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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 285, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 576, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Epidemiology
  [SJR: 4.381]   [H-I: 145]   [170 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0300-5771 - ISSN (Online) 1464-3685
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Association between exposure to second-hand smoke and telomere length:
           cross-sectional study of 1303 non-smokers
    • Authors: Lu L; Johnman C, McGlynn L, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundBoth active smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) are important risk factors for many age-related diseases. Active smoking is associated with shortened telomere length. However, whether SHS accelerates telomere attrition with age is uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the association between SHS exposure and shortening by age of leukocyte telomere length among adult non-smokers.MethodsWe undertook a cross-sectional study of the association between self-reported levels of SHS exposure and telomere length shortening per annum on a subgroup of participants from the Scottish Family Health Study. Inclusion was restricted to non-smokers aged ≥ 18 years, who had provided self-reported overall usual SHS exposure (total hours per week) and blood samples for telomere analysis. Linear regression models were used to compare the ratio of telomere repeat copy number to single copy gene number (T/S)by age according to SHS exposure.ResultsOf the 1303 eligible participants, 779 (59.8%) reported no SHS exposure, 495 (38.0%) low exposure (1–19 h per week) and 29 (2.2%) high exposure (≥20 h per week). In the univariate linear regression analyses, relative T/S ratio declined with increasing age in all exposure groups. Telomere length decreased more rapidly with increasing age among those with high exposure to SHS [adjusted coefficient −0.019, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.031- −0.007) when compared with both those with no exposure to SHS (adjusted coefficient −0.006, 95% CI −0.008- −0.004) (high vs no SHS: P = 0.010) and those with low exposure to SHS (adjusted coefficient −0.005, 95% CI −0.007- −0.003) (high vs low SHS: P = 0.005).ConclusionsOur findings suggest that high SHS exposure may accelerate normal biological ageing, and support efforts to protect the public from SHS exposure. Further studies on relevant mechanisms should be conducted.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Mendelian randomization: a novel approach for the prediction of adverse
           drug events and drug repurposing opportunities
    • Authors: Walker V; Davey Smith G, Davies N, et al.
      Abstract: Identification of unintended drug effects, specifically drug repurposing opportunities and adverse drug events, maximizes the benefit of a drug and protects the health of patients. However, current observational research methods are subject to several biases. These include confounding by indication, reverse causality and missing data. We propose that Mendelian randomization (MR) offers a novel approach for the prediction of unintended drug effects. In particular, we advocate the synthesis of evidence from this method and other approaches, in the spirit of triangulation, to improve causal inferences concerning drug effects. MR addresses some of the limitations associated with the existing methods in this field. Furthermore, it can be applied either before or after approval of the drug, and could therefore prevent the potentially harmful exposure of patients in clinical trials and beyond. The potential of MR as a pharmacovigilance and drug repurposing tool is yet to be realized, and could both help prevent adverse drug events and identify novel indications for existing drugs in the future.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Body mass index and breast cancer survival: a Mendelian randomization
    • Authors: Guo Q; Burgess S, Turman C, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundThere is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival from breast cancer.MethodsWe used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis.ResultsBMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.11, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.22, P = 0.03). We observed no association for ER-negative cases (HR = 1.00, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% CI 0.89–1.13, P = 0.95).ConclusionsOur findings suggest a causal effect of increased BMI on reduced breast cancer survival for ER-positive breast cancer. There is no evidence of a causal effect of higher BMI on survival for ER-negative breast cancer cases.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • A pooled analysis of dietary sugar/carbohydrate intake and esophageal and
           gastric cardia adenocarcinoma incidence and survival in the USA
    • Authors: Li N; Petrick J, Steck S, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundDuring the past 40 years, esophageal/gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (EA/GCA) incidence increased in Westernized countries, but survival remained low. A parallel increase in sugar intake, which may facilitate carcinogenesis by promoting hyperglycaemia, led us to examine sugar/carbohydrate intake in association with EA/GCA incidence and survival.MethodsWe pooled 500 EA cases, 529 GCA cases and 2027 controls from two US population-based case-control studies with cases followed for vital status. Dietary intake, assessed by study-specific food frequency questionnaires, was harmonized and pooled to estimate 12 measures of sugar/carbohydrate intake. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] were calculated using multinomial logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression, respectively.ResultsEA incidence was increased by 51–58% in association with sucrose (ORQ5vs.Q1 = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.01–2.27), sweetened desserts/beverages (ORQ5vs.Q1 = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.06–2.27) and the dietary glycaemic index (ORQ5vs.Q1 = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.13–2.21). Body mass index (BMI) and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) modified these associations (Pmultiplicative-interaction ≤ 0.05). For associations with sucrose and sweetened desserts/beverages, respectively, the OR was elevated for BMI < 25 (ORQ4–5vs.Q1–3 = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.26–2.56 and ORQ4–5vs.Q1–3 = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.03–2.06), but not BMI ≥ 25 (ORQ4–5vs.Q1–3 = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.76–1.44 and ORQ4–5vs.Q1–3 = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.62–1.16). The EA-glycaemic index association was elevated for BMI ≥ 25 (ORQ4–5vs.Q1–3 = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.03–1.85), but not BMI < 25 (ORQ4–5vs.Q1–3 = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.62–1.24). The sucrose-EA association OR for GERD < weekly was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.16–2.14), but for GERD ≥ weekly was 1.01 (95% CI = 0.70–1.47). Sugar/carbohydrate measures were not associated with GCA incidence or EA/GCA survival.ConclusionsIf confirmed, limiting intake of sucrose (e.g. table sugar), sweetened desserts/beverages, and foods that contribute to a high glycaemic index, may be plausible EA risk reduction strategies.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • A dose-response meta-analysis of chronic arsenic exposure and incident
           cardiovascular disease
    • Authors: Moon K; Oberoi S, Barchowsky A, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundConsistent evidence at high levels of water arsenic (≥100 µg/l), and growing evidence at low-moderate levels (<100 µg/l), support a link with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The shape of the dose-response across low-moderate and high levels of arsenic in drinking water is uncertain and critical for risk assessment.MethodsWe conducted a systematic review of general population epidemiological studies of arsenic and incident clinical CVD (all CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke) with three or more exposure categories. In a dose-response meta-analysis, we estimated the pooled association between log-transformed water arsenic (log-linear) and restricted cubic splines of log-transformed water arsenic (non-linear) and the relative risk of each CVD endpoint.ResultsTwelve studies (pooled N = 408 945) conducted at high (N = 7) and low-moderate (N = 5) levels of water arsenic met inclusion criteria, and 11 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with 10 µg/l, the estimated pooled relative risks [95% confidence interval (CI)] for 20 µg/l water arsenic, based on a log-linear model, were 1.09 (1.03, 1.14) (N = 2) for CVD incidence, 1.07 (1.01, 1.14) (N = 6) for CVD mortality, 1.11 (1.05, 1.17) (N = 4) for CHD incidence, 1.16 (1.07, 1.26) (N = 6) for CHD mortality, 1.08 (0.99, 1.17) (N = 2) for stroke incidence and 1.06 (0.93, 1.20) (N = 6) for stroke mortality. We found no evidence of non-linearity, although these tests had low statistical power.ConclusionsAlthough limited by the small number of studies, this analysis supports quantitatively including CVD in inorganic arsenic risk assessment, and strengthens the evidence for an association between arsenic and CVD across low-moderate to high levels.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Policies and strategies to facilitate secondary use of research data in
           the health sciences
    • Authors: Burton P; Banner N, Elliot M, et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Alcohol consumption in 0.5 million people from 10 diverse regions of
           China: prevalence, patterns and socio-demographic and health-related
    • Authors: Millwood I; Li L, Smith M, et al.
      Abstract: First published online: 1 August 2013, Int J Epidemiol, 2013, doi:
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Offspring risk of obesity in childhood, adolescence and adulthood in
           relation to gestational diabetes mellitus: a sex-specific association
    • Authors: Li S; Zhu Y, Yeung E, et al.
      Abstract: First published online: 9 August 2017, Int J Epidemiol, 2017, doi:
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Anal cancer: different epidemiological and clinical definitions
    • Authors: Renehan A; Gilbert D.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • RE: Anal cancer: different epidemiological and clinical definitions
    • Authors: Islami F; Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • A note on the use of Egger regression in Mendelian randomization studies
    • Authors: Slob E; Groenen P, Thurik A, et al.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Misconceptions on the use of MR-Egger regression and the evaluation of the
           InSIDE assumption
    • Authors: Bowden J.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • HDL-cholesterol levels and risk of age-related macular degeneration: a
           multiethnic genetic study using Mendelian randomization
    • Authors: Fan Q; Maranville J, Fritsche L, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundDyslipidemia, particularly high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss. However, epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results.MethodsWe investigated the causal role of plasma lipid levels in AMD in multiethnic populations comprising 16 144 advanced AMD cases and 17 832 controls of European descent, together with 2219 cases and 5275 controls of Asian descent, using Mendelian randomization in three models. Model 1 is a conventional meta-analysis which does not account for pleiotropy of instrumental variable (IV) effects. Model 2 is a univariate, inverse variance weighted regression analysis that accounts for potential unbalanced pleiotropy using MR-Egger method. Finally, Model 3 is a multivariate regression analysis that addresses pleiotropy by MR-Egger method and by adjusting for effects on other lipid traits.ResultsA 1 standard deviation (SD) higher HDL-cholesterol level was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for AMD of 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.07–1.29) in Europeans (P = 6.88 × 10–4) and of 1.58 (1.24–2.00) in Asians (P = 2.92 × 10–4) in Model 3. The corresponding OR estimates were 1.30 (1.09–1.55) in Europeans (P = 3.18 × 10–3) and 1.42 (1.11—1.80) in Asians (P = 4.42 × 10–3) in Model 1, and 1.21 (1.11–1.31) in Europeans (P = 3.12 × 10–5) and 1.51 (1.20–1.91) in Asians (P = 7.61 × 10–4) in Model 2. Conversely, neither LDL-C (Europeans: OR = 0.96, P = 0.272; Asians: OR = 1.02, P = 0.874; Model 3) nor triglyceride levels (Europeans: OR = 0.91, P = 0.102; Asians: OR = 1.06, P = 0.613) were associated with AMD. We also assessed the association between lipid levels and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in Asians, a subtype of AMD, and found a similar trend for association of PCV with HDL-C levels.ConclusionsOur study shows that high levels of plasma HDL-C are causally associated with an increased risk for advanced AMD in European and Asian populations, implying that strategies reducing HDL-C levels may be useful to prevent and treat AMD.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate, and prevalence of
           diabetes mellitus
    • Authors: Liu G; Zong G, Dhana K, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundIt is known that perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate have the property of inhibiting sodium iodide symporter. Animal studies have suggested that these compounds, especially perchlorate, might also interfere with insulin secretion. However, the association between their exposure and diabetes risk is largely unknown in humans.MethodsAmong 11 443 participants (mean age 42.3 years) from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2001–14, urinary perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate were measured by using ion chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Diabetes was defined as self-reported doctor diagnosis, use of oral hypoglycaemic medication or insulin, fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dl or glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5%.ResultsThe median (interquartile range) levels of urinary perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate were 3.32 (1.84, 5.70) μg/l, 46.4 (27.9, 72.0) mg/l and 1.23 (0.59, 2.78) mg/l, respectively. Higher levels of urinary perchlorate were associated with elevated levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (all Ptrend < 0.001). After multivariate adjustment including urinary creatinine, smoking status and body mass index (BMI), higher urinary perchlorate, but not nitrate or thiocyanate, was associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Comparing extreme quintiles, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of diabetes was 1.53 (1.21, 1.93; Ptrend < 0.001) for perchlorate, 1.01 (0.77, 1.32; Ptrend = 0.44) for nitrate and 0.98 (0.73, 1.31; Ptrend = 0.64) for thiocyanate. When urinary perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate were further mutually adjusted, the results did not materially change. Similar results were observed when analyses were stratified by smoking status, as well as by age, gender, kidney function and BMI.ConclusionsHigher urinary perchlorate levels are associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus, independent of traditional risk factors. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Pancreatic cancer incidence rises also in Italy
    • Authors: Crocetti E; Mancini S.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Physical activity, mediating factors and risk of colon cancer: insights
           into adiposity and circulating biomarkers from the EPIC cohort
    • Authors: Aleksandrova K; Jenab M, Leitzmann M, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundThere is convincing evidence that high physical activity lowers the risk of colon cancer; however, the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. We aimed to determine the extent to which body fatness and biomarkers of various biologically plausible pathways account for the association between physical activity and colon cancer.MethodsWe conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 519 978 men and women aged 25 to 70 years followed from 1992 to 2003. A total of 713 incident colon cancer cases were matched, using risk-set sampling, to 713 controls on age, sex, study centre, fasting status and hormonal therapy use. The amount of total physical activity during the past year was expressed in metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-h/week. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected at study baseline.ResultsHigh physical activity was associated with a lower risk of colon cancer: relative risk ≥91 MET-h/week vs <91 MET-h/week = 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57 to 0.96]. In mediation analyses, this association was accounted for by waist circumference: proportion explained effect (PEE) = 17%; CI: 4% to 52%; and the biomarkers soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R): PEE = 15%; 95% CI: 1% to 50% and 5-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D): PEE = 30%; 95% CI: 12% to 88%. In combination, these factors explained 45% (95% CI: 20% to 125%) of the association. Beyond waist circumference, sOB-R and 25[OH]D additionally explained 10% (95% CI: 1%; 56%) and 23% (95% CI: 6%; 111%) of the association, respectively.ConclusionsPromoting physical activity, particularly outdoors, and maintaining metabolic health and adequate vitamin D levels could represent a promising strategy for colon cancer prevention.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Impact of adding hand-washing and water disinfection promotion to oral
           cholera vaccination on diarrhoea-associated hospitalization in Dhaka,
           Bangladesh: evidence from a cluster randomized control trial
    • Authors: Najnin N; Leder K, Qadri F, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundInformation on the impact of hygiene interventions on severe outcomes is limited. As a pre-specified secondary outcome of a cluster-randomized controlled trial among >400 000 low-income residents in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we examined the impact of cholera vaccination plus a behaviour change intervention on diarrhoea-associated hospitalization.MethodsNinety neighbourhood clusters were randomly allocated into three areas: cholera-vaccine-only; vaccine-plus-behaviour-change (promotion of hand-washing with soap plus drinking water chlorination); and control. Study follow-up continued for 2 years after intervention began. We calculated cluster-adjusted diarrhoea-associated hospitalization rates using data we collected from nearby hospitals, and 6-monthly census data of all trial households.ResultsA total of 429 995 people contributed 500 700 person-years of data (average follow-up 1.13 years). Vaccine coverage was 58% at the start of analysis but continued to drop due to population migration. In the vaccine-plus-behaviour-change area, water plus soap was present at 45% of hand-washing stations; 4% of households had detectable chlorine in stored drinking water. Hospitalization rates were similar across the study areas [events/1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval (CI), cholera-vaccine-only: 9.4 (95% CI: 8.3–10.6); vaccine-plus-behaviour-change: 9.6 (95% CI: 8.3–11.1); control: 9.7 (95% CI: 8.3–11.6)]. Cholera cases accounted for 7% of total number of diarrhoea-associated hospitalizations.ConclusionsNeither cholera vaccination alone nor cholera vaccination combined with behaviour-change intervention efforts measurably reduced diarrhoea-associated hospitalization in this highly mobile population, during a time when cholera accounted for a small fraction of diarrhoea episodes. Affordable community-level interventions that prevent infection from multiple pathogens by reliably separating faeces from the environment, food and water, with minimal behavioural demands on impoverished communities, remain an important area for research.
      PubDate: Sat, 02 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Declining exposures to lead and cadmium contribute to explaining the
           reduction of cardiovascular mortality in the US population, 1988–2004
    • Authors: Ruiz-Hernandez A; Navas-Acien A, Pastor-Barriuso R, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundLead and cadmium exposures have markedly declined in the USA following the implementation of large-scale public health policies and could have contributed to the unexplained decline in cardiovascular mortality in US adults. We evaluated the potential contribution of lead and cadmium exposure reductions to explain decreasing cardiovascular mortality trends occurring in the USA from 1988–94 to 1999–2004.MethodsProspective study in 15 421 adults ≥40 years old who had participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988–94 or 1999–2004. We estimated the amount of change in cardiovascular mortality over time that can be independently attributed to the intermediate pathway of changes in blood lead and urine cadmium concentrations.ResultsThere was a 42.0% decrease in blood lead and a 31.0% decrease in urine cadmium concentrations. The cardiovascular mortality rate ratio [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] associated with a doubling of metal levels was 1.19 (1.07, 1.31) for blood lead and 1.20 (1.09, 1.32) for urine cadmium. The absolute reduction in cardiovascular deaths comparing 1999–2004 to 1988–94 was 230.7 deaths/100 000 person-years, in models adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Among these avoided deaths, 52.0 (95% CI 8.4, 96.7) and 19.4 (4.3, 36.4) deaths/100 000 person-years were attributable to changes in lead and cadmium, respectively.ConclusionsEnvironmental declines in lead and cadmium exposures were associated with reductions in cardiovascular mortality in US adults. Given the fact that lead and cadmium remain associated with cardiovascular disease at relatively low levels of exposure, prevention strategies that further minimize exposure to lead and cadmium may be needed.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behaviour in relation to
           colon and rectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Mahmood S; MacInnis R, English D, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundPhysical activity is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer, but most epidemiological studies have focused on occupational and recreational physical activity. The evidence for other domains of activity, and for sedentary behaviour, is limited.MethodsMedline, Embase and Web of Science were searched from inception to December 2015 for studies examining domain-specific physical activity or sedentary behaviour and the risk of colon and/or rectal cancer. We extracted maximally adjusted relative risks (RRs) except when RRs not adjusted for body mass index, were also presented. We used random-effects meta-analysis to compute pooled RRs comparing the highest versus the lowest level of exposure. We used meta-regression to assess sources of heterogeneity in estimates.ResultsWe identified 17 cohort and 21 case-control studies, of which 17 had occupational data, 23 had recreational data, three each had data on transport and household physical activity domains, and 6 studies had data on occupational sedentary behaviour. The pooled relative risks (RRs) for colon cancer were 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 0.82) for occupational activity, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.89) for recreational activity, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.98) for transport-related physical activity, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.02) for household physical activity, and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.28, 1.62) for occupational sedentary behaviour. For rectal cancer, the pooled RRs were 0.88 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.98) for occupational activity, 0.87 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.01) for recreational activity, 0.88 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.12) for transport-related physical activity, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.27) for household physical activity, and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.28) for occupational sedentary behaviour.ConclusionsIn addition to increasing occupational and recreational physical activity, promoting physical activity during transport and reducing sedentary behaviour in the workplace may also be useful colorectal cancer prevention strategies.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile: The Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health
           (Atlantic PATH) Study
    • Authors: Sweeney E; Cui Y, DeClercq V, et al.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile: The Siyakhula Cohort, rural South Africa
    • Authors: Rochat T; Houle B, Stein A, et al.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Mediterranean diet and risk of colorectal cancer in the UK
           Women’s Cohort Study
    • Authors: Jones P; Cade J, Evans C, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundEvidence from epidemiological studies investigating associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer is inconsistent. The aim of this study is to assess in the UK Women’s Cohort Study whether adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with reduced incidence of cancers of the colon and rectum.MethodA total of 35 372 women were followed for a median of 17.4 years. A 10-component score indicating adherence to the Mediterranean diet was generated for each cohort participant, using a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. The Mediterranean diet score ranged from 0 for minimal adherence to 10 for maximal adherence. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to provide adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colon and rectal cancer risk.ResultsA total of 465 incident colorectal cancer cases were documented. In the multivariable adjusted model, the test for trend was positive (HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.99; Ptrend = 0.03) for a 2-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score. For rectal cancer, a 2-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score resulted in an HR (95% CI) of 0.69 (0.56 to 0.86), whereas a 62% linear reduced risk (HR 0.38; 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.74; Ptrend < 0.001) was observed for women within the highest vs the lowest category of the MD score. Estimates for an association with colon cancer were weak (Ptrend = 0.41).ConclusionsFindings suggest that women adhering to a Mediterranean dietary pattern may have a lower risk of colorectal cancer, especially rectal cancer.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • The association between waterpipe smoking and gastroesophageal reflux
    • Authors: Etemadi A; Gandomkar A, Freedman N, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundUnlike cigarettes, there is little information about the association between other tobacco products and the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma.MethodsWe used the baseline data from the Pars Cohort Study conducted in southern Iran. In 2012, 9264 local residents between 40 and 75 years old were enrolled, with detailed information about lifestyle, including duration and frequency of tobacco use. GERD was defined based on questions assessing heartburn and regurgitation in the past 12 months, frequency and severity. Associations were calculated by logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, cigarettes and body mass index.ResultsIn the study, 25.4% of the participants had severe GERD (interfering with participants’ routines), 25.1% had frequent GERD (at least once a week) and 11.2% had both severe and frequent GERD, all more common among women (p < 0.001); 45.6% of women and 28.3% of men smoked waterpipes. Among people not using medications against reflux symptoms, there was an association between waterpipe smoking and severe [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.04–1.35], frequent (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.02–1.32) and severe and frequent reflux (OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.08–1.56). The associations increased with the duration of use, intensity and cumulative waterpipe-years, reaching an OR of 1.44 (95% CI: 1.12–1.86) for severe and frequent reflux in those who had smoked more than 48 waterpipe-years. There was effect modification by sex, and all the associations were only seen among women.ConclusionThe increasing trend in the association between cumulative waterpipe use and reflux disease among women is particularly important given the growing waterpipe tobacco epidemic in many populations.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile: The Lymphoma Specialized Program of Research Excellence
           (SPORE) Molecular Epidemiology Resource (MER) Cohort Study
    • Authors: Cerhan J; Link B, Habermann T, et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Commentary: Unusual pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality patterns
    • Authors: Vajdic C; Laaksonen M.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Commentary: Pancreatic cancer: is the worst to come'
    • Authors: Buscail L.
      Abstract: The paper by Anne-Marie Bouvier et al. brings scientific confirmation to a clinical impression.1 What we know, say and write is that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries.2 In a recent North American analysis on deaths, projection of the ‘top cancer killers’ has, due to demographic changes, placed pancreatic cancer as the second cause of death by cancer in 2030 after lung cancer.3 In addition, and as stated by Bouvier et al. in their manuscript, ‘very recent predictions suggest that the burden of pancreatic cancer is expected to rise over the next 15 years regardless of age and sex in European regions as well as in other regions defined according to the World Health Organization’.1,4
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Commentary: A pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality gap'
    • Authors: Armstrong B.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption: findings from a Mendelian
           randomization analysis
    • Authors: Bjørngaard J; Nordestgaard A, Taylor A, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundThere is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake.MethodsWe performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK Biobank (N = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study (N = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) (N = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS. Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies.ResultsEach additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per additional cigarette smoked per day (0.04 cups per day, 95% CI: −0.002, 0.07). There was strong evidence that each additional copy of the minor allele of rs16969968 (which increases daily cigarette consumption) in current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.16 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.20), but only weak evidence for an association with tea consumption (0.04 cups per day, 95% CI: -0.01, 0.09). There was no clear evidence that rs16969968 was associated with coffee or tea consumption in never or former smokers or that the coffee-related variants were associated with cigarette consumption.ConclusionsHigher cigarette consumption causally increases coffee intake. This is consistent with faster metabolism of caffeine by smokers, but could also reflect a behavioural effect of smoking on coffee drinking.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • The descriptive epidemiology of the diurnal profile of bouts and breaks in
           sedentary time in older English adults
    • Authors: Yerrakalva D; Cooper A, Westgate K, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundHigh sedentary time is associated with adverse metabolic health outcomes and mortality in older adults. It has been suggested that breaking up sedentary time may be beneficial for metabolic health; however, population prevalence data are lacking on the patterns of sedentary behaviour which would identify opportunities for intervention.MethodsWe used data of adults aged ≥ 60 years (n = 3705) from the population-based EPIC-Norfolk cohort, to characterize the patterns of total sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time and sedentary bouts across the day and assess their associations with participant characteristics, using multi-level regression. Sedentary time was measured objectively by a hip-mounted accelerometer (ActigraphTM GT1M) worn for 7 days during waking time.ResultsMore than 50% of every waking hour was spent sedentary, increasing to a peak of 83% in the evening. On average fewer breaks were accrued in the evenings compared with earlier in the day. Marginally more sedentary time was accrued on weekend days compared with weekdays (difference 7.4 min, 95% confidence interval 5.0–9.7). Large proportions of this sedentary time appear to be accrued in short bouts (bouts of < 10 min for 32% of the time). Older age, being male, being retired, not being in paid employment and having a higher body mass index were associated with greater sedentary time and fewer breaks.ConclusionSedentary time is common throughout the day but peaks in the evenings with fewer breaks and longer bouts. We identified a number of characteristics associated with sedentary time and additionally inversely associated with sedentary breaks, which should inform the development and targeting of strategies to reduce sedentary time among older adults.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Overlapping network meta-analyses on the same topic: survey of published
    • Authors: Naudet F; Schuit E, Ioannidis J.
      Abstract: BackgroundTo assess how common it is for a published network meta-analysis (NMA) to have other published overlapping NMAs, and to evaluate these overlaps.MethodsA total of 88 NMAs of randomized controlled trials evaluating the comparative effectiveness of health interventions were randomly selected. For each of these, we searched for NMAs on the same topic. A random sample of 40 pairs (an index NMA and one of its overlapping NMAs) was selected to assess the overlap in terms of nodes, treatments and references. The topic with the largest number of overlapping NMAs was described in depth.ResultsIn all, 68 of the 88 index NMAs had at least one overlapping NMA: 77% [95% confidence interval (CI), 69–86%]. We identified 515 pairs of overlapping NMAs. Among the 40 randomly selected pairs, 73% (95% CI, 58–88%) of nodes, 79% (95% CI, 72–86%) of treatments and 48% (95% CI, 37–59%) of references included in the index NMAs were also found in the respective overlapping NMAs. Efficacy of biologics in rheumatoid arthritis had the largest number of overlapping NMAs, with 28 NMAs published between 2003 and 2014. Differences in selection and definition of nodes of treatments resulted in different network geometries. There were also differences in both the direction and the statistical significance of effects.ConclusionsPublished NMAs exhibit extensive overlap and potential redundancy. Erratic retrieval of eligible trials, and lack of consensus on the range of interventions to be considered and how they might be merged or split in different nodes, may cause confusion.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Meta-analysis of occupational exposures in the rubber manufacturing
           industry and risk of cancer
    • Authors: Boniol M; Koechlin A, Boyle P.
      Abstract: BackgroundOccupational exposures in the rubber manufacturing industry showed an increased risk of cancer and have been classified as a group 1 carcinogen, largely from studies on workers employed before 1950s. Cancer sites considered as causally associated are bladder, lung and stomach, and leukaemia. Recent studies did not report an increased risk of cancer.MethodsA meta-analysis was conducted on observational studies published until April 2016 on occupational exposures in the rubber manufacturing industry and risk of cancer. Case-control and cohort studies were included. Random effect models were used. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated. Stratified analyses were conducted on study characteristics.ResultsThe literature search identified 46 cohorts and 59 case-control studies. An increased risk was found for bladder cancer [standardised incidence ratio (SRR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18, 1.57], leukaemia (SRR = 1.29; 95% CI 1.11, 1.52), lymphatic and haematopoietic system (SRR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.02, 1.31) and larynx cancer (SRR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.10, 1.94). For lung cancer, a borderline statistically significant increased risk was identified (SRR = 1.08; 95% CI 0.99, 1.17). No association was found for stomach cancer (SRR = 1.06; 95% CI 0.95, 1.17). In stratified analyses, risks of cancer were not increased for workers employed after 1960 for bladder cancer (SRR = 1.06; 95% CI 0.66, 1.71), lung cancer (SRR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.68, 1.29) or leukaemia (SRR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.62, 1.36).ConclusionsRisk of bladder cancer, lung cancer, leukaemia and larynx cancer were increased among workers in rubber industry. Evidence of elevated risks was no longer seen for bladder cancer, lung cancer or leukemia among workers first employed after 1960.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile: The PERU MIGRANT Study–A prospective cohort study of
           rural dwellers, urban dwellers and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru
    • Authors: Carrillo-Larco R; Ruiz-Alejos A, Bernabé-Ortiz A, et al.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Kenneth Warren and the Great Neglected Diseases of Mankind Programme
    • Authors: Nossal G.
      Abstract: WarrenKenneth and the Great Neglected Diseases of Mankind Programme: the Transformation of Geographical Medicine in the US and Beyond. Conrad Keating. Springer, 2017, ISBN 9783319501475
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • How much atopy is attributable to common childhood environmental
           exposures' A population-based birth cohort study followed to adulthood
    • Authors: Shin H; Lynch S, Gray A, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundThe rising prevalence of atopic diseases implies a strong influence of environmental determinants. Epidemiological studies have identified several early life exposures that appear to influence the risk of developing atopic sensitization, but the combined influence of these exposures is unknown. We sought to estimate the proportion of atopy that could be attributed to common childhood exposures associated with atopic sensitization in adolescence and young adulthood.MethodsAtopic sensitization was measured by skin-prick tests for common aeroallergens in a population-based New Zealand birth cohort at ages 13 and 32 years. The independent effects of previously identified risk and protective factors for atopic sensitization were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Population attributable fractions were calculated for atopic sensitization in childhood and adulthood.ResultsTobacco smoke exposure, dog and cat ownership, nail-biting and thumb-sucking, attending pre-school day care, and household crowding were associated with a lower risk of atopic sensitization whereas breastfeeding was associated with a higher risk. Population attributable fractions for combined effects of these environmental factors suggest that they may account for 58% of atopic sensitization at age 13 and 49% at age 32 years.ConclusionsA substantial proportion of atopic sensitization appears to be attributable to common childhood environmental and lifestyle factors, and the influence of these exposures persists into adulthood. The absolute risks attributable to these exposures will be different in other cohorts and we cannot assume that these associations are necessarily causal. Nevertheless, the findings suggest that identifiable childhood environmental factors contribute substantially to atopic sensitization.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Does low to moderate environmental exposure to noise and air pollution
           influence preterm delivery in medium-sized cities'
    • Authors: Barba-Vasseur M; Bernard N, Pujol S, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundPreterm birth (PB) is an important predictor of childhood morbidity and educational performance. Beyond the known risk factors, environmental factors, such as air pollution and noise, have been implicated in PB. In urban areas, these pollutants coexist. Very few studies have examined the effects of multi-exposure on the pregnancy duration. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between PB and environmental chronic multi-exposure to noise and air pollution in medium-sized cities.MethodsA case-control study was conducted among women living in the city of Besançon (121 671 inhabitants) or in the urban unit of Dijon (243 936 inhabitants) and who delivered in a university hospital between 2005 and 2009. Only singleton pregnancies without associated pathologies were considered. Four controls were matched to each case in terms of the mother’s age and delivery location. Residential noise and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposures were calculated at the mother’s address. Conditional logistic regression models were applied, and sensitivity analyses were performed.ResultsThis study included 302 cases and 1204 controls. The correlation between noise and NO2 indices ranged from 0.41 to 0.59. No significant differences were found in pollutant exposure levels between cases and controls. The adjusted odds ratios ranged between 0.96 and 1.08. Sensitivity analysis conducted using different temporal and spatial exposure windows demonstrated the same results.ConclusionsThe results are in favour of a lack of connection between preterm delivery and multi-exposure to noise and air pollution in medium-sized cities for pregnant women without underlying disease.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Robust inference in summary data Mendelian randomization via the zero
           modal pleiotropy assumption
    • Authors: Hartwig F; Davey Smith G, Bowden J.
      Abstract: BackgroundMendelian randomization (MR) is being increasingly used to strengthen causal inference in observational studies. Availability of summary data of genetic associations for a variety of phenotypes from large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) allows straightforward application of MR using summary data methods, typically in a two-sample design. In addition to the conventional inverse variance weighting (IVW) method, recently developed summary data MR methods, such as the MR-Egger and weighted median approaches, allow a relaxation of the instrumental variable assumptions.MethodsHere, a new method - the mode-based estimate (MBE) - is proposed to obtain a single causal effect estimate from multiple genetic instruments. The MBE is consistent when the largest number of similar (identical in infinite samples) individual-instrument causal effect estimates comes from valid instruments, even if the majority of instruments are invalid. We evaluate the performance of the method in simulations designed to mimic the two-sample summary data setting, and demonstrate its use by investigating the causal effect of plasma lipid fractions and urate levels on coronary heart disease risk.ResultsThe MBE presented less bias and lower type-I error rates than other methods under the null in many situations. Its power to detect a causal effect was smaller compared with the IVW and weighted median methods, but was larger than that of MR-Egger regression, with sample size requirements typically smaller than those available from GWAS consortia.ConclusionsThe MBE relaxes the instrumental variable assumptions, and should be used in combination with other approaches in sensitivity analyses.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile Update: The Doetinchem Cohort Study 1987–2017: lifestyle,
           health and chronic diseases in a life course and ageing perspective
    • Authors: Picavet H; Blokstra A, Spijkerman A, et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Using genetics to explore whether the cholesterol-lowering drug ezetimibe
           may cause an increased risk of cancer
    • Authors: Kobberø Lauridsen B; Stender S, Frikke-Schmidt R, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundResults from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have raised concern that the cholesterol-lowering drug ezetimibe might increase the risk of cancer. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in NPC1L1, mimicking treatment with ezetimibe, was associated with an increased risk of cancer.MethodsWe included 67 257 individuals from the general population. Of these, 8333 developed cancer and 2057 died of cancer from 1968 to 2011. To mimic the effect of ezetimibe, we calculated weighted allele scores based on the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol-lowering(= NPC1L1-inhibitory) effect of each variant. We tested the associations of the NPC1L1 allele scores with LDL cholesterol and with risk of any cancer, death from any cancer and 27 site-specific cancers. As a positive control, we tested the association of the NPC1L1 allele scores with risk of ischaemic vascular disease (IVD).ResultsThe NPC1L1 allele scores did not associate with risk of any cancer, death from any cancer or with any of 27 site-specific cancers. Hazard ratios (HRs) for a 1-unit increase in internally weighted allele scores were 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.98–1.02) for any cancer, and 1.02 (0.98–1.06) for cancer death. The corresponding HR for IVD was 0.97 (0.94–0.99). Results were similar for an externally weighted allele score and for a simple allele count. Finally, the null association with cancer was robust in sensitivity analyses.ConclusionsLifelong, genetic inhibition of NPC1L1, mimicking treatment with ezetimibe, does not associate with risk of cancer. These results suggest that long-term treatment with ezetimibe is unlikely to increase the risk of cancer, in agreement with the overall evidence from ezetimibe RCTs.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • A small amount of precisely measured high-intensity habitual physical
           activity predicts bone health in pre- and post-menopausal women in UK
    • Authors: Stiles V; Metcalf B, Knapp K, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundPhysical inactivity is a highly modifiable risk factor for the development of osteoporosis but, due to a lack of research that has precisely and objectively meaured physical activity (PA) relevant to bone, the specific contribution that PA can make to bone health is poorly understood. This study examined whether a more precise measure of PA relelvant to bone was associated with meaures of bone health in pre- and post-menopausal women in UK Biobank.MethodsTime spent at intensities specific to bone health [≥750 milli-gravitational units (mg) and ≥1000 mg] were analysed from raw tri-axial acceleration data averaged over 1-second epochs from 7-day monitoring of habitual PA using accelerometry-based activity monitors (100 Hz; AX3, Axivity, UK) of 1218 pre- and 1316 post-menopausal healthy women. In a cross-sectional analysis, associations between categories of time (<1, 1–2 and ≥2 minutes) spent above the intensity thresholds and calcaneal quantitative ultrasound measures of bone health (bone mineral density T-score, BMDT-score; speed of sound, SOS; and broadband ultrasound attenuation, BUA) were examined.ResultsCompared with <1 minute, spending 1–2 or ≥2 minutes/day at intensities ≥1000 mg in pre-menopausal and ≥750 mg in post-menopausal women was positively associated with BMDT-score, SOS and BUA.ConclusionBrief bursts of high-intensity PA relevant to bone health can be captured by applying bone-specific thresholds of intensity to raw tri-axial accelerations averaged over 1-second epochs. Accumulating 1–2 minutes/day of high-intensity PA, equivalent to running in pre-menopausal women and slow jogging in post-menopausal women, is associated with better bone health.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Physical activity phenotyping with activity bigrams, and their association
           with BMI
    • Authors: Millard L; Tilling K, Lawlor D, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundAnalysis of physical activity usually focuses on a small number of summary statistics derived from accelerometer recordings: average counts per minute and the proportion of time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity or in sedentary behaviour. We show how bigrams, a concept from the field of text mining, can be used to describe how a person’s activity levels change across (brief) time points. These variables can, for instance, differentiate between two people spending the same time in moderate activity, where one person often stays in moderate activity from one moment to the next and the other does not.MethodsWe use data on 4810 participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We generate a profile of bigram frequencies for each participant and test the association of each frequency with body mass index (BMI), as an exemplar.ResultsWe found several associations between changes in bigram frequencies and BMI. For instance, a one standard deviation decrease in the number of adjacent minutes in sedentary then moderate activity (or vice versa), with a corresponding increase in the number of adjacent minutes in moderate then vigorous activity (or vice versa), was associated with a 2.36 kg/m2 lower BMI [95% confidence interval (CI): −3.47, −1.26], after accounting for the time spent in sedentary, low, moderate and vigorous activity.ConclusionsActivity bigrams are novel variables that capture how a person’s activity changes from one moment to the next. These variables can be used to investigate how sequential activity patterns associate with other traits.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • A contemporary picture of the burden of death and disability in Indian
           adolescents: data from the Global Burden of Disease Study
    • Authors: Joshi R; Alim M, Maulik P, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundAdolescents (10–19 years old) comprise a fifth of the Indian population (253.2 million), yet there is very little published information about the burden of disease and injury for this age group. This paper aims to provide a contemporary picture of the leading causes of death and disability for Indian adolescent girls and boys for 2013, and changes in deaths and disability between 1990 and 2013.MethodsData from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study for India, for the years 1990 and 2013, were accessed. Data were categorized into two age groups: 10 to 14 years (younger adolescents) and 15 to 19 years (older adolescents) and analysed separately for girls and boys.ResultsThe study shows that for both younger and older adolescent boys and for older adolescent girls, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and injuries are responsible for a greater number of deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) than communicable diseases. Communicable diseases are still important causes of death and disability for young adolescents. Among older adolescents there is an increasing burden of death and disability due to self-harm, road traffic injuries, fire- and heat-related injuries and mental disorders such as depressive disorders.ConclusionsAlthough strategies to reduce the burden of communicable diseases among adolescents must continue to be an important focus, innovative, evidence-based strategies aimed at reducing the growing burden of NCDs and injuries must be elevated as a priority.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • The effectiveness of varenicline versus nicotine replacement therapy on
           long-term smoking cessation in primary care: a prospective cohort study of
           electronic medical records
    • Authors: Taylor G; Taylor A, Thomas K, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundThere is limited evidence about the effectiveness of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for long-term smoking cessation in primary care, or whether the treatment effectiveness differs by socioeconomic position (SEP). Therefore, we estimated the long-term effectiveness of varenicline versus NRT (> 2 years) on smoking cessation, and investigated whether effectiveness differs by SEP.MethodsThis is a prospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 654 general practices in England, within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, using three different analytical methods: multivariable logistic regression, propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses. Exposure was prescription of varenicline versus NRT, and the primary outcome was smoking cessation at 2 years’ follow-up; outcome was also assessed at 3, 6, and 9 months, and at 1 and 4 years after exposure. SEP was defined using the Index of Multiple Deprivation.ResultsAt 2 years, 28.8% (N = 20 362/70 610) of participants prescribed varenicline and 24.3% (N = 36 268/149 526) of those prescribed NRT quit; adjusted odds ratio was 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23 to 1.29], P < 0.0001. The association persisted for up to 4 years and was consistent across all analyses. We found little evidence that the effectiveness of varenicline differed greatly by SEP. However, patients from areas of higher deprivation were less likely to be prescribed varenicline; adjusted odds ratio was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.90 to 0.92), P < 0.0001.ConclusionsPatients prescribed varenicline were more likely to be abstinent up to 4 years after first prescription than those prescribed NRT. In combination with other evidence, the results from this study may be used to update clinical guidelines on the use of varenicline for smoking cessation.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile: The ‘Bristol Cats Study’ (BCS)–a birth cohort of
           kittens owned by UK households
    • Authors: Murray J; Casey R, Gale E, et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile: The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (Health 2020)
    • Authors: Milne R; Fletcher A, MacInnis R, et al.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile: The Well-being in HospitAL Employees (WHALE) study
    • Authors: Hvidtfeldt U; Bjorner J, Jensen J, et al.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile: The Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Surveys FMC, FMCF and MFS
    • Authors: Knekt P; Rissanen H, Järvinen R, et al.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile: The Madagascar Health and Environmental Research (MAHERY)
           study in north-eastern Madagascar
    • Authors: Golden C; Anjaranirina E, Fernald L, et al.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Focus on an unusual rise in pancreatic cancer incidence in France
    • Authors: Bouvier A; Uhry Z, Jooste V, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundPancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal. Most countries have exhibited a stable or decreasing incidence over time. The aim of this study was to provide updated French temporal trends in pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality over the past three decades.MethodsIncidence was estimated using the French National Network of Cancer Registries (FRANCIM) and mortality using the French Mortality Statistics Office. World age-standardized incidence and mortality were modelled by age-period-cohort models. The net cumulative risk of developing pancreatic cancer by birth cohort was calculated, as were annual percentage changes (APCs) in incidence and mortality.ResultsBetween 1982 and 2012, age-standardized incidence increased from 4.8 in 1980 to 9.6 per 100 000 in men and from 2.3 to 6.8 in women. The mean APC was 2.3% (2.1–2.6) and 3.6% (3.3–3.9), respectively. The cumulative risk of developing pancreatic cancer before age 75 rose from 0.62% for males born around 1920 to 1.17% for those born around 1950. It was respectively 0.31% and 0.86% for women. Mortality did not vary in men (8.1 per 100 000). It slightly increased in women from 4.0 in 1982 to 5.4 in 2012.ConclusionPancreatic cancer incidence and mortality exhibited diverging trends. Incidence increased over the last 30 years in France whereas mortality did not vary in men and moderately increased in women. Incidence remained lower than mortality up to 2002. One cannot exclude the possibility that a similar trend may appear in other countries. Etiological studies are required to further explain this increase.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Genetically low vitamin D concentrations and myopic refractive error: a
           Mendelian randomization study
    • Authors: Cuellar-Partida G; Williams K, Yazar S, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundMyopia prevalence has increased in the past 20 years, with many studies linking the increase to reduced time spent outdoors. A number of recent observational studies have shown an inverse association between vitamin D [25(OH)D] serum levels and myopia. However, in such studies it is difficult to separate the effects of time outdoors and vitamin D levels. In this work we use Mendelian randomization (MR) to assess if genetically determined 25(OH)D levels contribute to the degree of myopia.MethodsWe performed MR using results from a meta-analysis of refractive error (RE) genome-wide association study (GWAS) that included 37 382 and 8 376 adult participants of European and Asian ancestry, respectively, published by the Consortium for Refractive Error And Myopia (CREAM). We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DHCR7, CYP2R1, GC and CYP24A1 genes with known effects on 25(OH)D concentration as instrumental variables (IV). We estimated the effect of 25(OH)D on myopia level using a Wald-type ratio estimator based on the effect estimates from the CREAM GWAS.ResultsUsing the combined effect attributed to the four SNPs, the estimate for the effect of 25(OH)D on refractive error was −0.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.09, 0.04] dioptres (D) per 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D concentration in Caucasians and 0.01 (95% CI −0.17, 0.19) D per 10 nmol/l increase in Asians.ConclusionsThe tight confidence intervals on our estimates suggest the true contribution of vitamin D levels to degree of myopia is very small and indistinguishable from zero. Previous findings from observational studies linking vitamin D levels to myopia were likely attributable to the effects of confounding by time spent outdoors.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Oral health and mortality in the Golestan Cohort Study
    • Authors: Vogtmann E; Etemadi A, Kamangar F, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundPrevious studies have found associations between oral health and mortality, but the majority of previous studies have been conducted in high-income countries.MethodsWe used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, a study of 50 045 people aged 40 to 75 years in north eastern Iran, recruited from January 2004 to June 2008. Tooth loss and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) were assessed by trained physicians. Frequency of tooth brushing and use of dentures were self-reported. Cause-specific mortality was ascertained through March 2014. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the associations between the oral health variables, overall mortality and cause-specific mortality.ResultsParticipants with the greatest tooth loss had increased overall mortality (HR 1.43; 95% CI: 1.28, 1.61) compared with those with the least tooth loss; similar estimates were observed for DMFT score. For cause-specific mortality, an increased risk of death was found for tooth loss and mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.56), cancer (HR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.65) and injuries (HR 1.99; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.09). The associations between oral health and injury mortality were strongly attenuated after exclusion of participants with comorbid conditions at baseline. No statistical interaction was found between denture use and tooth loss or DMFT on mortality.ConclusionsPoor oral health appears to predict overall and cause-specific mortality in populations in economic transition. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms might provide an important contribution to reducing mortality.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile: The 1895, 1905, 1910 and 1915 Danish Birth Cohort Studies
           - secular trends in the health and functioning of the very old
    • Authors: Rasmussen S; Andersen-Ranberg K, Thinggaard M, et al.
      PubDate: Sat, 22 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile: African Collaborative Center for Microbiome and Genomics
           Research’s (ACCME's) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Cervical Cancer
    • Authors: Adebamowo S; Dareng E, Famooto A, et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • MendelianRandomization: an R package for performing Mendelian
           randomization analyses using summarized data
    • Authors: Yavorska O; Burgess S.
      Abstract: MendelianRandomization is a software package for the R open-source software environment that performs Mendelian randomization analyses using summarized data. The core functionality is to implement the inverse-variance weighted, MR-Egger and weighted median methods for multiple genetic variants. Several options are available to the user, such as the use of robust regression, fixed- or random-effects models and the penalization of weights for genetic variants with heterogeneous causal estimates. Extensions to these methods, such as allowing for variants to be correlated, can be chosen if appropriate. Graphical commands allow summarized data to be displayed in an interactive graph, or the plotting of causal estimates from multiple methods, for comparison. Although the main method of data entry is directly by the user, there is also an option for allowing summarized data to be incorporated from the PhenoScanner database of genotype—phenotype associations. We hope to develop this feature in future versions of the package. The R software environment is available for download from []. The MendelianRandomization package can be downloaded from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) within R, or directly from []. Both R and the MendelianRandomization package are released under GNU General Public Licenses (GPL-2 GPL-3).
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • How to compare instrumental variable and conventional regression analyses
           using negative controls and bias plots
    • Authors: Davies N; Thomas K, Taylor A, et al.
      Abstract: There is increasing interest in the use of instrumental variable analysis to overcome unmeasured confounding in observational pharmacoepidemiological studies. This is partly because instrumental variable analyses are potentially less biased than conventional regression analyses. However, instrumental variable analyses are less precise, and regulators and clinicians find it difficult to interpret conflicting evidence from instrumental variable compared with conventional regression analyses. In this paper, we describe three techniques to assess which approach (instrumental variable versus conventional regression analyses) is least biased. These techniques are negative control outcomes, negative control populations and tests of covariate balance. We illustrate these methods using an analysis of the effects of smoking cessation therapies (varenicline) prescribed in primary care.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Obesity-induced hypoadiponectinaemia: the opposite influences of central
           and peripheral fat compartments
    • Authors: Borges M; Oliveira I, Freitas D, et al.
      Abstract: Background and AimsThe substantial reduction in adiponectin concentration among obese individuals seems to depend on fat distribution and is a marker of metabolic and adipose tissue dysfunction. We aimed to: (i) address whether abdominal fat from different compartments (visceral, deep subcutaneous abdominal and superficial subcutaneous abdominal) and gluteofemoral fat are independently associated with blood adiponectin concentration; and (ii) investigate whether abdominal (proxied by waist circumference) and gluteofemoral fat (proxied by hip circumference) accumulation causally determine blood adiponectin concentration.MethodsTo investigate the independent association of abdominal and gluteofemoral fat with adiponectin concentration, we used multivariable regression and data from 30-year-old adults from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort (n = 2,743). To assess the causal role of abdominal and gluteofemoral fat accumulation on adiponectin concentration, we used Mendelian randomization and data from two consortia of genome-wide association studies—the GIANT (n > 210 000) and ADIPOGen consortia (n = 29 347).ResultsIn the multivariable regression analysis, all abdominal fat depots were negatively associated with adiponectin concentration, specially visceral abdominal fat [men: β = −0.24 standard unit of log adiponectin per standard unit increase in abdominal fat; 95% confidence interval (CI) = −0.31, −0.18; P = 8*10−13; women: β = −0.31; 95% CI = −0.36, −0.25; P = 7*10−27), whereas gluteofemoral fat was positively associated with adiponectin concentration (men: β = 0.13 standard unit of log adiponectin per standard unit increase in gluteofemoral fat; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.22; P = 0.008; women: β = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.17, 0.31; P = 7*10−11). In the Mendelian randomization analysis, genetically-predicted waist circumference was inversely related to blood adiponectin concentration (β = −0.27 standard unit of log adiponectin per standard unit increase in waist circumference; 95% CI = −0.36, -0.19; P = 2*10−11), whereas genetically-predicted hip circumference was positively associated with blood adiponectin concentration (β = 0.17 standard unit of log adiponectin per standard unit increase in hip circumference; 95% CI = 0.11, 0.24; P = 1*10−7).ConclusionsThese results support the hypotheses that there is a complex interplay between body fat distribution and circulating adiponectin concentration, and that whereas obesity-induced hypoadiponectinaemia seems to be primarily attributed to abdominal fat accumulation, gluteofemoral fat accumulation is likely to exert a protective effect.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Integration of water, sanitation and hygiene intervention delivery at
           health facilities with a reactive ring vaccination programme to reduce
    • Authors: George C; Sack D.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile: The Taiwan MJ Cohort: half a million Chinese with repeated
           health surveillance data
    • Authors: Wu X; Tsai S, Tsao C, et al.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile: The Karolinska Mammography Project for Risk Prediction of
           Breast Cancer (KARMA)
    • Authors: Gabrielson M; Eriksson M, Hammarström M, et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cohort Profile: The INTERGENE Study
    • Authors: Mehlig K; Berg C, Björck L, et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
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