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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 587, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
American Journal of Epidemiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.713
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 179  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-9262 - ISSN (Online) 1476-6256
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • Harmonization of Respiratory Data From 9 US Population-Based CohortsThe
           NHLBI Pooled Cohorts Study
    • Authors: Oelsner E; Balte P, Cassano P, et al.
      Pages: 2265 - 2278
      Abstract: Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRDs) are the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. To support investigations into CLRD risk determinants and new approaches to primary prevention, we aimed to harmonize and pool respiratory data from US general population-based cohorts. Data were obtained from prospective cohorts that performed prebronchodilator spirometry and were harmonized following 2005 ATS/ERS standards. In cohorts conducting follow-up for noncardiovascular events, CLRD events were defined as hospitalizations/deaths adjudicated as CLRD-related or assigned relevant administrative codes. Coding and variable names were applied uniformly. The pooled sample included 65,251 adults in 9 cohorts followed-up for CLRD-related mortality over 653,380 person-years during 1983–2016. Average baseline age was 52 years; 56% were female; 49% were never-smokers; and racial/ethnic composition was 44% white, 22% black, 28% Hispanic/Latino, and 5% American Indian. Over 96% had complete data on smoking, clinical CLRD diagnoses, and dyspnea. After excluding invalid spirometry examinations (13%), there were 105,696 valid examinations (median, 2 per participant). Of 29,351 participants followed for CLRD hospitalizations, median follow-up was 14 years; only 5% were lost to follow-up at 10 years. The NHLBI Pooled Cohorts Study provides a harmonization standard applied to a large, US population-based sample that may be used to advance epidemiologic research on CLRD.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy139
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • The Gulf War Era Cohort and Biorepository: A Longitudinal Research
           Resource of Veterans of the 1990–1991 Gulf War Era
    • Authors: Khalil L; McNeil R, Sims K, et al.
      Pages: 2279 - 2291
      Abstract: The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Gulf War Era Cohort and Biorepository (GWECB) is a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of US veterans who served during the 1990–1991 Gulf War era. The GWECB combines survey data, such as demographic, health behavior, and environmental exposure data; medical records; and a linked biorepository of blood specimens that can support a broad range of future research regarding health concerns unique to veterans of this era. To build this resource, the VA Cooperative Studies Program initiated a pilot study (2014–2016) to establish the GWECB and evaluate the processes required to build and maintain the resource. Participants (n = 1,275) consented to future sharing of their data and biospecimens for research purposes. Here we describe the pilot study, including recruitment and enrollment procedures, data collection and management, quality control, and challenges experienced. The GWECB data available to investigators under approved sharing mechanisms and the procedures for accessing them are extensively detailed. The study’s consenting documents and a website link for the research survey are provided. Our hope is that new research drawing on the GWECB data and biospecimens will result in effective treatments and improved approaches to address the health concerns of Gulf War–era veterans.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy147
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Live-Birth Bias and Observed Associations Between Air Pollution and Autism
    • Authors: Raz R; Kioumourtzoglou M, Weisskopf M.
      Pages: 2292 - 2296
      Abstract: A recent analysis found that exposure to air pollution during specific weeks of pregnancy was negatively associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when mutually adjusted for postnatal air-pollution exposure. In this commentary, we describe 2 possible selection-bias processes that might lead to such results, both related to live-birth bias (i.e., the inevitable restriction of the analyzed sample to live births). The first mechanism is described using a directed acyclic graph and relates to the chance of live birth being a common consequence of both exposure to air pollution and another risk factor of ASD. The second mechanism involves preferential depletion of fetuses susceptible to ASD in the higher air-pollution exposure group. We further discuss the assumptions underlying these processes and their causal structures, their plausibility, and other studies where similar phenomena might have occurred.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy172
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Age at Exposure to Arsenic in Water and Mortality 30–40 Years After
           Exposure Cessation
    • Authors: Roh T; Steinmaus C, Marshall G, et al.
      Pages: 2297 - 2305
      Abstract: Arsenic in drinking water is known to cause cancer and noncancer diseases, but little is known about its association with age at exposure. Here, we investigated age at arsenic exposure and mortality in Antofagasta, Chile, 30–40 years after a distinct period of very high water arsenic concentrations (1958–1970). We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing Antofagasta with the rest of Chile for 2001–2010 by sex and age at potential first exposure. A remarkable relationship with age at first exposure was found for bronchiectasis, with increased risk in adults 30–40 years after exposure being confined to those who were in utero (SMR = 11.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.3, 25.4) or aged 1–10 years (SMR = 5.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 15.8) during the high-exposure period. Increased SMRs for lung, bladder, and laryngeal cancer were evident for exposures starting at all ages, but the highest SMRs were for exposures beginning at birth (for bladder cancer, SMR = 16.0 (95% CI: 10.3, 23.8); for laryngeal cancer, SMR = 6.8 (95% CI: 2.2, 15.8); for lung cancer, SMR = 3.8 (95% CI: 2.9, 4.9)). These findings suggest that interventions targeting early-life arsenic exposure could have major impacts in reducing long-term mortality due to arsenic 30–40 years after exposure ends.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy159
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Temperature and Term Low Birth Weight in California
    • Authors: Basu R; Rau R, Pearson D, et al.
      Pages: 2306 - 2314
      Abstract: Few investigations have explored temperature and birth outcomes. In a retrospective cohort study, we examined apparent temperature, a combination of temperature and relative humidity, and term low birth weight (LBW) among 43,629 full-term LBW infants and 2,032,601 normal-weight infants in California (1999–2013). The California Department of Public Health provided birth certificate data, while meteorological data came from the California Irrigation Management Information System, US Environmental Protection Agency, and National Centers for Environmental Information. After considering several temperature metrics, we observed the best model fit for term LBW over the full gestation (per 10-degrees-Fahrenheit (°F) increase in apparent temperature, 13.0% change, 95% confidence interval: 4.1, 22.7) above 55°F, and the greatest association was for third-trimester exposure above 60°F (15.8%, 95% confidence interval: 5.0, 27.6). Apparent temperature during the first month of pregnancy exhibited no significant risk, while the first trimester had a significantly negative association, and second trimester, last month, and last 2 weeks had slightly increased risks. Mothers who were black or older, delivered male infants, or gave birth during the warm season had infants at the highest risks. This study provides further evidence for adverse birth outcomes from heat exposure for vulnerable subgroups of pregnant women.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy116
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Association Between 20-Year Trajectories of Nonoccupational Physical
           Activity From Midlife to Old Age and Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease:
           A 20-Year Longitudinal Study of British Men
    • Authors: Aggio D; Papachristou E, Papacosta O, et al.
      Pages: 2315 - 2323
      Abstract: The trajectories of physical activity (PA) from midlife into old age and their associations with established and novel cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in later life remain unclear. This study examined associations between 20-year nonoccupational PA trajectories and a range of CVD biomarkers at ages 60–79 years. We used data from a sample of 3,331 men (mean baseline age = 50.2 ± 5.8 years) recruited in 1978–1980, with follow-up after 12, 16, and 20 years, reporting habitual nonoccupational PA at each wave. At the 20-year follow-up, surviving men attended a physical examination and provided a fasting blood sample. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify trajectories. Adjusted regression analyses examined the association between trajectory-group membership and several cardiometabolic, cardiac, and inflammatory markers at follow-up. Three distinct 20-year trajectories were identified: low/decreasing (21.3%), light/stable (51.8%), and moderate/increasing (27.0%). Compared with the low/decreasing group, membership in the light/stable and moderate/increasing trajectory groups was associated with a more favorable cardiometabolic profile and lower levels of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Although following a moderate-increasing PA trajectory was most favorable, more modest but sustained doses of PA into old age may be sufficient to lower CVD risk.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy157
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Overall and Sex-Specific Associations Between Fetal Adversity and Child
           Development at Age 1 Year: Evidence From Brazil
    • Authors: Fink G; Andrews K, Brentani H, et al.
      Pages: 2324 - 2331
      Abstract: A growing body of epigenetic research suggests that in-utero adaptations to environmental changes display important sex-specific variation. We tested this heterogeneous adaptation hypothesis using data from 900 children born at the University Hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, between October 2013 and April 2014. Crude and adjusting linear models were used to quantify the associations between prematurity, being small for gestational age, and children’s physical and mental development at 12 months of age. Prematurity was negatively associated with neuropsychological development in final models (z score difference, −0.42, 95% confidence intervals: −0.71, −0.14), but associations did not vary significantly by sex. For being small for gestational age, associations with height-for-age, weight-for-age, and neuropsychological development were also negative, but they were systematically larger for male than for female infants (P < 0.05 for all). These results suggest that male fetuses may be more vulnerable to intrauterine adversity than female fetuses. Further research will be needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying these sex-specific associations.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy141
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Prevalence and Patterning of Mental Disorders Through Adolescence in 3
           Cohorts of Black and White Americans
    • Authors: Louie P; Wheaton B.
      Pages: 2332 - 2338
      Abstract: The tendency for US blacks to report similar or lower rates of mental disorder than whites is well-established. However, whether these disparities are stable across cohorts of black and white Americans is not well understood. In the current study, we examined black-white differences in the lifetime prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance use disorders and any mental disorders across 3 cohorts of blacks and whites aged 4–18 years. Using merged data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (2001–2003) and the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (2001–2004), we observed a change in the black-white patterning of mental disorder between 1957 and 2004. Blacks born during 1957–1969 reported lower rates of anxiety disorders than their white counterparts (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 0.91); blacks born during 1970–1982 reported no difference in the rates of anxiety disorders relative to whites (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.76, 1.25); and blacks born during 1983–1991 reported higher rates of anxiety disorders than whites (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.43). Similar but less distinct trends were observed for mood disorders, impulse control disorders, and any disorders. Our results suggest that the black-white patterning of mental disorder in the United States has changed across cohorts, to the disadvantage of black Americans.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy144
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Depression, and Alcohol Consumption During
           Joblessness and During Recessions Among Young Adults in CARDIA
    • Authors: Tapia Granados J; Christine P, Ionides E, et al.
      Pages: 2339 - 2345
      Abstract: Research has shown that recessions are associated with lower cardiovascular mortality, but unemployed individuals have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or death. We used data from 8 consecutive examinations (1985–2011) of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort, modeled in fixed-effect panel regressions, to investigate simultaneously the associations of CVD risk factors with the employment status of individuals and the macroeconomic conditions prevalent in the state where the individual lives. We found that unemployed individuals had lower levels of blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and physical activity, and they had significantly higher depression scores, but they were similar to their counterparts in smoking status, alcohol consumption, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, body mass index, and waist circumference. A 1-percentage-point higher unemployment rate at the state level was associated with lower systolic (−0.41 mm Hg, 95% CI: −0.65, −0.17) and diastolic (−0.19, 95% CI: −0.39, 0.01) blood pressure, higher physical activity levels, higher depressive symptom scores, lower waist circumference, and less smoking. We conclude that levels of CVD risk factors tend to improve during recessions, but mental health tends to deteriorate. Unemployed individuals are significantly more depressed, and they likely have lower levels of physical activity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy127
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Socioeconomic Position and DNA Methylation Age Acceleration Across the
           Life Course
    • Authors: Hughes A; Smart M, Gorrie-Stone T, et al.
      Pages: 2346 - 2354
      Abstract: Accelerated DNA methylation age is linked to all-cause mortality and environmental factors, but studies of associations with socioeconomic position are limited. Researchers generally use small selected samples, and it is unclear how findings obtained with 2 commonly used methods for calculating methylation age (the Horvath method and the Hannum method) translate to general population samples including younger and older adults. Among 1,099 United Kingdom adults aged 28–98 years in 2011–2012, we assessed the relationship of Horvath and Hannum DNA methylation age acceleration with a range of social position measures: current income and employment, education, income and unemployment across a 12-year period, and childhood social class. Accounting for confounders, participants who had been less advantaged in childhood were epigenetically “older” as adults: In comparison with participants who had professional/managerial parents, Hannum age was 1.07 years higher (95% confidence interval: 0.20, 1.94) for participants with parents in semiskilled/unskilled occupations and 1.85 years higher (95% confidence interval: 0.67, 3.02) for those without a working parent at age 14 years. No other robust associations were seen. Results accord with research implicating early life circumstances as critical for DNA methylation age in adulthood. Since methylation age acceleration as measured by the Horvath and Hannum estimators appears strongly linked to chronological age, researchers examining associations with the social environment must take steps to avoid age-related confounding.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy155
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Associations of Religious Upbringing With Subsequent Health and Well-Being
           From Adolescence to Young Adulthood: An Outcome-Wide Analysis
    • Authors: Chen Y; VanderWeele T.
      Pages: 2355 - 2364
      Abstract: In the present study, we prospectively examined the associations of religious involvement in adolescence (including religious service attendance and prayer or meditation) with a wide array of psychological well-being, mental health, health behavior, physical health, and character strength outcomes in young adulthood. Longitudinal data from the Growing Up Today Study were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Sample sizes ranged from 5,681 to 7,458, depending on outcome; the mean baseline age was 14.74 years, and there were 8–14 years of follow-up (1999 to either 2007, 2010, or 2013). Bonferroni correction was used to correct for multiple testing. All models were controlled for sociodemographic characteristics, maternal health, and prior values of the outcome variables whenever data were available. Compared with no attendance, at least weekly attendance of religious services was associated with greater life satisfaction and positive affect, a number of character strengths, lower probabilities of marijuana use and early sexual initiation, and fewer lifetime sexual partners. Analyses of prayer or meditation yielded similar results. Although decisions about religion are not shaped principally by health, encouraging service attendance and private practices in adolescents who already hold religious beliefs may be meaningful avenues of development and support, possibly leading to better health and well-being.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy142
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Analysis of the Strength of Legal Firearms Restrictions for Perpetrators
           of Domestic Violence and Their Associations With Intimate Partner Homicide
    • Authors: Zeoli A; McCourt A, Buggs S, et al.
      Pages: 2365 - 2371
      Abstract: In this research, we estimate the association of firearm restrictions for domestic violence offenders with intimate partner homicides (IPHs) on the basis of the strength of the policies. We posit that the association of firearm laws with IPHs depends on the following characteristics of the laws: 1) breadth of coverage of high-risk individuals and situations restricted; 2) power to compel firearm surrender or removal from persons prohibited from having firearms; and 3) systems of accountability that prevent those prohibited from doing so from obtaining guns. We conducted a quantitative policy evaluation using annual state-level data from 1980 through 2013 for 45 US states. Based on the results of a series of robust, negative binomial regression models with state fixed effects, domestic violence restraining order firearm-prohibition laws are associated with 10% reductions in IPH. Statistically significant protective associations were evident only when restraining order prohibitions covered dating partners (−13%) and ex parte orders (−13%) and included relinquishment provisions (−12%). Laws prohibiting access to those convicted of nonspecific violent misdemeanors were associated with a 23% reduction in IPH rates; there was no association when prohibitions were limited to domestic violence. These findings should inform policymakers considering laws to maximize protections against IPH.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy174
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • A Prospective Investigation of Dietary Intake and Functional Impairments
           Among the Elderly
    • Authors: Zhu J; Xiang Y, Cai H, et al.
      Pages: 2372 - 2386
      Abstract: Limited information is available in Asian populations regarding the association of dietary intake and patterns with age-related functional impairments. Using data from 2 population-based cohort studies in China, the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (1996–2015) and Shanghai Men’s Health Study (2002–2015), we prospectively examined adherence to dietary guidelines, including the Chinese Food Pagoda, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index, as well as consumption of specific foods, for their associations with impairment in function, both physical (walking, hearing/vision) and mental (memory, decision-making). Included in the analyses were 30,484 participants who had been followed for an average of 14.4 years and were between the ages of 70 and 86 years at the functional status assessment. Higher dietary-recommendation adherence scores were associated with a lower likelihood of developing functional impairments. The odds ratios ranged from 0.61 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 0.70) to 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.72, 0.95) when extreme quintiles were compared. Higher fish, poultry, vegetable, and fruit intake, moderate red meat intake, and low rice consumption were associated with a reduced probability of having physical or mental impairments. Our findings highlight the importance of a high-quality diet in maintaining functional status among the aged population.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy156
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Association of 12-Year Trajectories of Sitting Time With Frailty in
           Middle-Aged Women
    • Authors: Susanto M; Hubbard R, Gardiner P.
      Pages: 2387 - 2396
      Abstract: Prolonged sitting time is associated with several health outcomes; limited evidence indicates associations with frailty. Our aims in this study were to identify patterns of sitting time over 12 years in middle-aged (ages 50–55 years) women and examine associations of these patterns with frailty in older age. We examined 5,462 women born in 1946–1951 from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health who provided information on sociodemographic attributes, daily sitting time, and frailty in 2001 and then again every 3 years until 2013. Frailty was assessed using the FRAIL (fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illness, loss of weight) scale (0 = healthy; 1–2 = prefrail; 3–5 = frail), and group-based trajectory analyses identified trajectories of sitting time. We identified 5 sitting-time trajectories: low (26.9%), medium (43.1%; referent), increasing (6.9%), decreasing (18.1%), and high (4.8%). In adjusted models, the likelihoods of being frail were statistically higher for women in the increasing (odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.61) and high (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.84) trajectories. In contrast, women in the low trajectory group were less likely to be frail (OR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), and there was no difference in the likelihood of frailty in the decreasing trajectory group. Our study suggests that patterns of sitting time over 12 years in middle-aged women predict frailty in older age.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy111
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Can E-Cigarettes and Pharmaceutical Aids Increase Smoking Cessation and
           Reduce Cigarette Consumption' Findings From a Nationally
           Representative Cohort of American Smokers
    • Authors: Benmarhnia T; Pierce J, Leas E, et al.
      Pages: 2397 - 2404
      Abstract: Many smokers believe that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and pharmaceutical cessation aids can help them quit smoking or reduce cigarette consumption, but the evidence for e-cigarettes to aid quitting is limited. Examining 3,093 quit attempters in the nationally representative US Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, using data from 2013–2015, we evaluated the influence of ENDS and pharmaceutical cessation aids on persistent abstinence (≥30 days) from cigarettes and reduced cigarette consumption, using propensity score matching to balance comparison groups on potential confounders and multiple imputation to handle missing data. At PATH Wave 2, 25.2% of quit attempters reported using ENDS to quit during the previous year, making it the most popular cessation aid in 2014–2015. More quit attempters were persistently cigarette abstinent than were persistently tobacco abstinent (15.5% (standard error, 0.8) vs. 9.6% (standard error, 0.6)). Using ENDS to quit cigarettes increased the probability of persistent cigarette abstinence at Wave 2 (risk difference (RD) = 6%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2, 10), but using approved pharmaceutical aids did not (for varenicline, RD = 2%, 95% CI: −6, 13; for bupropion, RD = 4%, 95% CI: −6, 17; for nicotine replacement therapy, RD = −3%, 95% CI: −8, 2). Among quit attempters who relapsed, ENDS did not reduce the average daily cigarette consumption (cigarettes per day, −0.18, 95% CI: −1.87, 1.51).
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy129
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Associations of Dietary Protein Intake With Fat-Free Mass and Grip
           Strength: A Cross-Sectional Study in 146,816 UK Biobank Participants
    • Authors: Celis-Morales C; Petermann F, Steell L, et al.
      Pages: 2405 - 2414
      Abstract: Adequate dietary protein intake is important for the maintenance of fat-free mass (FFM) and muscle strength, but optimal requirements remain unknown. Our aim in the current study was to explore the associations of protein intake with FFM and grip strength. We used baseline data from the UK Biobank (a study of 146,816 participants aged 40–69 years with data collected across the United Kingdom in 2007–2010) to examine the associations of protein intake with FFM and grip strength. Protein intake was positively associated with FFM (men: 5.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.0, 5.2); women: 7.7% (95% CI: 7.7, 7.8)) and grip strength (men: 0.076 kg/kg (95% CI: 0.074, 0.078); women: 0.074 kg/kg (95% CI: 0.073, 0.076)) per 0.5-g/kg/day (grams per kg of body mass per day) increment in protein intake. FFM and grip strength were higher with higher intakes across the full range of intakes (i.e., highest in persons who reported consuming ≥2.00 g/kg/day) independently of sociodemographic factors, other dietary measures, physical activity, and comorbidity. FFM and grip strength were lower with age, but this association did not differ by category of protein intake (P > 0.05). The current recommendation for all adults (ages 40–69 years) to maintain a protein intake of 0.8 g/kg/day may need to be increased to optimize FFM and grip strength.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy134
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Linking HIV and Viral Hepatitis Surveillance Data: Evaluating a Standard,
           Deterministic Matching Algorithm Using Data From 6 US Health Jurisdictions
    • Authors: Bosh K; Coyle J, Muriithi N, et al.
      Pages: 2415 - 2422
      Abstract: Accurate interpretations and comparisons of record linkage results across jurisdictions require valid and reliable matching methods. We compared existing matching methods used by 6 US state and local health departments (Houston, Texas; Louisiana; Michigan; New York, New York; North Dakota; and Wisconsin) to link human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis surveillance data with a 14-key automated, hierarchical deterministic matching method. Applicable years of study varied by disease and jurisdiction, ranging from 1979 to 2016. We calculated percentage agreement and Cohen’s κ coefficient to compare the matching methods used within each jurisdiction. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for each matching method, as compared with a new standard that included manual review of discrepant cases. Agreement between the existing matching method and the deterministic matching method was 99.6% or higher in all jurisdictions; Cohen’s κ values ranged from 0.87 to 0.98. The sensitivity of the deterministic matching method ranged from 97.4% to 100% in the 6 jurisdictions; specificity ranged from 99.7% to 100%; and positive predictive value ranged from 97.4% to 100%. Although no gold standard exists, prior assessments of existing methods and review of discrepant classifications suggest good accuracy and reliability of our deterministic matching method, with the advantage that our method reduces the need for manual review and allows for standard comparisons across jurisdictions when linking human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis data.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy161
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Education and Cognitive Aging: Accounting for Selection and Confounding in
           Linkage of Data From the Danish Registry and Survey of Health, Ageing and
           Retirement in Europe
    • Authors: Foverskov E; Glymour M, Mortensen E, et al.
      Pages: 2423 - 2430
      Abstract: Earlier studies report inconsistent associations between education and cognitive aging. We assessed the association, accounting for selective dropout due to death or dementia, and, in a subsample, accounting for confounding by early-life intelligence. Data from the Danish component of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 3,400) were linked to registry data (education records, dementia diagnoses, and mortality) and the Danish Conscription Database (youth intelligence measurements for 854 men). Word recall and verbal fluency were assessed up to 4 times over 10 years (2004–2013) and combined by averaging the z scores. We fitted a joint model linking a time-to-event model for dementia or death to a linear mixed-effects model for cognitive change. Rate of cognitive decline was slower among people with high education compared with low education (β = 0.112, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.056, 0.170). Adjusting for youth intelligence did not attenuate the association between education and cognitive decline (crude β = 0.136, 95% CI: 0.028, 0.244 vs. adjusted β = 0.145, 95% CI: 0.022, 0.269). The results suggest that higher education may slow cognitive decline in later life. In this sample, results changed little when accounting for selective attrition and confounding by intelligence.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy162
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • A Bayesian Approach to Understanding Sex Differences in Tuberculosis
           Disease Burden
    • Authors: Horton K; Sumner T, Houben R, et al.
      Pages: 2431 - 2438
      Abstract: Globally, men have a higher epidemiologic burden of tuberculosis (incidence, prevalence, mortality) than women do, possibly due to differences in disease incidence, treatment initiation, self-cure, and/or untreated-tuberculosis mortality rates. Using a simple, sex-stratified compartmental model, we employed a Bayesian approach to explore which factors most likely explain men’s higher burden. We applied the model to smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Vietnam (2006–2007) and Malawi (2013–2014). Posterior estimates were consistent with sex-specific prevalence and notifications in both countries. Results supported higher incidence in men and showed that both sexes faced longer durations of untreated disease than estimated by self-reports. Prior untreated disease durations were revised upward 8- to 24-fold, to 2.2 (95% credible interval: 1.7, 2.9) years for men in Vietnam and 2.8 (1.8, 4.1) years for men in Malawi, approximately a year longer than for women in each country. Results imply that substantial sex differences in tuberculosis burden are almost solely attributable to men’s disadvantages in disease incidence and untreated disease duration. The latter, for which self-reports provide a poor proxy, implies inadequate coverage of case-finding strategies. These results highlight an urgent need for better understanding of gender-related barriers faced by men and support the systematic targeting of men for screening.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy131
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Extension of Disease Risk Score–Based Confounding Adjustments for
           Multiple Outcomes of Interest: An Empirical Evaluation
    • Authors: Desai R; Wyss R, Jin Y, et al.
      Pages: 2439 - 2448
      Abstract: Use of disease risk score (DRS)–based confounding adjustment when estimating treatment effects on multiple outcomes is not well studied. We designed an empirical cohort study to compare dabigatran initiators and warfarin initiators with respect to risks of ischemic stroke and major bleeding in 12 sequential monitoring periods (90 days each), using data from the Truven Marketscan database (Truven Health Analytics, Ann Arbor, Michigan). We implemented 2 approaches to combine DRS for multiple outcomes: 1) 1:1 matching on prognostic propensity scores (PPS), created using DRS for bleeding and stroke as independent variables in a propensity score (PS) model; and 2) simultaneous 1:1 matching on DRS for bleeding and stroke using Mahalanobis distance (M-distance), and compared their performance with that of traditional PS matching. M-distance matching appeared to produce more stable results in the early marketing period than both PPS and traditional PS matching; hazard ratios from unadjusted analysis, traditional PS matching, PPS matching, and M-distance matching after 4 periods were 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 1.03), 0.61 (95% CI: 0.31, 1.09), 0.55 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.91), and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.34), respectively, for stroke and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.80), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.01), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.96), and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.95), respectively, for bleeding. In later periods, estimates were similar for traditional PS matching and M-distance matching but suggested potential residual confounding with PPS matching. These results suggest that M-distance matching may be a valid approach for extension of DRS-based confounding adjustments for multiple outcomes of interest.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy130
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Assessing Individual and Disseminated Effects in Network-Randomized
    • Authors: Buchanan A; Vermund S, Friedman S, et al.
      Pages: 2449 - 2459
      Abstract: Implementation trials often involve clustering via risk networks, where only some participants directly receive the intervention. The individual effect is that among directly treated persons beyond being in an intervention network; the disseminated effect is that among persons engaged with those directly treated. In this article, we employ a causal inference framework and discuss assumptions and estimators for individual and disseminated effects and apply them to the HIV Prevention Trials Network 037 Study. HIV Prevention Trials Network 037 was a phase III, network-level, randomized controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention trial conducted in the United States and Thailand from 2002 to 2006 that recruited injection drug users, who were assigned to either an intervention group or a control group, and their risk network members, who received no direct intervention. Combining individual and disseminated effects, we observed a 35% composite rate reduction in the adjusted model (risk ratio = 0.65, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.90). Methodology is now available for estimating the full set of these effects, enhancing knowledge gained from network-randomized trials. Although the overall effect gains validity from network randomization, we show that it will generally be less than the composite effect. Additionally, if only index participants benefit from the intervention, as the network size increases, the overall effect tends toward the null—an unfortunate and misleading conclusion.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy149
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Statistical Inference on Health Disparity Indices for Complex Surveys
    • Authors: Li Y; Yu M, Zhang J.
      Pages: 2460 - 2469
      Abstract: The National Cancer Institute developed the Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc) to facilitate research on health disparities. HD*Calc calculates multiple measures of health disparities using data collected from population-based disease surveillance systems, such as cancer registries. In this paper, we extend the use of HD*Calc to complex survey data by developing plug-in point estimators and Taylor linearization variance estimators that consider complex designs: stratification, multistage clustering, and differential weighting. Our simulation indicates that the plug-in estimators are approximately unbiased and the Taylor linearization variance estimators are accurate. Using 2011–2016 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we demonstrate the use of these estimators in evaluating socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of child and adolescent (ages 2–18 years) obesity in the United States. Statistical software has been developed for ease of disparity analyses using complex survey data.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy152
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • Estimating the Relative Excess Risk Due to Interaction in Clustered-Data
    • Authors: Correia K; Williams P.
      Pages: 2470 - 2480
      Abstract: The risk difference scale is often of primary interest when evaluating public health impacts of interventions on binary outcomes. However, few investigators report findings in terms of additive interaction, probably because the models typically used for binary outcomes implicitly measure interaction on the multiplicative scale. One measure with which to assess additive interaction from multiplicative models is the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). The RERI measure has been applied in many contexts, but one limitation of previous approaches is that clustering in data has rarely been considered. We evaluated the RERI metric for the setting of clustered data using both population-averaged and cluster-conditional models. In simulation studies, we found that estimation and inference for the RERI using population-averaged models was straightforward. However, frequentist implementations of cluster-conditional models including random intercepts often failed to converge or produced degenerate variance estimates. We developed a Bayesian implementation of log binomial random-intercept models, which represents an attractive alternative for estimating the RERI in cluster-conditional models. We applied the methods to an observational study of adverse birth outcomes in mothers with human immunodeficiency virus, in which mothers were clustered within clinical research sites.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy154
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
  • The Number of Events per Confounder for Valid Estimation of Risk
           Difference Using Modified Least-Squares Regression
    • Authors: Hagiwara Y; Fukuda M, Matsuyama Y.
      Pages: 2481 - 2490
      Abstract: Risk difference is a relevant effect measure in epidemiologic research. Although it is well known that when there are few events per confounder, logistic regression is not suitable for confounding control, it is not clear how many events per confounder are required for valid estimation of risk difference using linear binomial models. Because the maximum likelihood method has a convergence problem, we investigated the number of events per confounder necessary to validly estimate risk difference using modified least-squares regression in a simulation. We simulated 864 scenarios, according to the number of confounders (2–20), the number of events per confounder (2–12), marginal risk (0.5%–40%), exposure proportion (20% and 40%), and 3 sizes of risk difference. Our simulation showed that modified least-squares regression provided unbiased risk difference—regardless of the number of events per confounder—and reliable confidence intervals when more than 5 events were expected in the exposed and in the unexposed, irrespective of the number of events per confounder. We illustrated the modified least-squares regression analysis using perinatal epidemiologic data. Modified least-squares regression is considered to be a useful analytical tool for rare binary outcomes relative to the number of confounders.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy158
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
    • Pages: 2491 - 2491
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy169
      Issue No: Vol. 187, No. 11 (2018)
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