Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 412 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 412 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 220, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 232, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 402, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 623, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insect Systematics and Diversity     Hybrid Journal  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 296, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Epidemiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.969
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 296  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0300-5771 - ISSN (Online) 1464-3685
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [412 journals]
  • The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and
           biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned'
    • Authors: Peeri N; Shrestha N, Rahman M, et al.
      Pages: 717 - 726
      Abstract: AbstractObjectivesTo provide an overview of the three major deadly coronaviruses and identify areas for improvement of future preparedness plans, as well as provide a critical assessment of the risk factors and actionable items for stopping their spread, utilizing lessons learned from the first two deadly coronavirus outbreaks, as well as initial reports from the current novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic in Wuhan, China.MethodsUtilizing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, USA) website, and a comprehensive review of PubMed literature, we obtained information regarding clinical signs and symptoms, treatment and diagnosis, transmission methods, protection methods and risk factors for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. Comparisons between the viruses were made.ResultsInadequate risk assessment regarding the urgency of the situation, and limited reporting on the virus within China has, in part, led to the rapid spread of COVID-19 throughout mainland China and into proximal and distant countries. Compared with SARS and MERS, COVID-19 has spread more rapidly, due in part to increased globalization and the focus of the epidemic. Wuhan, China is a large hub connecting the North, South, East and West of China via railways and a major international airport. The availability of connecting flights, the timing of the outbreak during the Chinese (Lunar) New Year, and the massive rail transit hub located in Wuhan has enabled the virus to perforate throughout China, and eventually, globally.ConclusionsWe conclude that we did not learn from the two prior epidemics of coronavirus and were ill-prepared to deal with the challenges the COVID-19 epidemic has posed. Future research should attempt to address the uses and implications of internet of things (IoT) technologies for mapping the spread of infection.
      PubDate: Sat, 22 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa033
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Commentary: SARS, MERS and COVID-19—new threats; old lessons
    • Authors: Gilbert G.
      Pages: 726 - 728
      Abstract: Contrary to the widespread optimism of the mid-20th century, infectious diseases will never be relegated to history by antimicrobials and vaccines. ‘New’ human pathogens have emerged at intervals throughout human history but, until recently, emerging infectious diseases often remained unrecognized, and their causes unknown, long after they had become widespread. Now, scientists can often characterize emergent pathogens with astonishing speed, using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics. In December 2019, in Wuhan, China, only a few days elapsed between collection of respiratory specimens from patients with viral pneumonia of unknown aetiology and the publication of the genome of the novel beta-coronavirus (now called SARS-CoV-2) that caused it.1 This led to rapid development of a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and implementation of targeted containment measures. One might expect these technological advances, along with lessons from two previous novel coronavirus disease outbreaks—severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), in 2012—to contribute to rapid control of the latest one, COVID-19. But, as Peeri et al.2 note in this issue, although there are similarities between SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, there are key differences between the corresponding diseases, the global milieux into which they have emerged and international responses, that limit the relevance of lessons from previous outbreaks.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa061
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Commentary: A One Health approach to coronaviruses
    • Authors: Kahn L.
      Pages: 728 - 730
      Abstract: Peeri et al.1 have provided a comprehensive overview, comparing the epidemiological characteristics of and public health responses to three coronaviruses: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and now SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which have emerged from animals into humans over the past 18 years. All three have been identified as betacoronaviruses. One Health is the concept that human, animal and environmental health are linked. It provides a useful framework for examining and dealing with emerging zoonotic diseases such as coronaviruses. In 2005, Lau et al.2 identified a coronavirus in non-caged Chinese horseshoe bats, which was closely related to the SARS-CoV isolated from civet cats and humans. Two years later, Cheng et al.3 concluded that the presence of a large reservoir of SARS-CoV-like viruses in horseshoe bats, together with the culture of eating exotic mammals in southern China, is a time bomb. Surveillance of wild animals such as bats provides important information about potential zoonotic disease threats. Integrating scientific findings into effective public policies to prevent zoonotic spillover events remains aspirational, as the current COVID-19 pandemic illustrates.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa071
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Determinants of the population health distribution: an illustration
           examining body mass index
    • Authors: Bann D; Fitzsimons E, Johnson W.
      Pages: 731 - 737
      Abstract: AbstractMost epidemiological studies examine how risk factors relate to average difference in outcomes (linear regression) or odds of a binary outcome (logistic regression); they do not explicitly examine whether risk factors are associated differentially across the distribution of the health outcome investigated. This paper documents a phenomenon found repeatedly in the minority of epidemiological studies which do this (via quantile regression): associations between a range of established risk factors and body mass index (BMI) are progressively stronger in the upper ends of the BMI distribution. In this paper, we document this finding and provide illustrative evidence of it in the 1958 British birth cohort study. Associations of low childhood socio-economic position, high maternal weight, low childhood general cognition and adult physical inactivity with higher BMI are larger at the upper end of the BMI distribution, on both absolute and relative scales. For example, effect estimates for socio-economic position and childhood cognition were around three times larger at the 90th compared with 10th quantile, while effect estimates for physical inactivity were increasingly larger from the 50th to 90th quantiles, yet null at lower quantiles. We provide potential explanations for these findings and discuss implications. Risk factors may have larger causal effects among those in worse health, and these effects may not be discovered when health is only examined in average terms. In such scenarios, population-based approaches to intervention may have larger benefits than anticipated when assuming equivalent benefit across the population. Further research is needed to understand why effect estimates differ across the BMI outcome distribution and to investigate whether differential effects exist for other physical and mental health outcomes.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz245
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Data Resource Profile: Regional healthcare information platform in
           Halland, Sweden
    • Authors: Ashfaq A; Lönn S, Nilsson H, et al.
      Pages: 738 - 739f
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz262
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Data Resource Profile: The Valencia Health System Integrated Database
           (VID)
    • Authors: García-Sempere A; Orrico-Sánchez A, Muñoz-Quiles C, et al.
      Pages: 740 - 741e
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz266
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Data Resource Profile: The Philippine National Nutrition Survey (NNS)
    • Authors: Patalen C; Ikeda N, Angeles-Agdeppa I, et al.
      Pages: 742 - 743f
      PubDate: Fri, 15 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa045
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • GLU: a software package for analysing continuously measured glucose levels
           in epidemiology
    • Authors: Millard L; Patel N, Tilling K, et al.
      Pages: 744 - 757
      Abstract: AbstractContinuous glucose monitors (CGM) record interstitial glucose levels ‘continuously’, producing a sequence of measurements for each participant (e.g. the average glucose level every 5 min over several days, both day and night). To analyse these data, researchers tend to derive summary variables such as the area under the curve (AUC), to then use in subsequent analyses. To date, a lack of consistency and transparency of precise definitions used for these summary variables has hindered interpretation, replication and comparison of results across studies. We present GLU, an open-source software package for deriving a consistent set of summary variables from CGM data. GLU performs quality control of each CGM sample (e.g. addressing missing data), derives a diverse set of summary variables (e.g. AUC and proportion of time spent in hypo-, normo- and hyper- glycaemic levels) covering six broad domains, and outputs these (with quality control information) to the user. GLU is implemented in R and is available on GitHub at https://github.com/MRCIEU/GLU. Git tag v0.2 corresponds to the version presented here.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa004
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Cohort Profile: The Maule Cohort (MAUCO)
    • Authors: Ferreccio C; Huidobro A, Cortés S, et al.
      Pages: 760 - 761i
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa003
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Cohort Profile: The Finnish Gestational Diabetes (FinnGeDi) Study
    • Authors: Keikkala E; Mustaniemi S, Koivunen S, et al.
      Pages: 762 - 763g
      PubDate: Wed, 06 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa039
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Estimating the relative probability of direct transmission between
           infectious disease patients
    • Authors: Leavitt S; Lee R, Sebastiani P, et al.
      Pages: 764 - 775
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundEstimating infectious disease parameters such as the serial interval (time between symptom onset in primary and secondary cases) and reproductive number (average number of secondary cases produced by a primary case) are important in understanding infectious disease dynamics. Many estimation methods require linking cases by direct transmission, a difficult task for most diseases.MethodsUsing a subset of cases with detailed genetic and/or contact investigation data to develop a training set of probable transmission events, we build a model to estimate the relative transmission probability for all case-pairs from demographic, spatial and clinical data. Our method is based on naive Bayes, a machine learning classification algorithm which uses the observed frequencies in the training dataset to estimate the probability that a pair is linked given a set of covariates.ResultsIn simulations, we find that the probabilities estimated using genetic distance between cases to define training transmission events are able to distinguish between truly linked and unlinked pairs with high accuracy (area under the receiver operating curve value of 95%). Additionally, only a subset of the cases, 10–50% depending on sample size, need to have detailed genetic data for our method to perform well. We show how these probabilities can be used to estimate the average effective reproductive number and apply our method to a tuberculosis outbreak in Hamburg, Germany.ConclusionsOur method is a novel way to infer transmission dynamics in any dataset when only a subset of cases has rich contact investigation and/or genetic data.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa031
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Long-term risk of tuberculosis among migrants according to migrant status:
           a cohort study
    • Authors: Kristensen K; Ravn P, Petersen J, et al.
      Pages: 776 - 785
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in low-incidence countries occur in migrants. Only few studies have assessed the long-term TB risk in migrants after immigration, and datasets have not considered this across a range of diverse migrant groups. This nationwide study aimed to investigate long-term TB risk among migrants according to migrant status and region of origin.MethodsThis cohort study included all migrants aged  ≥ 18 years who obtained residence in Denmark from 1993 to 2015, with a mean follow-up of 10.8 years [standard deviation (SD) 7.3]. Migrants were categorized based on legal status of residence and region of origin. Incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) were estimated by Poisson regression.ResultsA total of 142 314 migrants were included. Across all migrants, the TB risk was highest during year 1 of residence (IR 275/100 000 person-years; 95% CI 249–305) followed by a gradual decline, though TB risk remained high for over a decade. Compared with the Danish-born population, the IRRs after 7–8 years were particularly higher among former asylum seekers (IRR 31; 95% CI 20–46), quota refugees (IRR 31; 95% CI 16–71), and family-reunified with refugees (IRR 22; 95% CI 12–44). Sub-Saharan African migrants also experienced elevated risk (IRR 75; 95% CI 51–109). The proportion of migrants with pulmonary TB was 52.4%.ConclusionAll migrant groups experienced an initial high TB risk, but long-term risk remained high in key migrant groups. Most European countries focus TB screening on or soon after arrival. Our study suggests that approaches to TB screening should be adapted, with migrant populations benefiting from long-term access to preventive health services.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa063
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Human papillomavirus infection associated with increased risk of new-onset
           psoriasis: a nationwide population-based cohort study
    • Authors: Chen M; Kao W, Huang J, et al.
      Pages: 786 - 797
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThis study investigated whether patients with a history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are at increased risk of developing psoriasis.MethodsWe enrolled 66 274 patients with HPV infection between 1997 and 2013 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, and compared them with control individuals who had never been diagnosed with HPV infection (at a 1:4 ratio matched by age, sex and index year) in relation to the risk of developing psoriasis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with the control group as reference.ResultsThe adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) was 1.177 (95% CI, 1.010–1.373) after adjusting for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, dermatology-related outpatient visits and medications. The HPV group had an increased risk of psoriasis compared with the control group in all of the different age groups. The P-value for interaction between age and exposure of HPV is 0.009 in our sub-group analysis.ConclusionsA higher risk of psoriasis was found after HPV infection, and age acted as an effect modifier between the HPV infection and risk of psoriasis.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa027
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Characterizing the historical role of parenteral antischistosomal therapy
           in hepatitis C virus transmission in Egypt
    • Authors: Ayoub H; Chemaitelly H, Kouyoumjian S, et al.
      Pages: 798 - 809
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundEgypt is the nation most affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, following an epidemic of historic proportions. We aimed to characterize the epidemic’s historical evolution and to delineate the role of parenteral antischistosomal therapy (PAT) campaigns in transmission.MethodsA mathematical model was constructed and analysed in order to understand HCV-transmission dynamics. The model was fitted to Egypt’s Demographic and Health Survey data and to a systematic database of HCV-prevalence data.ResultsThe incidence rate peaked in 1966 at 15.7 infections per 1000 person-years—a period of time that coincides with the PAT campaigns—and rapidly declined thereafter, beginning the mid-1990s. The annual number of new infections peaked in 1993 at 581 200 (with rapid demographic growth), leading to a high-incidence-cohort effect, and declined to 67 800 by 2018. The number of individuals ever infected (1950–2018) was 16.4 million, with HCV prevalence peaking in 1979. The number of individuals ever exposed to PAT was 8.3 million; however, of these individuals, 7.3 million were alive in 1980 and only 3.5 million alive in 2018. The number of individuals ever infected due to PAT exposure was 963 900, with 850 200 individuals alive in 1980 and only 389 800 alive in 2018. The proportion of PAT-attributed prevalent infections peaked at 19.9% in 1972, declining to 5.5% by 2018.ConclusionsPAT campaigns played an important role in HCV transmission, yet explain only 6% of infections—they appear to be a manifestation, rather than a cause, of the epidemic. A possible driver of the epidemic could be the mass expansion of inadequate-quality healthcare during PAT campaigns and subsequent decades. Despite a historic toll, the epidemic has been rapidly diminishing since the mid-1990s.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa052
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Has the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity levelled off
           in the United States' Trends, patterns, disparities, and future
           projections for the obesity epidemic
    • Authors: Wang Y; Beydoun M, Min J, et al.
      Pages: 810 - 823
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundObesity (OB) is a serious epidemic in the United States.MethodsWe examined OB patterns and time trends across socio-economic and geographic parameters and projected the future situation. Large national databases were used. Overweight (OW), OB and severe obesity (SOB) were defined using body mass index cut-points/percentiles; central obesity (CO), waist circumference cut-point in adults and waist:height ratio cutoff in youth. Various meta-regression analysis models were fit for projection analyses.ResultsOB prevalence had consistently risen since 1999 and considerable differences existed across groups and regions. Among adults, men’s OB (33.7%) and OW (71.6%) levelled off in 2009–2012, resuming the increase to 38.0 and 74.7% in 2015–2016, respectively. Women showed an uninterrupted increase in OB/OW prevalence since 1999, reaching 41.5% (OB) and 68.9% (OW) in 2015–2016. SOB levelled off in 2013–2016 (men: 5.5–5.6%; women: 9.7–9.5%), after annual increases of 0.2% between 1999 and 2012. Non-Hispanic Blacks had the highest prevalence in women’s OB/SOB and men’s SOB. OB prevalence in boys rose continuously to 20.6% and SOB to 7.5% in 2015–2016, but not in girls. By 2030, most Americans will be OB/OW and nearly 50% of adults OB, whereas ∼33% of children aged 6–11 and ∼50% of adolescents aged 12–19 will be OB/OW. Since 1999, CO has risen steadily, and by 2030 is projected to reach 55.6% in men, 80.0% in women, 47.6% among girls and 38.9% among boys. Regional differences exist in adult OB prevalence (2011–2016) and across ethnicities; South (32.0%) and Midwest (31.4%) had the highest rates.ConclusionsUS obesity prevalence has been rising, despite a temporary pause in 2009–2012. Wide disparities across groups and geographical regions persist. Effective, sustainable, culturally-tailored interventions are needed.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz273
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Childhood overweight and obesity and timing of puberty in boys and girls:
           cohort and sibling-matched analyses
    • Authors: Brix N; Ernst A, Lauridsen L, et al.
      Pages: 834 - 844
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundEarly puberty is a risk indicator for adult diseases. Identification of modifiable causes of earlier puberty is, therefore, warranted. We estimate the association between childhood body mass index (BMI) and pubertal timing in a cohort study and in a sibling-matched study to adjust for unobserved time-stable confounders shared within families.MethodsFor the cohort study, 11 046 of 22 439 (49%) invited children, born 2000–203, from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) had information on childhood BMI at 7 years and self-reported, half-yearly puberty information from 11 years on Tanner stages, menarche, voice break, first ejaculation, acne, and axillary hair. For the sibling-matched study, 1700 brothers and sisters were included among 86 820 live-born singletons from the DNBC.ResultsChildhood overweight (85th ≤ BMI < 95th percentile) and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) were associated with earlier age attaining the pubertal milestones in a dose-dependent manner in boys and girls. When modelling all pubertal milestones simultaneously, the pubertal milestones were attained earlier in: overweight boys: −3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): −4.5, −1.7] months, overweight girls: −5.5 (95% CI: −7.1, −3.9) months, obese boys: −3.5 (95% CI: −5.1, −2.0) months, obese girls: −5.2 (95% CI: −7.1, −3.4) months compared with normal weight (BMI  < 85th percentile) children. In the sibling-matched study, higher BMI was associated with earlier age at attaining most pubertal milestones in girls, but only a tendency toward earlier pubertal timing was observed in boys.ConclusionsChildhood overweight and obesity were associated with earlier pubertal timing even after adjustment for unobserved time-stable confounders shared within families.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa056
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Adult obesity and mid-life physical functioning in two British birth
           cohorts: investigating the mediating role of physical inactivity
    • Authors: Pinto Pereira S; De Stavola B, Rogers N, et al.
      Pages: 845 - 856
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundAssociations between obesity and physical inactivity are bi-directional. Both are associated with physical functioning (PF, ability to perform physical tasks of daily living) but whether obesity influences PF via inactivity is unknown. We investigated whether mid-adult obesity trajectories were associated with subsequent PF and mediated by inactivity.MethodsBody mass index (BMI; kg/m²) and inactivity were recorded at: 36, 43, 53 and 60–64 years in the 1946 Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (1946-NSHD; n = 2427), and at 33, 42 and 50 years in the 1958 National Child Development Study (1958-NCDS; n = 8674). Poor PF was defined as the lowest (gender and cohort-specific) 10% on the Short-form 36 Physical Component Summary subscale at 60–64 years (1946-NSHD) and 50 years (1958-NCDS). Estimated randomized-interventional-analogue natural direct (rNDE) and indirect (rNIE) effects of obesity trajectories on PF via inactivity are expressed as risk ratios [overall total effect (rTE) is rNDE multiplied by rNIE].ResultsIn both cohorts, most individuals (∼68%) were never obese in adulthood, 16–30% became obese and ≤11% were always obese. In 1946-NSHD, rTE of incident obesity at 43 years (vs never) on poor PF was 2.32 (1.13, 3.51); at 53 years it was 1.53 (0.91, 2.15). rNIEs via inactivity were 1.02 (0.97, 1.07) and 1.02 (0.99, 1.04), respectively. Estimated rTE of persistent obesity from 36 years was 2.91 (1.14, 4.69), with rNIE of 1.03 (0.96, 1.10). In 1958-NCDS, patterns of association were similar, albeit weaker.ConclusionsLonger duration of obesity was associated with increased risk of poor PF. Inactivity played a small mediating role. Findings reinforce the importance of preventing and delaying obesity onset to protect against poor PF.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa014
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and the risk of
           attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring: a systematic
           review, meta-analysis and quasi-experimental family-based study
    • Authors: Li L; Lagerberg T, Chang Z, et al.
      Pages: 857 - 875
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundPrevious studies are inconclusive concerning the association between maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify this association. To address the variation in confounding adjustment between studies, especially inadequate adjustment of unmeasured familial confounding in most studies, we further performed cousin and sibling comparisons in a nationwide population-based cohort in Sweden.MethodsWe searched PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO during 1975–2018. We used random-effects models to calculate pooled risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence interval. In the population-based study, Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate the unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and HRs adjusted for all confounders identified in previous studies. Stratified Cox models were applied to data on full cousins and full siblings to further control for unmeasured familial confounding.ResultsEight cohorts with a total of 784 804 mother–child pairs were included in the meta-analysis. Maternal overweight [RRoverweight = 1.31 (1.25–1.38), I2 = 6.80%] and obesity [RRobesity = 1.92 (1.84–2.00), I2 = 0.00%] were both associated with an increased risk of ADHD in offspring. In the population-based cohort of 971 501 individuals born between 1992 and 2004, unadjusted Cox models revealed similar associations [HRoverweight = 1.30 (1.28–1.34), HRobesity = 1.92 (1.87–1.98)]. These associations gradually attenuated towards the null when adjusted for measured confounders [HRoverweight = 1.21 (1.19–1.25), HRobesity = 1.60 (1.55–1.65)], unmeasured factors shared by cousins [HRoverweight = 1.10 (0.98–1.23), HRobesity = 1.44 (1.22–1.70)] and unmeasured factors shared by siblings [HRoverweight = 1.01 (0.92–1.11), HRobesity = 1.10 (0.94–1.27)].ConclusionPre-pregnancy overweight/obesity is associated with an increased risk of ADHD in offspring. The observed association is largely due to unmeasured familial confounding.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa040
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Commentary: Improving our statistical inferences requires meta-research
    • Authors: Thibault R; Munafò M.
      Pages: 894 - 895
      Abstract: In the past few years, there has been renewed interest in the use of thresholds for declaring statistical significance and, if we decide to use thresholds, what alpha value is optimal. Should we lower the threshold for claiming statistical significance from P < 0.05 to P < 0.005'1 Should we justify the selected alpha level for every study separately'2 Or should we abandon statistical significance altogether'3 Whereas these proposals may appear at odds, they align in terms of their goal—to improve the robustness of our inferences. However, empirical data that sheds light on the potential costs and benefits of these approaches remains scarce.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa051
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • The changing contribution of childhood social characteristics to
           mortality: a comparison of Finnish cohorts born in 1936–50 and 1961–75
           
    • Authors: Martikainen P; Elo I, Tarkiainen L, et al.
      Pages: 896 - 907
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundLife course epidemiology suggests that early life circumstances affect adult mortality, but most of the evidence is based on cohorts born in the beginning of the 20th century. It remains unclear whether and how the influences of early life circumstances on mortality have changed in later birth cohorts.MethodsAnalyses rely on 10% register-based samples of households drawn from the 1950 and the 1975 Finnish censuses, with consistent follow-up of socioeconomic and housing-related characteristics and early mid-life mortality (at ages 30–55 years). We estimate survival models for the associations between childhood circumstances and all-cause, internal and external mortality for cohorts born in 1936–50 and 1961–75 adjusting for attained social characteristics. We estimate sibling intraclass correlations as summary measures of all early life and familial influences.ResultsAdverse childhood social circumstances were typically associated with about 10–30% excess cause-specific mortality. These associations were almost fully attenuated by adjustment for achieved later life social characteristics. Early life influences have grown over time for mortality from external causes, particularly as related to home ownership and family type. Differentials have remained stable for internal causes. The intraclass correlations further confirmed the increasing association of early life circumstances on external-cause mortality.ConclusionsOur analyses show that the associations between childhood characteristics and mid-life mortality are substantial and almost fully mediated by achieved adult social characteristics. The increase in the contribution of childhood circumstances to mid-life mortality is driven by ever stronger associations with external causes of death.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa041
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Area-level deprivation, childhood dental ambulatory sensitive
           hospitalizations and community water fluoridation: evidence from New
           Zealand
    • Authors: Hobbs M; Wade A, Jones P, et al.
      Pages: 908 - 916
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundWe examined the association between area-level deprivation and dental ambulatory sensitive hospitalizations (ASH) and considered the moderating effect of community water fluoridation (CWF). The hypothesis was that higher levels of deprivation are associated with higher dental ASH rates and that CWF will moderate this association such that children living in the most deprived areas have greater health gain from CWF.MethodsDental ASH conditions (dental caries and diseases of pulp/periapical tissues), age, gender and home address identifier (meshblock) were extracted from pooled cross-sectional data (Q3, 2011 to Q2, 2017) on children aged 0–4 and 5–12 years from the National Minimum Dataset, New Zealand (NZ) Ministry of Health. CWF was obtained for 2011 and 2016 from the NZ Institute of Environmental Science and Research. Dental ASH rates for children aged 0–4 and 5–12 years (/1000) were calculated for census area units (CAUs). Multilevel negative binomial models investigated associations between area-level deprivation, dental ASH rate and moderation by CWF status.ResultsRelative to CWF (2011 and 2016), no CWF (2011 and 2016) was associated with increased dental ASH rates in children aged 0–4 [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.171 (95% confidence interval 1.064, 1.288)] and aged 5–12 years [IRR = 1.181 (1.084, 1.286)]. An interaction between area-level deprivation and CWF showed that the association between CWF and dental ASH rates was greatest within the most deprived quintile of children aged 0–4 years [IRR = 1.316 (1.052, 1.645)].ConclusionsCWF was associated with a reduced dental ASH rate for children aged 0–4 and 5–12 years. Children living in the most deprived areas showed the greatest effect of CWF on dental ASH rates, indicating that the greater health gain from CWF occurred for those with the highest socio-economic disadvantage. Variation in CWF contributes to structural inequities in oral-health outcomes for children.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa043
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Inequalities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality across the life
           course by wealth and income in Sweden: a register-based cohort study
    • Authors: Katikireddi S; Niedzwiedz C, Dundas R, et al.
      Pages: 917 - 925
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundWealth inequalities are increasing in many countries, but their relationship to health is little studied. We investigated the association between individual wealth and mortality across the adult life course in Sweden.MethodsWe studied the Swedish adult population using national registers. The amount of wealth tax paid in 1990 was the main exposure of interest and the cohort was followed up for 18 years. Relative indices of inequality (RII) summarize health inequalities across a population and were calculated for all-cause and cause-specific mortality for six different age groups, stratified by sex, using Poisson regression. Mortality inequalities by wealth were contrasted with those assessed by individual and household income. Attenuation by four other measures of socio-economic position and other covariates was investigated.ResultsLarge inequalities in mortality by wealth were observed and their association with mortality remained more stable across the adult life course than inequalities by income-based measures. Men experienced greater inequalities across all ages (e.g. the RII for wealth was 2.58 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.54–2.63) in men aged 55–64 years compared with 2.29 (95% CI 2.24–2.34) for women aged 55–64 years), except among the over 85s. Adjustment for covariates, including four other measures of socio-economic position, led to only modest reductions in the association between wealth and mortality.ConclusionsWealth is strongly associated with mortality throughout the adult life course, including early adulthood. Income redistribution may be insufficient to narrow health inequalities—addressing the increasingly unequal distribution of wealth in high-income countries should be considered.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa053
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Power calculations for cluster randomized trials (CRTs) with
           right-truncated Poisson-distributed outcomes: a motivating example from a
           malaria vector control trial
    • Authors: Mwandigha L; Fraser K, Racine-Poon A, et al.
      Pages: 954 - 962
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundCluster randomized trials (CRTs) are increasingly used to study the efficacy of interventions targeted at the population level. Formulae exist to calculate sample sizes for CRTs, but they assume that the domain of the outcomes being considered covers the full range of values of the considered distribution. This assumption is frequently incorrect in epidemiological trials in which counts of infection episodes are right-truncated due to practical constraints on the number of times a person can be tested.MethodsMotivated by a malaria vector control trial with right-truncated Poisson-distributed outcomes, we investigated the effect of right-truncation on power using Monte Carlo simulations.ResultsThe results demonstrate that the adverse impact of right-truncation is directly proportional to the magnitude of the event rate, λ, with calculations of power being overestimated in instances where right-truncation was not accounted for. The severity of the adverse impact of right-truncation on power was more pronounced when the number of clusters was ≤30 but decreased the further the right-truncation point was from zero.ConclusionsPotential right-truncation should always be accounted for in the calculation of sample size requirements at the study design stage.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz277
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Commentary: Complexities upon complexities in cluster-randomized trials: a
           commentary on incorporating truncation in outcomes
    • Authors: Ciolino J.
      Pages: 962 - 963
      Abstract: Mwandigha et al. have presented an interesting case and accompanying simulation studies to explore issues of truncation on count data in a cluster randomized setting.1 The results support the notion that researchers planning these complex cluster randomized trials (CRTs) consider exploring the impact of this truncation in sample size and power calculations early on to avoid underpowered studies. Although the overall results are not surprising and can likely be deduced from the theoretical underpinnings, or intuitively for the savvy researcher (i.e. more severe cases of this truncation will result in more severe consequences for power), the magnitude of impact and the particularly vulnerable study scenarios require special attention.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa036
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Commentary: Right truncation in cluster randomized trials can attenuate
           the power of a marginal analysis
    • Authors: Li F; Harhay M.
      Pages: 964 - 967
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa037
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Design, analysis and reporting of multi-arm trials and strategies to
           address multiple testing
    • Authors: Odutayo A; Gryaznov D, Copsey B, et al.
      Pages: 968 - 978
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundIt is unclear how multiple treatment comparisons are managed in the analysis of multi-arm trials, particularly related to reducing type I (false positive) and type II errors (false negative).MethodsWe conducted a cohort study of clinical-trial protocols that were approved by research ethics committees in the UK, Switzerland, Germany and Canada in 2012. We examined the use of multiple-testing procedures to control the overall type I error rate. We created a decision tool to determine the need for multiple-testing procedures. We compared the result of the decision tool to the analysis plan in the protocol. We also compared the pre-specified analysis plans in trial protocols to their publications.ResultsSixty-four protocols for multi-arm trials were identified, of which 50 involved multiple testing. Nine of 50 trials (18%) used a single-step multiple-testing procedures such as a Bonferroni correction and 17 (38%) used an ordered sequence of primary comparisons to control the overall type I error. Based on our decision tool, 45 of 50 protocols (90%) required use of a multiple-testing procedure but only 28 of the 45 (62%) accounted for multiplicity in their analysis or provided a rationale if no multiple-testing procedure was used. We identified 32 protocol–publication pairs, of which 8 planned a global-comparison test and 20 planned a multiple-testing procedure in their trial protocol. However, four of these eight trials (50%) did not use the global-comparison test. Likewise, 3 of the 20 trials (15%) did not perform the multiple-testing procedure in the publication. The sample size of our study was small and we did not have access to statistical-analysis plans for the included trials in our study.ConclusionsStrategies to reduce type I and type II errors are inconsistently employed in multi-arm trials. Important analytical differences exist between planned analyses in clinical-trial protocols and subsequent publications, which may suggest selective reporting of analyses.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa026
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • A tutorial on sample size calculation for multiple-period cluster
           randomized parallel, cross-over and stepped-wedge trials using the Shiny
           CRT Calculator
    • Authors: Hemming K; Kasza J, Hooper R, et al.
      Pages: 979 - 995
      Abstract: AbstractIt has long been recognized that sample size calculations for cluster randomized trials require consideration of the correlation between multiple observations within the same cluster. When measurements are taken at anything other than a single point in time, these correlations depend not only on the cluster but also on the time separation between measurements and additionally, on whether different participants (cross-sectional designs) or the same participants (cohort designs) are repeatedly measured. This is particularly relevant in trials with multiple periods of measurement, such as the cluster cross-over and stepped-wedge designs, but also to some degree in parallel designs. Several papers describing sample size methodology for these designs have been published, but this methodology might not be accessible to all researchers. In this article we provide a tutorial on sample size calculation for cluster randomized designs with particular emphasis on designs with multiple periods of measurement and provide a web-based tool, the Shiny CRT Calculator, to allow researchers to easily conduct these sample size calculations. We consider both cross-sectional and cohort designs and allow for a variety of assumed within-cluster correlation structures. We consider cluster heterogeneity in treatment effects (for designs where treatment is crossed with cluster), as well as individually randomized group-treatment trials with differential clustering between arms, for example designs where clustering arises from interventions being delivered in groups. The calculator will compute power or precision, as a function of cluster size or number of clusters, for a wide variety of designs and correlation structures. We illustrate the methodology and the flexibility of the Shiny CRT Calculator using a range of examples.
      PubDate: Sat, 22 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz237
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Statistical inference in matched case–control studies of recurrent
           events
    • Authors: Cheung Y; Ma X, Lam K, et al.
      Pages: 996 - 1006
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe concurrent sampling design was developed for case–control studies of recurrent events. It involves matching for time. Standard conditional logistic-regression (CLR) analysis ignores the dependence among recurrent events. Existing methods for clustered observations for CLR do not fit the complex data structure arising from the concurrent sampling design.MethodsWe propose to break the matches, apply unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for time in quintiles and residual time within each quintile, and use a robust standard error for observations clustered within persons. We conducted extensive simulation to evaluate this approach and compared it with methods based on CLR. We analysed data from a study of childhood pneumonia to illustrate the methods.ResultsThe proposed method and CLR methods gave very similar point estimates of association and showed little bias. The proposed method produced confidence intervals that achieved the target level of coverage probability, whereas the CLR methods did not, except when disease incidence was low.ConclusionsThe proposed method is suitable for the analysis of case–control studies with recurrent events.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa012
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Descriptive epidemiology of energy expenditure in the UK: findings from
           the National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008–15
    • Authors: Brage S; Lindsay T, Venables M, et al.
      Pages: 1007 - 1021
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundLittle is known about population levels of energy expenditure, as national surveillance systems typically employ only crude measures. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) in the UK measured energy expenditure in a 10% subsample by gold-standard doubly labelled water (DLW).MethodsDLW-subsample participants from the NDNS (383 males, 387 females) aged 4–91 years were recruited between 2008 and 2015 (rolling programme). Height and weight were measured and body-fat percentage estimated by deuterium dilution.ResultsAbsolute total energy expenditure (TEE) increased steadily throughout childhood, ranging from 6.2 and 7.2 MJ/day in 4- to 7-year-olds to 9.7 and 11.7 MJ/day for 14- to 16-year-old girls and boys, respectively. TEE peaked in 17- to 27-year-old women (10.7 MJ/day) and 28- to 43-year-old men (14.4 MJ/day), before decreasing gradually in old age. Physical-activity energy expenditure (PAEE) declined steadily with age from childhood (87 kJ/day/kg in 4- to 7-year-olds) through to old age (38 kJ/day/kg in 71- to 91-year-olds). No differences were observed by time, region and macronutrient composition. Body-fat percentage was strongly inversely associated with PAEE throughout life, irrespective of expressing PAEE relative to body mass or fat-free mass. Compared with females with <30% body fat, females with >40% recorded 29 kJ/day/kg body mass and 18 kJ/day/kg fat-free mass less PAEE in analyses adjusted for age, geographical region and time of assessment. Similarly, compared with males with <25% body fat, males with >35% recorded 26 kJ/day/kg body mass and 10 kJ/day/kg fat-free mass less PAEE.ConclusionsThis first nationally representative study reports levels of human-energy expenditure as measured by gold-standard methodology; values may serve as a reference for other population studies. Age, sex and body composition are the main determinants of energy expenditure.Key MessagesThis is the first nationally representative study of human energy expenditure, covering the UK in the period 2008-2015.Total energy expenditure (MJ/day) increases steadily with age throughout childhood and adolescence, peaks in the 3rd decade of life in women and 4th decade of life in men, before decreasing gradually in old age.Physical activity energy expenditure (kJ/day/kg or kJ/day/kg fat-free mass) declines steadily with age from childhood to old age, more steeply so in males.Body-fat percentage is strongly inversely associated with physical activity energy expenditure.We found little evidence that energy expenditure varied by geographical region, over time, or by dietary macronutrient composition.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa005
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Cross-trait analyses with migraine reveal widespread pleiotropy and
           suggest a vascular component to migraine headache
    • Authors: Siewert K; Klarin D, Damrauer S, et al.
      Pages: 1022 - 1031
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundNearly a fifth of the world’s population suffer from migraine headache, yet risk factors for this disease are poorly characterized.MethodsTo further elucidate these factors, we conducted a genetic correlation analysis using cross-trait linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression between migraine headache and 47 traits from the UK Biobank. We then tested for possible causality between these phenotypes and migraine, using Mendelian randomization. In addition, we attempted replication of our findings in an independent genome-wide association study (GWAS) when available.ResultsWe report multiple phenotypes with genetic correlation (P  < 1.06 × 10−3) with migraine, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, lipid levels, blood pressure, autoimmune and psychiatric phenotypes. In particular, we find evidence that blood pressure directly contributes to migraine and explains a previously suggested causal relationship between calcium and migraine.ConclusionsThis is the largest genetic correlation analysis of migraine headache to date, both in terms of migraine GWAS sample size and the number of phenotypes tested. We find that migraine has a shared genetic basis with a large number of traits, indicating pervasive pleiotropy at migraine-associated loci.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa050
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Negative controls to detect uncontrolled confounding in observational
           studies of mammographic screening comparing participants and
           non-participants
    • Authors: Lousdal M; Lash T, Flanders W, et al.
      Pages: 1032 - 1042
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundWhen comparing mammography-screening participants and non-participants, estimates of reduction in breast-cancer mortality may be biased by poor baseline comparability. We used negative controls to detect uncontrolled confounding.MethodsWe designed a closed cohort of Danish women invited to a mammography-screening programme at age 50–52 years in Copenhagen or Funen from 1991 through 2001. We included women with a normal screening result in their first-invitation round. Based on their second-invitation round, women were divided into participants and non-participants and followed until death, emigration or 31 December 2014, whichever came first. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of death from breast cancer, causes other than breast cancer and external causes. We added dental-care participation as an exposure to test for an independent association with breast-cancer mortality. We adjusted for civil status, parity, age at first birth, educational attainment, income and hormone use.ResultsScreening participants had a lower hazard of breast-cancer death [HR 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32, 0.69] compared with non-participants. Participants also had a lower hazard of death from other causes (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.39, 0.46) and external causes (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.23, 0.54). Reductions persisted after covariate adjustment. Dental-care participants had a lower hazard of breast-cancer death (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.56, 1.01), irrespective of screening participation.ConclusionsNegative-control associations indicated residual uncontrolled confounding when comparing breast-cancer mortality among screening participants and non-participants.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa029
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Reflection on modern methods: when is a stepped-wedge cluster randomized
           trial a good study design choice'
    • Authors: Hemming K; Taljaard M.
      Pages: 1043 - 1052
      Abstract: AbstractThe stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial (SW-CRT) involves the sequential transition of clusters (such as hospitals, public health units or communities) from control to intervention conditions in a randomized order. The use of the SW-CRT is growing rapidly. Yet the SW-CRT is at greater risks of bias compared with the conventional parallel cluster randomized trial (parallel-CRT). For this reason, the CONSORT extension for SW-CRTs requires that investigators provide a clear justification for the choice of study design. In this paper, we argue that all other things being equal, the SW-CRT is at greater risk of bias due to misspecification of the secular trends at the analysis stage. This is particularly problematic for studies randomizing a small number of heterogeneous clusters. We outline the potential conditions under which an SW-CRT might be an appropriate choice. Potentially appropriate and often overlapping justifications for conducting an SW-CRT include: (i) the SW-CRT provides a means to conduct a randomized evaluation which otherwise would not be possible; (ii) the SW-CRT facilitates cluster recruitment as it enhances the acceptability of a randomized evaluation either to cluster gatekeepers or other stakeholders; (iii) the SW-CRT is the only feasible design due to pragmatic and logistical constraints (for example the roll-out of a scare resource); and (iv) the SW-CRT has increased statistical power over other study designs (which will include situations with a limited number of clusters). As the number of arguments in favour of an SW-CRT increases, the likelihood that the benefits of using the SW-CRT, as opposed to a parallel-CRT, outweigh its risks also increases. We argue that the mere popularity and novelty of the SW-CRT should not be a factor in its adoption. In situations when a conventional parallel-CRT is feasible, it is likely to be the preferred design.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa077
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Modelling paternal exposure as a negative control
    • Authors: Brew B; Gong T.
      Pages: 1053 - 1054
      Abstract: We read with interest the article by Cohen et al. using the large Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) to assess the potential causal association between maternal anti-depressant use during pregnancy and shorter gestational length and child anxiety by using a paternal negative control.1 However, we have some concerns about the conclusion for child anxiety and about the causal diagram proposed for the negative control.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa054
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Response to: Modelling paternal exposure as a negative control
    • Authors: Wood M; Cohen J, Ystrom E, et al.
      Pages: 1054 - 1055
      Abstract: We agree with Brew, et al.1 that the way we presented the paternal negative control directed acyclic graph (DAG) has the potential for confusion, and appreciate the opportunity to clarify our reasoning. Lipsitch’s original negative control DAG includes nodes for measured and unmeasured confounders L and U, with a dashed line between L and U indicating that either may cause the other, and they may share common causes.2 The utility of paternal exposure B as a negative control depends on the extent to which paternal exposure shares common causes with maternal exposure A.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa055
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Robust statistical methods with R, 2nd edition
    • Authors: Lesosky M.
      Pages: 1056 - 1056
      Abstract: Robust statistical methods with R, 2nd edition.JureckovaJ, PicekJ, SchindlerM. CRC Press(Chapman & Hall)2019
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa046
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Corrigendum to: An examination of multivariable Mendelian randomization in
           the single-sample and two-sample summary data settings
    • Authors: Sanderson E; Smith G, Windmeijer F, et al.
      Pages: 1057 - 1057
      Abstract: The caption submitted for Figure 1 was the same as the caption for Figure 2, and incorrect.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa101
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
 
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