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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 409 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 409 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 607, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insect Systematics and Diversity     Hybrid Journal  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 270, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Epidemiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.969
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 270  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0300-5771 - ISSN (Online) 1464-3685
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [409 journals]
  • The culprit is the carrier, not the loads: cholesterol, triglycerides and
           apolipoprotein B in atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease
    • Authors: Ala-Korpela M.
      Pages: 1389 - 1392
      Abstract: The discoveries of Brown and Goldstein revolutionized our understanding of cholesterol metabolism, fundamental to atherosclerosis and its potential prevention and treatment. Since the early findings of the presence of cholesterol in human atherosclerotic plaques in 1910 and the association of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles with the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) in 1955, LDL cholesterol has been at the very core of understanding and estimating the risk of CHD.1 The results of this focus on LDL have been impressive, both regarding the understanding of the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and in the translation of these findings to an efficient pharmacological intervention: inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) in the mevalonate pathway to reduce circulating LDL cholesterol levels, i.e. the statins. These safe and cheap drugs not only reduce heart attacks, but actually prolong life in middle-aged individuals.2
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz068
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Linking the non-visual effects of light exposure with occupational health
    • Authors: Price L; Udovičić L, Behrens T, et al.
      Pages: 1393 - 1397
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz131
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • How Independent Are “Independent” Effects' Relative Risk
           Estimation When Correlated Exposures Are Measured Imprecisely
    • Authors: Phillips A; Smith G.
      Pages: 1398 - 1406
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz011
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Commentary: Triglycerides or HDL cholesterol in cardiovascular
           disease—which is the true culprit'
    • Authors: Varbo A; Nordestgaard B.
      Pages: 1407 - 1408
      Abstract: The study by Philips and Davey Smith1 from 1991 addressed the subject of inferring causality from observational epidemiology in situations where exposures are highly correlated and measurement variability is not similar for the variables. The authors exemplified this problem with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol in the risk for cardiovascular disease, with inversely associated concentrations of the two biomarkers and with a higher variability in concentrations of triglycerides than in HDL cholesterol. The association of high concentrations of triglycerides with risk for cardiovascular disease is attenuated when adjusted for HDL cholesterol; however, when adjusting the association of low HDL cholesterol with risk for cardiovascular disease for triglyceride concentrations, the association is not attenuated to the same extent.1 This has previously often led to the interpretation that HDL cholesterol is more important than triglycerides for causing cardiovascular disease. In consequence, huge efforts went into developing and testing HDL cholesterol-raising drugs, which surprisingly did not prevent cardiovascular disease.2
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy292
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Data Resource Profile: The Victorian Childhood Hearing Impairment
           Longitudinal Databank (VicCHILD)
    • Authors: Sung V; Smith L, Poulakis Z, et al.
      Pages: 1409 - 1410h
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz168
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Data Resource Profile: Panel Study Labour Market and Social Security
    • Authors: Trappmann M; Bähr S, Beste J, et al.
      Pages: 1411 - 1411g
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz041
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Cohort Profile: The American Manufacturing Cohort (AMC) study
    • Authors: Elser H; Neophytou A, Tribett E, et al.
      Pages: 1412 - 1422j
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz059
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Cohort Profile: DOC*X: a nationwide Danish occupational cohort with
           eXposure data – an open research resource
    • Authors: Flachs E; Petersen S, Kolstad H, et al.
      Pages: 1413 - 1413k
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz110
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Cohort Profile: The Tokyo Teen Cohort study (TTC)
    • Authors: Ando S; Nishida A, Yamasaki S, et al.
      Pages: 1414 - 1414g
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz033
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Cohort Profile: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult
           Health (Add Health)
    • Authors: Harris K; Halpern C, Whitsel E, et al.
      Pages: 1415 - 1415k
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz115
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Phenome-wide Mendelian-randomization study of genetically determined
           vitamin D on multiple health outcomes using the UK Biobank study
    • Authors: Meng X; Li X, Timofeeva M, et al.
      Pages: 1425 - 1434
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundVitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent across the globe. Existing studies suggest that a low vitamin D level is associated with more than 130 outcomes. Exploring the causal role of vitamin D in health outcomes could support or question vitamin D supplementation.MethodsWe carried out a systematic literature review of previous Mendelian-randomization studies on vitamin D. We then implemented a Mendelian Randomization–Phenome Wide Association Study (MR-PheWAS) analysis on data from 339 256 individuals of White British origin from UK Biobank. We first ran a PheWAS analysis to test the associations between a 25(OH)D polygenic risk score and 920 disease outcomes, and then nine phenotypes (i.e. systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, risk of hypertension, T2D, ischaemic heart disease, body mass index, depression, non-vertebral fracture and all-cause mortality) that met the pre-defined inclusion criteria for further analysis were examined by multiple MR analytical approaches to explore causality.ResultsThe PheWAS analysis did not identify any health outcome associated with the 25(OH)D polygenic risk score. Although a selection of nine outcomes were reported in previous Mendelian-randomization studies or umbrella reviews to be associated with vitamin D, our MR analysis, with substantial study power (>80% power to detect an association with an odds ratio >1.2 for per standard deviation increase of log-transformed 25[OH]D), was unable to support an interpretation of causal association.ConclusionsWe investigated the putative causal effects of vitamin D on multiple health outcomes in a White population. We did not support a causal effect on any of the disease outcomes tested. However, we cannot exclude small causal effects or effects on outcomes that we did not have enough power to explore due to the small number of cases.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz182
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Commentary: Role of vitamin D in disease through the lens of Mendelian
           randomization—Evidence from Mendelian randomization challenges the
           benefits of vitamin D supplementation for disease prevention
    • Authors: Manousaki D; Richards J.
      Pages: 1435 - 1437
      Abstract: A decrease in vitamin D levels, as determined through measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) has been associated with >100 human traits and diseases, among which many are extra-skeletal outcomes.1 Moreover, approximately 40% of the general adult population in the USA has vitamin D insufficiency,2 which can be diagnosed by a simple blood draw and can be corrected safely and inexpensively with oral vitamin D supplements. Notably, a 60-fold increase in vitamin D supplement use has been observed between 2000 and 2014 in the USA, where 18% of the population take at least 1000 IU of vitamin D daily.3 Yet, the evidence from the literature on the causal role of low 25OHD in disease is often contradictory.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz183
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • The effect of smoking intensity on all-cause and cause-specific
           mortality—a Mendelian randomization analysis
    • Authors: Vie G; Wootton R, Bjørngaard J, et al.
      Pages: 1438 - 1446
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundSmoking is an important cause of mortality and recent studies have suggested that even low-intensity smoking might be associated with increased mortality. Still, smoking is associated with lower socio-economic status as well as other potential risk factors, and disease onset might motivate smoking cessation, thus residual confounding and reverse causality might bias results. We aimed to assess the evidence of a causal relationship between smoking intensity and cause-specific as well as all-cause-mortality using Mendelian randomization analyses.MethodsWe included 56 019 participants from the Norwegian HUNT2 Study and 337 103 participants from UK Biobank, linked to national registry data on causes of death. We estimated associations of self-reported smoking as well as the genetic variant rs1051730 as an instrument for smoking intensity with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We subsequently meta-analysed the results from the two cohorts.ResultsEach effect allele of the rs1051730 was associated with a 9% increased hazard of all-cause mortality [95% confidence interval (CI) 6–11] among ever smokers. Effect alleles were also associated with death by neoplasms [hazard ratio (HR) 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.15], circulatory diseases (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11) and respiratory diseases (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05–1.26) among ever smokers. The association was stronger among ever than never smokers for all-cause mortality (p < 0.001), neoplasms (p = 0.001) and respiratory diseases (p = 0.038).ConclusionsOur results indicate a causal effect of smoking intensity on all-cause mortality and death by neoplasms and respiratory diseases. There was weaker evidence of a causal effect of smoking intensity on death by circulatory diseases.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz081
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Association between coffee consumption and overall risk of being diagnosed
           with or dying from cancer among >300 000 UK Biobank participants in a
           large-scale Mendelian randomization study
    • Authors: Ong J; Law M, An J, et al.
      Pages: 1447 - 1456
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundPrevious observational studies have suggested that coffee intake may be associated with a reduction in cancer risk. Mendelian randomization (MR) studies can help clarify whether the observed associations are likely to be causal. Here we evaluated whether coffee intake is associated with: (i) overall risk of being diagnosed with/dying from any cancer; and (ii) risk of individual cancers.MethodsWe identified 46 155 cases (of which 6998 were fatal) and 270 342 controls of White British ancestry from the UK Biobank cohort (UKB), based on ICD10 diagnoses. Individuals with benign tumours were excluded. Coffee intake was self-reported and recorded based on cup/day consumption. We conducted both observational and summary data MR analyses.ResultsThere was no observational association between coffee intake and overall cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) per one cup/day increase = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98, 1.00] or cancer death (OR = 1.01, 0.99, 1.03); the estimated OR from MR is 1.01 (0.94, 1.08) for overall cancer risk and 1.11 (0.95, 1.31) for cancer death. The relationship between coffee intake and individual cancer risks were consistent with a null effect, with most cancers showing little or no associations with coffee. Meta-analysis of our MR findings with publicly available summary data on various cancers do not support a strong causal relationship between coffee and risk of breast, ovarian, lung or prostate cancer, upon correction for multiple testing.ConclusionsTaken together, coffee intake is not associated with overall risk of being diagnosed with or dying from cancer in UKB. For individual cancers, our findings were not statistically inconsistent with earlier observational studies, although for these we were unable to rule out a small effect on specific types of cancer.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz144
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Using a two-sample Mendelian randomization design to investigate a
           possible causal effect of maternal lipid concentrations on offspring birth
    • Authors: Hwang L; Lawlor D, Freathy R, et al.
      Pages: 1457 - 1467
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe intrauterine environment is critical for fetal growth and development. However, observational associations between maternal gestational lipid concentrations and offspring birth weight (BW) have been inconsistent and ascertaining causality is challenging.MethodsWe used a novel two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to estimate the causal effect of maternal gestational high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride concentrations on offspring BW. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with serum HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride concentrations identified in the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium genome-wide association study meta-analysis (n = 188 577 European-ancestry individuals; sample 1) were selected as instrumental variables. The effects of these SNPs on offspring BW were estimated using a structural equation model in the UK Biobank and Early Growth Genetics consortium (n = 230 069 European-ancestry individuals; sample 2) that enabled partitioning of the genetic associations into maternal- (intrauterine) and fetal-specific effects.ResultsWe found no evidence for a causal effect of maternal gestational HDL-C, LDL-C or triglyceride concentrations on offspring BW [standard deviation change in BW per standard deviation higher in HDL-C = −0.005 (95% confidence interval: −0.039, 0.029), LDL-C = 0.014 (−0.017, 0.045), and triglycerides = 0.014 (−0.025, 0.052)].ConclusionsOur findings suggest that maternal gestational HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride concentrations play a limited role in determining offspring BW. However, we cannot comment on the impact of these and other lipid fractions on fetal development more generally. Our study illustrates the power and flexibility of two-sample MR in assessing the causal effect of maternal environmental exposures on offspring outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz160
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Education protects against coronary heart disease and stroke independently
           of cognitive function: evidence from Mendelian randomization
    • Authors: Gill D; Efstathiadou A, Cawood K, et al.
      Pages: 1468 - 1477
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThere is evidence that education protects against cardiovascular disease. However, it is not known whether such an effect is independent of cognition.MethodsWe performed two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate the effect of education and cognition, respectively, on risk of CHD and ischaemic stroke. Additionally, we used multivariable MR to adjust for the effects of cognition and education in the respective analyses to measure the effects of these traits independently of each other.ResultsIn unadjusted MR, there was evidence that education is causally associated with both CHD and stroke risk [CHD: odds ratio (OR) 0.65 per 1-standard deviation (SD; 3.6 years) increase in education; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61–0.70, stroke: OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.69–0.86]. This effect persisted after adjusting for cognition in multivariable MR (CHD: OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.65–0.89, stroke OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.59–0.92). Cognition had an apparent effect on CHD risk in unadjusted MR (OR per 1-SD increase 0.80; 95% CI 0.74–0.85), however after adjusting for education this was no longer observed (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.86–1.25). Cognition did not have any notable effect on the risk of developing ischaemic stroke, with (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.87–1.08) or without adjustment for education (OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.79–1.36).ConclusionsThis study provides evidence to support that education protects against CHD and ischaemic stroke risk independently of cognition, but does not provide evidence to support that cognition protects against CHD and stroke risk independently of education. These findings could have implications for education and health policy.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz200
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Powerful three-sample genome-wide design and robust statistical inference
           in summary-data Mendelian randomization
    • Authors: Zhao Q; Chen Y, Wang J, et al.
      Pages: 1478 - 1492
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundSummary-data Mendelian randomization (MR) has become a popular research design to estimate the causal effect of risk exposures. With the sample size of GWAS continuing to increase, it is now possible to use genetic instruments that are only weakly associated with the exposure.DevelopmentWe propose a three-sample genome-wide design where typically 1000 independent genetic instruments across the whole genome are used. We develop an empirical partially Bayes statistical analysis approach where instruments are weighted according to their strength; thus weak instruments bring less variation to the estimator. The estimator is highly efficient with many weak genetic instruments and is robust to balanced and/or sparse pleiotropy.ApplicationWe apply our method to estimate the causal effect of body mass index (BMI) and major blood lipids on cardiovascular disease outcomes, and obtain substantially shorter confidence intervals (CIs). In particular, the estimated causal odds ratio of BMI on ischaemic stroke is 1.19 (95% CI: 1.07–1.32, P-value <0.001); the estimated causal odds ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on coronary artery disease (CAD) is 0.78 (95% CI: 0.73–0.84, P-value <0.001). However, the estimated effect of HDL-C attenuates and become statistically non-significant when we only use strong instruments.ConclusionsA genome-wide design can greatly improve the statistical power of MR studies. Robust statistical methods may alleviate but not solve the problem of horizontal pleiotropy. Our empirical results suggest that the relationship between HDL-C and CAD is heterogeneous, and it may be too soon to completely dismiss the HDL hypothesis.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz142
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Appraising the causal relevance of DNA methylation for risk of lung cancer
    • Authors: Battram T; Richmond R, Baglietto L, et al.
      Pages: 1493 - 1504
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundDNA methylation changes in peripheral blood have recently been identified in relation to lung cancer risk. Some of these changes have been suggested to mediate part of the effect of smoking on lung cancer. However, limitations with conventional mediation analyses mean that the causal nature of these methylation changes has yet to be fully elucidated.MethodsWe first performed a meta-analysis of four epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of lung cancer (918 cases, 918 controls). Next, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis, using genetic instruments for methylation at CpG sites identified in the EWAS meta-analysis, and 29 863 cases and 55 586 controls from the TRICL-ILCCO lung cancer consortium, to appraise the possible causal role of methylation at these sites on lung cancer.ResultsSixteen CpG sites were identified from the EWAS meta-analysis [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05], for 14 of which we could identify genetic instruments. Mendelian randomization provided little evidence that DNA methylation in peripheral blood at the 14 CpG sites plays a causal role in lung cancer development (FDR > 0.05), including for cg05575921-AHRR where methylation is strongly associated with both smoke exposure and lung cancer risk.ConclusionsThe results contrast with previous observational and mediation analysis, which have made strong claims regarding the causal role of DNA methylation. Thus, previous suggestions of a mediating role of methylation at sites identified in peripheral blood, such as cg05575921-AHRR, could be unfounded. However, this study does not preclude the possibility that differential DNA methylation at other sites is causally involved in lung cancer development, especially within lung tissue.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz190
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Assessing causal links between metabolic traits, inflammation and
           schizophrenia: a univariable and multivariable, bidirectional
           Mendelian-randomization study
    • Authors: Lin B; Alkema A, Peters T, et al.
      Pages: 1505 - 1514
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundBlood immunoreactive biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), and metabolic abnormalities have been associated with schizophrenia. Studies comprehensively and bidirectionally probing possible causal links between such blood constituents and liability to schizophrenia are lacking.MethodsTo disentangle putative causal links between CRP blood levels and schizophrenia in both directions, we conducted multiple univariable Mendelian-randomization (MR) analyses, ranging from fixed-effect to inverse variance-weighted (IVW), weighted-median, MR Egger and generalized summary-data-based Mendelian-randomization (GSMR) models. To prioritize metabolic risk factors for schizophrenia, a novel multivariable approach was applied: multivariable Mendelian-randomization–Bayesian model averaging (MR-BMA).ResultsAll forward univariable MR analyses consistently showed that CRP has a protective effect on schizophrenia, whereas reverse MR analyses consistently suggested absent causal effects of schizophrenia liability on CRP blood levels. Using MR-BMA, as the top protective factors for schizophrenia we prioritized leucine and as the prime risk-factor triglycerides in medium very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The five best-performing MR-BMA models provided one additional risk factor: triglycerides in large VLDL; and two additional protective factors: citrate and lactate.ConclusionsOur results add to a growing body of literature hinting at metabolic changes—in particular of triglycerides—independently of medication status in schizophrenia. We also highlight the absent effects of genetic liability to schizophrenia on CRP levels.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz176
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Commentary: CRP and schizophrenia: cause, consequence or confounding'
    • Authors: Ligthart S.
      Pages: 1514 - 1515
      Abstract: Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to disease development, but the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is poorly understood and treatment mainly consists of psychosocial interventions and antipsychotic medication. Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis has the potential to identify causal factors for an outcome of interest, providing insights into the biological pathways that cause disease, and could aid in detecting novel therapeutic targets. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 loci for schizophrenia that can be used in MR analysis for the identification of causal factors for the disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz199
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Commentary: Causal associations between inflammation, cardiometabolic
           markers and schizophrenia: the known unknowns
    • Authors: Khandaker G.
      Pages: 1516 - 1518
      Abstract: Observational studies have extensively documented immune and metabolic dysfunctions in schizophrenia,1,2 an archetypal psychotic disorder characterized by difficulties with, primarily, perception (e.g. hallucinations, delusions) and cognition (e.g. poor attention, memory). With lifetime prevalence of about 1%, schizophrenia typically manifests during the second and third decades of life, has a chronic relapsing remitting course and is thought to be linked with altered neurodevelopment.3 Pathophysiological explanation and drug treatment for the illness are predicated on dopaminergic overactivity in the mesolimbic pathway and underactivity in the mesocortical pathway, but this is far from the full picture.4 Dopamine overactivity is not present in all patients with schizophrenia, and about a third of patients do not respond to anti-dopamine antipsychotic drugs currently used to treat this illness,5 suggesting that other mechanisms are involved.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz201
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Pesticide use and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoid malignancies in
           agricultural cohorts from France, Norway and the USA: a pooled analysis
           from the AGRICOH consortium
    • Authors: Leon M; Schinasi L, Lebailly P, et al.
      Pages: 1519 - 1535
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundPesticides are commonly used in agriculture, and previous studies endorsed the need to further investigate the possible association between their use and risk of lymphoid malignancies in agricultural workers.MethodsWe investigated the relationship of ever use of 14 selected pesticide chemical groups and 33 individual active chemical ingredients with non-Hodgkin lymphoid malignancies (NHL) overall or major subtypes, in a pooled analysis of three large agricultural worker cohorts. Pesticide use was derived from self-reported history of crops cultivated combined with crop-exposure matrices (France and Norway) or self-reported lifetime use of active ingredients (USA). Cox regression models were used to estimate cohort-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), which were combined using random effects meta-analysis to calculate meta-HRs.ResultsDuring follow-up, 2430 NHL cases were diagnosed in 316 270 farmers accruing 3 574 815 person-years under risk. Most meta-HRs suggested no association. Moderately elevated meta-HRs were seen for: NHL and ever use of terbufos (meta-HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00–1.39); chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and deltamethrin (1.48, 1.06–2.07); and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and glyphosate (1.36, 1.00–1.85); as well as inverse associations of NHL with the broader groups of organochlorine insecticides (0.86, 0.74–0.99) and phenoxy herbicides (0.81, 0.67–0.98), but not with active ingredients within these groups, after adjusting for exposure to other pesticides.ConclusionsAssociations of pesticides with NHL appear to be subtype- and chemical-specific. Non-differential exposure misclassification was an important limitation, showing the need for refinement of exposure estimates and exposure–response analyses.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz017
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Shift work, DNA methylation and epigenetic age
    • Authors: White A; Kresovich J, Xu Z, et al.
      Pages: 1536 - 1544
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundShift work has been associated with increased risk of age-related morbidity and mortality. Biological age, estimated using DNA methylation (DNAm), may quantify the biological consequences of shift work on the risk of age-related disease. We examined whether prior employment in shift-working occupations was associated with epigenetic age acceleration.MethodsIn a sample of non-Hispanic White women aged 35–74 (n = 2574), we measured DNAm using the Illumina Infinium Human450 BeadChip and calculated DNAm age using three established epigenetic clocks. Age-acceleration metrics were derived by regressing DNAm age on chronological age and predicting the residuals. Using linear regression, we estimated associations between shift work history and age acceleration. We also conducted an epigenome-wide association study using robust linear-regression models corrected with false discovery rate (FDR) q-values.ResultsApproximately 7% of women reported any shift work. Higher age acceleration was observed for a 1-year increase in overall [β = 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02–0.21] and night-specific shift work (β = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.03–0.21). The association was strongest for ≥10 years of night shift work (β = 3.16, 95% CI: 1.17–5.15). From the epigenome-wide association study, years of overall and night shift work were associated with DNAm at 66 and 85 CpG sites (FDR < 0.05), respectively. Years of night shift work was associated with lower methylation of a CpG in the gene body of ZFHX3 (cg04994202, q = 0.04), a gene related to circadian rhythm.ConclusionsShift work was associated with differential CpG site methylation and with differential DNAm patterns, measured by epigenetic age acceleration, consistent with long-term negative health effects.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz027
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Association between maternal shift work and infant neurodevelopmental
           outcomes: results from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study with
           propensity-score-matching analysis
    • Authors: Wei C; Chen M, Lin C, et al.
      Pages: 1545 - 1555
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundMaternal shift work is associated with preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age new-borns, childhood obesity and future behavioural problems. However, the adverse effects on and interactions of maternal shift work with infant neurodevelopment remain uncertain. Therefore, we examined the associations between maternal-shift-work status and infant neurodevelopmental parameters.MethodsThe Taiwan Birth Cohort Study is a nationwide birth cohort study following representatively sampled mother–infant pairs in 2005. The participants’ development and exposure conditions were assessed by home interviews with structured questionnaires at 6 and 18 months of age. Propensity scores were calculated with predefined covariates for 1:1 matching. Multivariate conditional logistic regression and the Cox proportional-hazards model were used to examine the association between maternal-shift-work status and infant neurodevelopmental-milestone-achievement status.ResultsIn this study, 5637 term singletons were included, with 2098 cases selected in the propensity-score-matched subpopulation. Persistent maternal shift work was associated with increased risks of delays in gross-motor neurodevelopmental milestones [aOR = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06–1.76 for walking steadily], fine-motor neurodevelopmental milestones (aOR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.07–1.80 for scribbling) and social neurodevelopmental milestones (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.03–1.76 for coming when called upon). Moreover, delayed gross-motor and social development were identified in the propensity-score-matched sub-cohort.ConclusionsThis study shows negative associations between maternal shift work and delayed neurodevelopmental-milestone achievement in the gross-motor, fine-motor and social domains at 18 months. Future research is necessary to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms and long-term health effects.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz045
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Inflammation and hearing status in mid-childhood and mid-life: a
           population-based cross-sectional study
    • Authors: Wang J; Sung V, Carew P, et al.
      Pages: 1556 - 1566
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundLifelong inflammation – known to be associated with many non-communicable diseases – has not been thoroughly investigated in hearing. We aimed to determine if glycoprotein A (GlycA), a novel biomarker of chronic inflammation, is associated with hearing acuity in mid-childhood and mid-life.MethodsPopulation-based cross-sectional study within the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children with plasma GlycA and audiometry data (1169 children and 1316 parents). We calculated high Fletcher Index (mean threshold across 1, 2 and 4 kHz), defining hearing loss as threshold >15 decibel hearing level (dB HL) (better ear). Linear/logistic regression quantified associations of GlycA with hearing threshold/loss.ResultsMean [standard deviation (SD)] high Fletcher Indices (dB HL) were 8.0 (5.7) for children and 13.1 (6.9) for adults, with 8.7% and 26.1% respectively showing hearing loss. 1-SD rise in GlycA (children 0.13 mmol/L, adults 0.17 mmol/L) predicted higher hearing thresholds for the lower individual frequencies [1 kHz: children β 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3–1.3; adults β 0.8, 95% CI 0.2–1.4]. This same pattern was evident for the high Fletcher Index (children β 0.7, 95% CI 0.3–1.1; adults β 0.8, 95% CI 0.3–1.4). This translated into 1-SD rise in GlycA predicting adult hearing loss [odds ratio (OR) 1.2, 95% CI 1.0–1.5] with similar but attenuated patterns in children.ConclusionsGlycA is associated with poorer hearing by mid-childhood. This potentially reframes hearing loss as a life-course condition with inflammatory antecedents common to other non-communicable diseases. Replication and mechanistic studies could inform causal inference and early prevention efforts.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz023
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Headache, tinnitus and hearing loss in the international Cohort Study of
           Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS) in Sweden and Finland
    • Authors: Auvinen A; Feychting M, Ahlbom A, et al.
      Pages: 1567 - 1579
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundMobile phone use and exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from it have been associated with symptoms in some studies, but the studies have shortcomings and their findings are inconsistent. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the association between amount of mobile phone use at baseline and frequency of headache, tinnitus or hearing loss at 4-year follow-up.MethodsThe participants had mobile phone subscriptions with major mobile phone network operators in Sweden (n = 21 049) and Finland (n = 3120), gave consent for obtaining their mobile phone call data from operator records at baseline, and filled in both baseline and follow-up questionnaires on symptoms, potential confounders and further characteristics of their mobile phone use.ResultsThe participants with the highest decile of recorded call-time (average call-time >276 min per week) at baseline showed a weak, suggestive increased frequency of weekly headaches at 4-year follow-up (adjusted odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.95–1.34). There was no obvious gradient of weekly headache with increasing call-time (P trend 0.06). The association of headache with call-time was stronger for the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) network than older Global System for Mobile Telecommunications (GSM) technology, despite the latter involving higher exposure to RF-EMF. Tinnitus and hearing loss showed no association with call-time.ConclusionsPeople using mobile phones most extensively for making or receiving calls at baseline reported weekly headaches slightly more frequently at follow-up than other users, but this finding largely disappeared after adjustment for confounders and was not related to call-time in GSM with higher RF-EMF exposure. Tinnitus and hearing loss were not associated with amount of call-time.
      PubDate: Sat, 13 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz127
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Assessing the role of women’s autonomy and acceptability of
           intimate-partner violence in maternal health-care utilization in 63 low-
           and middle-income countries
    • Authors: Sripad P; Warren C, Hindin M, et al.
      Pages: 1580 - 1592
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundOur study investigates the associations between women’s autonomy and attitudes toward the acceptability of intimate-partner violence against women (IPVAW) and maternal health-care utilization outcomes.MethodsWe combine data from 113 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2003 and 2016, which give us a pooled sample of 765 169 mothers and 777 352 births from 63 countries. We generate composite scores of women’s autonomy (six-point scale with reference: no contribution) and acceptability of IPVAW (five-point scale with reference: no acceptance) and assess the associations between these measures and women’s use of antenatal care services and facility delivery in pooled and unique country samples.ResultsA change in a woman’s autonomy score from ‘no contribution to any decision-making domain’ (a composite autonomy score of 0) to ‘contribution to all decision-making domains’ (a score of 6) is associated with a 31.2% increase in her odds of delivering in a facility and a 42.4% increase in her odds of receiving at least eight antenatal care visits over the course of her pregnancy. In contrast, a change in a woman’s attitude towards acceptability of IPVAW from ‘IPVAW is not acceptable under any scenario’ (a score of 0) to ‘IPVAW is acceptable in all scenarios’ (a score of 5) is associated with an 8.9% decrease in her odds of delivering in a facility and a 20.3% decrease in her odds of receiving eight antenatal care visits.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that strong and significant associations exist between autonomy, acceptability of IPVAW and utilization of maternal health-care services.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy299
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • The impact of violence on Venezuelan life expectancy and lifespan
    • Authors: García J; Aburto J.
      Pages: 1593 - 1601
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundVenezuela is one of the most violent countries in the world. According to the United Nations, homicide rates in the country increased from 32.9 to 61.9 per 100 000 people between 2000 and 2014. This upsurge coincided with a slowdown in life expectancy improvements. We estimate mortality trends and quantify the impact of violence-related deaths and other causes of death on life expectancy and lifespan inequality in Venezuela.MethodsLife tables were computed with corrected age-specific mortality rates from 1996 to 2013. From these, changes in life expectancy and lifespan inequality were decomposed by age and cause of death using a continuous-change model. Lifespan inequality, or variation in age at death, is measured by the standard deviation of the age-at-death distribution.ResultsFrom 1996 to 2013 in Venezuela, female life expectancy rose 3.57 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.08–4.09] years [from 75.79 (75.98–76.10) to 79.36 (78.97–79.68)], and lifespan inequality fell 1.03 (–2.96 to 1.26) years [from 18.44 (18.01–19.00) to 17.41 (17.30–18.27)]. Male life expectancy increased 1.64 (1.09–2.25) years [from 69.36 (68.89–59.70) to 71.00 (70.53–71.39)], but lifespan inequality increased 0.95 (–0.80 to 2.89) years [from 20.70 (20.24–21.08) to 21.65 (21.34–22.12)]. If violence-related death rates had not risen over this period, male life expectancy would have increased an additional 1.55 years, and lifespan inequality would have declined slightly (–0.31 years).ConclusionsAs increases in violence-related deaths among young men (ages 15–39) have slowed gains in male life expectancy and increased lifespan inequality, Venezuelan males face more uncertainty about their age at death. There is an urgent need for more accurate mortality estimates in Venezuela.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz072
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Commentary: Important lessons from the unfolding health crisis in
    • Authors: Jasilionis D; Jdanov D.
      Pages: 1601 - 1603
      Abstract: The recent study by Garcia and Aburto provides important evidence on the striking influence of violent deaths on life expectancy and lifespan disparity in Venezuela.1 The study contributes to a growing body of literature showing how deep-rooted political divides can interrupt secular long-term longevity trends. The scale of the spread of violent deaths in Venezuela is unprecedented. This crisis is, however, only one small part of the miserable story that is currently unfolding in the country. More up-to-date evidence warns of a slowdown or even a reversal of improvements in infant and maternal mortality,2 and of the growing prevalence of diseases such as malaria.3 These newly emerging health problems are occurring on top of persistently high rates of cardiovascular mortality.4
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz177
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Violent crime among Swedish military veterans after deployment to
           Afghanistan: a population-based matched cohort study
    • Authors: Pethrus C; Frisell T, Reutfors J, et al.
      Pages: 1604 - 1613
      Abstract: AbstractObjectiveTo investigate the incidence of violent crime conviction among Swedish military veterans after deployment to Afghanistan versus non-deployed comparators. The main outcome was first conviction of a violent crime, retrieved from the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention Register until December 31, 2013.MethodsThis was a cohort study of military veterans identified through personnel registers regarding deployment to Afghanistan between 2002 and 2013 (n = 5894). To each military veteran, up to five non-deployed comparators identified via the Military Service Conscription Register were matched by age, sex, conscription year, cognitive ability, psychological assessment, self-reported mental health, body mass index, antidepressants/anxiolytics prescriptions and self-harm (fully matched comparators; n = 28 895). Multivariable adjustment was made for substance abuse and previous health care visits with psychiatric diagnoses. An additional comparator group matched only for age, sex and conscription year was also used (age-sex-matched comparators; n = 29 410).ResultsDuring 21 898 person-years of follow-up (median = 3.6 years) there were 26 events among deployed military veterans compared with 98 in non-deployed fully matched comparators [12 vs 9 per 10 000 person-years, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88–2.10]. Among non-deployed age-sex-matched comparators there were 170 violent crime convictions (16 per 10 000 person-years; aHR 0.85; 95% CI 0.56–1.29). Factors associated with greater risk of violent crime convictions were younger age, lower scores on cognitive ability tests and psychological assessment, and convictions preceding deployment.ConclusionThe violent crime conviction rate after returning from military deployment to Afghanistan was not different compared with non-deployed comparators in individuals without history of violent crime convictions.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz084
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Preterm birth and selection in utero among males following the November
           2015 Paris attacks
    • Authors: Bruckner T; Lebreton É, Perrone N, et al.
      Pages: 1614 - 1622
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundOn 13 November 2015, coordinated terrorist attacks swept through Paris. This large stressor, like earlier terrorist attacks in the USA, may have perturbed the health of pregnant women. We test whether the attacks preceded an increase in the risk of preterm parturition among live-born males as well as excess male loss in utero. We focused on males on the basis of previous findings of elevated male frailty following population stressors.MethodsWe examined live births in the Paris region (n = 1 049 057) over 70 months, from January 2011 to October 2016. Interrupted time-series methods identified and removed serial correlation in the monthly risk of preterm birth; these methods employed non-linear least-squares estimation. We also repeated analyses using month of conception, and performed sensitivity tests among females as well as among male births outside Paris.ResultsMales exhibited an elevated incidence of preterm birth in November 2015 and January 2016 [risk difference for November 2015 = 0.006, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0002—0.012; risk difference for January 2016 = 0.010, 95% CI: 0.004—0.016], which equates to an 11% increase in the count of preterm births. Females, as well as males born outside Paris, showed no change in preterm delivery. The sex ratio also fell below expected values in December 2015, January 2016 and February 2016.ConclusionsAmong males, more preterm births, but fewer live births, occurred after the November 2015 Paris attacks. Future examinations of perinatal health responses to unexpected stressors may benefit from sex-specific analyses.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz089
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Risk of suicide attempt associated with isotretinoin: a nationwide cohort
           and nested case-time-control study
    • Authors: Droitcourt C; Nowak E, Rault C, et al.
      Pages: 1623 - 1635
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundIsotretinoin is the only effective treatment for severe acne. An isotretinoin-related suicide risk is still debated and under scrutiny by regulatory agencies. Our objectives were: to assess the risk of suicide attempt before, during and after isotretinoin treatment; to detect any potential triggering effect of isotretinoin initiation on suicide attempt.MethodsWe implemented a cohort and nested case-time-control study of subjects treated with oral isotretinoin (course or initiation) aged 10–50 years, using the Nationwide French Health Insurance data (2009–2016). The main outcome was hospitalized suicide attempt. Standardized incidence ratios for hospitalized suicide attempts were calculated before, during and after isotretinoin treatment. The number of isotretinoin initiations was compared in risk and control periods of 2 months using a case-time-control analysis.ResultsIn all, 443 814 patients (median age 20.0 years; interquartile range 17.0–27.0 years) were exposed to isotretinoin, amounting to 244 154 person-years, with a marked seasonality for treatment initiation. Compared with the French general population, the occurrence of suicide attempts under isotretinoin treatment was markedly lower, with a standardized incidence ratio of 0.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53–0.67]; the same applied, to a lesser extent, before and after isotretinoin treatment. In the case-time-control analysis, among cases of suicide attempt, 108 and 127 isotretinoin initiations were observed in the risk and control periods respectively (i.e. 0–2 months and 2–4 months before the date of suicide attempt). The comparison with the 1199 and 1253 initiations observed among matched controls in the same two periods yielded a case-time-control odds ratio of 0.89 (95% CI = 0.68–1.16). A sensitivity analysis using three-month periods and a complementary analysis adding completed suicides for case definition showed consistent results.ConclusionCompared with the general population, a lower risk of suicide attempt was observed among patients exposed to isotretinoin and there was no evidence for a triggering effect of isotretinoin initiation on suicide attempt. A selection of patients at lower risk for suicidal behaviour and appropriate treatment management could explain these findings. Risk management plans should therefore be maintained.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz093
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • A systematic review of validated suicide outcome classification in
           observational studies
    • Authors: Swain R; Taylor L, Braver E, et al.
      Pages: 1636 - 1649
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundSuicidal outcomes, including ideation, attempt, and completed suicide, are an important drug safety issue, though few epidemiological studies address the accuracy of suicidal outcome ascertainment. Our primary objective was to evaluate validated methods for suicidal outcome classification in electronic health care database studies.MethodsWe performed a systematic review of PubMed and EMBASE to identify studies that validated methods for suicidal outcome classification published 1 January 1990 to 15 March 2016. Abstracts and full texts were screened by two reviewers using prespecified criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for suicidal outcomes were extracted by two reviewers. Methods followed PRISMA-P guidelines, PROSPERO Protocol: 2016: CRD42016042794.ResultsWe identified 2202 citations, of which 34 validated the accuracy of measuring suicidal outcomes using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes or algorithms, chart review or vital records. ICD E-codes (E950-9) for suicide attempt had 2–19% sensitivity, and 83–100% positive predictive value (PPV). ICD algorithms that included events with ‘uncertain’ intent had 4–70% PPV. The three best-performing algorithms had 74–92% PPV, with improved sensitivity compared with E-codes. Read code algorithms had 14–68% sensitivity and 0–56% PPV. Studies estimated 19–80% sensitivity for chart review, and 41–97% sensitivity and 100% PPV for vital records.ConclusionsPharmacoepidemiological studies measuring suicidal outcomes often use methodologies with poor sensitivity or predictive value or both, which may result in underestimation of associations between drugs and suicidal behaviour. Studies should validate outcomes or use a previously validated algorithm with high PPV and acceptable sensitivity in an appropriate population and data source.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz038
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Changes in millennial adolescent mental health and health-related
           behaviours over 10 years: a population cohort comparison study
    • Authors: Patalay P; Gage S.
      Pages: 1650 - 1664
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThere is evidence that mental health problems are increasing and substance use behaviours are decreasing. This paper aimed to investigate recent trends in mental ill health and health-related behaviours in two cohorts of UK adolescents in 2005 and 2015.MethodsPrevalences in mental health (depressive symptoms, self-harm, anti-social behaviours, parent-reported difficulties) and health-related behaviours (substance use, weight, weight perception, sleep, sexual intercourse) were examined at age 14 in two UK birth cohorts; Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, N = 5627, born 1991–92) and Millennium Cohort Study (MCS, N = 11 318, born 2000–02). Prevalences and trend estimates are presented unadjusted and using propensity score matching and entropy balancing to account for differences between samples.ResultsDepressive symptoms (9% to 14.8%) and self-harm (11.8% to 14.4%) were higher in 2015 compared with 2005. Parent-reported emotional difficulties, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems were higher in 2015 compared with 2005 (5.7–8.9% to 9.7–17.7%). Conversely, substance use (tried smoking, 9.2% to 2.9%; tried alcohol, 52.1% to 43.5%, cannabis, 4.6% to 3.9%), sexual activity (2% to 0.9%) and anti-social behaviours (6.2–40.1% to 1.6–27.7%) were less common or no different. Adolescents in 2015 were spending less time sleeping (<8 h 5.7% to 11.5%), had higher body mass index (BMI) (obese, 3.8% to 7.3%) and a greater proportion perceived themselves as overweight (26.5% to 32.9%). The findings should be interpreted bearing in mind limitations in ability to adequately harmonize certain variables and account for differences in attrition rates and generalizability of the two cohorts.ConclusionsGiven health-related behaviours are often cited as risk factors for poor mental health, our findings suggest relationships between these factors might be more complex and dynamic in nature than currently understood. Substantial increases in mental health difficulties, BMI and poor sleep-related behaviours highlight an increasing public health challenge.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz006
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Paternal antidepressant use as a negative control for maternal use:
           assessing familial confounding on gestational length and anxiety traits in
    • Authors: Cohen J; Wood M, Hernández-Díaz S, et al.
      Pages: 1665 - 1672
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundMaternal antidepressant use in pregnancy has been associated with both shorter gestational length and child anxiety. We employed paternal antidepressant use as a negative-control exposure to indirectly assess whether confounding by genetic or shared familial environmental factors associated with depression may explain these associations.MethodsThe study sample came from the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) that recruited participants from 1999 to 2008. We included 70 959 families where the father completed a questionnaire about medication use in the 6 months prior to pregnancy. In 42 511 infants who completed the 3-year follow-up, we computed Z-scores for the anxiety domain of the Child Behavior Checklist. We used linear and logistic regression to assess the association between paternal antidepressant use, gestational age at birth and child anxiety.ResultsAntidepressants were used by 1.1% (n = 755) of fathers. Paternal antidepressant use was not associated with gestational age at birth [β = 0.63 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) –1.56, 0.31] whereas it was positively associated with a child anxiety symptom Z-score and high anxiety symptoms (odds ratio 1.33, 95% CI 0.90, 1.97) in unadjusted analyses. This association was attenuated when controlling for maternal and paternal history of depression and other measured factors (odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 0.76, 1.69).ConclusionsThese results support the suggested effect of maternal use of antidepressants in pregnancy on shorter gestation; however, they suggest familial confounding could explain the association between maternal use of antidepressants and anxiety traits in the offspring.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz170
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Metabolic status in children and its transitions during childhood and
           adolescence—the IDEFICS/I.Family study
    • Authors: Börnhorst C; , Russo P, et al.
      Pages: 1673 - 1683
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThis study aimed to investigate metabolic status in children and its transitions into adolescence.MethodsThe analysis was based on 6768 children who participated in the European IDEFICS/I.Family cohort (T0 2007/2008, T1 2009/2010 and/or T3 2013/2014; mean ages: 6.6, 8.4 and 12.0 years, respectively) and provided at least two measurements of waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipids over time. Latent transition analysis was used to identify groups with similar metabolic status and to estimate transition probabilities.ResultsThe best-fitting model identified five latent groups: (i) metabolically healthy (61.5%; probability for group membership at T0); (ii) abdominal obesity (15.9%); (iii) hypertension (7.0%); (iv) dyslipidaemia (9.0%); and (v) several metabolic syndrome (MetS) components (6.6%). The probability of metabolically healthy children at T0 remaining healthy at T1 was 86.6%; when transitioning from T1 to T3, it was 90.1%. Metabolically healthy children further had a 6.7% probability of developing abdominal obesity at T1. Children with abdominal obesity at T0 had an 18.5% probability of developing several metabolic syndrome (MetS) components at T1. The subgroup with dyslipidaemia at T0 had the highest chances of becoming metabolically healthy at T1 (32.4%) or at T3 (35.1%). Only a minor proportion of children showing several MetS components at T0 were classified as healthy at follow-up; 99.8% and 88.3% remained in the group with several disorders at T1 and T3, respectively.ConclusionsOur study identified five distinct metabolic statuses in children and adolescents. Although lipid disturbances seem to be quite reversible, abdominal obesity is likely to be followed by further metabolic disturbances.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz097
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and timing of puberty in sons and
           daughters: a population-based cohort study
    • Authors: Brix N; Ernst A, Lauridsen L, et al.
      Pages: 1684 - 1694
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundIn many countries, an increased prevalence of obesity in pregnancy has coincided with a declining pubertal age. We aimed to explore the potential effect of maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity on timing of puberty in sons and daughters.MethodsBetween 2012 and 2018, 15 819 of 22 439 invited children from the Danish National Birth Cohort, born 2000–03, provided half-yearly information from the age of 11 years on the pubertal milestones: Tanner stages, voice break, first ejaculation, menarche, acne and axillary hair. We estimated adjusted mean monthly differences (with 95% confidence intervals) in age at attaining the pubertal milestones for children exposed to maternal pre-pregnancy obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥30.0 kg/m2] or overweight (BMI 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2) with normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2) as reference. In mediation analysis, we explored whether childhood BMI at age 7 years mediated the associations.ResultsMaternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with earlier age at attaining most pubertal milestones in sons, and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were associated with earlier age at attaining all pubertal milestones in daughters. When combining all pubertal milestones, pre-pregnancy obesity [sons: −1.5 (−2.5, −0.4) months; daughters: −3.2 (−4.2, −2.1) months] and overweight [daughters only: −2.6 (−3.3, −1.8) months] were associated with earlier timing of puberty. The associations in sons were completely mediated by higher childhood BMI and partly so in daughters.ConclusionsMaternal pre-pregnancy obesity appears to lower timing of puberty through childhood obesity in sons and mainly through other mechanisms in daughters.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz125
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Are cannabis users less likely to gain weight' Results from a national
           3-year prospective study
    • Authors: Alshaarawy O; Anthony J.
      Pages: 1695 - 1700
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundPre-clinical studies indicate increased food intake and weight gain as cannabinoid effects. Cross-sectional epidemiological studies, however, indicate lower prevalence of obesity among cannabis users. Here, we aim to study the weight-gain research question in the prospectively conducted National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).MethodsNESARC was designed to produce nationally representative estimates for the US population. Participants (aged 18+) completed computer-assisted personal interviews on cannabis use, body weight and height at Waves 1 (W1, 2001–02) and 2 (W2, 2004–05). General linear modelling yields estimates for change in body mass index (BMI) regressed on cannabis-use status, with covariate adjustment based on a conceptual model for BMI determinants (n = 33 000).ResultsAt W2, 77% of the participants never used cannabis, 18% had discontinued use (‘quit’), 3% were initiates and 2% were persistent users. Estimated W1-to-W2 BMI change shows an increase for all subgroups. Compared with never-users (reference), inverse slope estimates and attenuated change (%) in BMI between W1 and W2 are seen for cannabis-use subgroups: quitters [β = –0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) = –1.01, –0.60], initiates (β = –0.97; 95% CI = –1.36, –0.57) and persistent users (β = –1.26; 95% CI = –1.81, –0.72).ConclusionThis new prospective study builds from anecdotes, pre-clinical studies and cross-sectional evidence on inverse associations linking cannabis use and obesity and shows an inverse cannabis–BMI increase association. Confirmatory studies with rigorous cannabis and BMI assays will be needed.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz044
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Life-course socioeconomic differences and social mobility in preventable
           and non-preventable mortality: a study of Swedish twins
    • Authors: Ericsson M; Pedersen N, Johansson A, et al.
      Pages: 1701 - 1709
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundDespite advances in life expectancy, low socioeconomic status is associated with a shorter lifespan. This study was conducted to investigate socioeconomic differences in mortality by comparing preventable with non-preventable causes of death in 39 506 participants from the Swedish Twin Registry born before 1935.MethodsChildhood social class, own education, own social class and social mobility were used as separate indicators of socioeconomic status. These data were linked to the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Cause of death was categorized as preventable or non-preventable mortality according to indicators presented in the Avoidable Mortality in the European Union (AMIEHS) atlas. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we tested the association between the socioeconomic measures and all-cause mortality, preventable mortality and non-preventable mortality. Additional co-twin control analyses indicated whether the associations reflected genetic confounding.ResultsThe social gradient for mortality was most prominent for the adult socioeconomic measures. There was a social gradient in both preventable mortality and non-preventable mortality, but with an indication of a moderately stronger effect in preventable causes of death. In analyses of social mobility, those who experienced life-time low socioeconomic status (SES) or downward social mobility had an increased mortality risk compared with those with life-time high SES and upward social mobility. Adjustments for genetic confounding did not change the observed associations for education, social class or social mobility and mortality. In the co-twin control analyses of reared-apart twins, the association between childhood social class and mortality weakened, indicating possible genetic influences on this association.ConclusionsOur results indicate that there is an association between low adult socioeconomic status and increased mortality independent of genetic endowment. Thus, we do not find support for indirect social selection as the basis for mortality inequalities in Sweden
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz042
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Compared with whom' Reference groups in socio-economic comparisons and
           self-reported health in 34 countries
    • Authors: Gugushvili A; Jarosz E, McKee M.
      Pages: 1710 - 1720
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe association between socio-economic position and health is believed to be mediated, in part, by psycho-social comparison of one’s situation with that of others. But with whom' Possibilities include family, friends, elites, or even those in other countries or in previous times. So far, there has been almost no research on whether the reference point matters.MethodsWe take advantage of a comparative data set that, uniquely, allows us to ask this question. The Life in Transition Survey was conducted in four Southern European and 30 Central and Eastern European and Eurasian countries. We sought differences in the probability of good self-reported health among those using different reference groups, including own family, friends and neighbours, domestic elites, people living in other countries and those living prior to a major politico-economic transition. We used multivariable and multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions and estimated treatment effects via the regression adjustment of Poisson models.ResultsIn most cases the choice of reference group did not matter but in some it did. Among men in Eastern European and Eurasian societies, those who compared themselves with their parents and their own families before the start of transition were less likely to report good health compared with those who did not compare their own economic situation with any specific reference group.ConclusionsFor some individuals, the choice of who to compare one’s situation with does seem to matter, pointing to an area for future investigation in research on psycho-social determinants of health.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz122
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Reflection on modern methods: calculating a sample size for a
           repeatability sub-study to correct for measurement error in a single
           continuous exposure
    • Authors: Morgan K; Cook S, Leon D, et al.
      Pages: 1721 - 1726
      Abstract: AbstractUsing a continuous exposure variable that is measured with random error in a univariable linear regression model leads to regression dilution bias: the observed association between the exposure and outcome is smaller than it would be if the true value of the exposure could be used. A repeatability sub-study, where a sample of study participants have their data measured again, can be used to correct for this bias. It is important to perform a sample size calculation for such a sub-study, to ensure that correction factors can be estimated with sufficient precision. We describe how a previously published method can be used to calculate the sample size from the anticipated size of the correction factor and its desired precision, and demonstrate this approach using the example of the cross-sectional studies conducted as part of the International Project on Cardiovascular Disease in Russia study. We also provide correction factors calculated from repeat data from the UK Biobank study, which can be used to help plan future repeatability studies.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz055
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Body mass index and the association between low-density lipoprotein
    • Authors: Kar S; Brenner H, Giles G, et al.
      Pages: 1727 - 1730
      Abstract: Orho-Melander et al. recently reported that lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) as predicted by the T-allele of the variant rs12916 in HMGCR was associated with a decreased risk of developing breast cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82–0.96].1 Their analysis was embedded in a wider Mendelian randomization (MR) study performed using genotype data from a prospective cohort of 26 589 individuals that included 16 022 women and 1176 incident breast cancer cases. HMGCR encodes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, the enzyme inhibited by statins. The T-allele of rs12916 is associated with reduced HMGCR expression and therefore, in principle, its associations should be analogous to the effects of lifelong statin administration starting at birth.2 The MR study of Orho-Melander et al. also found that a genome-wide LDLC score based on 32 independent LDLC-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was not associated with breast cancer. In light of this finding, they suggested that the protective association of the rs12916 T-allele with breast cancer may be the result of a distinct non-LDLC-based mechanism that is regulated by rs12916 and HMGCR.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz047
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Methodological point on mediation analysis
    • Authors: Mokhayeri Y; Mansournia M.
      Pages: 1730 - 1731
      Abstract: Recently, King et al.1 assessed the effect of disability on mental health through bullying in adolescents using a causal mediation analysis method developed by Valeri and VanderWeele2 in which exposure–mediator interactions are allowed. In the latter method, one can only handle time-fixed exposure and mediator, and, for this reason, the authors only used the exposure in wave 5 and mediator (and outcome) in wave 6. They also adjusted for the baseline confounders measured in wave 4 that are assumed to confound the exposure–mediator, mediator–outcome, and exposure–outcome effects, as represented in the causal diagram in Figure 2, which is a restrictive assumption. However, exposure (disability), mediator (bullying), outcome (mental health), and some confounders (e.g. parental depression, although the authors said that it changed negligibly across the waves without presenting any evidence for this) are time-varying variables, and ignorance of time-varying setting, as well as lack of temporality between mediator and outcome, may result in residual confounding as well as measurement bias. Hence, we think that more recent causal methods, such as the parametric mediational g-formula,3 should be used to appropriately account for time-varying setting and confounding affected by previous exposure.4,5
      PubDate: Wed, 29 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz104
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Response to: Methodological point on mediation analysis
    • Authors: King T; Aitken Z, Milner A, et al.
      Pages: 1731 - 1732
      Abstract: We thank Mokhayeri and Mansournia for their considered comments relating to our recent article,1 and we are happy to clarify some points raised.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz105
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Early life exposure to farm animals and symptoms of asthma,
           rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema: an ISAAC Phase Three Study
    • Authors: Brunekreef B; Mutius E, Wong G, et al.
      Pages: 1733 - 1733
      Abstract: First published online: 27 January 2012, Int J Epidemiol 2012; 41: 753–61. doi:
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz171
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Cohort profile: Extended Cohort for E-health, Environment and DNA (EXCEED)
    • Authors: John C; Reeve N, Free R, et al.
      Pages: 1734 - 1734
      Abstract: First published online: 7 May 2019, Int J Epidemiol 2019; 48: 678–79j. doi:
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz175
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
  • Commentary: Causal associations between inflammation, cardiometabolic
           markers and schizophrenia: the known unknowns
    • Authors: Khandaker G.
      Pages: 1735 - 1735
      Abstract: First published online: 28 September 2019, Int J Epidemiol 2019; 48: 1516–18, doi:
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz226
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2019)
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