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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 300, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 517, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil
  [SJR: 1.233]   [H-I: 88]   [54 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1054-3139 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9289
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Complete Issue pdf 74-4
    • First page: 889
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx102
  • Towards a broader perspective on ocean acidification research
    • Authors: Browman HI.
      First page: 889
      Abstract: Ocean acidification (OA) continues to be one of the most studied single topics in marine science. Almost 800 articles on OA appeared in 2016 alone. Forty-four of those were published in a special themed issue of the ICES Journal of Marine Science, “Towards a broader perspective on ocean acidification research.” Submissions to that themed initiative continued well beyond the original deadline and were so numerous that we decided to publish this—a second OA-themed issue—which contains an additional 33 articles. In this Introduction, I briefly present the contributions that appear in this theme issue, and then offer an updated assessment of the status of OA research.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx073
  • Bioerosion: the other ocean acidification problem
    • Authors: Schönberg CL; Fang JH, Carreiro-Silva M, et al.
      First page: 895
      Abstract: Bioerosion of calcium carbonate is the natural counterpart of biogenic calcification. Both are affected by ocean acidification (OA). We summarize definitions and concepts in bioerosion research and knowledge in the context of OA, providing case examples and meta-analyses. Chemically mediated bioerosion relies on energy demanding, biologically controlled undersaturation or acid regulation and increases with simulated OA, as does passive dissolution. Through substrate weakening both processes can indirectly enhance mechanical bioerosion, which is not directly affected by OA. The low attention and expert knowledge on bioerosion produced some ambiguous views and approaches, and limitations to experimental studies restricted opportunities to generalize. Comparability of various bioerosion and calcification rates remains difficult. Physiological responses of bioeroders or interactions of environmental factors are insufficiently studied. We stress the importance to foster and advance high quality bioerosion research as global trends suggest the following: (i) growing environmental change (eutrophication, coral mortality, OA) is expected to elevate bioerosion in the near future; (ii) changes harmful to calcifiers may not be as severe for bioeroders (e.g. warming); and (iii) factors facilitating bioerosion often reduce calcification rates (e.g. OA). The combined result means that the natural process bioerosion has itself become a “stress factor”” for reef health and resilience.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsw254
  • Spatial patterns of phytoplankton composition and upper-ocean
           biogeochemistry do not follow carbonate chemistry gradients in north-west
           European Shelf seas
    • Authors: Ribas-Ribas MM; Cripps GL, Townend MM, et al.
      First page: 965
      Abstract: A key difficulty in ocean acidification research is to predict its impact after physiological, phenotypic, and genotypic adaptation has had time to take place. Observational datasets can be a useful tool in addressing this issue. During a cruise in June–July 2011, measurements of upper-ocean biogeochemical variables, climatically active gases and plankton community composition were collected from northwestern European seas. We used various multivariate statistical techniques to assess the relative influences of carbonate chemistry and other environmental factors on these response variables. We found that the spatial patterns in plankton communities were driven more by nutrient availability and physical variables than by carbonate chemistry. The best subset of variables able to account for phytoplankton community structure was the euphotic zone depth, silicic acid availability, mixed layer average irradiance, and nitrate concentration (59% of variance explained). The spatial variations in phytoplankton and coccolithophores species composition were both found to be more strongly associated with nutrients and physical variables than carbonate chemistry, with the latter only explaining 14 and 9% of the variance, respectively. The plankton community composition and contribution of calcifying organisms was not observed to change under lower calcite saturation state (Ω) conditions, although no regions of undersaturation (Ω < 1) were encountered during the cruise. Carbonate chemistry played a more prominent, but still secondary, role in determining dinoflagellate and diatom assemblage composition (20 and 13% of total variance explained, respectively). Nutrient and physical variables also explained more of the spatial variations of most climatically active gases and selected biogeochemical response variables, although some also appeared to be influenced by carbonate chemistry. This observational study has demonstrated that ocean acidification research needs to be set in context with other environmental forcing variables to fully appreciate the primary, or indeed secondary, role that increasing fugacity of carbon dioxide has on biological communities and associated biogeochemical rates.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx063
  • Minor impacts of reduced pH on bacterial biofilms on settlement tiles
           along natural pH gradients at two CO 2 seeps in Papua New Guinea
    • Authors: Hassenrück C; Tegetmeyer HE, Ramette A, et al.
      First page: 978
      Abstract: Bacterial biofilms provide cues for the settlement of marine invertebrates such as coral larvae, and are therefore important for the resilience and recovery of coral reefs. This study aimed to better understand how ocean acidification may affect the community composition and diversity of bacterial biofilms on surfaces under naturally reduced pH conditions. Settlement tiles were deployed at coral reefs in Papua New Guinea along pH gradients created by two CO2 seeps. Biofilms on upper and lower tiles surfaces were sampled 5 and 13 months after deployment. Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis was used to characterize 240 separate bacterial communities, complemented by amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene of 16 samples. Bacterial biofilms consisted predominantly of Alpha-, Gamma-, and Delta-proteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Cytophagia, whereas taxa that induce settlement of invertebrate larvae only accounted for a small fraction of the community. Bacterial biofilm composition was heterogeneous, with on average only ∼25% of operational taxonomic units shared between samples. Among the observed environmental parameters, pH was only weakly related to community composition (R2 ∼ 1%), and was unrelated to community richness and evenness. In contrast, biofilms strongly differed between upper and lower tile surfaces (contrasting in light exposure and grazing intensity). There also appeared to be a strong interaction between bacterial biofilm composition and the macroscopic components of the tile community. Our results suggest that on mature settlement surfaces in situ, pH does not have a strong impact on the composition of bacterial biofilms. Other abiotic and biotic factors such as light exposure and interactions with other organisms may be more important in shaping bacterial biofilms on mature surfaces than changes in seawater pH.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsw204
  • The early life stages of an estuarine fish, the red drum ( Sciaenops
           ocellatus ), are tolerant to high pCO 2
    • Authors: Lonthair J; Ern R, Esbaugh AJ, et al.
      First page: 1042
      Abstract: Ocean acidification (OA) and other climate change induced environmental alterations are resulting in unprecedented rates of environmental deterioration. This environmental change is generally thought to be too fast for adaptation using typical evolutionary processes, and thus sensitivity may be dependent on the presence of existing tolerant genotypes and species. Estuaries undergo natural pCO2 fluctuations over a variety of time scales, and levels regularly exceed the predicted end of the century values. Interestingly, estuarine fish species have been overlooked in reference to the impacts of OA. Here, we use the estuarine red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) as a model to explore the hypothesis that early life stages of estuarine species have intrinsic tolerance to elevated pCO2. Our sensitivity endpoints included: survival, growth, yolk consumption, heart rate, and scototaxis. Survival was significantly decreased when exposed to 1300 μatm and 3000 μatm, and coincided with a significant increase in heart rate at the 3000 μatm exposure. However, these effects were less pronounced than the findings of previous studies on other marine fish species. Yolk depletion rate and standard length were not significantly affected by pCO2. Scototaxis behaviour was also not significantly affected by exposure to elevated levels of pCO2 under both acute and acclimated exposure scenarios. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that estuarine life history and habitat usage may play a critical role in determining sensitivity of fish species to OA. Furthermore, estuarine species may provide present-day insight into the physiological and ecological foundation of OA tolerance.
      PubDate: 2017-01-08
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsw225
  • Solar UVR sensitivity of phyto- and bacterioplankton communities from
           Patagonian coastal waters under increased nutrients and acidification
    • Authors: Durán-Romero C; Villafañe VE, Valiñas MS, et al.
      First page: 1062
      Abstract: The effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) under future expected conditions of acidification and increase in nutrient inputs were studied on a post-bloom phytoplankton and bacterioplankton community of Patagonian coastal waters. We performed an experiment using microcosms where two environmental conditions were mimicked using a cluster approach: present (ambient nutrients and pH) and future (increased nutrients and acidification), and acclimating the samples for five days to two radiation treatments (full solar radiation [+UVR] and exclusion of UVR [–UVR]). We evaluated the short-term (hours) sensitivity of the community to solar UVR through chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters (e.g. the effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII [ΦPSII]) at the beginning, at the mid-point and at the end of the acclimation period. Primary production and heterotrophic bacterial production (HBP) were determined, and biological weighting functions were calculated, at the beginning and at the end of the acclimation period. Mid-term effects (days) were evaluated as changes in taxonomic composition, growth rates and size structure of the community. Although the UVR-induced inhibition on ΦPSII decreased in both clusters, samples remained sensitive to UVR after the 5 days of acclimation. Also, under the future conditions, there was, in general, an increase in the phytoplankton carbon incorporation rates along the experiment as compared to the present conditions. Bacterioplankton sensitivity to UVR changed along the experiment from inhibition to enhancement of HBP, and future environmental conditions stimulated bacterial growth, probably due to indirect effects caused by phytoplankton. Those changes in the microbial loop functioning and structure under future global change conditions might have important consequences for the carbon pump and thus for the carbon sequestration and trophodynamics of Patagonian coastal waters.
      PubDate: 2017-01-22
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsw248
  • Long-term exposure to elevated pCO 2 more than warming modifies early-life
           shell growth in a temperate gastropod
    • Authors: Rühl S; Calosi P, Faulwetter S, et al.
      First page: 1113
      Abstract: Co-occurring global change drivers, such as ocean warming and acidification, can have large impacts on the behaviour, physiology, and health of marine organisms. However, whilst early-life stages are thought to be most sensitive to these impacts, little is known about the individual level processes by which such impacts take place. Here, using mesocosm experiments simulating ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA) conditions expected for the NE Atlantic region by 2100 using a variety of treatments of elevated pCO2 and temperature. We investigated their impacts on bio-mineralization, microstructure, and ontogeny of Nucella lapillus (L.) juveniles, a common gastropod predator that exerts important top-down controls on biodiversity patterns in temperate rocky shores. The shell of juveniles hatched in mesocosms during a 14 month long experiment were analysed using micro-CT scanning, 3D geometric morphometrics, and scanning-electron microscopy. Elevated temperature and age determined shell density, length, width, thickness, elemental chemistry, shape, and shell surface damages. However, co-occurring elevated pCO2 modified the impacts of elevated temperature, in line with expected changes in carbonate chemistry driven by temperature. Young N. lapillus from acidified treatments had weaker shells and were therefore expected to be more vulnerable to predation and environmental pressures such as wave action. However, in some instances, the effects of both higher CO2 content and elevated temperature appeared to have reversed as the individuals aged. This study suggests that compensatory development may therefore occur, and that expected increases in juvenile mortality under OA and OW may be counteracted, to some degree, by high plasticity in shell formation in this species. This feature may prove advantageous for N. lapillus community dynamics in near-future conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-01-16
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsw242
  • Effects of current and future coastal upwelling conditions on the
           fertilization success of the red abalone ( Haliotis rufescens )
    • Authors: Boch CA; Litvin SY, Micheli F, et al.
      First page: 1125
      Abstract: Acidification, deoxygenation, and warming are escalating changes in coastal waters throughout the world ocean, with potentially severe consequences for marine life and ocean-based economies. To examine the influence of these oceanographic changes on a key biological process, we measured the effects of current and expected future conditions in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem on the fertilization success of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens). Laboratory experiments were used to assess abalone fertilization success during simultaneous exposure to various levels of seawater pH (gradient from 7.95 to 7.2), dissolved oxygen (DO) (∼60 and 180 µ SW) and temperature (9, 13, and 18 °C). Fertilization success declined continuously with decreasing pH but dropped precipitously below a threshold near pH 7.55 in cool (9 °C—upwelling) to average (13 °C) seawater temperatures. Variation in DO had a negligible effect on fertilization. In contrast, warmer waters (18 °C) often associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation conditions in central California acted antagonistically with decreasing pH, largely reducing the strong negative influence below the pH threshold. Experimental approaches that examine the interactive effects of multiple environmental drivers and also strive to characterize the functional response of organisms along gradients in environmental change are becoming increasingly important in advancing our understanding of the real-world consequences of changing ocean conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx017
  • Assessment of ocean acidification and warming on the growth,
           calcification, and biophotonics of a California grass shrimp
    • Authors: Lowder KB; Allen MC, Day JD, et al.
      First page: 1150
      Abstract: Cryptic colouration in crustaceans, important for both camouflage and visual communication, is achieved through physiological and morphological mechanisms that are sensitive to changes in environmental conditions. Consequently, ocean warming and ocean acidification can affect crustaceans’ biophotonic appearance and exoskeleton composition in ways that might disrupt colouration and transparency. In the present study, we measured growth, mineralization, transparency, and spectral reflectance (colouration) of the caridean grass shrimp Hippolyte californiensis in response to pH and temperature stressors. Shrimp were exposed to ambient pH and temperature (pH 8.0, 17 °C), decreased pH (pH 7.5, 17 °C), and decreased pH/increased temperature (pH 7.5, 19 °C) conditions for 7 weeks. There were no differences in either Mg or Ca content in the exoskeleton across treatments nor in the transparency and spectral reflectance. There was a small but significant increase in percent growth in the carapace length of shrimp exposed to decreased pH/increased temperature. Overall, these findings suggest that growth, calcification, and colour of H. californiensis are unaffected by decreases of 0.5 pH units. This tolerance might stem from adaptation to the highly variable pH environment that these grass shrimp inhabit, highlighting the multifarious responses to ocean acidification, within the Crustacea.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsw246
  • Impact of predicted climate change scenarios on a coral reef meiofauna
    • Authors: Sarmento V; Pinheiro B, Montes M, et al.
      First page: 1170
      Abstract: Changes in marine communities in response to elevated CO2 have been reported but information on how representatives of the benthic lower trophic levels will be impacted remains scarce. A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of different climate change scenarios on a coral reef meiofauna community. Samples of the meiofauna community were collected from the coral reef subtidal zone of Serrambi beach (Ipojuca, Pernambuco, Brazil), using artificial substrate units. The units were exposed to control treatments and to three climate change scenarios, and collected after 15 and 29 d. Important changes in the meiofauna community structure were observed after 15 d of exposure. The major meiofauna groups exhibited divergent responses to the various scenarios. Although polychaetes were negatively affected after 29 d in the most severe scenario (Scenario III), harpacticoid copepods were negatively affected in Scenarios II and III after 15 and 29 d. Harpacticoid nauplii were strongly and negatively affected in all scenarios. In contrast, Nematoda exhibited higher densities in all scenarios. To the best of our knowledge, this community-based study was the first to observe how meiofauna organisms from a coral reef environment react to the synergetic effects of reductions in seawater pH and increased temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-01-08
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsw234
  • Morphological response of the larvae of Arbacia lixula to near-future
           ocean warming and acidification
    • Authors: Visconti G; Gianguzza F, Butera E, et al.
      First page: 1180
      Abstract: The distribution of the sea urchin Arbacia lixula, a warm affinity species, has been expanding in the Mediterranean Sea. To address questions on potential for future success of this species in the region, the thermotolerance of larval development was investigated in context of regional warming. The larvae were reared in present day spawning period (20 °C) and warming conditions (+4 = 24 and +6 = 26 °C). As the calcifying larvae of sea urchins are vulnerable to stunted growth caused by ocean acidification, the impact of lower pH (−0.3 pH units) on larval development was also investigated in combination with warming. Morphological traits of the larvae, post-oral length arms, overall length of larvae and body length, were affected by increased temperature across pH treatments, indicating that for the larvae of southern Mediterranean population here, 24 °C appears to approximate the optimal temperature for development. A slightly negative effect of pH was evident. Increased temperature ameliorated the stunting effect of acidification on growth. The thermal tolerance of A. lixula development overlaps with projections for warming in the region by 2100 and also indicates that this species has acclimatized or adapted its reproductive biology to the broad environmental conditions of the Mediterranean Sea. Due to the broad thermal range (∼10 °C) of development of A. lixula across its distribution, this species is likely to be a winner in the climate change stakes. The broad thermal tolerance of the larvae is likely to assure population connectivity between Mediterranean sub-basins populations. The continued success of A. lixula can have a strong consequences for the ecological structure of Mediterranean rocky habitat.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx037
  • Decreased pH and increased temperatures affect young-of-the-year red king
           crab ( Paralithodes camtschaticus )
    • Authors: Swiney KM; Long W, Foy RJ, et al.
      First page: 1191
      Abstract: The red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) is a high-latitude commercially important species with a complex life-history cycle which encompasses a wide variety of conditions and habitats. High-latitude waters, including those around Alaska where red king crab live, are predicted to have increased ocean acidification and temperatures in comparison to other areas. The interaction of ocean acidification and increased temperature has not been examined for any life history stage of red king crab. To determine the effects of near-future ocean acidification and warming temperature on young-of-the-year red king crab survival, growth, and morphology, we conducted a long-term (184 d) fully crossed experiment with two pHs and three temperatures: ambient pH (∼7.99), pH 7.8, ambient temperature, ambient +2 °C, and ambient +4 °C, for a total of six treatments. Mortality increased with exposure to reduced pH and higher temperatures, but a clear trend in the interactive effects of the stressors was not observed. A synergetic effect on mortality was observed in the pH 7.8 and ambient +4 °C temperature treatment. This treatment also had the lowest survival with only 3% surviving to the end of the experiment. However, an antagonistic effect on mortality was observed in the pH 7.8 and ambient +2 °C treatment. Lower pH and warmer temperatures affected intermoult duration, only temperature affected percent increase in size, but carapace length was not affected. Decreased pH and increased temperature had no effect on morphology. The results of this study combined with other studies show that decreased pH and warming has profound negative effects on red king crab. Unless the species is able to adapt or acclimate to changing climate conditions, red king crabs populations may decrease in the upcoming decades due to ocean acidification and rising temperatures.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsw251
  • Combined effects of elevated p CO 2 , temperature, and starvation stress
           on larvae of a large tropical marine fish
    • Authors: Bignami S; Sponaugle S, Hauff M, et al.
      Abstract: Ocean acidification and other environmental changes pose an ecological challenge to marine organisms globally. Although the youngest life stages of these organism are likely to be most affected, a limited number of studies of larval fishes have investigated the effects of combined stressors. We conducted two experiments on larval cobia (Rachycentron canadum) raised under combinations of elevated pCO2 and increased temperature or starvation stress. Larvae responded to individual CO2, temperature, and rationing treatments, and there was a negative effect of elevated pCO2 on starvation resistance, but few synergistic effects of combined stressors. Elevated pCO2 (1700–2100 μatm pCO2) caused a transient but significant reduction in larval standard length (SL), growth rate, and development rate, while warmer temperature (32 vs. 27 °C) caused a consistent increase in SL, development rate, and swimming ability. Larval condition (RNA:DNA ratio) was unaffected by elevated pCO2 although larvae fed a 25% ration had significantly reduced SL, growth rate, and development rate. Under complete feeding cessation, larvae in elevated-pCO2 seawater demonstrated lower starvation resistance, indicating that acidification may increase starvation risk in a patchy marine environment. Overall, our results indicate that larval cobia are resistant to any major direct impact of combined elevated pCO2 and temperature or rationing stress.
      PubDate: 2016-12-26
  • The combined effects of reduced pH and elevated temperature on the shell
           density of two gastropod species measured using micro-CT imaging
    • Authors: Chatzinikolaou E; Grigoriou P, Keklikoglou K, et al.
      Abstract: The increased absorption of atmospheric CO2 by the ocean affects carbonate chemistry and calcification rates of marine organisms. The impacts of low pH and seawater warming were investigated for the intertidal gastropods Nassarius nitidus and Columbella rustica. The combined effect of reduced pH (7.6) and increased temperature (25 °C) was studied at intermediate time intervals for a total period of 3 months in order to investigate variability and fluctuations of the shell structure and density over time. The pH and temperature conditions used for the experiment were selected according to the predictions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Deterioration of the external surface structure and reduction of shell density of the gastropods were confirmed using an innovative imaging and analysis method based on micro-computed tomography. The effect of low pH at ambient temperature was detrimental for N. nitidus with a 38.1% reduction of density in the shell lip and a 47.7% decrease in the apex, which is the oldest shell region. C. rustica was also affected, although to a much lesser degree (the maximum reduction observed was 8% at the apex). The negative effects of reduced pH were further reinforced for C. rustica when the temperature was increased, while N. nitidus was not affected significantly by the combination of the two factors. Increased temperature at ambient pH had an inhibitory effect on the shell density of N. nitidus causing a reduction of about 40%, whereas the shell density of the widest and lip regions of the C. rustica were increased under the same conditions. Different species are characterised by different vulnerability and tolerance responses regarding ocean acidification and warming, and this variability may affect ecological interactions and marine biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2016-12-24
  • Survival, growth, and morphology of blue king crabs: effect of ocean
           acidification decreases with exposure time
    • Authors: Long W; Van Sant SB, Swiney KM, et al.
      Abstract: Ocean acidification is an altering marine carbonate chemistry resulting in potential effects to marine life. In this study, we determine the effects of decreased pH on the morphology, growth, and survival of juvenile blue king crab, Paralithodes platypus. Crabs were reared at three pH levels: ambient (control, pH ∼8.1), pH 7.8, and pH 7.5, for 1 year and monitored for morphological changes, survival, and growth. Exposure to seawater at pH 7.8 had no effect on morphology or mortality and had only a minor effect on growth compared with the ambient treatment. However, exposure to seawater at pH 7.5 substantially increased mortality and decreased growth compared with the ambient treatment. The best fit model of mortality rate at pH 7.5 showed an initially high mortality rate, which dropped to become comparable to the mortality rate in the other treatments. This suggests phenotypic variability or plasticity in juveniles and may indicate acclimation by blue king crab to ocean acidification. As such, blue king crab may have scope for evolutionary adaptation in response to gradually changing pH levels. However, effects on other life-history stages, sub-lethal effects, carryover or transgenerational effects, and interactions with other stressors, such as increased temperature, still need to be investigated.
      PubDate: 2016-12-21
  • Effects of elevated CO 2 and temperature on an intertidal harpacticoid
           copepod community
    • Authors: Sarmento V; Parreira Santos P, Hale R, et al.
      Abstract: Warming and ocean acidification have been shown to have significant impacts on marine organisms. However, none studies have addressed the impact of these two stressors on harpacticoid copepod community structure. A mesocosm experiment was conducted to assess the potential interactive impact of different levels of elevated CO2 and temperature on an intertidal harpacticoid copepod community. Artificial substrate units (ASUs) colonized by meiofauna from the extreme low intertidal zone were exposed to eight experimental treatments (four pH levels: 8.0, 7.7, 7.3 and 6.7, crossed with two temperature levels: 12 and 16 °C). After 60 days exposure communities were significantly affected by both stressors. The dominant harpacticoid species were mainly affected at treatments held at pH 6.7, but with divergent biological response patterns. At pH 6.7 Tisbe sp and Ectinosoma sp2 exhibited important density reductions, while considerable density increases were observed for Amphiascus longarticulatus and Amphiascoides golikovi. This study has demonstrated that elevated levels of CO2 and ocean warming may have substantial effects on the structure of harpacticoid communities. Importantly, the increase in malformations observed at pH 6.7 indicated that we need to consider sub-lethal effects that could have consequences for populations after long periods of exposure.
      PubDate: 2016-12-10
  • Climate sensitivity and the rate of ocean acidification: future impacts,
           and implications for experimental design
    • Authors: Humphreys MP .
      Abstract: The global mean surface temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) are increasing both in the atmosphere and ocean. Oceanic CO2 uptake causes a decline in pH called ocean acidification (OA), which also alters other biologically important carbonate system variables such as carbonate mineral saturation states. Here, we discuss how a “temperature buffering” effect chemically links the rates of warming and OA at a more fundamental level than is often appreciated, meaning that seawater warming could mitigate some of the adverse biological impacts of OA. In a global mean sense, the rate of warming relative to the CO2 increase can be quantified by the climate sensitivity (CS), the exact value of which is uncertain. It may initially appear that a greater CS would therefore reduce the negative influence of OA. However, the dependence of the rate of CO2 increase on the CS could enhance, nullify or even reverse the temperature buffering effect, depending upon the future trajectory of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Regional deviations from the global mean seawater temperature and CO2 uptake trends could modulate local responses to OA. For example, mitigation of OA impacts through temperature buffering could be particularly effective in the Arctic Ocean, where the surface seawater warming rate is greater than the global mean, and the aqueous CO2 concentration might increase more slowly than elsewhere. Some carbonate system variables are more strongly affected than others, highlighting the need to develop a mechanistic understanding of precisely which variables are important to each biogeochemical process. Temperature buffering of the marine carbonate system should be taken into account when designing experiments to determine marine species and ecosystem responses to warming and OA, in order that their results accurately reflect future conditions, and therefore can generate realistic predictions when applied to Earth system models.
      PubDate: 2016-12-10
  • Metabolic cost of calcification in bivalve larvae under experimental ocean
    • Authors: Frieder CA; Applebaum SL, Pan T, et al.
      Abstract: Physiological increases in energy expenditure frequently occur in response to environmental stress. Although energy limitation is often invoked as a basis for decreased calcification under ocean acidification, energy-relevant measurements related to this process are scant. In this study we focus on first-shell (prodissoconch I) formation in larvae of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The energy cost of calcification was empirically derived to be ≤ 1.1 µJ (ng CaCO3)−1. Regardless of the saturation state of aragonite (2.77 vs. 0.77), larvae utilize the same amount of total energy to complete first-shell formation. Even though there was a 56% reduction of shell mass and an increase in dissolution at aragonite undersaturation, first-shell formation is not energy limited because sufficient endogenous reserves are available to meet metabolic demand. Further studies were undertaken on larvae from genetic crosses of pedigreed lines to test for variance in response to aragonite undersaturation. Larval families show variation in response to ocean acidification, with loss of shell size ranging from no effect to 28%. These differences show that resilience to ocean acidification may exist among genotypes. Combined studies of bioenergetics and genetics are promising approaches for understanding climate change impacts on marine organisms that undergo calcification.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
  • Effects of elevated p CO 2 on crab survival and exoskeleton composition
           depend on shell function and species distribution: a comparative analysis
           of carapace and claw mineralogy across four porcelain crab species from
           different habitats
    • Authors: Page TM; Worthington S, Calosi P, et al.
      Abstract: Elevated concentration of carbon dioxide (elevated pCO2) that cause reduced pH is known to influence calcification in many marine taxa, but how elevated pCO2 influences cation composition of mineralized structures is less well studied. To a large extent, the degree to which elevated pCO2 impacts mineralized structures is influenced by physiological adaptation of organisms to environments where low pH is routinely experienced. Here, we test the hypotheses that elevated pCO2 will differently impact the relative concentrations of divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Sr2+, and Mn2+) in four closely related species of porcelain crabs distributed across intertidal zone gradients. Cation composition of carapace and claw exoskeleton was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following 24-day exposures to pH/pCO2 levels of 8.0/418 and 7.4/1850 µatm during the intermoult period. Reduced pH/elevated pCO2 caused a 13–24% decrease of carapace [Ca2+] across all species, and species-specific responses in carapace and claw [Mg2+], [Sr2+] and [Mn2+] were observed. During a 24-day exposure, reduced pH/elevated pCO2 reduced survival probability in low-intertidal but not mid-intertidal species. Overall, the effect of reduced pH/elevated pCO2 on exoskeleton mineral composition was muted in mid-intertidal species relative to low-intertidal species, indicating that extant adaptation to the variable intertidal zone may lessen the impact of ocean acidification (OA) on maintenance of mineralized structures. Differences in responses to reduced pH/elevated pCO2 among closely related species adds complexity to predictive inferences regarding the effects of OA.
      PubDate: 2016-12-06
  • No effect of high p CO 2 on juvenile blue crab, Callinectes sapidus ,
           growth and consumption despite positive responses to concurrent warming
    • Authors: Glandon HL; Miller TJ, .
      Abstract: Future climate scenarios predict increases in both ocean temperature and dissolved carbon dioxide (pCO2) over the next century. Calcifying invertebrates, which depend on specific conditions of temperature and carbonate chemistry for many processes, may be especially affected by these changes. In our study, juvenile blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, were exposed to one of four temperature/pCO2 treatments (ambient/low, ambient/high, high/low, and high/high) for two complete molts. Our study is the first to examine the effect of multiple climate stressors on blue crab and therefore basic responses, including the growth per molt (GPM), inter-molt period (IMP), and food consumption, were quantified. GPM was not affected by either increased temperature or pCO2. Although increased pCO2 did not significantly influence the duration of crab IMP, crabs in warm water had significantly shorter IMP (10.6 ± 3.1 days (± SD)) than crabs in ambient water (12.5 ± 2.8 days). Increased pCO2 did not significantly affect the amount of food crabs consumed, but crabs in warm water ate significantly more food than those in ambient water. These data suggest that the impact of warming outweighs the impact of acidification in juvenile blue crab. The effects of these changes on more complex physiological parameters such as metabolism and carapace chemistry remain to be examined. Additionally, quantifying the changes to the Chesapeake Bay food web that may occur due to the observed increase in crab growth and consumption is important to ensure sustainability of this resource in the face of future climatic changes.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27
  • Consequences of elevated CO 2 exposure across multiple life stages in a
           coastal forage fish
    • Authors: Murray CS; Fuiman LA, Baumann H, et al.
      Abstract: Ocean acidification may impact the fitness of marine fish, however, studies reporting neutral to moderate effects have mostly performed short-term exposures to elevated CO2, whereas longer-term studies across life stages are still scarce. We performed a CO2 exposure experiment, in which a large number (n > 2200) of Atlantic silverside Menidia menidia offspring from wild spawners were reared for 135 days through their embryonic, larval, and juvenile stages under control (500 µatm) and high CO2 conditions (2300 µatm). Although survival was high across treatments, subtle but significant differences in length, weight, condition factor and fatty acid (FA) composition were observed. On average, fish from the acidified treatment were 4% shorter and weighed 6% less, but expressed a higher condition factor than control juveniles. In addition, the metrics of length and weight distributions differed significantly, with juveniles from the high CO2 treatment occupying more extreme size classes and the length distribution shifting to a positive kurtosis. Six of twenty-seven FAs differed significantly between treatments. Our results suggest that high CO2 conditions alter long-term growth in M. menidia, particularly in the absence of excess food. It remains to be shown whether and how these differences will impact fish populations in the wild facing size-selective predation and seasonally varying prey abundance.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07
  • Environmental sensitivity of Neogoniolithon brassica-florida associated
           with vermetid reefs in the Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: Fine M; Tsadok R, Meron D, et al.
      Abstract: Vermetid reefs in the Mediterranean Sea are increasingly affected by both anthropogenic actions and global climate change, which are putting this coastal ecosystem at risk. The main species involved in building these reefs are two species of intertidal vermetid gastropods and the crustose calcareous alga, Neogoniolithon brassica-florida, which cements the gastropod shells and thus solidifying the reef edges. In the present study, we examined the pattern of distribution in the field and the environmental sensitivity (thermal tolerance, resilience to low pH, high light intensity and desiccation) of N. brassica-florida along the coasts of Sicily and Israel by means of chlorophyll fluorescence and total alkalinity measurements in situ and in the laboratory. Tidal regimes did not affect photosynthesis of N. brassica-florida but light intensity in the intertidal did. Sensitivity to increased light intensity was amplified by elevated temperature and reduced pH. Winter temperature above 16 °C caused a decrease in the photosynthetic performance of photo-system II. Similarly, a decrease in pH resulted in decreased maximum photosynthetic yield and electron transport rate. Calcification was significantly lower at pH 7.9 as compared with ambient (8.1) pH. In fact, dissolution at pH 7.9 at night was higher than net calcification during the day, suggesting that N. brassica-florida may not be able to contribute to reef accretion under the levels of seawater warming and ocean acidification projected by the end of this century.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06
  • Toxic dinoflagellate blooms of Alexandrium catenella in Chilean fjords: a
           resilient winner from climate change
    • Authors: Mardones JI; Müller MN, Hallegraeff GM, et al.
      Abstract: Exposure of the toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella to variations in pCO2/pH, comparable to current and near-future levels observed in Southern Chilean fjords, revealed potential functional adaptation mechanisms. Under calculated conditions for pH(total scale) and pCO2 ranging from 7.73–8.66 to 69.7–721.3 μatm, respectively, the Chilean strain Q09 presented an optimum growth rate and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) uptake at near-equilibrium pCO2/pH conditions (∼8.1). DistaLM analysis between physiological relevant carbonate system parameters (CO2, HCO3−, and H+) and cellular rates (growth rate and DIC uptake) identified HCO3− as the unique variable explaining a significant portion of the physiological response. Estimations of equivalent spherical diameter (ESD) and chain-formation index (CI) revealed reduced cell size and enhanced chain formation at high pH/low pCO2 conditions. Light intensity as co-factor during experiments (50 vs. 100 μmol photons m−2 s−1) produced no effect on ESD and CI. Cells exposed to low light; however, had reduced cell growth and DIC uptake especially at high pH/low pCO2. We suggest that A. catenella Chilean strains are highly adapted to spatio-temporal pCO2/pH fluctuations in Chilean fjords, becoming a resilient winner from expected climate change effects.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04
  • Linking rising p CO 2 and temperature to the larval development and
           physiology of the American lobster ( Homarus americanus )
    • Authors: Waller JD; Wahle RA, McVeigh H, et al.
      Abstract: Few studies have evaluated the joint effects of elevated temperature and pCO2 on marine organisms. In this study we investigated the interactive effects of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicted temperature and pCO2 for the end of the 21st century on key aspects of larval development of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, an otherwise well-studied, iconic, and commercially prominent species in the northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada. Our experiments showed that larvae (stages I–III) and postlarvae (stage IV) reared in the high temperature treatments (19 °C) experienced significantly lower survival, developed twice as fast, and had significantly higher oxygen consumption rates, than those in ambient treatments (16 °C). Larvae from the ambient temperature/high pCO2 (750 ppm) treatment had significantly longer carapace lengths, greater dry masses in stages I–III and higher C: N ratios in stage IV than larvae from all other treatments. Stage IVs raised in the high pCO2 treatment at 19 °C had significantly higher feeding rates and swimming speeds than stage IVs from the other three treatments. Together these results suggest that projected end-century warming will have greater adverse effects than increased pCO2 on larval survival, and changing pCO2 may have a complex effect on larval metabolism and behaviour. Understanding how the most vulnerable life stages of the lobster life cycle respond to climate change is essential in connecting the northward geographic shifts projected by habitat quality models, and the underlying physiological and genetic mechanisms that drive their ecology.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12
  • Parasitic infection: a missing piece of the ocean acidification puzzle
    • Authors: MacLeod CD .
      Abstract: Ocean acidification (OA) research has matured into a sophisticated experimental and theoretical scientific discipline, which now utilizes multiple stressor, mesocosm experiments, and mathematical simulation models to predict the near-future effects of continued acidification on marine ecosystems. These advanced methodological approaches to OA research also include the study of inter-specific interactions that could be disrupted if participant species exhibit differential tolerances to stressors associated with OA. The host-parasite relationship is one of the most fundamental ecological interactions, alongside competition and predation, which can regulate individuals, populations, and communities. The recent integration of competition and predation into OA research has provided great insight into the potential effects of differential tolerances to acidified seawater, and there is no reason to believe that expanding OA research to include parasitology will be less fruitful. This essay outlines our current, limited understanding of how OA will affect parasitism as an ecological process, describes potential pitfalls for researchers who ignore parasites and the effects of infection, and suggests ways of developing parasitology as a sub-field of OA research.
      PubDate: 2016-09-08
  • Effects of potential future CO 2 levels in seawater on emerging behaviour
           and respiration of Manila clams, Venerupis philippinarum
    • Authors: Lee J; Kim T, .
      Abstract: High atmospheric CO2 dissolves into the surface of the ocean and lowers the pH of seawater and is thus expected to pose a potential threat to various marine organisms. We investigated the physiological and behavioural responses of adult Manila clams, Venerupis philippinarum (n = 96, shell length 25.32 ± 1.66mm and total wet weight 3.10 ± 0.54 g), to three levels (400, 700, and 900 μatm) of CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) for 48 days. There were no significant differences in mortality, growth, respiration rate, or emergence from the sediment between the three levels, indicating that near future atmospheric levels of CO2 do not seem to have a serious effect on the physiology and behaviour of adult Manila clams. However, Manila clams could be exposed to notably higher pCO2 and lower pH levels at local conditions due to the other issues, including eutrophication. Thus, the younger clams (n = 240, shell length 16.71 ± 0.96mm and total wet weight 0.70 ± 0.13 g) were exposed to pCO2 levels of 900 μatm (pH 7.8) and higher, such as 1300 and 2300 μatm (pH 7.7 and 7.5, respectively), for 39 days. Although mortality and growth were not significantly different between treatments, the emergence rates at the two higher pCO2 levels were higher than that at the lowest level during the last 10 days of the experiment. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was reduced after 39 days of exposure to 2300 μatm of pCO2. The increase in emerging behaviour and the decrease in the rate of oxygen consumption indicated worse physiological conditions of the clams; the population may be negatively influenced due to worse conditions or increased probability of predation.
      PubDate: 2016-07-21
  • CO 2 sensitivity experiments are not sufficient to show an effect of ocean
    • Authors: McElhany P .
      Abstract: The ocean acidification (OA) literature is replete with laboratory studies that report species sensitivity to seawater carbonate chemistry in experimental treatments as an “effect of OA”. I argue that this is unintentionally misleading, since these studies do not actually demonstrate an effect of OA but rather show sensitivity to CO2. Documenting an effect of OA involves showing a change in a species (e.g. population abundance or distribution) as a consequence of anthropogenic changes in marine carbonate chemistry. To date, there have been no unambiguous demonstrations of a population level effect of anthropogenic OA, as that term is defined by the IPCC.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08
  • Seasonal and annual calcification rates of the Hawaiian reef coral,
           Montipora capitata , under present and future climate change scenarios
    • Authors: Bahr KD; Jokiel PL, Rodgers KS, et al.
      Abstract: The response of corals to future conditions of global warming and ocean acidification (OA) is a topic of considerable interest. However, little information is available on the seasonal interaction between temperature, pCO2, and irradiance under ecologically relevant experimental conditions. Controlled experiments were performed in continuous-flow mesocosms under full solar radiation to describe the direct and interactive effects of temperature, irradiance, and pCO2 on growth of a Hawaiian reef building coral (Montipora capitata) over an annual cycle. Corals were subjected to 12 experimental treatments consisting of two pCO2 levels (present-day levels, 2× present), two temperature regimes (ambient, heated +2°C), and three conditions of irradiance (ambient, 50 and 90% reduction). A multiple polynomial regression model with full factorial fixed factors (temperature, pCO2, irradiance) was developed. Temperature and irradiance were the primary factors driving net calcification (Gnet) rates of M. capitata, with pCO2 playing a lesser role. Gnet showed a curvilinear response to irradiance and temperature, which defines thresholds at the end members. Also, high irradiance regimes under elevated temperatures showed a negative synergistic effect on Gnet. Therefore, decreasing irradiance penetration resulting from greater depth and/or higher turbidity will lower the impact of ocean warming on M. capitata. Results suggest that under future climate conditions, the interaction of environmental parameters may shift seasonal patterns in Gnet and timing of growth optima for M. capitata. Ocean warming in shallow water environments with high irradiance poses a more immediate threat to coral growth than acidification for this dominant coral species. In the future, increased temperature and the interaction between high irradiance and high temperature will be the main factors controlling Gnet with OA playing a less important role. This observation is congruent with other reports that high temperature combined with high irradiance is the main cause of high coral mortality during mass bleaching events.
      PubDate: 2016-05-10
  • Early life stages of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis are unaffected
           by increased seawater p CO 2
    • Authors: Bailey A; Thor P, Browman HI, et al.
      Abstract: As the world's oceans continue to absorb anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere, the carbonate chemistry of seawater will change. This process, termed ocean acidification, may affect the physiology of marine organisms. Arctic seas are expected to experience the greatest decreases in pH in the future, as changing sea ice dynamics and naturally cold, brackish water, will accelerate ocean acidification. In this study, we investigated the effect of increased pCO2 on the early developmental stages of the key Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis. Eggs from wild-caught C. glacialis females from Svalbard, Norway (80°N), were cultured for 2 months to copepodite stage C1 in 2°C seawater under four pCO2 treatments (320, 530, 800, and 1700 μatm). Developmental rate, dry weight, and carbon and nitrogen mass were measured every other day throughout the experiment, and oxygen consumption rate was measured at stages N3, N6, and C1. All endpoints were unaffected by pCO2 levels projected for the year 2300. These results indicate that naupliar development in wild populations of C. glacialis is unlikely to be detrimentally affected in a future high CO2 ocean.
      PubDate: 2016-04-28
  • Interpreting the role of pH on stable isotopes in large benthic
    • Authors: Robbins LL; Knorr PO, Wynn JG, et al.
      Abstract: Large benthic foraminifera (LBF) are prolific producers of calcium carbonate sediments in shallow, tropical environments that are being influenced by ocean acidification (OA). Two LBF species, Amphistegina gibbosa (Order Rotaliida) with low-Mg calcite tests and Archaias angulatus (Order Miliolida) with high-Mg calcite tests, were studied to assess the effects of pH 7.6 on oxygen and carbon isotopic fractionation between test calcite and ambient seawater. The δ18O and δ13C values of terminal chambers and of whole adult tests of both species after 6 weeks were not significantly different between pH treatments of 8.0 and 7.6. However, tests of juveniles produced during the 6-week treatments showed significant differences between δ18O and δ13C values from control (pH 8.0) when compared with the treatment (pH 7.6) for both species. Although each individual's growth was photographed and measured, difficulty in distinguishing and manually extracting newly precipitated calcite from adult specimens likely confounded any differences in isotopic signals. However, juvenile specimens that resulted from asexual reproduction that occurred during the experiments did not contain old carbonate that could confound the new isotopic signals. These data reveal a potential bias in the design of OA experiments if only adults are used to investigate changes in test chemistries. Furthermore, the results reaffirm that different calcification mechanisms in these two foraminiferal orders control the fractionation of stable isotopes in the tests and will reflect decreasing pH in seawater somewhat differently.
      PubDate: 2016-04-22
  • The role of in hospite zooxanthellae photophysiology and reef chemistry on
           elevated p CO 2 effects in two branching Caribbean corals: Acropora
           cervicornis and Porites divaricata
    • Authors: Bedwell-Ivers HE; Koch MS, Peach KE, et al.
      Abstract: Previous studies suggest uniform reductions in coral calcification under ocean acidification (OA); however, greater tolerance has been observed under natural diel metabolic signals present on reefs. In addition, few studies have examined the role of in hospite zooxanthellae energetics on coral OA tolerance. In this study, we examined zooxanthellae photosynthesis and coral calcification responses using seawater with natural metabolic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) dynamics from a fringing back reef on Little Cayman Island, Caribbean. The experimental design included Acropora cervicornis and Porites divaricata microcolonies grown in continuously flowing seawater with (∼1000 μatm) and without (∼500 μatm) CO2 enrichment to year 2100 predicted levels. Calcification rates were measured weekly, while linear extension and zooxanthellae photosynthesis were determined at the termination of the 28 d experiment. Results showed A. cervicornis microcolonies maintained both photosynthesis and calcification under elevated CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) relative to controls. However, photosynthesis and calcification rates of P. divaricata microcolonies were reduced by ∼80 and 20%, respectively, under relatively high [DIC]:[H+] ratios and aragonite saturation states (Ωarag). Porites divaricata calcification response to elevated pCO2 was linked to photophysiological dysfunction of the algal symbiont, an indicator that this species was metabolically depressed under elevated pCO2. In contrast to calcification, linear extension rates were unaffected by pCO2 in both species. Future studies should investigate how elevated pCO2 may compromise zooxanthellae–coral interactions with an emphasis on DIC uptake pathways.
      PubDate: 2016-03-24
  • Effects of elevated pCO 2 on the survival, growth, and moulting of the
           Pacific krill species, Euphausia pacifica
    • Authors: Cooper HL; Potts DC, Paytan A, et al.
      Abstract: While ocean acidification (OA) is expected to have wide-ranging negative effects on marine species, organisms currently living in variable pH environments that expose them intermittently to pH values approaching those predicted for the future, may be better adapted to tolerate prolonged exposure to high pCO2 levels caused by OA. Seasonal upwelling brings low pH water to the surface along the Pacific Coast of North America. In Monterey Bay, California Euphausia pacifica, a key species supporting a diverse multi-trophic-level ecosystem, currently experiences broad pCO2 and pH ranges due to both diel vertical migrations and seasonal upwelling. We determined tolerances of E. pacifica to prolonged exposure to pH levels predicted for 2100 by maintaining adults at two pCO2 levels (380 and 1200 µatm) for 2 months. Rates of survival and moulting were the same at both pCO2 levels. High pCO2 slowed growth in all size classes. In additional experiments to determine pCO2 threshold levels above which E. pacifica is adversely affected, survival was not affected down to pH 6.96 (6050 µatm), but declined rapidly at pH 6.92 (7228 µatm) and lower, with 100% mortality within 10 d at pH 6.89.
      PubDate: 2016-03-07
  • Combined impacts of elevated CO 2 and anthropogenic noise on European sea
           bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax )
    • Authors: Poulton DA; Porteus CS, Simpson SD, et al.
      Abstract: Ocean acidification (OA) and anthropogenic noise are both known to cause stress and induce physiological and behavioural changes in fish, with consequences for fitness. OA is also predicted to reduce the ocean's capacity to absorb low-frequency sounds produced by human activity. Consequently, anthropogenic noise could propagate further under an increasingly acidic ocean. For the first time, this study investigated the independent and combined impacts of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and anthropogenic noise on the behaviour of a marine fish, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In a fully factorial experiment crossing two CO2 levels (current day and elevated) with two noise conditions (ambient and pile driving), D. labrax were exposed to four CO2/noise treatment combinations: 400 µatm/ambient, 1000 µatm/ambient, 400 µatm/pile-driving, and 1000 µatm/pile-driving. Pile-driving noise increased ventilation rate (indicating stress) compared with ambient noise conditions. Elevated CO2 did not alter the ventilation rate response to noise. Furthermore, there was no interaction effect between elevated CO2 and pile-driving noise, suggesting that OA is unlikely to influence startle or ventilatory responses of fish to anthropogenic noise. However, effective management of anthropogenic noise could reduce fish stress, which may improve resilience to future stressors.
      PubDate: 2016-02-05
  • Effects of pCO 2 on photosynthesis and respiration of tropical
           scleractinian corals and calcified algae
    • Authors: Comeau SS; Carpenter RC, Edmunds PJ, et al.
      Abstract: The effects of ocean acidification (OA) on coral reefs have been studied thoroughly with a focus on the response of calcification of corals and calcified algae. However, there are still large gaps in our knowledge of the effects of OA on photosynthesis and respiration of these organisms. Comparisons among species and determination of the functional relationships between pCO2 and either photosynthesis or respiration are difficult using previously published data, because experimental conditions typically vary widely between studies. Here, we tested the response of net photosynthesis, gross photosynthesis, dark respiration, and light-enhanced dark respiration (LEDR) of eight coral taxa and seven calcified alga taxa to six different pCO2 levels (from 280 to 2000 µatm). Organisms were maintained during 7–10 days incubations in identical conditions of light, temperature, and pCO2 to facilitate comparisons among species. Net photosynthesis was not affected by pCO2 in seven of eight corals or any of the algae; gross photosynthesis did not respond to pCO2 in six coral taxa and six algal taxa; dark respiration also was unaffected by pCO2 in six coral and six algae; and LEDR did not respond to pCO2 in any of the tested species. Overall, our results show that pCO2 levels up to 2000 µatm likely will not fertilize photosynthesis or modify respiration rates of most of the main calcifiers on the back reef of Moorea, French Polynesia.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
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