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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 406 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 347, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 604, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Epidemiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.969
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 259  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0300-5771 - ISSN (Online) 1464-3685
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [406 journals]
  • Maternal anthropometry: trends and inequalities in four population-based
           birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982–2015
    • Authors: Horta B; Barros F, Lima N, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundPre-pregnancy nutritional status and weight gain during pregnancy have short- and long-term consequences for the health of women and children. This study was aimed at evaluating maternal height,- and overweight or obesity at the beginning of the pregnancy and gestational weight gain, according to socioeconomic status and maternal skin colour of mothers in Pelotas, a southern Brazilian city, in 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015.MethodsIn 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015, the maternity hospitals in Pelotas were visited daily, all deliveries were identified and mothers who lived in the urban area of the city were interviewed. Maternal weight at the beginning of the pregnancy was self-reported by the mother or obtained from the antenatal card. Maternal height was collected from the maternity records or measured by the research team. Overweight or obesity was defined by a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. Gestational weight gain was evaluated according to the Institute of Medicine guidelines.ResultsIn the four cohorts, we evaluated 19 931 women. From 1982 to 2015, the prevalence of overweight or obesity at the beginning of the pregnancy increased from 22.1% to 47.0% and height increased by an average of 5.2 cm, whereas gestational weight gain did not change. Socioeconomic status was positively associated with maternal height, and the difference between the poorest and the wealthiest decreased. Overweight or obesity was lower among those mothers in the extreme categories of family income.ConclusionsOver the 33-year span, mothers were taller at the beginning of the pregnancy, but the prevalence of overweight or obesity more than doubled.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy278
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. Supplement_1 (2019)
  • Monitoring trends in socioeconomic, maternal and child health inequalities
    • Authors: Silva A.
      Abstract: Socioeconomic inequalities are greatest in low-income countries.1 African and Latin American countries manifest the highest rates of inequalities, whereas Scandinavia and Eastern Europe exhibit the lowest.2 Poverty is associated with worse physical and mental health. Less equal societies have lower child well-being indicators and higher infant mortality rates compared with more equal countries.1 Socioeconomic inequalities decreased in most developed countries from 1910 to 1950 and then levelled off, but from 1980 onwards, inequalities in rich nations started to increase again.3
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz024
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. Supplement_1 (2019)
  • Hospital admissions in the first year of life: inequalities over three
           decades in a southern Brazilian city
    • Authors: Wehrmeister F; Victora C, Horta B, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundHospital admissions in infancy are declining in several countries. We describe admissions to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and other hospitalizations over a 33-year period in the Brazilian city of Pelotas.MethodsWe analysed data from four population-based birth cohorts launched in 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015, each including all hospital births in the calendar year. NICU and other hospital admissions during infancy were reported by the mothers in the perinatal interview and at the 12-month visit, respectively. We describe these outcomes by sex of the child, family income and maternal skin colour.ResultsIn 1982, NICUs did not exist in the city; admissions into NICUs increased from 2.7% of all newborns in 1993 to 6.7% in 2015, and admission rates were similar in all income groups. Hospitalizations during the first year of life fell by 29%, from 23.7% in 1982 to 16.8% in 2015, and diarrhoea admissions fell by 95.2%. Pneumonia admissions fell by 46.3% from 1993 to 2015 (no data available for 1982). Admissions due to perinatal causes increased during the period. In the poorest income quintile, total admissions fell by 33% (from 35.7% to 23.9%), but in the richest quintile these remained stable at around 10%, leading to a reduction in inequalities. Over the whole period, children born to women with black or brown skin were 30% more likely to be admitted than those of white-skinned mothers.ConclusionsWhereas NICU admissions increased, total admissions in the first year of life declined by nearly one-third. Socioeconomic disparities were reduced, but important gaps remain.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy228
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. Supplement_1 (2019)
  • Breastfeeding exclusivity and duration: trends and inequalities in four
           population-based birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982–2015
    • Authors: Santos I; Barros F, Horta B, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundBrazil has made substantial improvements in the duration of breastfeeding. We use data from four population-based cohorts to examine how trends and inequalities in breastfeeding indicators changed over time in a Brazilian city.MethodsData from four birth cohorts, each including all births in a calendar year (1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015) in the city of Pelotas were used. Information on breastfeeding was collected when children were aged between 3 and 20 months. The prevalences of continued breastfeeding at 1 year of age and of exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months were calculated according to family income, maternal skin colour and sex.ResultsPrevalence of breastfeeding at 12 months increased from 16% to 41% in the 33-year period. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months increased from 7% in 1993 to 45% in 2015. Increases in exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months were seen in all socioeconomic groups, but the 2015 rates remain highest (57.2%) among the women in the richest quintile, and lowest among those in the poorest quintile (34.6%). Black mothers were more likely to breastfeed at 12 months than Whites in the four cohorts. In the earlier cohorts, breastfeeding at 12 months was more common among the poor, but by 2015 these differences had disappeared.ConclusionsThere were important positive changes in breastfeeding practices during this period, but less than half of the children in 2015 were receiving the full benefits of breast milk. Improved breastfeeding practices are being adopted by high-income women to a greater extent than by poor women.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy159
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. Supplement_1 (2019)
  • Commentary: A tale of many cities in one: the Pelotas (Brazil) Birth
           Cohorts, 1982–2015
    • Authors: Barros F; Victora C.
      Abstract: The nine articles in this Supplement present the main results from over three decades of epidemiological research in the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Our first perinatal study was inspired by the British Births study of 1970, to which we were exposed as young trainees in the UK. With the strong support of Prof. Patrick Vaughan from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, who supervised our doctoral degrees, we obtained international funding from Canada (International Development Research Center) and the UK (Overseas Development Administration) to launch the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort study. Since then, a new cohort has been launched every 11 years. Over 20 000 subjects, in our city of 340 000 inhabitants, are being followed up from birth. These datasets allow not only analyses of life course epidemiology within a given cohort, but also panel type, secular trend analyses in which individuals of similar age in the four cohorts are compared.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy214
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. Supplement_1 (2019)
  • Antenatal care and caesarean sections: trends and inequalities in four
           population-based birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982–2015
    • Authors: Barros A; Victora C, Horta B, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundAntenatal care and correctly indicated caesarean section can positively impact on health outcomes of the mother and newborn. Our objective was to describe how coverage and inequalities for these interventions changed from 1982 to 2015 in Pelotas, Brazil.MethodsUsing perinatal data from the 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015 Pelotas birth cohorts, we assessed antenatal care coverage and caesarean section rates over time. Antenatal care indicators included the median number of visits, the prevalence of mothers attending at least six visits and the proportion who started antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy and attended at least six visits. We described these outcomes according to income quintiles and maternal skin colour, to identify inequalities. We described overall, private sector and public sector caesarean section rates. Differences in prevalence were tested using chi-square testing and median differences using Kruskal-Wallis testing.ResultsFrom 1982 to 2015, the median number of antenatal care visits and the prevalence of mothers attending at least six visits increased in all income quintiles and skin colour groups. Inequalities were reduced, but not eliminated. The overall proportion of caesarean births increased from 27.6% in 1982 to 65.1% in 2015, when 93.9% of the births in the private sector were by caesarean section. Absolute income-related inequalities in caesarean sections increased over time.ConclusionsSpecial attention should be given to the antenatal care of poor and Black women in order to reduce inequalities. The explosive increase in caesarean sections requires radical changes in delivery care policies, in order to reverse the current trend.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy211
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. Supplement_1 (2019)
  • Infant nutrition and growth: trends and inequalities in four
           population-based birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982–2015
    • Authors: Gonçalves H; Barros F, Buffarini R, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundLevels of child undernutrition have declined in many middle-income countries, whereas overweight and obesity have increased. We describe time trends in nutritional indicators at age 1 year in the 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohorts.MethodsEach study included all children born in the urban area of the city, with over 4 200 births in each cohort. Children were measured at approximately 12 months of age. Anthropometric indicators were calculated according to World Health Organization Growth Standards. Stunting and wasting were defined as <-2 Z scores for length for age and weight for length, and overweight as >2 Z scores for weight for length. Prevalence was stratified by sex, maternal skin colour and family income.ResultsThe prevalence of stunting declined by 53% (from 8.3% to 3.9%) from 1982 to 2015. Wasting prevalence remained stable at low levels (1.8% in 1982 and 1.7% in 2015), whereas overweight increased by 88% (6.5% to 12.2%). Undernutrition was more common among boys, those born to mothers with brown or black skin colour and in the poorest quintile of families. Socioeconomic inequalities in undernutrition decreased markedly over time. Overweight was markedly more common among the rich in 1982, but fast increase among the poor eliminated socioeconomic differences by 2015, when all groups showed similar prevalence.ConclusionsOur results confirm the rapid nutrition transition in Brazil, with marked reduction in levels and inequalities in undernutrition in parallel with a rapid increase in overweight, which became the main nutritional problem for children.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy233
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. Supplement_1 (2019)
  • Maternal reproductive history: trends and inequalities in four
           population-based birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982–2015
    • Authors: Matijasevich A; Victora C, Silveira M, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundBrazil experienced important progress in maternal and child health in recent decades. We aimed at describing secular trends as well as socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in reproductive history indicators (birth spacing, previous adverse perinatal outcome, parity and multiple births) over a 33-year span.MethodsFour population-based birth cohort studies included all hospital births in 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Information on reproductive history was collected through interviews. Indicators were stratified by family income quintiles and skin colour. Absolute and relative measures of inequality were calculated.ResultsFrom 1982 to 2015, the proportion of primiparae increased from 39.2% to 49.6%, and median birth interval increased by 23.2 months. Poor women were more likely to report short intervals and higher parity, although reductions were observed in all income and ethnic groups. History of previous low birthweight was inversely related to income and increased by 7.7% points (pp) over time—more rapidly in the richest (12.1 pp) than in the poorest quintile (0.4 pp). Multiple births increased from 1.7% to 2.7%, with the highest increase observed among the richest quintile and for white women (220% and 70% increase, respectively). Absolute and relative income and ethnic-related inequalities for short birth intervals increased, whereas inequalities for previous low birthweight decreased over time.ConclusionsIn this 33-year period there were increases in birth intervals, multiple births and reports of previous low-birthweight infants. These trends may be explained by increased family planning coverage, assisted reproduction and a rise in preterm births, respectively. Our results show that socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in health are dynamic and vary over time, within the same location.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy169
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. Supplement_1 (2019)
  • Trends and inequalities in maternal and child health in a Brazilian city:
           methodology and sociodemographic description of four population-based
           birth cohort studies, 1982–2015
    • Authors: Bertoldi A; Barros F, Hallal P, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundFew low-middle-income countries have data from comparable birth cohort studies spanning over time. We report on the methods used by the Pelotas cohorts (1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015) and describe time trends in sociodemographic characteristics of the participant families.MethodsDuring the four study years, all maternity hospitals in the city were visited daily, and all urban women giving birth were enrolled. Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were collected using standardized questionnaires, including data on maternal and paternal skin colour, age and schooling, maternal marital status, family income and household characteristics. The analyses included comparisons of time trends and of socioeconomic and ethnic group inequalities.ResultsDespite a near 50% increase in the city’s population between 1982 and 2015, the total number of births declined from 6011 to 4387. The proportion of mothers aged ≥35 years increased from 9.9% to 14.8%, and average maternal schooling from 6.5 [standard deviation (SD) 4.2] to 10.1 (SD 4.0) years. Treated water was available in 95.3% of households in 1982 and 99.3% in 2015. Three-quarters of the families had a refrigerator in 1982, compared with 98.3% in 2015. Absolute income-related inequalities in maternal schooling, household crowding, household appliances and access to treated water were markedly reduced between 1982 and 2015. Maternal skin colour was associated with inequalities in age at childbearing and schooling, as well as with household characteristics.ConclusionsDuring the 33-year period, there were positive changes in social and environmental determinants of health, including income, education, fertility and characteristics of the home environment. Socioeconomic inequality was also reduced.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy170
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. Supplement_1 (2019)
  • Stillbirth, newborn and infant mortality: trends and inequalities in four
           population-based birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982–2015
    • Authors: Menezes A; Barros F, Horta B, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundInfant-mortality rates have been declining in many low- and middle-income countries, including Brazil. Information on causes of death and on socio-economic inequalities is scarce.MethodsFour birth cohorts were carried out in the city of Pelotas in 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015, each including all hospital births in the calendar year. Surveillance in hospitals and vital registries, accompanied by interviews with doctors and families, detected fetal and infant deaths and ascertained their causes. Late-fetal (stillbirth)-, neonatal- and post-neonatal-death rates were calculated.ResultsAll-cause and cause-specific death rates were reduced. During the study period, stillbirths fell by 47.8% (from 16.1 to 8.4 per 1000), neonatal mortality by 57.0% (from 20.1 to 8.7) and infant mortality by 62.0% (from 36.4 to 13.8). Perinatal causes were the leading causes of death in the four cohorts; deaths due to infectious diseases showed the largest reductions, with diarrhoea causing 25 deaths in 1982 and none in 2015. Late-fetal-, neonatal- and infant-mortality rates were higher for children born to Brown or Black women and to low-income women. Absolute socio-economic inequalities based on income—expressed in deaths per 1000 births—were reduced over time but relative inequalities—expressed as ratios of mortality rates—tended to remain stable.ConclusionThe observed improvements are likely due to progress in social determinants of health and expansion of health care. In spite of progress, current levels remain substantially greater than those observed in high-income countries, and social and ethnic inequalities persist.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy129
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. Supplement_1 (2019)
  • Low birthweight and preterm birth: trends and inequalities in four
           population-based birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982–2015
    • Authors: Silveira M; Victora C, Horta B, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundDespite positive changes in most maternal risk factors in Brazil, previous studies did not show reductions in preterm birth and low birthweight. We analysed trends and inequalities in these outcomes over a 33-year period in a Brazilian city.MethodsFour population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in the city of Pelotas in 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015, with samples ranging from 4231 to 5914 liveborn children. Low birthweight (LBW) was defined as <2500 g, and preterm birth as less than 37 weeks of gestation. Information was collected on family income, maternal skin colour and other risk factors for low birthweight. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the contribution of risk factors to time trends in birthweight.ResultsPreterm births increased from 5.8% (1982) to 13.8% (2015), and LBW prevalence increased from 9.0% to 10.1%, being higher for boys and for children born to mothers with low income and brown or black skin colour. Mean birthweight remained stable, around 3200 g, but increased from 3058 to 3146 g in the poorest quintile and decreased from 3307 to 3227 g in the richest quintile. After adjustment for risk factors for LBW, mean birthweight was estimated to have declined by 160 g over 1982–2015 (reductions of 103 g in the poorest and 213 g in the richest quintiles).ConclusionsData from four birth cohorts show that preterm births increased markedly. Mean birthweights remained stable over a 33-year period. Increased prevalence of preterm and early term births, associated with high levels of obstetric interventions, has offset the expected improvements due to reduction in risk factors for low birthweight.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy106
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. Supplement_1 (2018)
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