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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 528, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Integrative and Comparative Biology
  [SJR: 1.911]   [H-I: 90]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1540-7063 - ISSN (Online) 1557-7023
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • With a Little Help from My Friends: Microbial Partners in Integrative and
           Comparative Biology—An Introduction to the Symposium
    • Authors: Kohl KD; Dearing M.
      Pages: 669 - 673
      Abstract: SynopsisThe role that host-associated microbes play in animal biology is gaining attention in comparative biology. Numerous research groups study the roles that microbes play in human health and nutrition, or in enhancing the production of agricultural animals. However, inclusion of host-associated microbes into research questions of integrative and comparative biology has lagged behind. We hosted a symposium to bring together top researchers in the field of host-associated microbes who also incorporate aspects of integrative and comparative biology. In this introduction, we highlight recent research demonstrating the profound roles that host-associated microbes play in many aspects of animal biology, such as immune function, endocrinology, and even behavior. It is our hope that integrative and comparative biologists will begin to include aspects of host-associated microbes into their research programs, enhancing both the fields of comparative biology and host–microbe interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx103
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • An Introductory “How-to” Guide for Incorporating Microbiome Research
           into Integrative and Comparative Biology
    • Authors: Kohl KD.
      Pages: 674 - 681
      Abstract: SynopsisResearch on host-associated microbial communities has grown rapidly. Despite the great body of work, inclusion of microbiota-related questions into integrative and comparative biology is still lagging behind other disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to offer an introduction into the basic tools and techniques of host-microbe research. Specifically, what considerations should be made before embarking on such projects (types of samples, types of controls)' How is microbiome data analyzed and integrated with data measured from the hosts' How can researchers experimentally manipulate the microbiome' With this information, integrative and comparative biologists should be able to include host-microbe studies into their research and push the boundaries of both fields.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx013
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Diversity and Persistence of the Gut Microbiome of the Giant Neotropical
           Bullet Ant
    • Authors: Moreau CS; Rubin BR.
      Pages: 682 - 689
      Abstract: SynopsisIdentifying the factors that structure host-associated microbiota is critical to understand the role these microbes may play in host ecology and evolutionary history. To begin to address this question we investigate the diversity and persistence of the bacterial community of the giant Neotropical bullet ant, Paraponera clavata. We included samples from four widely dispersed locations to address the role geography plays in shaping these communities. To understand how the digestive tract can filter bacterial communities, we sampled mouth and gut communities. To investigate the stability of community members we sampled wild caught and individuals kept on a sterile diet. Only a single bacterial taxon in the Firmicutes is consistently present across individuals, indicating a remarkably simple “core” bacterial community for the giant Neotropical bullet ant. Geography did not explain host bacterial diversity, but we did find significant reductions in diversity between the mouth and the gut tract. Lastly, our diet manipulations highlight the importance of controlled experiments to tease apart persistent microbial communities from environmental transients.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx037
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • The Effects of Captivity on the Mammalian Gut Microbiome
    • Authors: McKenzie VJ; Song S, Delsuc F, et al.
      Pages: 690 - 704
      Abstract: SynopsisRecent studies increasingly note the effect of captivity or the built environment on the microbiome of humans and other animals. As symbiotic microbes are essential to many aspects of biology (e.g., digestive and immune functions), it is important to understand how lifestyle differences can impact the microbiome, and, consequently, the health of hosts. Animals living in captivity experience a range of changes that may influence the gut bacteria, such as diet changes, treatments, and reduced contact with other individuals, species and variable environmental substrates that act as sources of bacterial diversity. Thus far, initial results from previous studies point to a pattern of decreased bacterial diversity in captive animals. However, these studies are relatively limited in the scope of species that have been examined. Here we present a dataset that includes paired wild and captive samples from mammalian taxa across six Orders to investigate generalizable patterns of the effects captivity on mammalian gut bacteria. In comparing the wild to the captive condition, our results indicate that alpha diversity of the gut bacteria remains consistent in some mammalian hosts (bovids, giraffes, anteaters, and aardvarks), declines in the captive condition in some hosts (canids, primates, and equids), and increases in the captive condition in one host taxon (rhinoceros). Differences in gut bacterial beta diversity between the captive and wild state were observed for most of the taxa surveyed, except the even-toed ungulates (bovids and giraffes). Additionally, beta diversity variation was also strongly influenced by host taxonomic group, diet type, and gut fermentation physiology. Bacterial taxa that demonstrated larger shifts in relative abundance between the captive and wild states included members of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Overall, the patterns that we observe will inform a range of disciplines from veterinary practice to captive breeding efforts for biological conservation. Furthermore, bacterial taxa that persist in the captive state provide unique insight into symbiotic relationships with the host.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx090
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Dramatic Differences in Gut Bacterial Densities Correlate with Diet and
           Habitat in Rainforest Ants
    • Authors: Sanders JG; Łukasik P, Frederickson ME, et al.
      Pages: 705 - 722
      Abstract: SynopsisAbundance is a key parameter in microbial ecology, and important to estimates of potential metabolite flux, impacts of dispersal, and sensitivity of samples to technical biases such as laboratory contamination. However, modern amplicon-based sequencing techniques by themselves typically provide no information about the absolute abundance of microbes. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction as independent estimates of microbial abundance to test the hypothesis that microbial symbionts have enabled ants to dominate tropical rainforest canopies by facilitating herbivorous diets, and compare these methods to microbial diversity profiles from 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Through a systematic survey of ants from a lowland tropical forest, we show that the density of gut microbiota varies across several orders of magnitude among ant lineages, with median individuals from many genera only marginally above detection limits. Supporting the hypothesis that microbial symbiosis is important to dominance in the canopy, we find that the abundance of gut bacteria is positively correlated with stable isotope proxies of herbivory among canopy-dwelling ants, but not among ground-dwelling ants. Notably, these broad findings are much more evident in the quantitative data than in the 16S rRNA sequencing data. Our results provide quantitative context to the potential role of bacteria in facilitating the ants’ dominance of the tropical rainforest canopy, and have broad implications for the interpretation of sequence-based surveys of microbial diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx088
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Beyond Fermentation: Other Important Services Provided to Endothermic
           Herbivores by their Gut Microbiota
    • Authors: Dearing M; Kohl KD.
      Pages: 723 - 731
      Abstract: SynopsisFor decades, comparative biologists have recognized the importance of microbial partners in facilitating herbivory as a successful feeding strategy. Most of this success is attributed to the ability of gut microbes to digest recalcitrant dietary fiber and provides usable nutrients to their hosts. Gut microbes can also provide numerous other functions, such as vitamin synthesis, nitrogen recycling, and the detoxification of plant secondary compounds. Here, we review these microbial functions in herbivorous mammals and birds, highlighting studies that utilize recently developed metagenomic techniques. Several of these studies emphasize that microbial services are the product of interactions and exchanges within a complex microbial community, rather than the product of an individual member. Additionally, a number of these microbial functions are interdependent. For example, levels of dietary nitrogen or plant toxins can influence fiber digestibility. Further studies into the variety of microbial services provided to herbivorous hosts, and how these services might interact will broaden our understanding of host–microbe interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx020
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Early-Life Diet Affects Host Microbiota and Later-Life Defenses Against
           Parasites in Frogs
    • Authors: Knutie SA; Shea LA, Kupselaitis M, et al.
      Pages: 732 - 742
      Abstract: SynopsisFood resources can affect the health of organisms by altering their symbiotic microbiota and affecting energy reserves for host defenses against parasites. Different diets can vary in their macronutrient content and therefore they might favor certain bacterial communities of the host and affect the development and maintenance of the immune system, such as the inflammatory or antibody responses. Thus, testing the effect of diet, especially for animals with wide diet breadths, on host-associated microbiota and defenses against parasites might be important in determining infection and disease risk. Here, we test whether the early-life diet of Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) affects early- and later-life microbiota as well as later-life defenses against skin-penetrating, gut worms (Aplectana hamatospicula). We fed tadpoles two ecologically common diets: a diet of conspecifics or a diet of algae (Arthrospira sp.). We then: (1) characterized the gut microbiota of tadpoles and adults; and (2) challenged adult frogs with parasitic worms and measured host resistance (including the antibody-mediated immune response) and tolerance of infections. Tadpole diet affected bacterial communities in the guts of tadpoles but did not have enduring effects on the bacterial communities of adults. In contrast, tadpole diet had enduring effects on host resistance and tolerance of infections in adult frogs. Frogs that were fed a conspecific-based diet as tadpoles were more resistant to worm penetration compared with frogs that were fed an alga-based diet as tadpoles, but less resistant to worm establishment, which may be related to their suppressed antibody response during worm establishment. Furthermore, frogs that were fed a conspecific-based diet as tadpoles were more tolerant to the effect of parasite abundance on host mass during worm establishment. Overall, our study demonstrates that the diet of Cuban tree frog tadpoles affects the gut microbiota and defenses against parasitic gut worms of frogs, but these effects depend on the stage of the host and infection, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx028
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Microbiome Structural and Functional Interactions across Host Dietary
           Niche Space
    • Authors: Phillips CD; Hanson J, Wilkinson JE, et al.
      Pages: 743 - 755
      Abstract: SynopsisHost-associated microbiomes are integral components of host health, but microbiome community structure varies among and within hosts. Reconciling community variability with the apparent dependence of hosts on community function, and characterizing how functional divergence proceeds across niches, remains challenging. Here, through the study of gut microbiomes and diets of three insectivorous bat species we characterize how community structure is shaped by predicted functional properties of community members. We found that while host diet and microbiome community composition do not significantly relate to each other, host diet and metagenome function do, suggesting that diet directly selects metagenomic functions rather than communities. We use a novel inference framework to show how the discordance between community structure and functional variation derives from functional equivalence and is influenced by the continuum of shared and derived gene sets across microbial lineages. Our findings help clarify how metagenome community structure–function relationships contribute to deterministic processes in community assembly, and describe the basis for metagenomic differences across ecologically similar hosts.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx011
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Links between Natural Variation in the Microbiome and Host Fitness in Wild
    • Authors: Suzuki TA.
      Pages: 756 - 769
      Abstract: SynopsisRecent studies in model organisms have shown that compositional variation in the microbiome can affect a variety of host phenotypes including those related to digestion, development, immunity, and behavior. Natural variation in the microbiome within and between natural populations and species may also affect host phenotypes and thus fitness in the wild. Here, I review recent evidence that compositional variation in the microbiome may affect host phenotypes and fitness in wild mammals. Studies over the last decade indicate that natural variation in the mammalian microbiome may be important in the assistance of energy uptake from different diet types, detoxification of plant secondary compounds, protection from pathogens, chemical communication, and behavior. I discuss the importance of combining both field observations and manipulative experiments in a single system to fully characterize the functions and fitness effects of the microbiome. Finally, I discuss the evolutionary consequences of mammal–microbiome associations by proposing a framework to test how natural selection on hosts is mediated by the microbiome.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx104
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Group Living and Male Dispersal Predict the Core Gut Microbiome in Wild
    • Authors: Grieneisen LE; Livermore J, Alberts S, et al.
      Pages: 770 - 785
      Abstract: Synopsis The mammalian gut microbiome plays a profound role in the physiology, metabolism, and overall health of its host. However, biologists have only a nascent understanding of the forces that drive inter-individual heterogeneity in gut microbial composition, especially the role of host social environment. Here we used 178 samples from 78 wild yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) living in two social groups to test how host social context, including group living, social interactions within groups, and transfer between social groups (e.g., dispersal) predict inter-individual variation in gut microbial alpha and beta diversity. We also tested whether social effects differed for prevalent “core” gut microbial taxa, which are thought to provide primary functions to hosts, versus rare “non-core” microbes, which may represent relatively transient environmental acquisitions. Confirming prior studies, we found that each social group harbored a distinct gut microbial community. These differences included both non-core and core gut microbial taxa, suggesting that these effects are not solely driven by recent gut microbial exposures. Within social groups, close grooming partners had more similar core microbiomes, but not non-core microbiomes, than individuals who rarely groomed each other, even controlling for kinship and diet similarity between grooming partners. Finally, in support of the idea that the gut microbiome can be altered by current social context, we found that the longer an immigrant male had lived in a given social group, the more closely his gut microbiome resembled the gut microbiomes of the group’s long-term residents. Together, these results reveal the importance of a host’s social context in shaping the gut microbiome and shed new light onto the microbiome-related consequences of male dispersal.
      PubDate: 2017-09-29
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx046
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Manipulation of Gut Microbiota Reveals Shifting Community Structure Shaped
           by Host Developmental Windows in Amphibian Larvae
    • Authors: Warne RW; Kirschman L, Zeglin L.
      Pages: 786 - 794
      Abstract: SynopsisExploration of the importance of developmental windows for microbial colonization in diverse animal taxa, and tests of how these shape both animal microbiomes as well as host phenotypes promise to shed needed light on host-microbe interactions. The aims of this study were to explore how gut microbiota diversity of larval amphibians varies among species and across ontogeny, and to test if manipulation of gut colonization can reveal how microbiomes develop. We found that gut microbiomes differ among species and change across larval ontogeny, with distinctive differences between larvae, metamorphic animals, and juvenile frogs. Through applying a gnotobiotic protocol to eggs and cross-inoculating gut microbiomes between species, we demonstrated that microbiota can be transplanted among species and developmental stages. These results also demonstrated that microbial colonization at hatching is potentially formative for long term composition and function of amphibian gut microbiomes, suggesting that hatching may be a critical developmental window for colonization, similar to the effects of birth mode on human microbiomes. Specifically, our results suggest that either the egg jelly and/or capsules surrounding amphibian eggs are likely important sources for initial microbiome inoculation. Furthermore, we speculate these results suggest that vertical transmission may be important to amphibian microbiome establishment and development, as is common among many animal taxa. Taken together, our results suggest that explicit tests of how host developmental windows influence microbial colonization, and shape amphibian microbiomes across life stages promise to provide insight into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of host-microbe interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx100
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Symposium Overview: Integrating Cognitive, Motivational, and Sensory
           Biases Underlying Acoustic- and Multimodal-Based Mate Choice
    • Authors: Lynch KS; MacDougall-Shackleton SA.
      Pages: 795 - 796
      Abstract: SynopsisThe goal of this symposium “Integrating Cognitive, Motivational and Sensory Biases Underlying Acoustic and Multimodal-Based Mate Choice” was to build a more complete framework in which to understand the mate choice brain. The presentations and papers within this symposium incorporate studies of motivational, cognitive, sensory and salience components of mate choice and highlight future directions that are needed to understand the biological basis of mate choice decision-making.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx114
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Understanding Female Receiver Psychology in Reproductive Contexts
    • Authors: Lynch KS.
      Pages: 797 - 807
      Abstract: SynopsisMate choice decision-making requires four components: sensory, cognitive, motivation, and salience. During the breeding season, the neural mechanisms underlying these components act in concert to radically transform the way a female perceives the social cues around her as well as the way in which cognitive and motivational processes influence her decision to respond to courting males. The role of each of these four components in mate choice responses will be discussed here as well as the brain regions involved in regulating each component. These components are not independent, modular systems. Instead, they are dependent on one another. This review will discuss the many ways in which these components interact and affect one another. The interaction of these components, however, ultimately leads back to a few key neuromodulators that thread motivation, sensory, salience, and cognitive components into a set of inter-dependent processes. These neuromodulators are estrogens and catecholamines. This review will highlight the need to understand estrogens in reproductive contexts not just as simply a ‘sexual motivation modulator’ or catecholamines as ‘cognitive regulators’ but as neuromodulators that work together to fully transform a non-breeding female into a completely reproductive female displaying: heightened sexual interest in courting males, greater arousal and selective attention toward courtship signals, improved signal detection and discrimination abilities, enhanced contextual signal memory, and increased motivation to respond to signals assigned incentive salience. The aim of this review is to build a foundation in which to understand the brain regions associated with cognitive, sensory, motivational, and signal salience not as independently acting systems but as a set of interacting processes that function together in a context-appropriate manner.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx018
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Neural Circuitry for Target Selection and Action Selection in Animal
    • Authors: Hoke KL; Hebets EA, Shizuka D.
      Pages: 808 - 819
      Abstract: SynopsisAnimal behaviorists have long strived for a comprehensive understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes of complex behavior, and we propose that recent advances in neurobiology can help reshape or clarify this behavior-oriented understanding. We begin with an overview of current views of neural circuit mechanisms that mediate target selection and action selection. In target selection, different stimuli compete for priority in sensory-motor processing. Action selection is the process by which multiple possible motor actions compete for priority in a manner which balances the needs of the animal with opportunities or threats in the environment. We next discuss spatial and temporal aspects of target and action selection, highlighting how neurophysiological responses to complex displays depend on spatial and temporal components of multisensory stimuli. We use two examples—(1) spatial attention as an example of target selection in the vertebrate midbrain and (2) goal-directed locomotion as an example of action selection in the insect central complex—to further clarify neural circuit dynamics as they relate to target and action selection, and their interaction. We suggest that a deeper understanding of neural circuit properties will introduce new hypotheses into behavioral studies, especially those aimed at understanding the evolution of complex displays based on receiver sensory biases. Additionally, knowledge of neural circuit properties can elucidate ways in which current context and previous experience can together modify neural circuit dynamics to produce complex context-dependent behavioral responses that often characterize animal behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx109
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Attention and Motivated Response to Simulated Male Advertisement Call
           Activates Forebrain Dopaminergic and Social Decision-Making Network Nuclei
           in Female Midshipman Fish
    • Authors: Forlano PM; Licorish RR, Ghahramani ZN, et al.
      Pages: 820 - 834
      Abstract: SynopsisLittle is known regarding the coordination of audition with decision-making and subsequent motor responses that initiate social behavior including mate localization during courtship. Using the midshipman fish model, we tested the hypothesis that the time spent by females attending and responding to the advertisement call is correlated with the activation of a specific subset of catecholaminergic (CA) and social decision-making network (SDM) nuclei underlying auditory- driven sexual motivation. In addition, we quantified the relationship of neural activation between CA and SDM nuclei in all responders with the goal of providing a map of functional connectivity of the circuitry underlying a motivated state responsive to acoustic cues during mate localization. In order to make a baseline qualitative comparison of this functional brain map to unmotivated females, we made a similar correlative comparison of brain activation in females who were unresponsive to the advertisement call playback. Our results support an important role for dopaminergic neurons in the periventricular posterior tuberculum and ventral thalamus, putative A11 and A13 tetrapod homologues, respectively, as well as the posterior parvocellular preoptic area and dorsomedial telencephalon, (laterobasal amygdala homologue) in auditory attention and appetitive sexual behavior in fishes. These findings may also offer insights into the function of these highly conserved nuclei in the context of auditory-driven reproductive social behavior across vertebrates.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx053
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Associations Between Environmental Resources and the “Wanting” and
           “Liking” of Male Song in Female Songbirds
    • Authors: Spool JA; Riters LV.
      Pages: 835 - 845
      Abstract: SynopsisReproductive success requires animals to adjust social and sexual behaviors in response to changes in environmental resources. In many species, males produce courtship signals to attract females; however, not all females are attracted by these signals. One possible explanation for this is that environmental resources alter neural mechanisms underlying motivation and reward in females so that male courtship is attractive when conditions are most favorable for an individual to breed. Here, we first introduce resource-dependent breeding behaviors of female songbirds. We then review studies that show associations between neural systems underlying motivation and reward, female responses to male courtship stimuli, and environmental resources necessary for breeding success (e.g., in female starlings, a nest cavity). Overall, we review evidence supporting the working hypotheses that (1) dopamine underlies sexually-motivated female responses to male courtship stimuli (i.e., song), (2) opioids underlie reward induced in females by hearing male courtship song, and (3) these systems are possibly modified by resources such that male courtship song is only attractive and rewarding to females with access to limited environmental resources essential for breeding success.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx117
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Social Cognition and the Neurobiology of Rodent Mate Choice
    • Authors: Kavaliers M; Choleris E.
      Pages: 846 - 856
      Abstract: SynopsisVarious aspects of sociality, including mate choice, are dependent on social information. Mate choice is a social cognitive process that encompasses mechanisms for acquiring, processing, retaining and acting on social information. Social cognition includes the acquisition of social information about others (i.e., social recognition) and social information from others (i.e., social learning). Social cognition involves both assessing other individuals and their condition (e.g., health, infection status) and deciding about when and how to interact with them, thus, providing a frame-work for examining mate choice and its associated neurobiological mechanisms. In vertebrates, and in particular rodents, odors are an essential source of direct and indirect social information not only from others but also for others. Here, we briefly consider the relations between social cognition and olfactory-mediated mate choice in rodents. We briefly discuss aspects of: (1) social recognition of potential mates and the impact of infection threat on mate choice; (2) social learning and the utilization of the mate choices of others (“mate-choice copying”) including in the context of infection; and (3) the neurobiological mechanisms, with particular focus on particular the roles of the nonapeptide, oxytocin and the steroid hormones, estrogens, associated with social cognition and mate choice.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx042
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Neurobiology of Female Mate Choice in Frogs: Auditory Filtering and
    • Authors: Burmeister SS.
      Pages: 857 - 864
      Abstract: SynopsisMate choice is a decision making process with profound implication for the reproductive success of both the sender and the chooser. Preferences for conspecific over heterospecific males and for some conspecifics over others are typically mediated by a female’s response to signals produced by males. And although one can experimentally describe a female’s preference function, there is relatively little understood about the neural mechanisms mediating these preferences. In anurans, mating preferences have often been explained in terms of sensory biases. Indeed, in the túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus), the auditory system appears to act as a filter for conspecific calls. However, auditory responses are not good predictors of intraspecific mating preferences in túngara frogs. Rather, neural activity in the preoptic area, which can be gated by estradiol, is a better predictor of mating preferences. A similar pattern holds in spadefoot toads (Spea bombifrons): the preoptic area, but not the auditory midbrain, integrates physiological cues in its response to mating calls in a pattern that predicts preferences. Neuroanatomically, the anuran preoptic area is poised to mediate forebrain influences on auditory response of the midbrain and it has descending projections to the medulla and spinal cord that could directly influence motor responses. Indeed, lesions of the preoptic area abolish phonotaxis. A role for the preoptic area in mating preferences is supported by studies in mammals that show the preoptic area is required for the expression of preferences. Further, activity of the preoptic area correlates with mating preference in fish. This leads to a model for the neurobiological mechanisms of mate choice, in which sensory systems filter relevant signals from irrelevant ones, but the preoptic area assigns value to the range of relevant signals.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx098
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Putting it in Context: Linking Auditory Processing with Social Behavior
           Circuits in the Vertebrate Brain
    • Authors: Petersen CL; Hurley LM.
      Pages: 865 - 877
      Abstract: SynopsisContext is critical to the adaptive value of communication. Sensory systems such as the auditory system represent an important juncture at which information on physiological state or social valence can be added to communicative information. However, the neural pathways that convey context to the auditory system are not well understood. The serotonergic system offers an excellent model to address these types of questions. Serotonin fluctuates in the mouse inferior colliculus (IC), an auditory midbrain region important for species-specific vocalizations, during specific social and non-social contexts. Furthermore, serotonin is an indicator of the valence of event-based changes within individual social interactions. We propose a model in which the brain’s social behavior network serves as an afferent effector of the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus in order to gate contextual release of serotonin in the IC. Specifically, discrete vasopressinergic nuclei within the hypothalamus and extended amygdala that project to the dorsal raphe are functionally engaged during contexts in which serotonin fluctuates in the IC. Since serotonin strongly influences the responses of IC neurons to social vocalizations, this pathway could serve as a feedback loop whereby integrative social centers modulate their own sources of input. The end result of this feedback would be to produce a process that is geared, from sensory input to motor output, toward responding appropriately to a dynamic external world.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx055
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Pairing Increases Activation of V1aR, but not OTR, in Auditory Regions of
           Zebra Finches: The Importance of Signal Modality in Nonapeptide-Social
           Behavior Relationships
    • Authors: Tomaszycki ML; Atchley D.
      Pages: 878 - 890
      Abstract: SynopsisSocial relationships are complex, involving the production and comprehension of signals, individual recognition, and close coordination of behavior between two or more individuals. The nonapeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are widely believed to regulate social relationships. These findings come largely from prairie voles, in which nonapeptide receptors in olfactory neural circuits drive pair bonding. This research is assumed to apply to all species. Previous reviews have offered two competing hypotheses. The work of Sarah Newman has implicated a common neural network across species, the Social Behavior Network. In contrast, others have suggested that there are signal modality-specific networks that regulate social behavior. Our research focuses on evaluating these two competing hypotheses in the zebra finch, a species that relies heavily on vocal/auditory signals for communication, specifically the neural circuits underlying singing in males and song perception in females. We have demonstrated that the quality of vocal interactions is highly important for the formation of long-term monogamous bonds in zebra finches. Qualitative evidence at first suggests that nonapeptide receptor distributions are very different between monogamous rodents (olfactory species) and monogamous birds (vocal/auditory species). However, we have demonstrated that social bonding behaviors are not only correlated with activation of nonapeptide receptors in vocal and auditory circuits, but also involve regions of the common Social Behavior Network. Here, we show increased Vasopressin 1a receptor, but not oxytocin receptor, activation in two auditory regions following formation of a pair bond. To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest a role of nonapeptides in the auditory circuit in pair bonding. Thus, we highlight converging mechanisms of social relationships and also point to the importance of studying multiple species to understand mechanisms of behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx043
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • How Song Experience Affects Female Mate-Choice, Male Song, and
           Monoaminergic Activity in the Auditory Telencephalon in Lincoln's Sparrows
    • Authors: Sockman KW; Lyons SM.
      Pages: 891 - 901
      Abstract: SynopsisA sexual signal can indicate not only the signaler's attractiveness as a potential mate but also the signaler’s competitiveness relative to rivals. As the attractiveness or competitiveness of the prevailing signaling environment increases, individuals prospecting for mates should change their choice threshold, whereas competing individuals should shift resources toward elevating their own competitiveness. Previous studies show that experimental elevations of song competition increase male competitive behavior in Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Through a series of experimental manipulations using laboratory-housed Lincoln's sparrows, we have also discovered that females change the strength of their song preferences depending on the attractiveness of the song environment to which they have recently been exposed; compared to a less-attractive environment, a highly-attractive environment elevates the threshold for releasing phonotaxis behavior toward male song. These behavioral adjustments are associated with changes in forebrain monoaminergic activity that are triggered by experimental manipulations of the quality of the song environment. Findings from these studies suggest possible neural mechanisms for the regulation of adaptive behavioral plasticity associated with dynamic sexual signaling environments.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx080
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • Perceived Synchrony of Frog Multimodal Signal Components
           Is Influenced by Content and Order
    • Authors: Taylor RC; Page RA, Klein BA, et al.
      Pages: 902 - 909
      Abstract: SynopsisMultimodal signaling is common in communication systems. Depending on the species, individual signal components may be produced synchronously as a result of physiological constraint (fixed) or each component may be produced independently (fluid) in time. For animals that rely on fixed signals, a basic prediction is that asynchrony between the components should degrade the perception of signal salience, reducing receiver response. Male túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus, produce a fixed multisensory courtship signal by vocalizing with two call components (whines and chucks) and inflating a vocal sac (visual component). Using a robotic frog, we tested female responses to variation in the temporal arrangement between acoustic and visual components. When the visual component lagged a complex call (whine + chuck), females largely rejected this asynchronous multisensory signal in favor of the complex call absent the visual cue. When the chuck component was removed from one call, but the robofrog inflation lagged the complex call, females responded strongly to the asynchronous multimodal signal. When the chuck component was removed from both calls, females reversed preference and responded positively to the asynchronous multisensory signal. When the visual component preceded the call, females responded as often to the multimodal signal as to the call alone. These data show that asynchrony of a normally fixed signal does reduce receiver responsiveness. The magnitude and overall response, however, depend on specific temporal interactions between the acoustic and visual components. The sensitivity of túngara frogs to lagging visual cues, but not leading ones, and the influence of acoustic signal content on the perception of visual asynchrony is similar to those reported in human psychophysics literature. Virtually all acoustically communicating animals must conduct auditory scene analyses and identify the source of signals. Our data suggest that some basic audiovisual neural integration processes may be at work in the vertebrate brain.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx027
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
  • To Become Senders, Songbirds Must be Receivers First
    • Authors: Rodríguez-Saltos C.
      Pages: 910 - 919
      Abstract: SynopsisCourtship signals are attractive; in other words, receivers are motivated to approach courtship signals. Though the concept of a receiver is commonly associated in the literature with that of a mate seeker, young songbirds that are learning to sing by imitating conspecifics are also receivers. Juvenile songbirds are attracted to conspecific songs, which has been shown by juveniles working to hear song in operant chambers. The mechanisms explaining this attraction are poorly understood. Here, I review studies that hint at the mechanisms by which conspecific song becomes attractive. In at least some species, juveniles imitate individuals with which they have a strong social bond, such as the father. Such cases suggest that social reward plays a role in the process of song becoming attractive. In addition, experiments using birds reared in isolation from conspecific song have shown that juveniles imitate songs that have acoustic features that are typically found in conspecific song. Those studies suggest that such features are attractive to juveniles regardless of their social experience. The relative contributions of social reward and species-typical acoustic features to the attractiveness of a song can be determined using methods such as operant conditioning. For example, juvenile songbirds can be given control over the playback of songs that differ in a given attribute, such as acoustic similarity to the song of the father. The juveniles will frequently elicit playback of the songs that are attractive to them. Investigating the mechanisms that contribute to the attractiveness of conspecific song to learners will broaden our understanding of the evolution of song as a courtship signal, because the preferences of learners may ultimately determine what will be sung to potential mates.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.1093/icb/icx106
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2017)
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