. The latter gap is largely due to the inability to identify the larval stage to species—a confounding problem with several sympatric insect species. We used field trapping (adults) and soil sampling (larvae and pupae) surveys along with a DNA-based life-stage association to characterize the biology of billbugs associated with turfgrass in the Midwestern United States. Pitfall trapping at four locations in Indiana revealed four billbug species: S. venatus Say, S. parvulus Gyllenhaal, S. minimus Hart, and S. inaequalis Say. Sphenophorus venatus was the most abundant species on warm-season turfgrass while S. parvulus was most abundant on cool-season turfgrass. Investigation of S. venatus seasonal biology revealed two overwintered life stages—larva and adult—which resulted in two overlapping cohorts and two larval generations. Degree-day models describing S. venatus activity were more accurate for first-generation adults and larvae than for overwintering life stages. Maximum-likelihood analyses provided the first molecular species identification of billbug larvae and direct evidence that S. venatus larvae are capable of overwintering above 40°N latitude. Findings clarify the utility of molecular markers (CO1, 18S, and ITS2) for describing billbug larval population dynamics and seasonal phenology in regions where several sympatric billbug species occur. These results support the development of sustainable management strategies based on billbug seasonal phenology in different regions of North America.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox340
  • Host-Tree Selection by the Invasive Argentine Ant (Hymenoptera:
           Formicidae) in Relation to Honeydew-Producing Insects
    • Authors: Seko Y; Hayasaka D, Nishino A, et al.
      First page: 319
      Abstract: The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr; Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is one of the world’s most hazardous invasive species, and thus its eradication from Japan is important. Physical and chemical controls can be expensive and cause strong adverse effects on local terrestrial ecosystems regardless of their high efficacy. Here, presence/absence of host-tree selection by Argentine ants was investigated to understand the ant-honeydew-producing insects interactions in order to develop new cultural controls compatible with biodiversity conservation. Abundance of Argentine ants and their tree utilization ratio was measured among dominant roadside trees (Cinnamomum camphora, Myrica rubra, Nerium indicum, Rhaphiolepis indica var. umbellata, Juniperus chinensis var. kaizuka) in two areas around Kobe, Japan. Almost all ants collected were Argentine ants suggesting that native ants would have been competitively excluded. Tree utilization of Argentine ants clearly differed among host trees. Abundance of both Argentine ants and honeydew-producing insects and tree utilization rate of the ants were significantly lower in especially C. camphora and J. chinensis. Few Argentine ants were observed trailing on C. camphora, J. Chinensis, and N. indicum, most probably due to low abundance of honeydew-producing insects on these trees with the toxic and repellent chemical components. On the other hand, high abundance of both Argentine ants and homopterans were found in M. rubra and especially R. indica. We suggest that reductions of R. indica and M. rubra would lead to a decrease in abundance of honeydew-producing insects, and thus effectively control populations of Argentine ants. At the same time, planting of C. camphora, J. Chinensis, and N. indicum may also play a role in restraint efficacy against invasion of the invasive ants.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox351
  • Characterization of Antibiosis to Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera:
           Chrysomelidae) in Brazilian Maize Landraces
    • Authors: Costa E; Nogueira L, de Souza B, et al.
      First page: 454
      Abstract: Resistance to insect pests can be found in several native, landrace plants and can be an important alternative to conventional control methods. Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae are important maize (Zea mays L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) root pests and finding native resistance in landraces would greatly contribute to maize-breeding programs aimed at controlling this pest. This study investigated whether the growth, survival, oviposition rhythm, fecundity, and fertility of D. speciosa are negatively influenced by specific maize landraces, and the existence of any morphological barriers in the roots that may correlate with plant resistance to the larval attack. Nineteen genotypes (17 landraces and 2 cultivars) were screened for antibiosis in assays that were conducted in the laboratory using seedling maize plants where the development time, longevity, weight, total survival, and sex ratio of adults were evaluated. Out of nineteen genotypes, eight were selected according to their resistance levels for an additional rearing study evaluating oviposition and fecundity. Landrace Pérola and cultivar SCS 154-Fortuna were classified as resistant because they increased the maturation period from larva to adult and decreased survivorship; and the landrace Palha Roxa was also classified as resistant for showing a lower fertility rate than other landraces. Resistant landraces that were infested by D. speciosa larvae showed greater amounts of some morphological barriers comparing with uninfested plants. The landraces classified as resistant may be considered in future plant-breeding programs, aiming to develop resistant maize cultivars to D. speciosa larval attack.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox350
  • Linking Demography and Consumption of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata
           (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Fed on Solanum photeinocarpum (Solanales:
           Solanaceae): With a New Method to Project the Uncertainty of Population
           Growth and Consumption
    • Authors: Huang H; Chi H, Smith C.
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Because life tables are capable of providing the most comprehensive description on the survival, stage differentiation, and the reproduction of animal populations, they can be considered as the bases of population ecology and pest management. Researchers concerned with studies involving life tables inevitably face the problem of describing the variabilities that occur in the survival, stage differentiation, and fecundity data. Finding a means to include these variabilities in population projections concerning pest management may be problematic. Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (F.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a pest of many plant species in Asia, including cultivated crops, ornamentals, and wild plants. The raw life history data (survival, stage differentiation, and fecundity) and consumption rate of both sexes of H. vigintioctopunctata reared on Solanum photeinocarpum Nakamura et Odashima (Solanales: Solanaceae) were collected in the laboratory and analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), mean generation time (T), and net consumption rate (C0) of H. vigintioctopunctata were 0.1312 d−1, 1.1402 d−1, 603.5 offspring, 48.8 d, and 77.8 cm2, respectively. By using the bootstrap technique with 100,000 samples, we demonstrated that the life tables constructed based on the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of R0 and λ can be used to describe the variabilities found in the survival and fecundity curves and to project the uncertainty of population growth.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox330
  • Value of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Seed Treatments in Mid-South Cotton
           (Gossypium hirsutum [Malvales: Malvaceae]) Production Systems
    • Authors: North J; Gore J, Catchot A, et al.
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Neonicotinoid insecticides are currently one of two classes of chemicals available as a seed treatment for growers to manage early season insect pests of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvales: Malvaceae), and they are used on nearly 100% of cotton hectares in the midsouthern states. An analysis was performed on 100 seed-treatment trials from Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee to determine the value of neonicotinoid seed treatments in cotton production systems. The analysis compared seed treated with neonicotinoid insecticides seed treatments plus a fungicide with seed only treated with fungicide. When analyzed by state, cotton yields were significantly greater when neonicotinoid seed treatments were used compared with fungicide-only treatments. Cotton treated with neonicotinoid seed treatments yielded 123, 142, 95, and 104 kg ha−1, higher than fungicide only treatments for Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee, respectively. Across all states, neonicotinoid seed treatments provided an additional 115 kg lint ha−1 comparedwith fungicide only treated seed. Average net returns from cotton with a neonicotinoid seed treatment were $1,801 per ha−1 compared with $1,660 per ha−1 for cottonseed treated with fungicide only. Economic returns for cotton with neonicotinoid seed treatments were significantly greater than cottonseed treated with fungicide only in 8 out of 15 yr representing every state. These data show that neonicotinoid seed treatments provide significant yield and economic benefits in Mid-South cotton compared with fungicide only treated seed.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox324
  • Ecology and Economics of Using Native Managed Bees for Almond Pollination
    • Authors: Koh I; Lonsdorf E, Artz D, et al.
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Native managed bees can improve crop pollination, but a general framework for evaluating the associated economic costs and benefits has not been developed. We conducted a cost–benefit analysis to assess how managing blue orchard bees (Osmia lignaria Say [Hymenoptera: Megachildae]) alongside honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus [Hymenoptera: Apidae]) can affect profits for almond growers in California. Specifically, we studied how adjusting three strategies can influence profits: (1) number of released O. lignaria bees, (2) density of artificial nest boxes, and (3) number of nest cavities (tubes) per box. We developed an ecological model for the effects of pollinator activity on almond yields, validated the model with published data, and then estimated changes in profits for different management strategies. Our model shows that almond yields increase with O. lignaria foraging density, even where honey bees are already in use. Our cost–benefit analysis shows that profit ranged from −US$1,800 to US$2,800/acre given different combinations of the three strategies. Adding nest boxes had the greatest effect; we predict an increase in profit between low and high nest box density strategies (2.5 and 10 boxes/acre). In fact, the number of released bees and the availability of nest tubes had relatively small effects in the high nest box density strategies. This suggests that growers could improve profits by simply adding more nest boxes with moderate number of tubes in each. Our approach can support grower decisions regarding integrated crop pollination and highlight the importance of a comprehensive ecological economic framework for assessing these decisions.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox318
  • Pollen Foraging Differences Among Three Managed Pollinators in the
           Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) Agroecosystem
    • Authors: Bobiwash K; Uriel Y, Elle E.
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum (Gray), production in British Columbia is dependent upon insect pollination for fruit yield with particular cultivars demonstrating low yields due to poor pollination. New managed species of pollinators are being developed to provide farmers with managed pollinator options beyond Apis mellifera (Linnaeus). Pollinators in highbush blueberry agricultural systems encounter a variety of nontarget floral resources that may affect the pollination received by the crop. Our study analyzed the differences in pollen foraging of honey bees and two species of managed bumblebees across nine farm sites. Corbicular pollen loads from pollen foraging workers were removed and identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible. Of the three managed pollinators, the corbicular pollen loads of Bombus huntii (Greene) contained the most blueberry pollen (52.1%), three times as much as the two other managed bee species. Fifteen morphotypes of pollen were identified from all foraging workers with Rosaceae being the most frequently gathered overall pollen type (n = 74). The noncrop pollen identified in our samples derived from plant species not common as weedy species in the agroecosystem suggesting that floral resource diversity outside of the farm boundaries is important to pollinators. The three managed species in our blueberry fields utilized floral resources differentially underscoring the importance of pollinator species’ characteristics and large-scale floral resource landscape in developing new managed pollinators and pollination strategies.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox344
  • The Effects of an Ultra-low-Volume Application of Etofenprox for Mosquito
           Management on Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Larvae and
           Adults in an Agricultural Setting
    • Authors: Piccolomini A; Flenniken M, O’Neill K, et al.
      First page: 33
      Abstract: The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), is one of the most intensively managed solitary bees and greatly contributes to alfalfa production in both the United States and Canada. Although production of certain commodities, especially alfalfa seed, has become increasingly dependent on this species’ pollination proficiency, little information is known about how M. rotundata is affected by insecticide exposure. To better understand the risk posed to M. rotundata by the increasing use of insecticides to manage mosquitoes, we conducted field experiments that directly exposed M. rotundata nests, adults, and larvae to a pyrethroid insecticide via a ground-based ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol generator. We directly targeted nest shelters with Zenivex® E20 (etofenprox) at a half-maximum rate of 0.0032 kg/ha at dusk and then observed larval mortality, adult mortality, and the total number of completed nests for both the treated and control groups. There was no significant difference in the proportion of dead (P = 0.99) and alive (P = 0.23) larvae when the control group was compared with the treated group. We also did not observe a significant difference in the number of emerged adults reared from the treated shelters (P = 0.22 and 0.50 for females and males, respectively), and the number of completed cells after exposure to the insecticides continued to increase throughout the summer, indicating that provisioning adults were not affected by the insecticide treatment. The results from this study suggest that the amount of insecticide reaching nest shelters may not be sufficient to cause significant mortality.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox343
  • Apis cerana Is Less Sensitive to Most Neonicotinoids, Despite of Their
           Smaller Body Mass
    • Authors: Yue M; Luo S, Liu J, et al.
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Multiple stressors and interaction between them may be responsible for the decline of global pollinators. Among them, exposure to neonicotinoids has been getting more attention and has been considered as a main stressor. The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Chinese indigenous honey bee (Apis cerana F.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) are two managed honey bee species in China. These two species are widely used in beekeeping, and many wild A. cerana is widely spread in forests and contributes to the ecosystem. It is predicated that A. cerana is more sensitive to insecticides than A. mellifera due to their smaller mass. Here, we found that although the body mass of A. cerana is significantly lower than A. mellifera, the sensitivity of the two species to neonicotinoids are not associated with their body mass but depended on the chemical structure of neonicotinoids. To dinotefuran, the two species showed the similar sensitivity. To acetamiprid, A. mellifera was less sensitive than A. cerana. However, to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, A. mellifera was more sensitive than A. cerana. These results suggested that the sensitivity of honey bees to neonicotinoids is closely associated with the structure of pesticides, but not with body mass of bees. It is also indicated that the hazards of pesticides to the different pollinators could not be inferred from one species to another.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox342
  • Impact of the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus
           (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae), on the Chestnut Component of Honey in the
           Southern Swiss Alps
    • Authors: Gehring E; Kast C, Kilchenmann V, et al.
      First page: 43
      Abstract: The Asian chestnut gall wasp (ACGW; Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) is considered as one of the most dangerous pests of the genus Castanea. In southern Switzerland, repeated heavy ACGW attacks prevented chestnut trees from vegetating normally for years before the arrival and spread of the biological control agent Torymus sinensis (Kamijo, Hymenoptera, Torymidae). This resulted in a greatly reduced green biomass and flower production. In this paper, we analyze the impact of such an ecosystem alteration of the environment on the composition of produced honey. Six beekeepers were chosen from sites with different densities of chestnut trees, each of which providing series of honey samples from 2010 to 2016. We determined the chestnut component in the honeys via a combined chemical and sensory approach, and correlated the obtained results with the degree of yearly ACGW-induced crown damage and weather conditions during the period in question in the surrounding chestnut stands. The chestnut component in the analyzed honey sample series showed a strong correlation with the degree of ACGW-induced crown damage, whereas meteorological conditions of the corresponding year had a very marginal effect. Decreases in the chestnut component of the honey were statistically significant starting from a ACGW infestation level of 30%.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox338
  • Baseline Susceptibility of Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
           in Ontario, Canada to Vip3A Bacillus thuringiensis Protein
    • Authors: Farhan Y; Smith J, Schaafsma A.
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Striacosta albicosta (Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a pest of corn (Zea mays L.), which has recently expanded its range into Ontario, Canada. Genetically modified corn expressing Vip3A insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis is a biotechnological option for the control of S. albicosta. To support an insect resistance management program, we conducted a study of baseline susceptibility of 10-field collected S. albicosta populations in Ontario, Canada to Vip3A before widespread commercial adoption. Neonates were exposed to artificial diet overlaid with Vip3A. The LC50 ranged from 22.7 to 53.5 ng Vip3A cm−2. The EC50 ranged from 11.4 to 30.2 ng Vip3A cm−2. There was low inter-population variation in susceptibility to Vip3A, which we believe represents the natural geographical variation in response and not variation caused by previous exposure to selection pressure of the Vip3A protein.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox296
  • The Quality of Nonprey Food Affects Cannibalism, Intraguild Predation, and
           Hyperpredation in Two Species of Phytoseiid Mites
    • Authors: Calabuig A; Pekas A, Wäckers F.
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Generalist arthropod predators not only prey on herbivores but also may engage in competitive interactions by attacking and consuming conspecifics (cannibalism) or other predators (intraguild predation [IGP] and hyperpredation). These types of interactions are quite common among predators used in biological control. Although there is evidence that nonprey food relaxes cannibalism and IGP, there is little information regarding the impact of the quality of the nonprey food. Herein, we examined how pollen of different nutritional quality (pine, narrow-leaf cattail, or apple) impacted 1) the cannibalism by females of Euseius stipulatus (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on conspecific larvae, 2) the reciprocal predation between gravid females of E. stipulatus or Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and heterospecific larvae, and 3) the predation of E. stipulatus on the eggs of the aphid predator Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). E. stipulatus cannibalism was significantly reduced in the cattail pollen treatment, whereas in the pine pollen it did not significantly differ from control (no food). Predation between I. degenerans and E. stipulatus was significantly reduced in the cattail pollen treatment as compared to the control treatment. Finally, predation of E. stipulatus on A. aphidimyza eggs was significantly reduced when cattail or apple pollen was provided compared to the pine pollen or control treatments. These results suggest that cattail or apple pollen is suitable for mitigating negative interactions among generalist predatory mites used in biological control.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox301
  • Effects of Pesticides on the Survival of Rove Beetle (Coleoptera:
           Staphylinidae) and Insidious Flower Bug (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Adults
    • Authors: Cloyd R; Herrick N.
      First page: 78
      Abstract: This study determined the direct, indirect, or both effects of pesticides on the rove beetle, Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The pesticides evaluated were Capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, and soybean oil; cyantraniliprole; flupyradifurone; GS-omega/kappa-Hxtx-Hv1; Isaria fumosorosea; tolfenpyrad; pyrethrins; and spinosad. One experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with rove beetle adults exposed to growing medium applications of cyantraniliprole. The number of live and dead rove beetle adults was determined after 10 d. Four additional experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle or insidious flower bug adults were individually placed into Petri dishes with filter paper treated with the pesticides. After 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, the number of live and dead adults of both natural enemies was recorded. GS-omega/kappa-Hxtx-Hv1 (VST-006340LC); tolfenpyrad; Capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, and soybean oil (Captiva); and Isaria fumosorosea were not directly harmful to O. insidiosus (80–100% adult survival). Likewise, the pesticides such as tolfenpyrad, Captiva, and I. fumosoroea were not directly harmful to D. coriaria (80–100% adult survival). D. coriaria was more sensitive to VST-006340LC (40% survival) than O. insidiosus (100% survival), whereas O. insidiosus was more sensitive to flupyradifurone (0% survival) than D. coriaria (80% and 40% survival for both rates tested, respectively). The pesticides pyrethrins, spinosad, flupyradifurone, and combinations of tolfenpyrad and Captiva were directly harmful (<50% adult survival) to both natural enemies. However, none of the pesticides tested affected the ability of O. insidiosus adults to feed on western flower thrips adults.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox280
  • Defensive behaviors of the new mealybug citrus pest, Delottococcus aberiae
           (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), against three generalist parasitoids
    • Authors: Tena A; Nieves E, Herrero J, et al.
      First page: 89
      Abstract: Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that has become a citrus pest in Europe. This mealybug species causes serious damage because it deforms the fruits. Here, we studied the defensive behavior of D. aberiae when it was attacked by three parasitoid species: Acerophagus angustifrons (Gahan), Anagyrus sp. near pseudoccoci (Girault), and Leptomastix algirica Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Anagyrus sp. near pseudoccoci and L. algirica detected and accepted nymphs and adult females of D. aberiae, whereas A. angustifrons only accepted adults. We recorded four defensive responses of D. aberiae to parasitoid attacks: abdominal flipping, swiveling around the inserted stylet, withdrawing the stylet and walking away, and, occasionally, they secreted ostiolar fluids. Despite these defensive behaviors, the mealybug did not escape parasitism from any of the tested parasitoids, even though A. angustifrons needed more than 15 min to parasitize. We also analyzed the nutritional value of the honeydew excreted by D. aberiae for A. angustifrons and A. sp. near pseudococci. Females and males of these parasitoids lived more than 28 d when fed sucrose, but they lived fewer than 3 d when fed D. aberiae honeydew. Therefore, D. aberiae excretes honeydew of poor quality for parasitoids. The consequences of these biological traits of D. aberiae for its biological control are discussed.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox307
  • Dechorionation and Permeabilization of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera:
           Pentatomidae) Eggs: Limiting Factors for Cryopreservation
    • Authors: dos Santos Í; Poderoso J, dos Santos E, et al.
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Cryopreservation protocols have been developed for eggs of Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera; however, for Heteroptera, such as Podisus nigrispinus Dallas, 1851 (Pentatomidae), no procedures have been described yet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the processes of dechorionation and permeabilization on the viability of eggs of P. nigrispinus with different embryonic ages. In the laboratory, embryos of 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of age were submitted to sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite, isopropyl, and hexane solutions for dechorionation and permeabilization. The experiment was carried out in a 4 × 8 factorial scheme. Sodium hydroxide affects embryo viability; however, 96-h-old embryos showed higher viability when compared with 24, 48, and 72-h-old embryos. Microscope observations showed that, after the treatments, the chorion of P. nigrispinus eggs was reduced to 5.11 ± 0.30 µm. These solutions for dechorionation and permeabilization of P. nigrispinus eggs together with embryonic age affect the viability of embryos to be cryopreserved.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox313
  • In Vivo Production of Agrotis ipsilon Nucleopolyhedrovirus for Quantity
           and Quality
    • Authors: Behle R.
      First page: 101
      Abstract: The black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a pest causing damage to a variety of plants including turf and row crops. A recently discovered baculovirus has the potential to be developed as a microbial-based biological pesticide to provide targeted control of this insect pest. In an effort to develop this baculovirus as a biological pesticide, experiments were conducted to determine parameters necessary to maximize in vivo production using cutworm larvae. Treatment combinations including three larval diets, larval age at infection (6- to 10-d old), and dosage of virus exposure (1 × 105 to 1 × 108 occlusion bodies [OBs]/ml) were evaluated. Production quantity and quality were measured as number of OBs produced and insecticidal activity of the virus, respectively. Generally speaking, insect diets that maximized larval growth resulted in a greater quantity of virus OBs. Less virus was produced when younger (small) larvae were exposed to higher dosages of virus resulting in rapid mortality and when older (large) larvae were exposed to low dosages of virus resulting in low levels of infection. Virus quality was measured as insecticidal activity (low LC50 representing high activity) and was highest for larger larvae exposed to minimal virus concentrations needed to initiate infections. When considering both quantity and quality measurements, maximum production was achieved for 8- to 9-d-old larvae fed a general purpose lepidoptera diet. These results will support the development of this baculovirus as an additional tool for the integrated control of the black cutworm.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox315
  • Improvement of Vip3Aa16 Toxin Production and Efficiency Through Nitrous
           Acid and UV Mutagenesis of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales:
    • Authors: Hmani M; Boukedi H, Ben Khedher S, et al.
      First page: 108
      Abstract: Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) strain BUPM95 was known by the efficiency of its vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3Aa16) against different Lepidoptera such as Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). To overcome the problem of the low quantities of Vip3 proteins secreted by B. thuringiensis strains in the culture supernatant, classical mutagenesis of vegetative cells of BUPM95 strain was operated using nitrous acid and UV rays. The survivors were screened on the basis of their hemolytic activity and classified in three groups: unaffected, overproducing, and hypo-producing mutants. Using different mutants improved in their hemolytic activity, the supernatants showed an improved toxicity toward S. littoralis larvae (83.33–100% of mortality) compared with the wild-type supernatant (76%). After Vip3 protein quantification in the different supernatants, bioassays against S. littoralis larvae demonstrated that mutants M62, M43, and M76 were improved in the efficiency of their toxin as demonstrated by the lower values of LC50 and LC90 compared with the wild-type Vip3Aa16 protein. However, M26 and M73 mutants were improved in the toxin quantities produced in the supernatant. The improvement of the production and the efficiency of B. thuringiensis Vip3 toxins should contribute to a significant reduction of the production costs of these very interesting B. thuringineis proteins and facilitate the use of these toxins in the pest control management.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox328
  • New Insight into the Management of the Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta
           (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Entomopathogenic Nematodes
    • Authors: Kamali S; Karimi J, Koppenhöfer A.
      First page: 112
      Abstract: The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a serious threat to tomato production in the world. Due to serious issues with insecticide resistance, there is a dire need for alternative control methods. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) have potential for the biological control of T. absoluta. In the laboratory, we examined the effect of temperature, soil type, and exposure time on the efficacy of the EPN species Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) against last-instar T. absoluta larvae. Both species caused high mortality in loamy sand (89%) and coco peat (93%) but not in sandy loam (17%). H. bacteriophora caused 92−96% mortality at 19, 25, and 31°C; S. carpocapsae caused 89−91% mortality at 25 and 31°C but only 76% at 19°C. Both species caused similar mortality levels after 65-min exposure; thereafter, mortality increased only with S. carpocapsae reaching high levels even at a low concentration. Both species infected larvae within leaf galleries. When applied to whole large tomato plants in the greenhouse, both species provided similar control levels (48−51%) at high pest densities. Both species could be incorporated as an effective alternative to synthetic insecticides into T. absoluta management programs in greenhouse tomato production.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox332
  • Delimiting Strategic Zones for the Development of Fall Armyworm
           (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Corn in the State of Florida
    • Authors: Garcia A; Godoy W, Thomas J, et al.
      First page: 120
      Abstract: The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), cannot survive prolonged periods of freezing temperatures, thereby limiting where it can overwinter in North America. Climate change is anticipated to reduce the frequency of freeze days in Florida over the decades, with the potential consequence of a significant expansion of the overwintering range, whose northern limit in North America was assessed between 27 and 28°N in the last century. To assess this possibility, the development of the fall armyworm on corn leaves, one of the main host plants in the United States, was determined at five constant temperatures ranging from 14 to 30°C. Based on the development time, the thermal constant and the lower threshold temperature were used to estimate the number of generations of fall armyworm at 42 locations in the state of Florida, from 2006 to 2016. Maps were constructed to provide a visual description of the interpolated data, using GIS (Geographic Information System). The highest number of generations was observed in the counties farther south, an area that showed the highest temperatures during the years and plays a strategic role in maintaining fall armyworm populations in corn fields. Additionally, we conclude that in the absence of freeze periods, the northern limit for fall armyworm overwintering should be between 28 and 29°N.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox329
  • Postharvest Irradiation Treatment for Quarantine Control of the Invasive
           Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
    • Authors: Nadel H; Follett P, Perry C, et al.
      First page: 127
      Abstract: Irradiation is a postharvest treatment option for exported berries and berry-like fruits to prevent movement of the quarantine pest European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development in L. botrana were examined. Eggs, neonates, third and fifth instars, and early- and late-stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 50, 100, 150, or 200 Gy or left untreated as controls in replicated factorial experiments, and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation generally increased with increasing age and developmental stage. A dose of 150 Gy prevented adult emergence in eggs and larvae. Pupae were more radiotolerant than larvae, and late-stage pupae were more tolerant than early-stage pupae. In large-scale validation tests, 150 Gy applied to fifth instars in diet prevented adult emergence, but some survival occurred in fifth instars irradiated in table grapes; however, 250 Gy prevented fifth instar survival in grapes. For most commodities, the fifth instar is the most radiotolerant life stage likely to occur with the commodity; a minimum radiation dose of 250 Gy will prevent adult emergence from this stage. For traded commodities such as table grapes that may contain L. botrana pupae, 325 Gy applied to mature female pupae sterilized emerging adults and may provide quarantine security. Radiotolerance in L. botrana is comparable to other tortricids, and the data reported here support a generic dose of 250 Gy for eggs and larvae of this group.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox317
  • Low-Dose Irradiation With Modified Atmosphere Packaging for Mango Against
           the Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    • Authors: Srimartpirom M; Burikam I, Limohpasmanee W, et al.
      First page: 135
      Abstract: Irradiation is used to disinfest the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and other pests on mango fruits before export from Thailand to foreign markets. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) used during export of mangoes creates a low-oxygen environment that may reduce the efficacy of quarantine irradiation treatment against B. dorsalis. ʻNam Dok Maiʼ mangoes infested with third-instar larvae of B. dorsalis, wrapped with three different kinds of MAP bags (CF1, FF5, and H34M) or no MAP, were treated with gamma radiation at 0 (control), 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 Gy. The average O2 and CO2 concentrations in MAP bags with mangos were 7.2 and 8.7% in the H34M bag, 8.6 and 21.2% in the CF1 bag, and 9.6 and 26.7% in the FF5 bag, respectively. The use of MAP on infested mangoes significantly increased mortality of B. dorsalis under irradiation treatment. The estimated lethal doses to cause 99% mortality (LD99) for no MAP and MAP (CF1, FF5, and H34M bags) treatments were 58.1, 41.6, 43.8, and 47.4 Gy, respectively. Therefore, MAP acted as an additional stressor rather than providing radioprotection in irradiated B. dorsalis. Large-scale confirmatory testing of 35,000 B. dorsalis larvae treated at a radiation dose of 150 Gy in mangoes with H34M MAP bags produced no survivors to the adult stage. Commercial use of MAP producing the O2 levels that we observed for mangos in this study will not reduce the efficacy of the approved 150 Gy quarantine irradiation treatment for B. dorsalis.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox335
  • Effect of Low-Oxygen Conditions Created by Modified Atmosphere Packaging
           on Radiation Tolerance in Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in
           Sweet Cherries
    • Authors: Follett P; Swedman A, Mackey B.
      First page: 141
      Abstract: Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) creates a low-oxygen (O2) environment that can increase the shelf life of fresh produce by decreasing respiration and the growth of pathogens. Low oxygen may also increase insect tolerance to irradiation (IR), and the use of MAP with products treated by IR to control quarantine pests before export may inadvertently compromise treatment efficacy. Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a quarantine pest of stone and small fruits and a potential target for postharvest IR treatment. The effect of low oxygen generated by MAP at ambient temperatures on the radiation tolerance of D. suzukii infesting sweet cherries was examined. Early pupal stage D. suzukii were inserted into ripe sweet cherries and treated by 1) MAP + IR, 2) IR alone, 3) MAP alone, or 4) no MAP and no IR and held for adult emergence. Three types of commercially available MAP products were tested that produced different oxygen concentrations between 3 and 15%, and a sublethal radiation dose (60 Gy) was used to allow comparisons between the treatments. Xtend PP61 bags (3.2–4.8% O2), Xtend PP71 bags (5.4–8.6% O2), and Xtend PP53 bags (13.6–15.4% O2) did not enhance survivorship to the adult stage in D. suzukii pupae irradiated at 60 Gy in sweet cherries. MAP use should not compromise phytosanitary IR treatment against D. suzukii in exported sweet cherries or other fruit.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox337
  • Vermicomposts of Different Origins Protect Tomato Plants Against the
           Sweetpotato Whitefly
    • Authors: Sedaghatbaf R; Samih M, Zohdi H, et al.
      First page: 146
      Abstract: The effect of four vermicomposts, obtained from different organic sources (pistachio waste [PWV], date waste [DWV], cattle manure waste [CMV], and food waste [FWV]), as well as two chemical fertilizers (complete fertilizer [CF] and NPK fertilizer [NPK]) on some life history traits of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was investigated in a series of choice and not choice experiments. In a choice experiment, adult whiteflies exhibited significantly lower preference for settling and oviposition on plants treated with vermicomposts than those in control, CF, and NPK groups (P < 0.01), with better results were observed in PWV group. In no choice experiment, adult whiteflies laid significantly fewer eggs in PWV group in comparison with control, CF, and NPK groups (P < 0.01); other treatments had intermediary values. Fertilization had a significant effect on the preadult development time of sweetpotato whitefly, with the longest development times were recorded for plants treated with PWV (24.65 d) and FWV (22.04 d), respectively. The preadult mortality of sweetpotato whitefly increased significantly following fertilization, with the greatest mortal effects were observed in PWV (54.11%) and DWV (44.68%) groups, respectively. Plants fertilized with PWV had significantly higher phenolic content (10 mg/ml) than control (BAGA; 6.08 mg/ml), while those in CMV group exhibited intermediary value (7.28 mg/ml). Altogether, results of this study reveal both antixenosis (nonpreference) and antibiosis (decreased survival and prolonged development time) resistance of tomato plants mediated by vermicomposts. Particularly, plants treated with PWV obtained the best results in terms of both growth and resistance to sweetpotato whitefly.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox238
  • Effect of Fungal Species on the Development and Reproductive Traits of the
           Fungal-Feeding Mite Rhizoglyphus robini (Astigmata: Acaridae)
    • Authors: Qu S; Luo X, Ma L.
      First page: 154
      Abstract: The bulb mite, Rhizoglyphus robini (Claparède; Astigmata: Acaridae), is a cosmopolitan pest with a broad host range, including commercially grown edible fungi in China. In this study, we recorded the development and reproductive traits of the bulb mite reared on four mushroom species: Agaricus bisporus Lange, Pleurotus ostreatus Kumm, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél., and Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler at six constant temperatures ranging from 15 to 31°C and 80% RH. Developmental time for the immature stages was significantly affected by fungal species, ranging from 9.45 ± 1.83 d (reared on L. edodes at 31°C) to 26.39 ± 2.10 d (reared on A. bisporus at 15°C). Edible fungi species significantly affected intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm) at 31°C (varied from 0.23 to 0.28) as did the mite’s net reproductive rates (R0) (103.78, 90.43, 70.77, and 97.45, respectively). Longevity, fecundity and female lifespan were dependent on host fungi.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox299
  • Effects of Energy Reserves and Diet on Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter Egg
    • Authors: Sisterson M; Krugner R, Wallis C, et al.
      First page: 159
      Abstract: The glassy-winged sharpshooter is an invasive insect capable of transmitting the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. As rates of pathogen spread are a function of vector abundance, identification of factors contributing to glassy-winged sharpshooter egg production will aid in predicting population growth. Here, effects of stored energy reserves and adult diet on glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation were evaluated. To estimate energy reserves available to adult females at the beginning of feeding assays, residuals from a regression of wet weight on size were used. Analysis of a subset of females sacrificed at the beginning of feeding assays, demonstrated that females with a positive residual wet weight had higher lipid content and carried more eggs than females with a negative residual wet weight. To evaluate effects of diet and energy reserves on egg maturation, energy reserves available to females entering feeding assays on cowpea and grapevine were estimated. For females held on cowpea, residual wet weight and quantity of excreta produced over a 6-d feeding period affected egg production. In contrast, for females held on grapevine, only residual wet weight affected egg production. Comparison of cowpea and grapevine xylem sap determined that eight amino acids were more concentrated in xylem sap from cowpea than from grapevine. Collectively, the results suggest that glassy-winged sharpshooter population growth within crop monocultures will not depend solely on the nutritional quality of the specific crop for producing mature eggs but also on the quantity of energy reserves accumulated by females prior to entering that crop habitat.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox314
  • Toxicities of Selected Essential Oils, Silicone Oils, and Paraffin Oil
           against the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)
    • Authors: Zha C; Wang C, Li A.
      First page: 170
      Abstract: The common bed bug [Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] and tropical bed bug [Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] resurged in the United States and many other countries over the past decades. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous ‘green insecticides’, mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic and organic oils also were used for bed bug management. However, there are no published studies on their toxicities against bed bugs. In this study, we screened 18 essential oils, three silicone oils, and paraffin oil (C5-20 paraffins) for their toxicities against bed bugs. All the oils exhibited insecticidal activity in topical assays. Their toxicities varied significantly; all of the evaluated essential oils were less effective than silicone oils and paraffin oil. The LD50 values of the most effective essential oil (blood orange), paraffin oil, and the most effective silicone oil (dodecamethylpentasiloxane) are 0.184 ± 0.018, 0.069 ± 0.012, and 0.036 ± 0.005 mg per bug, respectively. Direct spray of 1% water solution of 3-[hydroxy (polyethyleneoxy) propyl] heptamethyltrisiloxane, the only silicone oil that mixes well with water, resulted in 92% bed bug mortality after 1 d. Results of this study indicate silicone oils and paraffin oil have the potential to be used as safer alternative bed bug control materials.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox285
  • Differential Inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera (Lep.: Noctuidae) Gut
           Digestive Trypsin by Extracted and Purified Inhibitor of Datura metel
           (Solanales: Solanaceae)
    • Authors: Navaei-Bonab R; Kazzazi M, Saber M, et al.
      First page: 178
      Abstract: The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lep: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest of numerous major food crops worldwide. Protease inhibitors from plants, expressed constitutively in transgenic crops, have potential for pest management as an alternative to chemical pesticides. In this study, a protease inhibitor was isolated, purified, and characterized from Datura metel L. seeds. The purity of the isolated inhibitor was confirmed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and activity staining showed one major peak and one clear activity band for the protein. Electrophoretic studies following gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography revealed two and one bands for purified proteins, respectively. Partial biochemical characterizations of the purified inhibitor were determined. Maximum inhibitory activity was observed at 40–45°C (optimal temperature) when tested against gut extracts of fourth to sixth instar H. armigera larvae. Thermo-stability of the trypsin inhibitor against sixth instar larval midgut trypsin was observed up to 50°C when incubated for 30 min and 2 h. Among metal ions tested, Fe2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ were found to decrease the trypsin inhibitory activity, whereas Hg2+, Mg2+, K+, Zn2+, Na+, Ca2+, and Cd2+ were found to significantly increase the inhibitory effect. This trypsin inhibitor showed competitive inhibition where the apparent value of Michaelis–Menten Km increased, but the value of Vmax remained unchanged.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox209
  • Value of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Seed Treatments in Mid-South Corn (Zea
           mays) Production Systems
    • Authors: North J; Gore J, Catchot A, et al.
      First page: 187
      Abstract: Neonicotinoid seed treatments are one of several effective control options used in corn, Zea mays L., production in the Mid-South for early season insect pests. An analysis was performed on 91 insecticide seed treatment trials from Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee to determine the value of neonicotinoids in corn production systems. The analysis compared neonicotinoid insecticide treated seed plus a fungicide to seed only with the same fungicide. When analyzed by state, corn yields were significantly higher when neonicotinoid seed treatments were used compared to fungicide only treated seed in Louisiana and Mississippi. Corn seed treated with neonicotinoid seed treatments yielded 111, 1,093, 416, and 140 kg/ha, higher than fungicide only treatments for Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee, respectively. Across all states, neonicotinoid seed treatments resulted in a 700 kg/ha advantage compared to fungicide only treated corn seed. Net returns for corn treated with neonicotinoid seed treatment were $1,446/ha compared with $1,390/ha for fungicide only treated corn seed across the Mid-South. Economic returns for neonicotinoid seed treated corn were significantly greater than fungicide-only-treated corn seed in 8 out of 14 yr. When analyzed by state, economic returns for neonicotinoid seed treatments were significantly greater than fungicide-only-treated seed in Louisiana. In some areas, dependent on year, neonicotinoid seed treatments provide significant yield and economic benefits in Mid-South corn.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox278
  • Response of Maize Hybrids With and Without Rootworm- and Drought-Tolerance
           to Rootworm Infestation Under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions
    • Authors: Mahmoud M; Sharp R, Oliver M, et al.
      First page: 193
      Abstract: Anecdotal data in the past have suggested that the effect of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), on maize yield is greater under drought and the effect of drought is greater under rootworm infestations, but no field experiments have controlled both moisture and rootworm levels. Field studies were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 with treatments in a factorial arrangement of western corn rootworm infestation levels, and maize hybrids (with and without tolerance to drought and rootworm feeding). The experiment was repeated under well-watered and drought conditions in adjacent plots. Leaf water potential and stomatal conductance data suggested significant plant stress was achieved in the drought plots toward the end of the season each year and maize hybrids only played a minor role. In particular, in 2012 and 2013 yield was dramatically lower for the drought experiment than for the well-watered experiment. However, the impacts of rootworm infestation level and maize hybrids on water potential, stomatal conductance, and yield were variable across years and between experiments. In fact, the only year that the main effect of rootworm infestation levels significantly impacted yield was in 2014, when an extremely high infestation level was added and this was only for the well-watered portion of the experiment. Overall, rootworm infestation level played a relatively minor role in maize productivity and it did not appear that soil moisture level influenced that to a large degree.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox309
  • Seasonality of Colaspis crinicornis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its
           Injury Potential to Corn in Southeastern Nebraska
    • Authors: Miwa K; Meinke L.
      First page: 209
      Abstract: Colaspis crinicornis Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) primarily occurs in the Great Plains, United States. Although C. crinicornis has historically been considered a non-pest and is rarely found in agricultural systems, population densities of this species have been increasing in corn, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, over the last decade in southeastern Nebraska. As part of a comprehensive project to understand the life history and pest potential of C. crinicornis, a field study was conducted to: understand adult seasonality of C. crinicornis using emergence cages and whole-plant-count sampling in cornfields and sweep-net sampling in soybean fields; confirm voltinism and the overwintering stage; and evaluate the potential of larvae to cause economic injury to corn roots. Data indicate that C. crinicornis is univoltine in southeastern Nebraska and overwinters as medium–large larvae at least 20 cm deep in the soil. Adults were present from June through August with peak emergence in July. The C. crinicornis lifecycle is similar to related Colaspis species. Root injury to corn was minor at population densities encountered in the field, and therefore, C. crinicornis is unlikely to cause economic loss. C. crinicornis may be an example of an insect species that has exploited open niches in crops that have been created by changes in agricultural and pest management practices. The lifecycle and polyphagous nature of the insect, annual crop rotation, the shift to minimum tillage, and replacement of insecticides with Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) traits may have collectively facilitated establishment and increased survival in agroecosystems.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox325
  • Management of the Pine Processionary Moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa
           (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae), in Urban and Suburban Areas: Trials With
           Trunk Barrier and Adhesive Barrier Trap Devices
    • Authors: Colacci M; Kavallieratos N, Athanassiou C, et al.
      First page: 227
      Abstract: In urban and suburban areas larvae of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis and Schiffermüller), cause serious defoliation to Cedrus, Pinus, and Pseudotsuga trees and health problems to humans and domestic or farm animals by their urticating setae. In this study, we present the results of biennial trials (2015–2016) on the management of T. pityocampa infestations using commercial or LIFE-PISA prototype trunk barrier and adhesive trap devices in Greece (Attica and Volos), Spain (Valencia), and Italy (Molise). In Attica, for both 2015 and 2016, the commercial trunk barrier trap devices captured significantly more T. pityocampa wintering migrant larvae compared to the adhesive barrier trap devices, indicating their high capture capacity. The total performance of the trunk barriers trap devices was 99.8% in 2015 and 99.6% in 2016. In Volos and Valencia, no significant differences were recorded between captures in commercial and LIFE-PISA prototype trunk barrier trap devices. In the tests that were conducted in Molise, the commercial trunk barrier trap devices exhibited high effectiveness in capturing the wintering migrant larvae during their procession, before they reach the ground for pupation. Moreover, significantly fewer male adults were captured by pheromone trap devices during summer 2016 in comparison with 2015 in the experimental area. Similarly, significantly fewer nests were formed on the experimental area trees in winter 2016 and 2017 compared with 2015. Our results show the potential of the trunk barrier trap devices in the management of T. pityocampa numbers after long-term application in urban and suburban areas.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox270
  • Field Evaluation of Commercial Attractants and Trap Placement for
           Monitoring Pine Sawyer Beetle, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera:
           Cerambycidae) in Guangdong, China
    • Authors: Ma T; Shi X, Shen J, et al.
      First page: 239
      Abstract: The pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious insect pest of pine trees by vectoring the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae). Field studies were carried out during 2013–2015 in Guangdong (China) to evaluate the effectiveness of commercial attractants, effect of trap placement for monitoring M. alternatus, and temporal patterns of trap catch. Four commercial attractants, three trap placements (0, 1.5, and 3 m above ground) and different trapping distances (50, 200, 400, 600, and 900 m) from forest edge were evaluated for monitoring M. alternatus. Traps baited with a mixture of monochamol and plant volatiles captured significantly more beetles than traps baited with monochamol alone or plant volatiles alone. Traps set up at 1.5 m above the ground captured significantly more M. alternatus than those at 0 m and 3 m height. Based on 2,687 beetles trapped from two locations in 2013 and 2014, the female:male ratio was 2.9–4.1:1. The beetles’ natural dispersal distance was approximately 100 m based on traps set at different distances from edge of the forest. Continuous monitoring over 38-wk period indicates the peak of adult M. alternatus emergence was between May and June within a year.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox281
  • Cold Hardiness of Overwintering Larvae of Sphenoptera sp. (Coleoptera:
           Buprestidae) in Western China
    • Authors: Feng Y; Zhang L, Li W, et al.
      First page: 247
      Abstract: An undetermined species of Sphenoptera sp. is an important pest of Artemisia ordosica Krasch, and recently, an outbreak of this insect has spread throughout Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, and other regions in western China. The cold hardiness of overwintering larvae of Sphenoptera sp. was determined by measuring their supercooling point (SCP) and their mortality at sub-zero temperatures. Additionally, quantitative changes in sugars and low molecular weight sugar alcohols in larvae were determined following exposure of larvae to low temperatures. Mean SCP of overwintering larvae (i.e., collected in January) was −30.2 ± 0.60°C. The mortality rate of larvae approached 100% at −30°C, whereas mortality rates of larvae in the higher temperature treatments were generally less than 25%. Five sugars and sugar alcohols (i.e., glycerol, fructose, glucose, inositol, and trehalose) were detected in larvae. When larvae were exposed to low temperatures for 4 h, inositol, trehalose and total content was generally higher at the highest incubation temperature (−10°C) than at lower incubation temperatures. Following a longer exposure (30 d), content of fructose, glucose, trehalose and total content generally increased with decreasing temperature down to −25°C. Thus it appears that Sphenoptera sp. larvae are freeze avoidant, and their cold hardiness may be achieved by accumulation low molecular weight sugars and sugar alcohols.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox304
  • Identifying Possible Pheromones of Cerambycid Beetles by Field Testing
           Known Pheromone Components in Four Widely Separated Regions of the United
    • Authors: Millar J; Mitchell R, Mongold-Diers J, et al.
      First page: 252
      Abstract: The pheromone components of many cerambycid beetles appear to be broadly shared among related species, including species native to different regions of the world. This apparent conservation of pheromone structures within the family suggests that field trials of common pheromone components could be used as a means of attracting multiple species, which then could be targeted for full identification of their pheromones. Here, we describe the results of such field trials that were conducted in nine states in the northeastern, midwestern, southern, and western United States. Traps captured 12,742 cerambycid beetles of 153 species and subspecies. Species attracted in significant numbers to a particular treatment (some in multiple regions) included 19 species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, 15 species in the Lamiinae, one species in the Prioninae, and two species in the Spondylidinae. Pheromones or likely pheromones for many of these species, such as 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and syn- and anti-2,3-hexanediols for cerambycine species, and fuscumol and/or fuscumol acetate for lamiine species, had already been identified. New information about attractants (in most cases likely pheromone components) was found for five cerambycine species (Ancylocera bicolor [Olivier], Elaphidion mucronatum [Say], Knulliana cincta cincta [Drury], Phymatodes aeneus LeConte, and Rusticoclytus annosus emotus [Brown]), and five lamiine species (Ecyrus dasycerus dasycerus [Say], Lepturges symmetricus [Haldeman], Sternidius misellus [LeConte], Styloleptus biustus biustus [LeConte], and Urgleptes signatus [LeConte]). Consistent attraction of some species to the same compounds in independent bioassays demonstrated the utility and reliability of pheromone-based methods for sampling cerambycid populations across broad spatial scales.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox312
  • National Trade can Drive Range Expansion of Bark- and Wood-Boring Beetles
    • Authors: Rassati D; Haack R, Knížek M, et al.
      First page: 260
      Abstract: Several native species of bark- and wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) have expanded their range within their native biogeographic regions in the last years, but the role of human activity in driving this phenomenon has been underinvestigated. Here we analyze 3 yr of trapping records of native bark- and wood-boring beetles (Cerambycidae and Scolytinae) collected at 12 Italian ports and their surrounding forests to help elucidate the human role in the movement of native species within their native biogeographic region. We trapped several species that occurred either inside or outside their native distributional range within Italy. Species richness and abundance of those species found in the ports located within their native range were most strongly associated with the amount of forest cover in the surrounding landscape, suggesting that they could have arrived in the ports from the nearby forests. The abundance of the species found outside their native range was instead most strongly linked to the amount of national imports arriving at the port where trapping occurred, suggesting that they were likely introduced to the ports from other parts of Italy. This study demonstrates that national sea transportation can favor species range expansion within a country, and confirms that the forests that surround ports can serve as a source of species that can be potentially moved with exports.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox308
  • Residue Age and Attack Pressure Influence Efficacy of Insecticide
           Treatments Against Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    • Authors: Reding M; Ranger C.
      First page: 269
      Abstract: Management of ambrosia beetles in ornamental nurseries relies, in part, on insecticide treatments to prevent beetles from boring into trees. However, data on residual efficacy of commonly used pyrethroid insecticides is needed to gauge the duration that trees are protected during spring when peak beetle pressure occurs. Residual efficacy of bifenthrin and permethrin trunk sprays was examined in field trials which used trees injected with 10% ethanol to ensure host attack pressure. Permethrin consistently reduced attacks by Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and other ambrosia beetles for at least 4 wk, while efficacy of bifenthrin was inconsistent and lasted only about 10 d. Since previous studies demonstrated attacks are positively correlated with host ethanol emissions, we injected trees with 2.5, 5, and 10% ethanol to determine if residual efficacy was affected by attack pressure. Preventive treatments with bifenthrin reduced ambrosia beetle attacks at all concentrations of injected ethanol compared to non-sprayed controls. There was no interaction between attack pressure and insecticide treatment with respect to total attacks or attacks by X. germanus. However, increasing attack pressure did increase the probability of attacks on insecticide treated trees by X. germanus and other Scolytinae. Results from our current study will improve the ability of growers to make decisions on frequency of protective sprays, but residual efficacy of insecticide treatments may decline as attack pressure increases. Cultural practices should therefore maximize host vigor and minimize attack pressure associated with stress-induced ethanol emissions.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox327
  • Bivariate Pheromone-based Monitoring of Spruce Budworm Larvae
           (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
    • Authors: Rhainds M; Therrien P, Morneau L, et al.
      First page: 277
      Abstract: A bivariate approach to pheromone-based monitoring is developed for the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The approach uses captures of males at pheromone traps for generation t (♂t) as a transitive term between densities of overwintering larvae in consecutive generations (L2t, L2t+1), based on a large data set including >2,000 observations in the province of Quebec (QC) between the interval 1992 and 2010. Although estimates of L2t and ♂t are autocorrelated to some extent, multi-year assessments of larval densities combined with pheromone trapping are justified by the complementarity (statistical significance) of both L2t and ♂t in predicting L2t+1 for 15 of 18 pairs of 2-yr intervals. Bivariate pheromone-based thresholds (number of males corresponding to specific transitions in larval densities between L2t and L2t+1) are reported for each year. As expected, thresholds for stable populations (L2t = L2t+1) were lower than for populations with positive growth rate (L2t < L2t+1). The thresholds derived in this study have limited heuristic value; however, because they vary greatly from year to year.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox331
  • Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Contributes to the Development
           of Sour Rot in Grape
    • Authors: Ioriatti C; Guzzon R, Anfora G, et al.
      First page: 283
      Abstract: This research aimed to more clearly describe the interactions of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) with microorganisms that may contribute to spoilage or quality loss of wine grapes during harvest. Experiments were conducted in controlled laboratory experiments and under field conditions to determine these effects. Laboratory trials determined the role of insect contact and oviposition to vector spoilage bacteria onto wine grapes. In the field, the roles of key organoleptic parameters in grape fruit ripening were assessed to determine their relative contribution to oviposition potential as fruit ripened. Finally, field trials determined the relationships of egg and larval infestation to sour rot levels. Non-ovipositional trials indicated elevated levels of microbiota when D. suzukii was present. D. suzukii oviposition exponentially increased the concentration of acetic acid bacteria. Both incised and sound berries showed a significant increase in concentrations of acetic acid bacteria exposed to D. suzukii. Volatile acidity was higher in treatments infested with D. suzukii. Fruit with only eggs did not develop a significant increase of volatile acidity. Larva-infested grape berries in 9.5% of samples developed higher volatile acidity after 14 d. Sound grape berries were less susceptible to the development of microbiota associated with sour rot and spoilage. D. suzukii oviposition and larval development increase risk of spoilage bacteria vectored by D. suzukii adults. Acetic acid bacteria induced fermentation and produced several volatile compounds contributing to spoilage. Spoilage bacteria may create a positive feedback loop that attracts both D. suzukii and other drosophilids, which may contribute to additional spoilage.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox292
  • Suppression of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) With
           Trimedlure and Biolure Dispensers in Coffea arabica (Gentianales:
           Rubiaceae) in Hawaii
    • Authors: Vargas R; Souder S, Rendon P, et al.
      First page: 293
      Abstract: To assess the potential to suppress Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae), via mass trapping with Trimedlure (TML), we compared fly catch (as catch per trap per time period) provided by either a novel, solid, triple-lure dispenser with TML, methyl eugenol (ME), and raspberry ketone (RK) (TMR) or solid TML plugs, both without insecticides, in addition to Biolure bait stations. Work was done in a coffee plantation that had a dense C. capitata population. Three treatments were compared: 1) TMR or TML (50 traps per ha), 2) Biolure (50 traps per ha), 3) TML (25 per ha) or TMR (25 per ha) + Biolure (25 per ha), and 4) an untreated control. During coffee season, based on C. capitata captures (mean flies per trap per wk) inside plastic McPhail traps, all treatments were significantly different than the control: Biolure (9.57) = TMR (11.28) = Biolure +TMR (13.50) < Control (36.06 flies/trap/wk). During non-coffee season, all treatments were significantly different than the control and TML was significantly lower than Biolure (wax matrix bait stations): TML (0.95) < Biolure (1.43) = Biolure +TML (1.77) < Control (2.81 flies/trap/wk). Surprisingly, captures were not lower in plots treated with combinations of Biolure + TMR or TML, compared to individual plots with Biolure or TML or TMR alone. Mass trapping with either TML or TMR dispensers deserves further study as a component of Integrated Pest Management programs for C. capitata in Hawaii and may have global potential for management of C. capitata.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox303
  • Combining Cue-Lure and Methyl Eugenol in Traps Significantly Decreases
           Catches of Most Bactrocera, Zeugodacus and Dacus Species (Diptera:
           Tephritidae: Dacinae) in Australia and Papua New Guinea
    • Authors: Royer J; Mayer D.
      First page: 298
      Abstract: Male fruit fly attractants, cue-lure (CL) and methyl eugenol (ME), are important in the monitoring and control of pest fruit fly species. Species respond to CL or ME but not both, and there are conflicting reports on whether combining CL (or its hydroxy analogue raspberry ketone) and ME decreases their attractiveness to different species. Fruit fly monitoring programs expend significant effort using separate CL and ME traps and avoiding lure cross-contamination, and combining the two lures in one trap would create substantial savings. To determine if combining lures has an inhibitory effect on trap catch, CL and ME wicks placed in the same Steiner trap were field tested in comparison to CL alone and ME alone in Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). In Australia, 24 out of 27 species trapped were significantly more attracted to CL or ME alone than the combination ME/CL lure, including the pests Bactrocera bryoniae (Tryon), B. frauenfeldi (Schiner), B. kraussi (Hardy), B. neohumeralis (Hardy), B. tryoni (Froggatt) (CL-responsive), and B. musae (Tryon) (ME-responsive). In PNG, 13 out of 16 species trapped were significantly more attracted to CL or ME alone than the ME/CL combination, including the pests B. bryoniae, B. frauenfeldi, B. neohumeralis, B. trivialis (Drew), Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) (CL-responsive) and B. dorsalis (Hendel), B. musae, and B. umbrosa (Fabricius) (ME-responsive). This study shows that combining CL and ME in the one trap in equal parts significantly reduces catches of most species of Dacini fruit flies in Australia and PNG.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox334
  • Natural Compounds as Spider Repellents: Fact or Myth'
    • Authors: Fischer A; Ayasse M, Andrade M.
      First page: 314
      Abstract: Although some spiders are globally invasive, found at high densities, and may be considered pests (particularly those that are toxic to humans), there are few pest management methods based on experimental data. ‘Common wisdom’ and advertisements on internet websites assert that a number of natural substances repel spiders. We tested whether the three substances cited most frequently (lemon oil, peppermint oil, and chestnut-fruits) effectively repelled female spiders or whether these were myths. We presented each of the putative repellents versus a control in a two-choice assay and tested responses of females of three invasive spider species in two different families: theridiids, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch (Araneae: Theridiidae) and Steatoda grossa C. L. Koch (Araneae: Theridiidae) and the araneid, Araneus diadematus Clerck . Chestnuts (Araneae: Araneidae) and mint oil strongly repelled L. geometricus and A. diadematus. S. grossa was less sensitive to these chemicals but had a slight tendency to avoid chestnuts. However, lemon oil, the substance most likely to be cited as a repellent (over 1,000,000 hits on Google), had no effect on any of these spiders. We conclude that volatiles released by mint oil and chestnuts may be effective in deterring spider settlement in two different families of spiders, but lemon oil as a repellent is a myth.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox339
  • Examining the Potential Role of Foliar Chemistry in Imparting Potato
           Germplasm Tolerance to Potato Psyllid, Green Peach Aphid, and Zebra Chip
    • Authors: Prager S; Wallis C, Jones M, et al.
      First page: 327
      Abstract: Long-term, sustainable management of zebra chip disease of potato, caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) and vectored by potato psyllids (Bactericera cockerelli Sulc [Hemiptera: Triozidae]), requires development of cultivars resistant or tolerant to infection or capable of reducing spread or both. We examined the influence that five experimental breeding clones of potato had on potato psyllids and their ability to vector Lso. The ability of these potato clones to resist aphids (green peach aphids, Myzus persicae Sulzer [Hemiptera: Aphididae]) also was examined. Due to the importance of host chemistry on plant–insect interactions, levels of primary metabolites of amino acids and sugars, as well as secondary metabolites including polyphenolics, terpenoids, and alkaloids were compared between breeding clones and a commercial cultivar. Findings for compound levels then were associated with observed changes in host susceptibility to psyllids or aphids. Psyllids oviposited less on three breeding clones than Atlantic, but no significant effects of breeding clones on psyllid feeding or choice were observed. Aphid reproduction was reduced on two clones relative to Atlantic. A05379-211 had greater sugar levels and postpsyllid amino acid levels than Atlantic. Total alkaloid and phenolic levels were greater in all breeding clones than Atlantic. Total terpenoid levels were greater in PALB03016-3 and PALB03016-6 than Atlantic, which might explain, in part, the observed resistance to psyllid oviposition and aphid reproduction. Overall, these results suggest that increased levels of certain metabolites in breeding clones could affect psyllid and aphid reproduction.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox255
  • Acute-Contact and Chronic-Systemic In Vivo Bioassays: Regional Monitoring
           of Susceptibility to Thiamethoxam in Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
           Populations From the North Central United States
    • Authors: Ribeiro M; Hunt T, Siegfried B.
      First page: 337
      Abstract: The risks associated with soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in the North Central soybean systems has fostered the adoption of prophylactic chemical control practices, such as planting seeds treated with neonicotinoid insecticides, especially thiamethoxam. Consequently, there is a concern that increased selection pressure imposed on the arthropod–pest complex by this insecticide may lead to resistance. Therefore, in vivo bioassays were conducted to determine the susceptibility of soybean aphid to thiamethoxam among North Central U.S. populations. Concentration-mortality data were collected using contact glass-vial and detached-leaf systemic bioassays. The results of these experiments indicate that both bioassays were reliable to detect shifts in susceptibility between different soybean aphid clones. The LC50s of field populations of soybean aphid were significantly different when mortality was recorded in contact and systemic exposure assays. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the resistance ratios was consistent in both methods. In addition, a significant increase in the LC50 and EC50 values was observed among field populations tested in detached-leaf systemic bioassays. These results represent the first extensive efforts to identify the variability in susceptibility of soybean aphid to thiamethoxam in the North Central United States Therefore, our results provide a baseline for future assessment and contribute to a better understanding of the applicability of in vivo bioassays for susceptibility monitoring and resistance detection of soybean aphid to thiamethoxam.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox290
  • Transgenic Bt Corn, Soil Insecticide, and Insecticidal Seed Treatment
           Effects on Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Beetle Emergence,
           Larval Feeding Injury, and Corn Yield in North Dakota
    • Authors: Calles-Torrez V; Knodel J, Boetel M, et al.
      First page: 348
      Abstract: Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and western, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), corn rootworms are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. in North America. We measured the impacts of corn hybrids incorporated with Cry3Bb1, Cry34/35Ab1, and pyramided (Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1) Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) proteins, tefluthrin soil insecticide, and clothianidin insecticidal seed treatment on beetle emergence, larval feeding injury, and corn yield at five locations from 2013 to 2015 in eastern North Dakota. In most cases, emergence was significantly lower in Bt-protected corn than in non-Bt corn hybrids. Exceptions included Wyndmere, ND (2013), where D. barberi emergence from Cry34/35Ab1 plots was not different from that in the non-Bt hybrid, and Arthur, ND (2013), where D. v. virgifera emergence from Cry3Bb1 plots did not differ from that in the non-Bt hybrid. Bt hybrids generally produced increased grain yield compared with non-Bt corn where rootworm densities were high, and larval root-feeding injury was consistently lower in Bt-protected plots than in non-Bt corn. The lowest overall feeding injury and emergence levels occurred in plots planted with the Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1 hybrid. Time to 50% cumulative emergence of both species was 5–7 d later in Bt-protected than in non-Bt hybrids. Tefluthrin and clothianidin were mostly inconsequential in relation to beetle emergence and larval root injury. Our findings could suggest that some North Dakota populations could be in early stages of increased tolerance to some Bt toxins; however, Bt corn hybrids currently provide effective protection against rootworm injury in eastern North Dakota.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox297
  • Cry1 Bt Susceptibilities of Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Host
    • Authors: Ingber D; Mason C, Flexner L.
      First page: 361
      Abstract: The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a highly polyphagous, multivoltine pest of commercial crops including corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium spp. L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and pasture grasses. Fall armyworm has become a growing concern in agricultural communities across the Americas as field populations in many locales have evolved resistance to several Cry1 toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). An often overlooked aspect of fall armyworm biology is the existence of two host strains, the ‘rice’ and ‘corn’ strains. There has been little research devoted to the characterization of fall armyworm host strains, although there is evidence that the rice and corn-strains may differ in their tolerances to Bt toxins expressed by transgenic plants. In this study, diet-based bioassays were conducted to compare the susceptibilities of one rice-strain, two corn-strains, and one rice-corn hybrid population to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F protein. Results indicate that the corn-strains and hybrid populations are more tolerant to the Bt toxins, especially to Cry1F, than the rice-strain population. Results from this study, when combined with existing techniques for host strain identification, may aid in the development of regional insect resistance management programs for fall armyworm.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox311
  • Susceptibility of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to
           chlorantraniliprole in the Emilia Romagna Region of Northeast Italy
    • Authors: Pasquini S; Haxaire-Lutun M, Rison J, et al.
      First page: 369
      Abstract: The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is regarded as the most important insect pest of wine grapes in Europe. If not properly controlled, it can cause significant direct and indirect yield losses due to secondary infections of grape berries by Botrytis cinerea. For these reasons, it is important to preserve the activity of insecticides used against this pest, as the number of insecticidal mode of actions available to control Lepidoptera species on wine grapes in Europe is limited. Following a report of suboptimal control of L. botrana after field applications of chlorantraniliprole-containing products, an extensive monitoring program was conducted in the Emilia Romagna Region of North East Italy to determine L. botrana susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole. This study consisted of 11 bioassays conducted with chlorantraniliprole on L. botrana populations collected in the Emilia Romagna Region in 2014–2016, 5–7 years after its introduction into the market. Bioassay results were compared to results previously obtained from the chlorantraniliprole pre-comercialization baseline susceptibility survey conducted from 2007 to 2011. The Lethal Concentration values obtained for field populations of L. botrana in this study are comparable to those reported for the pre-comercialization susceptibility baseline. We demonstrate that there is no significant change in L. botrana susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole in the Emilia Romagna Region. Emphasis should be given to implement appropriate insecticide resistance management strategies, including nonchemical agronomic practices and biological control methods, to preserve effective insecticides like chlorantraniliprole for future use in controlling the European grapevine moth.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox320
  • Transferrin Family Genes in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens
           (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Response to Three Insecticides
    • Authors: Wu S; Li J, Zhang Y, et al.
      First page: 375
      Abstract: Transferrins are involved in iron metabolism, immunity, xenobiotics tolerance, and development in eukaryotic organisms including insects. However, little is known about the relationship between transferrins and insecticide toxicology and resistance. Three transferrin family genes, NlTsf1, NlTsf2, and NlTsf3, of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)a major insect pest of rice field in Asia, had been identified and characterized in this study. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that NlTsf1 was significantly higher than the other two genes in different tissues. All of them were expressed at higher levels in abdomen and head than in antenna, leg, stylet, and thorax. Compared with the control, the expression of three N. lugens transferrin family genes decreased dramatically 24 h after treatment with buprofezin, pymetrozine and imidacloprid.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox321
  • Density Dependence and Growth Rate: Evolutionary Effects on Resistance
           Development to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis)
    • Authors: Martinez J; Caprio M, Friedenberg N.
      First page: 382
      Abstract: It has long been recognized that pest population dynamics can affect the durability of a pesticide, but dose remains the primary component of insect resistance management (IRM). For transgenic pesticidal traits such as Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)), dose (measured as the mortality of susceptibles caused by a toxin) is a relatively fixed characteristic and often falls below the standard definition of high dose. Hence, it is important to understand how pest population dynamics modify durability and what targets they present for IRM. We used a deterministic model of a generic arthropod pest to examine how timing and strength of density dependence interacted with population growth rate and Bt mortality to affect time to resistance. As in previous studies, durability typically reached a minimum at intermediate doses. However, high population growth rates could eliminate benefits of high dose. The timing of density dependence had a more subtle effect. If density dependence operated simultaneously with Bt mortality, durability was insensitive to its strengths. However, if density dependence was driven by postselection densities, decreasing its strength could increase durability. The strength of density dependence could affect durability of both single traits and pyramids, but its influence depended on the timing of density dependence and size of the refuge. Our findings suggest the utility of a broader definition of high dose, one that incorporates population-dynamic context. That maximum growth rates and timing and strength of interactions causing density dependent mortality can all affect durability, also highlights the need for ecologically integrated approaches to IRM research.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox323
  • Cross-resistance Patterns to Insecticides of Several Chemical Classes
           Among Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Populations
           With Different Levels of Resistance to Pyrethroids
    • Authors: Kostromytska O; Wu S, Koppenhöfer A.
      First page: 391
      Abstract: The annual bluegrass weevil (ABW), Listronotus maculicollis Kirby (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most damaging golf course insect pest in eastern North America. Heavy reliance on synthetic insecticides against this pest has led to widespread problems in controlling ABW with pyrethroid resistance already reported from populations in southern New England. This study evaluated the degree and scope of ABW resistance, determined existing cross-resistance patterns, and confirmed laboratory findings under greenhouse conditions. The susceptibility of 10 ABW populations to insecticides of different chemical classes was assessed in topical, feeding, and greenhouse assays. The level of susceptibility to pyrethroids varied significantly among populations (LD50s ranging 2.4–819.1 ng per insect for bifenthrin and 1.1–362.7 ng for λ-cyhalothrin in the topical assay). Three populations were relatively susceptible to pyrethroids, and seven populations had moderate to high resistance levels (RR50 for bifenthrin ranging 30.5–343.1). The toxicity of chlorpyrifos (RR50s ranging 3.3–15.3), spinosad (RR50s 2.4–7.7), clothianidin (RR50s 4.2–9.7), and indoxacarb (RR50s 2.8–9.7) was decreased for the pyrethroid-resistant populations. Toxicity data for bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos obtained under more realistic greenhouse conditions confirmed laboratory observations, indicating that the topical assay is an accurate method of detection and measurement of resistance level. The current study expanded the previously known geographic range of ABW pyrethroid resistance to include the New York metropolitan area, New Jersey, and eastern Pennsylvania and provided clear evidence of cross-resistance not only within the pyrethroid class but also to several other chemical classes.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox345
  • Susceptibility of Brazilian Populations of Helicoverpa armigera and
           Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Vip3Aa20
    • Authors: Leite N; Pereira R, Durigan M, et al.
      First page: 399
      Abstract: Transgenic maize expressing the insecticidal protein Vip3Aa20 is increasingly being adopted in Brazil. In this study, we determined the baseline susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Vip3Aa20, as part of an Insect Resistance Management (IRM) program. Diet-overlay bioassays were conducted with neonates exposed to Vip3Aa20 for 7 d. The baseline susceptibility data were obtained for seven field populations of H. armigera and six of H. zea collected from major soybean-, cotton-, and maize-producing areas in Brazil. To validate the diagnostic concentration, 11 field populations of H. zea were tested from 2014 to 2015. The LC50 for H. armigera populations ranged from 2.97 to 8.41 µg Vip3Aa20/cm2 (threefold variation), and for H. zea populations from 0.04 to 0.21 µg Vip3Aa20/cm2 (fivefold variation). The EC50 for H. armigera ranged from 0.099 to 0.455 µg Vip3Aa20/cm2 (fivefold variation), and for H. zea from 0.004 to 0.020 µg Vip3Aa20/cm2 (fivefold variation). H. armigera was more tolerant to Vip3Aa20 protein than was H. zea (≈40- to 75-fold, based on LC50). Based on the LC99 value, the concentration of 6.4 µg Vip3Aa20/cm2 was defined as a diagnostic concentration for susceptibility monitoring in H. zea, and >44 µg Vip3Aa20/cm2 for H. armigera. Our baseline susceptibility data for Vip3Aa20 in H. armigera and H. zea populations will be useful in IRM programs in Brazil.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox336
  • Identifying Anastrepha (Diptera; Tephritidae) Species Using DNA Barcodes
    • Authors: Barr N; Ruiz-Arce R, Farris R, et al.
      First page: 405
      Abstract: Molecular identification of fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha (Diptera; Tephritidae) is important to support plant pest exclusion, suppression, and outbreak eradication. Morphological methods of identification of this economically important genus are often not sufficient to identify species when detected as immature life stages. DNA barcoding a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene has been proposed as a method to identify pests in the genus. The identification process for these fruit flies, however, has not been explained in prior DNA barcode studies. DNA barcode methods assume that available DNA sequence records are biologically meaningful. These records, however, can be limited to the most common species or lack population-level measurements of diversity for pests. In such cases, the available data used as a reference are insufficient for completing an accurate identification. Using 539 DNA sequence records from 74 species of Anastrepha, we demonstrate that our barcoding data can distinguish four plant pests: Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera; Tephritidae), Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha striata Schiner. This is based on genetic distances of barcode records for the pests and expert evaluation of species and population representation in the data set. DNA barcoding of the cytochrome oxidase I gene alone cannot reliably diagnose the pests Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha suspensa (Loew).
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox300
  • Resistance in 27 Rice Cultivars to Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera:
    • Authors: Correa F; Silva C, Pelosi A, et al.
      First page: 422
      Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered one of the most important crops in the world, and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is among the key pests damaging the crop in the Americas. The objective of this work was to identify rice genotypes as a source of resistance to D. saccharalis. Rice plants were infested in the greenhouse and subsequently evaluated for damage, larval weight and survival, and stem size. The cultivars ‘Bonança’, ‘Caripuna’, ‘IR 42’, ‘Canela de Ferro’, ‘SWA Norte’, ‘BR IRGA 409’, ‘Pepita’, ‘Serra Dourada’, ‘Araguaia’, ‘Xingú’, ‘Tangará’, and ‘Soberana’ showed antibiosis antixenosis, or both to D. saccharalis. These cultivars may be used as donor sources in the breeding program and used directly by Brazilian farmers as a component of rice-integrated pest management.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox291
  • Identification of Soybean Host Plant Resistance to Brown Marmorated Stink
           Bugs in Maturity Group III Plant Introductions
    • Authors: La Mantia J; Mian M, Redinbaugh M.
      First page: 428
      Abstract: Halyomorpha halys (Stål; Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is a polyphagous nonnative insect first found in the United States in 1996. As of 2017, BMSB has been detected in 43 states and is a severe agricultural pest in mid-Atlantic states. On soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr (Fabales: Fabaceae), damage from BMSB infestation ranges from puncture marks with seed discoloration and deformities to seed and pod abortion. Host plant resistance has been used for managing pest populations and mitigating soybean yield losses caused by neotropical stink bugs (Eushistus heros, Nezara viridula, and Piezodorus guildinii) in Brazil and on the U.S. Gulf Coast. We evaluated maturity group III plant introductions (PIs) for resistance to BMSB damage. In 2014, field cage choice tests of 106 PIs revealed a range of both BMSB damage incidence and severity. In field choice tests, PIs 085665 and 097139 showed the lowest incidence of BMSB damage and seed weight loss due to BMSB, while PIs 243532, 243540, and 567252 had the highest. In whole plant no-choice tests, PIs 085665 and 097139 also had high levels of resistance. However, PI 085665 had a higher incidence of damage but lower seed weight loss than PI 097139, which may suggest bimodal resistance. Moreover, PIs 085665 and 097139 are from Japan and North Korea, respectively, two geographically isolated countries where BMSB is native. Thus, further characterization of host plant resistance to BMSB in each of these lines may elucidate distinct mechanisms that could be synergistic if stacked in breeding lines.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox295
  • Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera:
           Chrysomelidae) Host Plant Resistance in Two Populations of Doubled Haploid
           Lines in Maize (Zea mays L.)
    • Authors: Bohn M; Marroquin J, Flint-Garcia S, et al.
      First page: 435
      Abstract: Over the last 70 yr, more than 12,000 maize accessions have been screened for their level of resistance to western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte; Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), larval feeding. Less than 1% of this germplasm was selected for initiating recurrent selection or other breeding programs. Selected genotypes were mostly characterized by large root systems and superior root regrowth after root damage caused by western corn rootworm larvae. However, no hybrids claiming native (i.e., host plant) resistance to western corn rootworm larval feeding are currently commercially available. We investigated the genetic basis of western corn rootworm resistance in maize materials with improved levels of resistance using linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches. Two populations of topcrossed doubled haploid maize lines (DHLs) derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible maize lines were evaluated for their level of resistance in three to four different environments. For each DHL topcross an average root damage score was estimated and used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. We found genomic regions contributing to western corn rootworm resistance on all maize chromosomes, except for chromosome 4. Models fitting all QTL simultaneously explained about 30 to 50% of the genotypic variance for root damage scores in both mapping populations. Our findings confirm the complex genetic structure of host plant resistance against western corn rootworm larval feeding in maize. Interestingly, three of these QTL regions also carry genes involved in ascorbate biosynthesis, a key compound we hypothesize is involved in the expression of western corn rootworm resistance.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox310
  • Leaf Chemical Compositions of Different Eggplant Varieties Affect
           Performance of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Nymphs and Adults
    • Authors: Hasanuzzaman A; Islam M, Liu F, et al.
      First page: 445
      Abstract: The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1 is a serious pest of many crops worldwide, and its control mostly depends on insecticides. One of the most preferred host plants of B. tabaci is eggplant, Solanum melongena, although preferences among different cultivars of the whiteflies vary. We hypothesized that certain nutritional and defensive chemicals of plant leaves, such as nitrogen, glucose, fructose, sucrose, amino acids, total phenolic components, and moisture content may affect whitefly’s feeding and ovipositional preference, fecundity and longevity, nymph development, and survival among different eggplant varieties. To seek the most susceptible eggplant variety for use as an attractive trap crop for whitefly adults, we determined the variation of leaf chemical compositions among six eggplant varieties (H149, JSZ, JGL, TLB, DYZ, and QXN) and evaluated the effects of their leaf chemicals to the performance of nymphs and adults of B. tabaci. In choice feeding and oviposition tests, the varieties ‘H149’ and ‘JSZ’ had the most eggs. The whiteflies had significantly higher fecundity, longevity, lowest nymph development period, and higher survivals on JSZ than on other varieties. The least preferred TLB variety possessed the lowest adults and eggs, the lowest fecundity and longevity, and nymph development period. JGL, DYZ, and QXN were considered as a moderately preferred variety. Leaf chemistry revealed that highly susceptible variety possessed higher concentration of nitrogen, glucose, amino acids, and lower moisture content. The resistant variety possessed higher amount of total phenolic component. Both nutritional and defensive chemicals combined associated with nymph and adult performance of whitefly.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox333
  • Phosphine Resistance in North American Field Populations of the Lesser
           Grain Borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)
    • Authors: Afful E; Elliott B, Nayak M, et al.
      First page: 463
      Abstract: Phosphine is the most widely used fumigant for stored grain insect pests, and resistance to phosphine has evolved in several species worldwide. This study was designed to determine the presence of phosphine resistance in 34 populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) collected from the United States and Canada. Adult R. dominica were sampled and subjected to a discriminatory dose toxicity assay of exposure to 20 ppm of phosphine for 20 h of exposure to distinguish a susceptible R. dominica adult by death from a resistant beetle that survives the treatment. All but two of the 34 geographic populations surveyed had some beetles that were resistant to phosphine, and the frequency of resistance varied from 97% in a population from Parlier, California to 0% in beetles from both Carnduff, Saskatchewan and Starbuck, Manitoba. Probit analyses of dose-mortality bioassays with beetles from a laboratory-susceptible strain and those from five of the populations sampled were used to calculate resistance ratio factors (RRs) based on the ratio of LC50 (estimate for the concentration to kill 50% of a test group) in the sampled population to the LC50 for the susceptible strain. The highest RR for the five resistant populations was nearly 596-fold in beetles from Belle Glade, Florida, whereas the lowest RR in that group was 9-fold in Wamego, Kansas. This study revealed that phosphine resistance in R. dominica is common across North America and some populations have levels of resistance that may pose challenges for continued use of phosphine for their management.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox284
  • Efficacy of Ozone Against the Life Stages of Oryzaephilus mercator
           (Coleoptera: Silvanidae)
    • Authors: Mahroof R; Amoah B, Wrighton J.
      First page: 470
      Abstract: Ozone is a highly oxidizing gas with insecticidal activity and it is a potential alternative to conventional fumigants, such as phosphine and methyl bromide, for managing stored product insects. Susceptibility of the merchant grain beetle, Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel; Coleoptera: Silvanidae), an important pest of stored products, to ozone treatments is unknown. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of ozone for controlling O. mercator. We determined concentration-mortality relationships for all stages of O. mercator exposed to 100–400 ppm for 1 h (1 g/m3 = 467 ppm). We also determined time-mortality relationships for adults exposed to 100 ppm for 1–6 h. Mortality was recorded as percentages of eggs that failed to hatch 10 days after treatment (DAT), larvae or pupae that failed to develop into adults 20 or 15 DAT, respectively, and adults that died 2 DAT. Generally, mortality increased with an increase in ozone concentration. Mortality was higher when insects were treated without food. When food was not provided, a minimum of 11030 ppm for 1 h is required to kill 99% of eggs, the most tolerant stage, whereas 500 ppm for 1 h is required to kill 99% of larvae, the least tolerant. When provided with food, adults were the most tolerant and larvae the least tolerant. Adults require exposure time of 7.7 h of 100 ppm ozone to kill 99% of insects in the absence of food. The work reported suggests that ozone could be an alternative fumigant for the management of all O. mercator life stages.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox293
  • Evaluation of the Natural Zeolite Lethal Effects on Adults of the Bean
           Weevil Under Different Temperatures and Relative Humidity Regimes
    • Authors: Floros G; Kokkari A, Kouloussis N, et al.
      First page: 482
      Abstract: We studied the insecticidal activity of different concentrations of very high quality natural zeolites (zeolitic rock containing 92 wt% clinoptilolite) applied on dry beans. The test species was adult bean weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say; Coleoptera: Bruchidae), and the variables included different temperatures and humidity regimes. At certain natural zeolite concentrations the adult mortality approached 100% within the first day of exposure. The lethal natural zeolite concentration for 50% adult mortality (LD50) was 1.1 g/kg dry beans 1 d after exposure. The temperature had no significant effects on the insecticidal potential of the tested natural zeolite formulations. The lethal time (LT) for 50% adult mortality (LT50), at a concentration of 0.5 g/kg dry beans was 106.429, 101.951, and 90.084 min at 15, 20, and 25°C, respectively. It did not differ significantly. In contrast, relative humidity (RH) and exposure time as well as their interactions had a significant effect on natural zeolite formulation and insecticidal potential. At a constant concentration of 0.5 g/kg dry beans and 25°C at 23%, 34%, 53%, and 88% RH the LT50 ranged from 61.6 to 75.9 min; at 72% RH the LT50 was 110.6 min. The results indicate that natural zeolite at low concentrations is promising for the control of the bean weevil under different temperatures and RH regimes.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox305
  • Identification of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Sperm From
           Females in Traps: The Importance of the Ventral Receptacle
    • Authors: López-Muñoz L; López E, Feliciano C, et al.
      First page: 491
      Abstract: The monitoring of a pest population often relies on the identification of individuals from traps. For area-wide programs utilizing the sterile insect technique, the further identification of the mated status of females found in traps is of utmost importance. For the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), this is usually verified through the assessment of sperm in the spermathecae. However, this can be misleading for species where there are other sperm storage organs such as the ventral receptacle. Here, we studied the relative importance of sperm storage in the ventral receptacle compared to the spermathecae for females from 5 to 18 d of age. Furthermore, we studied how sperm can be identified in the ventral receptacle or spermathecae after females were recovered from traps. We found no effect of female age on likelihood of sperm storage. Sperm could be identified in both sperm storage organs at 7 or 14 d after females had been placed in traps. We found that the ventral receptacle is a more reliable indicator of female mated status. Thus, we propose that if no sperm are found in the spermathecae, program managers should revise the ventral receptacle before assuming that females are not mated. This test may also be relevant to other pest tephritids that store even more sperm in the ventral receptacle than C. capitata.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox298
  • Enhanced Response of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to Its
           Aggregation Pheromone with Ethyl Decatrienoate
    • Authors: Rice K; Bedoukian R, Hamilton G, et al.
      First page: 495
      Abstract: The invasive stink bug species, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera; Pentatomidae), severely damages multiple agricultural commodities, resulting in the disruption of established IPM programs. Several semiochemicals have been identified to attract H. halys to traps and monitor their presence, abundance, and seasonal activity. In particular, the two-component aggregation pheromone of H. halys, (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol and (3R,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol (PHER), in combination with the pheromone synergist, methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate (MDT), were found to be attractive. Here, we report that an analogous trienoate, ethyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate (EDT), enhances H. halys captures when combined with PHER. In trials conducted in Eastern and Western regions of the United States, we observed that when traps were baited with the H. halys PHER + EDT, captures were significantly greater than when traps were baited with PHER alone. Traps baited with EDT alone were not attractive. Thus, the addition of EDT to lures for attracting H. halys to traps may further improve monitoring efficiency and management strategies for this invasive species.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox316
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