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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 274, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 547, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Integrative and Comparative Biology
  [SJR: 1.911]   [H-I: 90]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1540-7063 - ISSN (Online) 1557-7023
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Comparative Transcriptomics of Seasonal Phenotypic Flexibility in Two
           North American Songbirds
    • Authors: Cheviron Z; Swanson D.
      Abstract: SynopsisPhenotypic flexibility allows organisms to reversibly alter their phenotypes to match the changing demands of seasonal environments. Because phenotypic flexibility is mediated, at least in part, by changes in gene regulation, comparative transcriptomic studies can provide insights into the mechanistic underpinnings of seasonal phenotypic flexibility, and the extent to which regulatory responses to changing seasons are conserved across species. To begin to address these questions, we sampled individuals of two resident North American songbird species, American goldfinch (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) in summer and winter to measure seasonal variation in pectoralis transcriptomic profiles and to identify conserved and species-specific elements of these seasonal profiles. We found that very few genes exhibited divergent responses to changes in season between species, and instead, a core set of over 1200 genes responded to season concordantly in both species. Moreover, several key metabolic pathways, regulatory networks, and gene functional classes were commonly recruited to induce seasonal phenotypic shifts in these species. The seasonal transcriptomic responses mirror winter increases in pectoralis mass and cellular metabolic intensity documented in previous studies of both species, suggesting that these seasonal phenotypic responses are due in part to changes in gene expression. Despite growing evidence of muscle nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) in young precocial birds, we did not find strong evidence of upregulation of genes putatively involved in NST during winter in either species, suggesting that seasonal modification of muscular NST is not a prominent contributor to winter increases in thermogenic capacity for adult passerine birds. Together, these results provide the first comprehensive overview of potential common regulatory mechanisms underlying seasonally flexible phenotypes in wild, free-ranging birds.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
       
  • Thermal Acclimation Ability Varies in Temperate and Tropical Aquatic
           Insects from Different Elevations
    • Authors: Shah A; Funk W, Ghalambor C.
      Abstract: SynopsisIt has long been recognized that populations and species occupying different environments vary in their thermal tolerance traits. However, far less attention has been given to the impact of different environments on the capacity for plastic adjustments in thermal sensitivity, i.e., acclimation ability. One hypothesis is that environments characterized by greater thermal variability and seasonality should favor the evolution of increased acclimation ability compared with environments that are aseasonal or thermally stable. Additionally, organisms under selection for high heat tolerance may experience a trade-off and lose acclimation ability. Few studies have tested these non-mutually exclusive hypotheses at both broad latitudinal and local elevation scales in phylogenetically paired taxa. Here, we measure short-term acclimation ability of the critical thermal maximum (CTMAX) in closely related temperate and tropical mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and stoneflies (Plecoptera) from mountain streams at different elevations. We found that stream temperature was a good predictor of acclimation ability in mayflies, but not in stoneflies. Specifically, tropical mayflies showed reduced acclimation ability compared with their temperate counterparts. High elevation tropical mayflies had greater acclimation ability than low elevation mayflies, which reflected the wider temperature variation experienced in high elevation streams. In contrast, temperate and tropical stoneflies exhibited similar acclimation responses. We found no evidence for a trade-off between heat tolerance and acclimation ability in either taxonomic order. The acclimation response in stoneflies may reflect their temperate origin or foraging mode. In combination with previous studies showing tropical taxa have narrower thermal breadths, these results demonstrate that many lower elevation tropical aquatic insects are more vulnerable to climate warming than their temperate relatives.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
       
  • Understanding Evolutionary Impacts of Seasonality: An Introduction to the
           Symposium
    • Authors: Williams C; Ragland G, Betini G, et al.
      Abstract: SynopsisSeasonality is a critically important aspect of environmental variability, and strongly shapes all aspects of life for organisms living in highly seasonal environments. Seasonality has played a key role in generating biodiversity, and has driven the evolution of extreme physiological adaptations and behaviors such as migration and hibernation. Fluctuating selection pressures on survival and fecundity between summer and winter provide a complex selective landscape, which can be met by a combination of three outcomes of adaptive evolution: genetic polymorphism, phenotypic plasticity, and bet-hedging. Here, we have identified four important research questions with the goal of advancing our understanding of evolutionary impacts of seasonality. First, we ask how characteristics of environments and species will determine which adaptive response occurs. Relevant characteristics include costs and limits of plasticity, predictability, and reliability of cues, and grain of environmental variation relative to generation time. A second important question is how phenological shifts will amplify or ameliorate selection on physiological hardiness. Shifts in phenology can preserve the thermal niche despite shifts in climate, but may fail to completely conserve the niche or may even expose life stages to conditions that cause mortality. Considering distinct environmental sensitivities of life history stages will be key to refining models that forecast susceptibility to climate change. Third, we must identify critical physiological phenotypes that underlie seasonal adaptation and work toward understanding the genetic architectures of these responses. These architectures are key for predicting evolutionary responses. Pleiotropic genes that regulate multiple responses to changing seasons may facilitate coordination among functionally related traits, or conversely may constrain the expression of optimal phenotypes. Finally, we must advance our understanding of how changes in seasonal fluctuations are impacting ecological interaction networks. We should move beyond simple dyadic interactions, such as predator prey dynamics, and understand how these interactions scale up to affect ecological interaction networks. As global climate change alters many aspects of seasonal variability, including extreme events and changes in mean conditions, organisms must respond appropriately or go extinct. The outcome of adaptation to seasonality will determine responses to climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
       
  • Life History Adaptations to Seasonality
    • Authors: Varpe Ø.
      Abstract: SynopsisSeasonality creates a template for many natural processes and evolutionary adaptations. Organisms are often faced with an annual cycle consisting of a productive (favorable) and unproductive period. This yearly cycle along with other seasonal variations in abiotic factors and associated biotic interactions form strong selection pressures shaping the scheduling of annual activities and the developmental stages and modes of life through the year. Annual decisions impact trade-offs that involve both current and future reproductive value (RV), and life history theory provides the foundation to understand these linkages between phenology and an organism’s full life. Annual routine models further allow for multiple annual decisions to be optimized and predicted with respect to lifetime consequences. Studies of life history adaptations to seasonality are concerned with questions such as: within the productive season, should growth come first, followed by reproduction, or the other way around' What is the best time to diapause or migrate, and how will this timing impact other life history traits' Should energy reserves be built, to transfer resources from 1 year to the next, and allow for the spatial and temporal freedom of capital breeding' If offspring value is low during parts of the productive season, what is then the best alternative to reproduction: accumulate stores, grow, or wait in safety' To help answer these and other questions, I provide an overview of key theoretical concepts and some of the main life schedules, annual routines, and trade-offs involved. Adaptations to the unproductive period include diapause (dormancy), embryonic resting stages (eggs, seeds), energy reserves, and seasonal migrations. Adaptations to the productive window include rapid growth, high reproductive effort, capital breeding, and reproduction entrained to the annual cycle and with precise timing. Distinct annual routines, large body size, energy storage capacities, and parental care are also adaptations to seasonality. Phenotypic plasticity and state-dependence are important parts of these traits and are adaptations in their own. I give particular attention to timing of breeding and the associated birth-time dependent contributions to fitness. Seasonality in offspring value impacts the scheduling of growth, storage, and reproduction and may create parent–offspring conflicts over breeding timing. A combined offspring and parent value perspective should be adopted more broadly, also because of the management implications. I further argue for strategic but careful use of latitudinal (and altitudinal) gradients, and more attention to the role of seasonally varying predation risk as a selective force.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
       
  • Genetic Decoupling of Thermal Hardiness across Metamorphosis in Drosophila
           melanogaster
    • Authors: Freda P; Alex J, Morgan T, et al.
      Abstract: SynopsisAs organisms age the environment fluctuates, exerting differential selection across ontogeny. In particular, highly seasonal environments expose life stages to often drastically different thermal environments. This developmental variation is particularly striking in organisms with complex life cycles, wherein life history stages also exhibit distinct morphologies, physiologies, and behaviors. Genes acting pleiotropically on thermal responses may produce genetic correlations across ontogeny, constraining the independent evolution of each life stage to their respective thermal environments. To investigate whether developmental genetic correlations constrain the evolution thermal hardiness of the fly Drosophila melanogaster, we applied quantitative genetic analyses to cold hardiness measured in both larvae and adults from isogenic lines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), using survival at stressful low temperatures as the phenotypic metric. Using full genome resequencing data for the DGRP, we also implemented genome-wide association (GWA) analysis using Bayesian Sparse Linear Mixed Models (BSLMMs) to estimate associations between naturally segregating variation and cold hardiness for both larvae and adults. Quantitative genetic analyses revealed no significant genetic correlation for cold hardiness between life stages, suggesting complete genetic decoupling of thermal hardiness across the metamorphic boundary. Both quantitative genetic and GWA analyses suggested that polygenic variation underlies cold hardiness in both stages, and that associated loci largely affected one stage or the other, but not both. However, reciprocal enrichment tests and correlations between BSLMM parameters for each life stage support some shared physiological mechanisms that may reflect common cellular thermal response pathways. Overall, these results suggest no developmental genetic constraints on cold hardiness across metamorphosis in D. melanogaster, an important consideration in evolutionary models of responses to changing climates. Genetic correlations for environmental sensitivity across ontogeny remains largely unexplored in other organisms, thus assessing the generality of genetic decoupling will require further quantitative or population genetic analysis in additional species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
       
  • To Everything There Is a Season: Summer-to-Winter Food Webs and the
           Functional Traits of Keystone Species
    • Authors: Humphries M; Studd E, Menzies A, et al.
      Abstract: SynopsisFrom a trophic perspective, a seasonal increase in air temperature and photoperiod propagates as bottom-up pulse of primary production by plants, secondary production by herbivores, and tertiary production by carnivores. However, food web seasonality reflects not only abiotic variation in temperature and photoperiod, but also the composition of the biotic community and their functional responses to this variation. Some plants and animals—here referred to as seasonal specialists—decouple from food webs in winter through migration or various forms of metabolic arrest (e.g., senescence, diapause, and hibernation), whereas some plants and resident animals—here referred to as seasonal generalists—remain present and trophically coupled in winter. The co-occurrence of species with divergent responses to winter introduces seasonal variation in interaction strengths, resulting in summer-to-winter differences in trophic organization. Autumn cooling and shortening day length arrests primary productivity and cues seasonal herbivores to decouple, leaving generalist carnivores to concentrate their predation on the few generalist herbivores that remain resident, active, and vulnerable to predation in winter, which themselves feed on the few generalist plant structures available in winter. Thus, what was a bottom-up pulse, spread among many species in summer, including highly productive seasonal specialists, reverses into strong top-down regulation in winter that is top-heavy, and concentrated among a small number of generalist herbivores and their winter foods. Intermediate-sized, generalist herbivores that remain active and vulnerable to predation in winter are likely to be keystone species in seasonal food webs because they provide the essential ecosystem service of turning summer primary productivity into winter food for carnivores. Empirical examination of terrestrial mammals and their seasonal trophic status in the boreal forest and across an arctic-to-tropics seasonality gradient indicates seasonal specialization is more common among herbivores, small body sizes, and in regions with intermediate seasonality, than among carnivores, large body size, and regions where summers are very short or very long. Better understanding of food webs in seasonal environments, including their vulnerability and resilience to climate change, requires a multi-season perspective.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
       
  • A Complex Lens for a Complex Eye
    • Authors: Stahl A; Baucom R, Cook T, et al.
      Abstract: SynopsisA key innovation for high resolution eyes is a sophisticated lens that precisely focuses light onto photoreceptors. The eyes of holometabolous larvae range from very simple eyes that merely detect light to eyes that are capable of high spatial resolution. Particularly interesting are the bifocal lenses of Thermonectus marmoratus larvae, which differentially focus light on spectrally-distinct retinas. While functional aspects of insect lenses have been relatively well studied, little work has explored their molecular makeup, especially in regard to more complex eye types. To investigate this question, we took a transcriptomic and proteomic approach to identify the major proteins contributing to the principal bifocal lenses of T. marmoratus larvae. Mass spectrometry revealed 10 major lens proteins. Six of these share sequence homology with cuticular proteins, a large class of proteins that are also major components of corneal lenses from adult compound eyes of Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. Two proteins were identified as house-keeping genes and the final two lack any sequence homologies to known genes. Overall the composition seems to follow a pattern of co-opting transparent and optically dense proteins, similar to what has been described for other animal lenses. To identify cells responsible for the secretion of specific lens proteins, we performed in situ hybridization studies and found some expression differences between distal and proximal corneagenous cells. Since the distal cells likely give rise to the periphery and the proximal cells to the center of the lens, our findings highlight a possible mechanism for establishing structural differences that are in line with the bifocal nature of these lenses. A better understanding of lens composition provides insights into the evolution of proper focusing, which is an important step in the transition between low-resolution and high-resolution eyes.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
       
  • Canalization of Seasonal Phenology in the Presence of Developmental
           Variation: Seed Dormancy Cycling in an Annual Weed
    • Authors: Edwards B; Burghardt L, Kovach K, et al.
      Abstract: SynopsisVariation in the developmental timing in one life stage may ramify within and across generations to disrupt optimal phenology of other life stages. By focusing on a common mechanism of developmental arrest in plants—seed dormancy—we investigated how variation in flowering time influenced seed germination behavior and identified potential processes that can lead to canalized germination behavior despite variation in reproductive timing. We quantified effects of reproductive timing on dormancy cycling by experimentally manipulating the temperature during seed maturation and the seasonal timing of seed dispersal/burial, and by assessing temperature-dependent germination of un-earthed seeds over a seasonal cycle. We found that reproductive timing, via both seed-maturation temperature and the timing of dispersal, strongly influenced germination behavior in the weeks immediately following seed burial. However, buried seeds subsequently canalized their germination behavior, after losing primary dormancy and experiencing natural temperature and moisture conditions in the field. After the complete loss of primary dormancy, germination behavior was similar across seed-maturation and dispersal treatments, even when secondary dormancy was induced. Maternal effects themselves may contribute to the canalization of germination: first, by inducing stronger dormancy in autumn-matured seeds, and second by modifying the responses of those seeds to their ambient environment. Genotypes differed in dormancy cycling, with functional alleles of known dormancy genes necessary for the suppression of germination at warm temperatures in autumn through spring across multiple years. Loss of function of dormancy genes abolished almost all dormancy cycling. In summary, effects of reproductive phenology on dormancy cycling of buried seeds were apparent only as long as seeds retained primary dormancy, and a combination of genetically imposed seed dormancy, maternally induced seed dormancy, and secondary dormancy can mitigate variation in germination behavior imposed by variation in reproductive phenology.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
       
  • Low-Resolution Vision—at the Hub of Eye Evolution
    • Authors: Nilsson D; Bok M.
      Abstract: SynopsisSimple roles for photoreception are likely to have preceded more demanding ones such as vision. The driving force behind this evolution is the improvement and elaboration of animal behaviors using photoreceptor input. Because the basic role for all senses aimed at the external world is to guide behavior, we argue here that understanding this “behavioral drive” is essential for unraveling the evolutionary past of the senses. Photoreception serves many different types of behavior, from simple shadow responses to visual communication. Based on minimum performance requirements for different types of tasks, photoreceptors have been argued to have evolved from non-directional receptors, via directional receptors, to low-resolution vision, and finally to high-resolution vision. Through this sequence, the performance requirements on the photoreceptors have gradually changed from broad to narrow angular sensitivity, from slow to fast response, and from low to high contrast sensitivity during the evolution from simple to more advanced and demanding behaviors. New behaviors would only evolve if their sensory performance requirements to some degree overlap with the requirements of already existing behaviors. This need for sensory “performance continuity” must have determined the order by which behaviors have evolved and thus been an important factor guiding animal evolution. Naturally, new behaviors are most likely to evolve from already existing behaviors with similar neural processing needs and similar motor responses, pointing to “neural continuity” as another guiding factor in sensory evolution. Here we use these principles to derive an evolutionary tree for behaviors driven by photoreceptor input.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30
       
  • Sensory Biology of Starfish—With Emphasis on Recent Discoveries in
           their Visual Ecology
    • Authors: Garm A.
      Abstract: SynopsisAsteroidea, starfish, constitutes a major part of the macrobenthos in most marine environments. Being members of the echinoderms, they have a nervous system with no well-defined central nervous system. Accordingly, starfish are assumed to pick up rather limited information from the surroundings, and it is also often assumed that most of their behaviors are guided by olfaction. Here, the sensory biology of starfish is reviewed in order to evaluate these assumptions. There is a vast amount of behavioral data dealing with mechanoreception, chemoreception, and combinations of the two (chemosensory-mediated rheotaxis), but the receptors have not yet been identified and almost nothing is known about the physiology behind these senses. What can be concluded from the available data is that starfish possess a sense of touch, some are able to sense gravity and many display positive rheotaxis, moving up currents. A number of starfish species use olfaction during foraging and prey localization. Interestingly, eyes are also present in most starfish, and recent studies have documented that in Linckia laevigata and Acanthaster planci vision plays a major role in seeking out their feeding grounds. The physiology and structure of the eyes filter out small moving objects while optimizing the contrast between the large stationary objects (e.g., coral boulders in the habitat) and the surrounding water. These new results demonstrate the importance of controlling the visual environment when conducting experiments on starfish behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
       
  • Intracellular Recordings of Spectral Sensitivities in Stomatopods: a
           Comparison across Species
    • Authors: Thoen H; Chiou T, Marshall N.
      Abstract: SynopsisStomatopods (mantis shrimps) possess one of the most complex eyes in the world with photoreceptors detecting up to 12 different colors. It is not yet understood why stomatopods have almost four times the number of spectral photoreceptors compared with most other animals. It has, however, been suggested that these seemingly redundant photoreceptors could encode color through a new mechanism. Here we compare the spectral sensitivities across five species of stomatopods within the superfamily Gonodactyloidea using intracellular electrophysiological recordings. The results show that the spectral sensitivities across species of stomatopods are remarkably similar apart from some variation in the long-wavelength receptors. We relate these results to spectral sensitivity estimates previously obtained using microspectrophotometry and discuss the variation in the spectral sensitivity maxima (λmax) of the long-wavelength receptors in regard to the previous findings that stomatopods are able to tune their spectral sensitivities according to their respective light environment. We further discuss the similarities of the spectral sensitivities across species of stomatopods in regard to how color information might be processed by their visual systems.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
       
  • A Novel Display System Reveals Anisotropic Polarization Perception in the
           Motion Vision of the Butterfly Papilio xuthus
    • Authors: Stewart F; Kinoshita M, Arikawa K.
      Abstract: SynopsisWhile the linear polarization of light is virtually invisible to humans, many invertebrates’ eyes can detect it. How this information is processed in the nervous system, and what behavioral function it serves, are in many cases unclear. One reason for this is the technical difficulty involved in presenting images or video containing polarization contrast, particularly if intensity and/or color contrast is also required. In this primarily methods-focused article, we present a novel technique based on projecting video through a synchronously rotating linear polarizer. This approach allows the intensity, angle of polarization, degree of linear polarization, and potentially also color of individual pixels to be controlled independently. We characterize the performance of our system, and then use it to investigate the relationship between polarization and motion vision in the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus. Although this animal has photoreceptors sensitive to four different polarization angles, we find that its motion vision cannot distinguish between diagonally-polarized and unpolarized light. Furthermore, it responds more strongly to vertically-polarized moving objects than horizontally-polarized ones. This implies that Papilio’s polarization-based motion detection employs either an unbalanced two-channel (dipolatic) opponent architecture, or possibly a single-channel (monopolatic) scheme without opponent mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
       
  • The Preoptic Area and the RFamide-Related Peptide Neuronal System Gate
           Seasonal Changes in Chemosensory Processing
    • Authors: Jennings K; Chasles M, Cho H, et al.
      Abstract: SynopsisMales of many species rely on chemosensory information for social communication. In male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), as in many species, female chemosignals potently stimulate sexual behavior and a concurrent, rapid increase in circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T). However, under winter-like, short-day (SD) photoperiods, when Syrian hamsters are reproductively quiescent, these same female chemosignals fail to elicit behavioral or hormonal responses, even after T replacement. It is currently unknown where in the brain chemosensory processing is gated in a seasonally dependent manner such that reproductive responses are only displayed during the appropriate breeding season. The goal of the present study was to determine where this gating occurred by identifying neural loci that respond differentially to female chemosignals across photoperiods, independent of circulating T concentrations. Adult male Syrian hamsters were housed under either long-day (LD) (reproductively active) or SD (reproductively inactive) photoperiods with half of the SD animals receiving T replacement. Animals were exposed to either female hamster vaginal secretions (FHVSs) diluted in mineral oil or to vehicle, and the activational state of chemosensory processing centers and elements of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis were examined. Components of the chemosensory pathway upstream of hypothalamic centers increased expression of FOS, an indirect marker of neuronal activation, similarly across photoperiods. In contrast, the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus responded to FHVS only in LD animals, consistent with its role in promoting expression of male sexual behavior. Within the neuroendocrine axis, the RF-amide related peptide (RFRP), but not the kisspeptin neuronal system responded to FHVS only in LD animals. Neither response within the POA or the RFRP neuronal system was rescued by T replacement in SD animals, mirroring photoperiodic regulation of reproductive responses. Considering the POA and the RFRP neuronal system promote reproductive behavior and function in male Syrian hamsters, differential activation of these systems represents a potential means by which photoperiod limits expression of reproduction to the appropriate environmental context.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09
       
  • Moving in Dim Light: Behavioral and Visual Adaptations in Nocturnal Ants
    • Authors: Narendra A; Kamhi J, Ogawa Y.
      Abstract: SynopsisVisual navigation is a benchmark information processing task that can be used to identify the consequence of being active in dim-light environments. Visual navigational information that animals use during the day includes celestial cues such as the sun or the pattern of polarized skylight and terrestrial cues such as the entire panorama, canopy pattern, or significant salient features in the landscape. At night, some of these navigational cues are either unavailable or are significantly dimmer or less conspicuous than during the day. Even under these circumstances, animals navigate between locations of importance. Ants are a tractable system for studying navigation during day and night because the fine scale movement of individual animals can be recorded in high spatial and temporal detail. Ant species range from being strictly diurnal, crepuscular, and nocturnal. In addition, a number of species have the ability to change from a day- to a night-active lifestyle owing to environmental demands. Ants also offer an opportunity to identify the evolution of sensory structures for discrete temporal niches not only between species but also within a single species. Their unique caste system with an exclusive pedestrian mode of locomotion in workers and an exclusive life on the wing in males allows us to disentangle sensory adaptations that cater for different lifestyles. In this article, we review the visual navigational abilities of nocturnal ants and identify the optical and physiological adaptations they have evolved for being efficient visual navigators in dim-light.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
       
  • Crustacean Larvae—Vision in the Plankton
    • Authors: Cronin TW; Bok MJ, Lin C.
      Abstract: SynopsisWe review the visual systems of crustacean larvae, concentrating on the compound eyes of decapod and stomatopod larvae as well as the functional and behavioral aspects of their vision. Larval compound eyes of these macrurans are all built on fundamentally the same optical plan, the transparent apposition eye, which is eminently suitable for modification into the abundantly diverse optical systems of the adults. Many of these eyes contain a layer of reflective structures overlying the retina that produces a counterilluminating eyeshine, so they are unique in being camouflaged both by their transparency and by their reflection of light spectrally similar to background light to conceal the opaque retina. Besides the pair of compound eyes, at least some crustacean larvae have a non-imaging photoreceptor system based on a naupliar eye and possibly other frontal eyes. Larval compound-eye photoreceptors send axons to a large and well-developed optic lobe consisting of a series of neuropils that are similar to those of adult crustaceans and insects, implying sophisticated analysis of visual stimuli. The visual system fosters a number of advanced and flexible behaviors that permit crustacean larvae to survive extended periods in the plankton and allows them to reach acceptable adult habitats, within which to metamorphose.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
       
  • Thermal Performance Curves Reveal Variation in the Seasonal Niche of a
           Short-Lived Annual
    • Authors: Hereford J.
      Abstract: SynopsisAn organism’s environment can vary over spatial and temporal scales. Seasonal variation is an important but overlooked source of environmental variation that often shapes the ranges of organisms. The seasonal niche is a description of the spatiotemporal range of an organism resulting from spatial variation in seasonal conditions. In this study, I describe the seasonal niche of a short-lived annual plant, and variation within the species in seasonal niche breadth. I construct a seasonal species distribution model (SDM) for the species, and using thermal performance curves (TPCs), construct mechanistic SDMs (MSDMs) for individual genotypes. I quantify the correlation between the suitability scores generated in the SDM and the predicted dry weight generated by the MSDMs for each genotype, to estimate variation in seasonal niche breadth among genotypes. Thus, the parameters of TPCs reflect generalist/specialist strategies. I detected significant relationships between thermal performance breadth and maximum predicted fitness and significant correlations between optimal growth temperature and thermal performance breadth. There were large positive correlations between predictions of the SDM and MSDMs based on growth within individual genotypes. The variation in these correlations suggests variation in the degree of specialization. Genotypes with the broadest TPCs had the largest correlations between their MSDMs and the SDM, suggesting that they were generalists. The results show that correlative and MSDMs make similar predictions over the seasonal range, and that ecological specialization can vary dramatically within species.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
       
  • Resolving the Trade-off Between Visual Sensitivity and Spatial
           Acuity—Lessons from Hawkmoths
    • Authors: Stöckl A; Smolka J, O’Carroll D, et al.
      Abstract: SynopsisThe visual systems of many animals, particularly those active during the day, are optimized for high spatial acuity. However, at night, when photons are sparse and the visual signal competes with increased noise levels, fine spatial resolution cannot be sustained and is traded-off for the greater sensitivity required to see in dim light. High spatial acuity demands detectors and successive visual processing units whose receptive fields each cover only a small area of visual space, in order to reassemble a finely sampled and well resolved image. However, the smaller the sampled area, the fewer the photons that can be collected, and thus the worse the visual sensitivity becomes—leading to the classical trade-off between sensitivity and resolution. Nocturnal animals usually resolve this trade-off in favour of sensitivity, and thus have lower spatial acuity than their diurnal counterparts. Here we review results highlighting how hawkmoths, a highly visual group of insects with species active at different light intensities, resolve the trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution. We compare adaptations both in the optics and retina, as well as at higher levels of neural processing in a nocturnal and a diurnal hawkmoth species, and also give a perspective on the behavioral consequences. We broaden the scope of our review by drawing comparisons with the adaptive strategies used by other nocturnal and diurnal insects.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
       
  • Defining the Degree of Seasonality and its Significance for Future
           Research
    • Authors: Lisovski S; Ramenofsky M, Wingfield J.
      Abstract: SynopsisSeasonality describes cyclic and largely predictable fluctuations in the environment. Such variations in day length, temperature, rainfall, and resource availability are ubiquitous and can exert strong selection pressure on organisms to adapt to seasonal environments. However, seasonal variations exhibit large scale geographical divergences caused by a whole suite of factors such as solar radiation, ocean currents, extent of continents, and topography. Realizing these contributions in driving patterns of overall seasonality may help advance our understanding of the kinds of evolutionary adaptations we should expect at a global scale. Here, we introduce a new concept and provide the data describing the overall degree of seasonality, based on its two major components—amplitude and predictability. Using global terrestrial datasets on temperature, precipitation and primary productivity, we show that these important seasonal factors exhibit strong differences in their spatial patterns with notable asymmetries between the southern and the northern hemisphere. Furthermore, our analysis reveals that seasonality is highly diverse across latitudes as well as longitudinal gradients. This indicates that using a direct measure of seasonality and its components, amplitude and predictability, may yield a better understanding of how organisms are adapted to seasonal environments and provide support for predictions on the consequences of rapid environmental change.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
       
  • Insect Development, Thermal Plasticity and Fitness Implications in
           Changing, Seasonal Environments
    • Authors: Buckley L; Arakaki A, Cannistra A, et al.
      Abstract: SynopsisHistorical data show that recent climate change has caused advances in seasonal timing (phenology) in many animals and plants, particularly in temperate and higher latitude regions. The population and fitness consequences of these phenological shifts for insects and other ectotherms have been heterogeneous: warming can increase development rates and the number of generations per year (increasing fitness), but can also lead to seasonal mismatches between animals and their resources and increase exposure to environmental variability (decreasing fitness). Insect populations exhibit local adaptation in their developmental responses to temperature, including lower developmental thresholds and the thermal requirements to complete development, but climate change can potentially disrupt seasonal timing of juvenile and adult stages and alter population fitness. We investigate these issues using a global dataset describing how insect developmental responds to temperature via two traits: lower temperature thresholds for development (T0) and the cumulative degree-days required to complete development (G). As suggested by previous analyses, T0 decreases and G increases with increasing (absolute) latitude; however, these traits and the relationship between G and latitude varies significantly among taxonomic orders. The mean number of generations per year (a metric of fitness) increases with both decreasing T0 and G, but the effects of these traits on fitness vary strongly with latitude, with stronger selection on both traits at higher (absolute) latitudes. We then use the traits to predict developmental timing and temperatures for multiple generations within seasons and across years (1970–2010). Seasonality drives developmental temperatures to peak mid-season and for generation lengths to decline across seasons, particularly in temperate regions. We predict that climate warming has advanced phenology and increased the number of generations, particularly at high latitudes. The magnitude of increases in developmental temperature varies little across latitude. Increases in the number of seasonal generations have been greatest for populations experiencing the greatest phenological advancements and warming. Shifts in developmental rate and timing due to climate change will have complex implications for selection and fitness in seasonal environments.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
       
 
 
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