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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 510, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Epidemiology
  [SJR: 3.047]   [H-I: 201]   [157 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0002-9262 - ISSN (Online) 1476-6256
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Editors' Note
    • First page: 987
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx144
       
  • Editorial: The 50th Anniversary of the Society for Epidemiologic Research
    • Authors: Harlow BL; Szklo M.
      First page: 988
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx120
       
  • REPRINT: Society for Epidemiologic Research
    • First page: 990
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx114
       
  • REPRINT: An Explanation for Variations in Distribution of Stroke and
           Arteriosclerotic Heart Disease Among Populations and Racial Groups
    • First page: 991
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx109
       
  • Invited Commentary: Heterogeneity of Cardiovascular Diseases Among
           Populations—Recognition and Seminal Explanations
    • Authors: Folsom AR.
      First page: 1000
      Abstract: Kuller and Reisler's 1971 publication (Am J Epidemiol. 1971;93(1):1–9) was an important contribution to the understanding of the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases, particularly stroke. The authors synthesized pathological and risk-factor evidence to theorize why rates of various subtypes of arterial disease might vary across populations. Specifically, they suggested that different population levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose led to population differences in the location and extent of arterial disease. The publication is an excellent model of how to integrate data on person, place, and time of a major public health problem, together with information on pathology and factors that determine individual risk, to derive a coherent explanation for population patterns in cardiovascular disease. The authors’ basic theory has proven solid for the past 5 decades.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx073
       
  • REPRINT: Estimability and Estimation in Case-Referent Studies
    • First page: 1002
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx102
       
  • Invited Commentary: When Case-Control Studies Came of Age
    • Authors: Rothman KJ.
      First page: 1012
      Abstract: In his 1976 paper “Estimability and Estimation in Case-Referent Studies” (Am J Epidemiol. 1976;103(2):226–235), Miettinen weaved together a patchwork of new ideas into a coherent view of case-control studies. His article spurred theoretical development in epidemiologic methods and became a platform for teaching about some key concepts in epidemiologic study design.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx074
       
  • REPRINT: The Contribution of the Social Environment to Host Resistence:
           The Fourth Wade Hampton Frost Lecture
    • First page: 1015
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx100
       
  • Invited Commentary: Cassel's “The Contribution of the Social Environment
           to Host Resistance”—A Modern Classic
    • Authors: James SA.
      First page: 1032
      Abstract: John Cassel's 1976 paper “The Contribution of the Social Environment to Host Resistance” (Am J Epidemiol. 1976;104(2):107–123) is widely regarded as a classic in epidemiology. He makes the compelling argument that the quality of a person's social relationships, that is, the degree to which her relationships are more stressful than supportive (or vice versa) influences her susceptibility to disease independent of genetic endowment, diet, physical activity, etc. Cassel's provocative thesis was anchored in a cogent synthesis of findings from animal experiments and observational studies on diverse human populations. Beginning in the late 1970s, the paper stimulated an explosion of epidemiologic research on social support and human health. Beyond advancing epidemiologic theory, Cassel showed how findings from various epidemiologic study designs could be marshalled to build a persuasive causal argument that impaired social bonds increase the risk of premature disease and death. The paper also foreshadowed core ideas of later theoretical constructs, such as weathering and allostatic load, regarding the power of chronic environmental stressors to accelerate biological aging across multiple organ systems. Cassel's assessment of the research and practice implications of his conclusions has remarkable contemporary resonance for the field of epidemiology.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx070
       
  • REPRINT: Causes
    • First page: 1035
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx099
       
  • Invited Commentary: The Continuing Need for the Sufficient Cause Model
           Today
    • Authors: VanderWeele TJ.
      First page: 1041
      Abstract: In this commentary, I review the insights that have been gained using Rothman's sufficient cause model (Am J Epidemiol. 1976;104(6):587–592). Discussion pertains to the relations of the model to similar conceptualizations in other fields of study, the advances and extensions that have been made to the model since the paper's publication, and its relation to questions of actual causation, along with questions concerning the use of the model in the future of epidemiology.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx083
       
  • REPRINT: Response and Follow-up Bias in Cohort Studies
    • First page: 1044
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx106
       
  • Invited Commentary: Selection Bias Without Colliders
    • Authors: Hernán MA.
      First page: 1048
      Abstract: In causal analyses, conditioning on a collider generally results in selection bias. Conditioning on a prognostic factor that is independent of the exposure—and therefore is not a collider—can also result in selection bias when 1) the exposure has a non-null effect on the outcome and 2) the association between the noncollider and the outcome is heterogenous across levels of the exposure. This result was empirically demonstrated by Greenland in 1977 (Am J Epidemiol. 1977;106(3):184–187).
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx077
       
  • REPRINT: Physical Activity as an Index of Heart Attack Risk in College
           Alumni
    • First page: 1051
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx104
       
  • Invited Commentary: Is Strenuous Activity Good for You' The Legacy of
           Ralph Paffenbarger
    • Authors: Kuller LH.
      First page: 1066
      Abstract: Ralph Paffenbarger, Jr, MD, DrPH (1922–2007), was initially trained as an infectious disease epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health (now the Bloomberg School of Public Health). He was the first Epidemiology Intelligence Service officer in the first Epidemiology Intelligence Service class. He joined the National Heart Institute (now the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) in its very early days and later became a faculty member at Stanford University and Harvard University. His studies of the relationships between physical activity (PA) and coronary heart disease in longshoremen and in college athletes at Harvard University and University of Pennsylvania, as well as the follow-up of the Harvard College students to evaluate PA both in and after college that was detailed in the article “Physical Activity as an Index of Heart Attack Risk in College Alumni” (Am J Epidemiol. 1978;108(3):161–175), established that more strenuous PA reduced the risk of heart attack and that it was necessary to continue PA after college. Results from his studies suggested that less strenuous PA had little effect on risk of heart attacks. He was a strong advocate for the importance of PA in the prevention of heart attacks and as a public health recommendation and for the idea that adherence to strenuous PA over the course of a lifetime was difficult. He was a marathon runner who competed frequently in the Boston Marathon and practiced what he preached.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx078
       
  • REPRINT: Social Networks, Host Resistance, and Mortality: A Nine-Year
           Follow-up Study of Alameda County Residents
    • First page: 1070
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx103
       
  • Invited Commentary: Evolution of Social Networks, Health, and the Role of
           Epidemiology
    • Authors: Aiello AE.
      First page: 1089
      Abstract: Almost 40 years ago, Berkman and Syme demonstrated that social networks were related to the risk of early mortality (Am J Epidemiol. 1979;109(2):186–204). Their study was highly innovative because they directly measured and quantified social networks in a large prospective population-based survey with mortality follow-up. The results of the study showed robust network gradients, whereby those with fewer networks and weaker social ties had significantly higher mortality rates. The important influence of social networks that Berkman and Syme noted many years ago is likely to heighten in the future, as demographic characteristics shift and individuals become more inclined to socialize through online platforms instead of real-world interactions. Berkman and Syme's research in 1979 continues to play a key role in shaping recent efforts to uncover the influence of social networks on health. Looking back on their findings may help epidemiologists better understand the importance of both online and offline networks for population health today.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx076
       
  • REPRINT: An Investigation of Coronary Heart Disease in Families: The
           Framingham Offspring Study
    • First page: 1093
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx110
       
  • Invited Commentary: The Framingham Offspring Study—A Pioneering
           Investigation Into Familial Aggregation of Cardiovascular Risk
    • Authors: Manson JE; Bassuk SS.
      First page: 1103
      Abstract: Launched in 1948, the Framingham Heart Study was a seminal prospective cohort study of 5,209 adult residents of Framingham, Massachusetts, that was designed to uncover the determinants and natural history of coronary heart disease. Data from this original cohort established the cardiac threat posed by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes, and other factors. In the late 1960s, investigators conceived the innovative idea of assembling a second cohort that comprised the adult children of the original study population (and these children's spouses). From 1971 to 1975, a total of 5,124 individuals were recruited to form the Offspring Cohort. Studying successive generations in this fashion provided an efficient method for examining secular trends in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, as well as an opportunity to assess familial aggregation of risk without the threat of recall bias. In a paper published in the September 1979 issue of the Journal, then study director William Kannel et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 1979;110(3):281–290) described the sampling design of the Offspring Study and presented selected baseline characteristics of the cohort. The scientific questions addressed by this research provided the impetus for a decades-long effort—still in full force today both within the Framingham Study itself and in the broader cardiovascular epidemiologic community—to quantify the independent and synergistic effects of genetic, lifestyle, and other environmental factors on cardiovascular outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx068
       
  • REPRINT: Reproduciblity and Validity of a Semiquantitative Food Frequency
           Questionnaire
    • First page: 1109
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx107
       
  • Invited Commentary: The Contribution to the Field of Nutritional
           Epidemiology of the Landmark 1985 Publication by Willett et al.
    • Authors: Subar AF; Kushi LH, Lerman JL, et al.
      First page: 1124
      Abstract: The semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) has been the primary source of dietary exposure data in epidemiology for decades. Although frequency instruments had been evaluated before the 1985 publication “Reproducibility and Validity of a Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire” by Willett et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 1985;122(1):51–65), that paper was the prototype for the development and validation of what was then a highly innovative method for collecting dietary data. This approach was adopted in nearly all subsequent cohort studies of diet and disease. The paper also catalyzed an extended scientific discourse regarding methods for validation, energy adjustment, and measurement error. It is now well established that data from FFQs and other self-reported dietary assessment instruments have both value and error and that this error should be considered in the analysis and interpretation of findings, including sensitivity analyses in which adjustment for measurement error is explored. Advances in technology make it feasible to consider collecting multiple granular short-term instruments such as recalls or records over time in addition to FFQs among all participants in large cohort studies; both provide valuable information. Without a doubt, the 1985 publication by Willett et al. provided the foundation that propelled the field of nutritional epidemiology forward, and it continues to be relevant today.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx072
       
  • REPRINT: The Diet and 15-Year Death Rate in the Seven Countries Study
    • First page: 1130
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx101
       
  • Invited Commentary: 30-Year Perspective on the Seven Countries Study
    • Authors: Blackburn H.
      First page: 1143
      Abstract: In a 1986 article (Am J Epidemiol. 1986;124(6):903–915), Keys et al. described and discussed 15-year findings from 15 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study (SCS), the first systematic study of diet, risk characteristics, disease-specific death rates, and their ecologic and individual associations both among and within whole populations of working men in regions with contrasting traditional diets. The SCS findings included 30-fold cohort differences in rates of death from coronary heart disease and 3-fold differences in rates of death from all causes, along with strong ecologic associations among diet, risk factors, and disease rates. These results have motivated a generation of causal research conducted using bench, clinical, and population strategies. The study has contributed to survey methods, preventive practice, nutrition science, and policy on health, food and agriculture, and diet. The article is a succinct and accessible account by Ancel Keys, near the end of his long career, of the SCS design, conduct, and findings, with his discussion and interpretation of their importance. My commentary deals with the extent, validity, and historical meaning of SCS findings, as well as their influence and the influence of the 1986 article itself on epidemiologic thought and on public health. Students of epidemiology and of history should read this rich original source.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx071
       
  • REPRINT: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: Rationale, Organization, and
           Selected Characteristics of the Particpants
    • First page: 1148
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx108
       
  • Invited Commentary: A Landmark Study Launched in a Public Health Maelstrom
    • Authors: Engels EA; Rabkin CS, Goedert JJ.
      First page: 1157
      Abstract: The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic was first recognized in 1981, and it quickly became a public health emergency. In a 1987 paper in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126(2): 310–318), Richard Kaslow et al. described the launch of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), a cohort study of homosexual men in 4 US cities, the purpose of which was to better understand the natural history of AIDS and its determinants. The MACS enrolled participants through a range of community contacts. These efforts facilitated rapid recruitment, but given the targeted approaches, participants tended to comprise high-risk social networks. At baseline, 4%–26% of participants at the 4 sites reported having a sexual partner who had developed AIDS. Kaslow et al. also described baseline testing for the causative agent of AIDS, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV seroprevalence was remarkably high, ranging from 11%–26% across age groups in Pittsburgh to 38%–53% in Los Angeles. The major turning point in the epidemic occurred in 1995–1996 when combination antiretroviral therapy was introduced, effectively blocking HIV replication and markedly reducing AIDS morbidity and mortality. The MACS cohort continues to be followed actively 3 decades after its launch and has proven to be an important resource for information on HIV infection and AIDS.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx079
       
  • HA REPRINT: Poverty and Health: Prospective Evidence From the Alameda
           County Study
    • First page: 1161
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx112
       
  • Invited Commentary: Beyond Individuals—Area Poverty and Health, or the
           Search for an Impactful Epidemiology
    • Authors: Diez Roux AV.
      First page: 1171
      Abstract: In this commentary, I reflect on the paper “Poverty and Health: Prospective Evidence From the Alameda County Study” by Haan et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 1987;125(6):989–998), which together with supporting work ushered in a surge of epidemiologic interest in the impact of social contexts on health. I discuss why the paper was influential and how the premise of this type of work influenced theories and methods in epidemiology. The paper is placed in the broader context of the nature of evidence in epidemiology and the ultimate purpose of epidemiologic inquiry.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx084
       
  • REPRINT: The Case-Crossover Design: A Method for Studying Transient
           Effects on the Risk of Acute Events
    • First page: 1174
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx105
       
  • Invited Commentary: Self-Control Is a Virtue
    • Authors: Weinberg CR.
      First page: 1184
      Abstract: The case-crossover design, introduced in 1991 by Malcolm Maclure (Am J Epidemiol. 1991;133(2):144–153), provided a precise and powerful tool for studying short-term effects of transient triggering exposures on abrupt outcomes like myocardial infarction. The design is an example of “self-control.” One compares case-time intervals that include experiences that came just before the health event with control-time intervals that capture comparable experiences more remote from the event. Methodologists have since tweaked the general approach, recognizing issues that need to be considered to guard against time-driven confounders. I discuss opportunities for possible expansion and further mining of the data from this ingenious design.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx075
       
  • REPRINT: Neighborhood Environments and Coronary Heart Disease: A
           Multilevel Analysis
    • First page: 1187
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx113
       
  • Invited Commentary: The Enduring Role of “Place” in
           Health—A Historic Perspective
    • Authors: Cozier YC.
      First page: 1203
      Abstract: In public health, it has long been observed that “place”—specifically, where one lives—affects individual health, with the main research question distinguishing between the effects of “context” (defined as area characteristics) and “composition” (the characteristics of inhabitants) on health outcomes. There have been many studies in which the spatial patterning of disease has been explored, but they were often ecological in design, used broad census geographic levels, lacked individual-level data, or when available, did not simultaneously analyze community- and individual-level risk factors using appropriate modeling techniques. The paper by Diez-Roux et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 1997;146(1):48–63) represents an important expansion of the literature in terms of analytic methods used and level of geography studied. The authors demonstrated that both neighborhood- and individual-level measures of socioeconomic status work together to play an important role in shaping disease risk. Analyses incorporating both levels of data have the potential to provide epidemiologists with a deeper understanding of the divergent pathways via which neighborhood affects health.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx085
       
  • REPRINT: Prisoners of the Proximate: Loosening the Constraints on
           Epidemiology in an Age of Change
    • First page: 1206
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx111
       
  • Invited Commentary: Continuing to Loosen the Constraints on Epidemiology
           in an Age of Change—A Comment on McMichael's “Prisoners of the
           Proximate”
    • Authors: Galea S.
      First page: 1217
      Abstract: Published in 1999, McMichael's “Prisoners of the Proximate: Loosening the Constraints on Epidemiology in an Age of Change” (Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(10):887–897) outlined an exciting vision for epidemiology as the field that that can help us better understand the drivers of population health so that we may intervene, paving the way for healthier populations. McMichael's paper remains today what it was when it was first published: clear, thoughtful, provocative, and usefully prescriptive in its call to action. McMichael identified 4 constraints facing epidemiology. The field has risen to this challenge and addressed some of these constraints. I discuss how successful (or not) we have been in addressing each of these 4 challenges.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwx069
       
 
 
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