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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 368 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 368 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 489, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Mathematics Research Surveys - advance access     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)
J. of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Journal of Competition Law and Economics
  [SJR: 0.442]   [H-I: 16]   [34 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1744-6414 - ISSN (Online) 1744-6422
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [368 journals]
  • ADMINISTRATIVE LITIGATION AT THE FTC: EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR DEVELOPING THE
           LAW OR RUBBER STAMP?
    • Authors: Ohlhausen MK.
      Abstract: This article provides the most comprehensive study to date of the Federal Trade Commission's Part 3 process. A unique and defining tool, Part 3 allows the FTC to challenge alleged section 5 violations in-house through administrative litigation. Highlighting the agency's expertise, Congress gave the FTC that authority in 1914 to develop antitrust and later consumer-protection law. Although the Commission has used its Part 3 authority to good effect, especially in some recent competition matters, the process is controversial on due-process grounds. After it finds “reason to believe” that a violation exists and authorizes staff to litigate before an independent Administrative Law Judge, the Commission reviews the ALJ's decision de novo. The result, some critics argue, is a foregone conclusion. Rather than advance the law, they contend, Part 3 frees the Commission to reach its favored result. Maligned in some quarters as a “kangaroo court” in which the FTC alleges and later summarily confirms section 5 violations, the key question is whether administrative litigation effectively fulfills the role Congress set out for it. To resolve the debate, we need a clearer picture of how Part 3 operates. Does the FTC rubber stamp its prior determinations, invariably siding with complaint counsel? Or does it change course at the appeal stage and, if so, how often? And, when it does find a section 5 violation on appeal, how often does the FTC nevertheless prune counts and allegations, suggesting that it scrutinizes the factual and legal record before it? Do the answers change with the political constitution of the Commission, such as when a Democratic majority votes out a Part 3 complaint, but a Republican Commission hears the appeal? How often does the Commission's composition change between voting out and later deciding a Part 3 matter, and might the answer resolve the due-process issue? And does the FTC fare better at the U.S. Courts of Appeal if it affirmed or reversed the ALJ? Until now, relatively little empirical work has scrutinized administrative litigation at the FTC. This study tracks every Part 3 case that produced a Commission Decision on or after January 20, 1977. It captures all 145 antitrust and consumer-protection matters falling within that period, tracking their development through initial vote at the “reason to believe” stage, disposition before the ALJ, appeal before the Commission, and petition for review at the U.S. Court of Appeals and beyond. The emerging statistics are illuminative. In hearing an appeal in the last 10 years, the FTC has never rejected an action that it had previously authorized complaint counsel to bring in Part 3. At first blush, that fact might suggest a preordained appellate process. But that phenomenon dissipates when one looks at a larger time horizon, suggesting that uniformity from initial vote to appeal is neither inevitable nor systemic. Indeed, it is possible that recent consistency may be a function of improved case selection, aided by effective factual, economic, and legal analysis by staff and the Commissioners before they authorize a complaint. Evaluating the ten matters voted out and affirmed by the Commission in the last decade lends some support to that proposition. Indeed, Part 3 has been an effective tool in developing complex antitrust questions. This article provides a host of new evidence with which to evaluate administrative litigation at the FTC. The article concludes by exploring some initial teaching points from the data.
      PubDate: 2016-12-13
       
  • THE ROLE OF CAPACITY IN ANTITRUST ANALYSIS
    • Authors: Sacher S; Sandford J.
      Abstract: Issues of productive capacity can play a role in nearly every aspect of competition analysis. This article provides an overview of the economic literature on capacity and the role that capacity has played in actual antitrust and competition law enforcement. The goal is to aid the analysis in matters where capacity issues potentially play a significant role. For the most part, the theoretical role of capacity in various aspects of competition analysis is ambiguous and the empirical literature is similarly inconclusive. Moreover, in many situations, measuring excess capacity may be quite difficult. Given the theoretical and empirical ambiguity regarding the role of excess capacity, or the lack thereof, the overall conclusion is that capacity issues should play a role in competition analysis only when there is strong case-specific evidence regarding their effects.
      PubDate: 2016-12-13
       
  • AN EMPIRICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN THE UPWARD PRICING PRESSURE TEST AND
           MERGER SIMULATION IN DIFFERENTIATED PRODUCT MARKETS
    • Authors: Cheung L.
      Abstract: The Upward Pricing Pressure (UPP) test is a new merger screen that focuses on price effects instead of concentration changes. This article is one of the first to compare its empirical predictions against that of merger simulations. This is valuable for practitioners and economists alike, because it shows the extent to which a quick screening tool will lead to the same decision as a structural framework for market analysis. I use hypothetical mergers in a big cross-section of airline route markets to assess UPP's sign, rank, and magnitude predictions. In its “best case scenario,” it gives correct sign predictions in 90-percent observations; correct decile predictions in 75-percent observations; and a mean magnitude difference of $17, when compared against merger simulations. I investigate the performance of both the first and second terms of the UPP using different hypothetical mergers. Lastly, I explore whether certain market or product characteristics lead to large discrepancies in the UPP using model selection techniques.
      PubDate: 2016-12-13
       
  • STOCK PRICE EVIDENCE FOR ANTICOMPETITIVE EFFECTS IN THE NEXIUM
           “REVERSE-PAYMENT” SETTLEMENT
    • Authors: Drake KM; McGuire TG.
      Abstract: The 2014 Nexium trial was the first major “reverse-payment” trial in the drug industry following the Supreme Court's landmark FTC v. Actavis decision, which directed attention to the magnitude of and possible explanations for a payment from the patent-holder to the generic as part of settlement including an agreed-upon entry date. A reverse payment exceeding the patent-holder's avoided litigation costs (with no other reasonable explanation) is regarded as buying a delay, logic that has come to be labeled as the “Actavis Inference.” This paper presents and explains a complementary form of evidence, an event study assessing how the Nexium settlement announcement affected the stock price values of AstraZeneca, the patent holder, and Ranbaxy, a generic manufacturer. On the single day on which the Nexium settlement was announced, the stock market capitalization of AstraZeneca and Ranbaxy went up (after statistical adjustments) by $2.8 billion and $0.3 billion, respectively, indicating that the agreement created substantial anticompetitive gains through delayed generic entry. Although the jury decided against the plaintiffs on a causation question framed by the court rather than on economic grounds, the lessons for assessing evidence of anticompetitive effect in Nexium are relevant to the many ongoing reverse-payment antitrust cases in the drug industry.
      PubDate: 2016-12-13
       
  • ARTICLE 101 TFEU AND MARKET INTEGRATION
    • Authors: Ibáñez Colomo P.
      Abstract: Market integration is an objective of Article 101 TFEU. As a result, agreements aimed at partitioning national markets are in principle restrictive of competition by object. The case law on this point has been consistent since Consten-Grundig. Making sense of it, however, remains a challenge. The purpose of this article is to first show how the methodological approach followed by the Court of Justice changes when market integration considerations are at stake. Second, this article explains why and when restrictions on cross-border trade have been found not to restrict competition by object within the meaning of Article 101(1) TFEU. An agreement aimed at partitioning national markets is not as such contrary to Article 101(1) TFEU if the analysis of the counterfactual reveals that it does not restrict inter-brand and/or intra-brand competition that would have existed in its absence. It is possible to think of three scenarios in this regard: (1) an agreement may be objectively necessary to achieve the aims sought by the parties; (2) a clause may be objectively necessary for an agreement; and (3) competition is precluded by the underlying regulatory context (as is the case, in particular, when the exercise of intellectual property rights is at stake).
      PubDate: 2016-12-13
       
  • A COMPETITION LAW ASSESSMENT OF PLATFORM MOST-FAVORED-CUSTOMER CLAUSES
    • Authors: Akman P.
      Abstract: Most-favored-customer (MFC) clauses adopted by online platforms in their relevant contractual relationships guarantee to an online platform that a supplier will treat the platform as favorably as the supplier's most-favored-customer concerning price, availability, and similar terms of a given transaction. These clauses are a fundamental aspect of the business models of some of the world's leading companies such as Apple, Amazon, Expedia, and the like. The competition law implications of these clauses have been one of the key concerns of more than a dozen competition authorities around the world in recent years. The competition authorities involved have adopted different approaches and reached different substantive and procedural outcomes, sometimes in proceedings that concern the application of the same legal rule to the same practice of the same company. This is best demonstrated by the line of investigations against certain online travel agents in Europe. This article posits that such diverging approaches lead to legal and business uncertainty, as well as to procedurally unfair and substantively incorrect assessments. In an effort to rectify this suboptimal situation, this article provides a comprehensive, principled approach for the assessment of platform MFC clauses under competition law—in particular, under EU competition law.
      PubDate: 2016-12-13
       
 
 
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