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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 524, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil
  [SJR: 1.233]   [H-I: 88]   [56 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1054-3139 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9289
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Ecological data from observer programmes underpin ecosystem-based
           fisheries management
    • Authors: Gilman E; Weijerman M, Suuronen P.
      Pages: 1481 - 1495
      Abstract: AbstractData required from fisheries monitoring programmes substantially expand as management authorities transition to implement elements of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM). EBFM extends conventional approaches of managing single fishery effects on individual stocks of target species by taking into account the effects, within a defined ecosystem, of local to regional fisheries on biodiversity, from genotypes to ecological communities. This includes accounting for fishery effects on evolutionary processes, associated and dependent species, habitats, trophic food web processes, and functionally linked systems. Despite seemingly insurmountable constraints, through examples, we demonstrate how data routinely collected in most observer programmes and how minor and inexpensive expansions of observer data fields and collection protocols supply ecological data underpinning EBFM. Observer data enable monitoring bycatch, including catch and mortality of endangered, threatened and protected species, and assessing the performance of bycatch management measures. They provide a subset of inputs for ecological risk assessments, including productivity–susceptibility analyses and multispecies and ecosystem models. Observer data are used to monitor fishery effects on habitat and to identify and protect benthic vulnerable marine ecosystems. They enable estimating collateral sources of fishing mortality. Data from observer programmes facilitate monitoring ecosystem pressure and state indicators. The examples demonstrate how even rudimentary fisheries management systems can meet the ecological data requirements of elements of EBFM.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx032
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • The major threats to Atlantic salmon in Norway
    • Authors: Forseth T; Barlaup BT, Finstad B, et al.
      Pages: 1496 - 1513
      Abstract: AbstractAtlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is an economically and culturally important species. Norway has more than 400 watercourses with Atlantic salmon and supports a large proportion of the world’s wild Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon are structured into numerous genetically differentiated populations, and are therefore managed at the population level. Long-distance migrations between freshwater and ocean habitats expose Atlantic salmon to multiple threats, and a number of anthropogenic factors have contributed to the decline of Atlantic salmon during the last decades. Knowledge on the relative importance of the different anthropogenic factors is vital for prioritizing management measures. We developed a semi-quantitative 2D classification system to rank the different anthropogenic factors and used this to assess the major threats to Norwegian Atlantic salmon. Escaped farmed salmon and salmon lice from fish farms were identified as expanding population threats, with escaped farmed salmon being the largest current threat. These two factors affect populations to the extent that they may be critically endangered or lost, with a large likelihood of causing further reductions and losses in the future. The introduced parasite Gyrodactylus salaris, freshwater acidification, hydropower regulation and other habitat alterations were identified as stabilized population threats, which have contributed to populations becoming critically endangered or lost, but with a low likelihood of causing further loss. Other impacts were identified as less influential, either as stabilized or expanding factors that cause loss in terms of number of returning adults, but not to the extent that populations become threatened. Management based on population specific reference points (conservation limits) has reduced exploitation in Norway, and overexploitation was therefore no longer regarded an important impact factor. The classification system may be used as a template for ranking of anthropogenic impact factors in other countries and as a support for national and international conservation efforts.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx020
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Behavioural ecology and marine conservation: a bridge over troubled
    • Authors: Dill LM.
      Pages: 1514 - 1521
      Abstract: AbstractBehavioural ecology is an evolutionary-based discipline that attempts to predict how animals will behave in a given set of environmental circumstances and how those behavioural decisions will impact population growth and community structure. Given the rapidly changing state of the ocean environment it seems that this approach should be a beneficial tool for marine conservation, but its promise has not been fully realized. Since many conservation issues involve alterations to an animal’s habitat, I focus on how habitat selection models developed by behavioural ecologists may be useful in thinking about these sorts of problems, and mitigating them. I then briefly consider some other potential applications of behavioural ecology to marine conservation. Finally, I emphasize that the strength of a functional approach like behavioural ecology is that it allows predictions, from first principles, of responses to environmental changes outside the range of conditions already experienced and studied, and its models may be broadly generalizable across species and ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx034
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Historical connections between early marine science research and
           dissemination: the case study of aquarium Vasco Da Gama (Portugal) from
           late 19th century to mid-20th century
    • Authors: Pinto B.
      Pages: 1522 - 1530
      Abstract: AbstractIn the late 19th century, there was a bloom of public aquariums throughout Europe. Some of them were built for entertainment purposes, whereas others were connected to marine science stations. This article explores the origins and development of the aquarium/marine research station Vasco da Gama (Portugal) as an example of this duality. Initially, the aquarium was created in 1898 by the Portuguese Society of Geography, in a political context of national affirmation. In the first years, a deficient establishment, lack of financial resources, and scarce technical knowledge contributed for its degradation. Therefore, the Navy took over the aquarium in the early 1900s, delivering its management some years later to the Portuguese Society of Natural Sciences. After improvements and modifications, it became one of the first marine biological stations in 1919. This was important for the development of national marine science research at a time of scarce resources. Despite many years of a symbiotic relation between science research and dissemination, the demolition of part of the aquarium/marine station due to a road construction in 1940 brought issues of disequilibrium between both functions. This eventually led to the separation of aquarium and marine station in 1950. Other themes such as connections to national and international institutions are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx029
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • When ecosystems and their services are not co-located: oceans and coasts
    • Authors: Drakou EG; Pendleton L, Effron M, et al.
      Pages: 1531 - 1539
      Abstract: AbstractLocal, regional, and global policies to manage protect and restore our oceans and coasts call for the inclusion of ecosystem services (ES) in policy-relevant research. Marine and coastal ES and the associated benefits to humans are usually assessed, quantified, and mapped at the ecosystem level to inform policy and decision-making. Yet those benefits may reach humans beyond the provisioning ecosystem, at the regional or even global level. Current efforts to map ES generated by a single ecosystem rarely consider the distribution of benefits beyond the ecosystem itself, especially at the regional or global level. In this article, we elaborate on the concept of “extra-local” ES to refer to those ES generating benefits that are enjoyed far from the providing ecosystem, focusing on the marine environment. We emphasize the spatial dimension of the different components of the ES provision framework and apply the proposed conceptual framework to food provision and climate regulation ES provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. We present the different extents of the mapping outputs generated by the ecosystem-based vs. the extra-local mapping approach and discuss practical and conceptual challenges of the approach. Lack of relevant ES mapping methodologies and lack of data appeared to be the most crucial bottlenecks in applying the extra-local approach for marine and coastal ES. We urge for more applications of the proposed framework that can improve marine and coastal ES assessments help fill in data gaps and generate more robust data. Such assessments could better inform marine and coastal policies, especially those linked to equal attribution of benefits, compensation schemes and poverty alleviation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx026
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Making space for shellfish farming along the Adriatic coast
    • Authors: Brigolin D; Porporato E, Prioli G, et al.
      Pages: 1540 - 1551
      Abstract: AbstractThis work focuses on the selection of new areas for shellfish farming along the coast of the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy). Shellfish site suitability was assessed by means of a methodology based on Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation (SMCE), which provided the framework to combine mathematical models and operational oceanography products. Intermediate level criteria considered in the analysis included optimal growth conditions, environmental interactions, and socio-economic evaluation (e.g. organic carbon deposition; distance to harbour). Results showed that the whole coastal area comprised within 0 and 3 nm is highly suitable for farming of mussel, while the area comprised between 3 and 12 nm is divided between a highly suitable northern part, and a less suitable southern one. Seven different scenarios of development of shellfish aquaculture industry were explored. The introduction of a new species, and the assessment of the exposure to storm events are specific aspects taken into account in development scenarios. Results show that the degree of suitability for shellfish aquaculture in this area would not change dramatically with the introduction of oyster farming. Furthermore, results highlight that: (i) the growth potential in this area is high; (ii) the space with suitability index >0.5 increases when prioritizing the optimal growth condition criteria, and (iii) the socio-economic is the most restrictive Intermediate Level Criteria. Results were discussed by deriving general lessons concerning the use of SMCE in aquaculture space allocation, from the specific application in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Challenges and opportunities related to the proposed methodological framework, with particular reference to the use of resources provided by remote sensing and operational oceanography by means of mathematical models, were also discussed. Results can support a science-based identification of allocated zones for aquaculture in order to avoid conflicts, and promote sustainable aquaculture in the Mediterranean Sea, where the space for these activities is becoming increasingly limited.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx018
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Trophic impact of Atlantic bluefin tuna migrations in the North Sea
    • Authors: Mariani P; Andersen KH, Lindegren M, et al.
      Pages: 1552 - 1560
      Abstract: AbstractLarge highly migratory predators can have major impacts on local marine ecosystems by reducing prey populations and leading to trophic cascades that affect the entire fish community. These trophic interactions are typically non-linear and can alter both the migratory behaviour of the predator and the stability of the fish community. The impact of a migrating top-predator is investigated here for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the North Sea. Bluefin tuna has been absent from the region for half-century, but recent years have seen recovery of migrations and a return of bluefin tuna in the area. We use a size spectrum model to analyse the trophic impact of the returning tuna on the entire fish community, under scenarios with varying levels of tuna consumption and fishing mortality on the prey. We show that with high level of prey fishing mortality in the North Sea, the effect of a tuna re-colonization results in only limited trophic cascades. However, high tuna consumption or changes in fishing mortality may result in a sudden recruitment failure of small-pelagic fish due to cascading effects on the fish community. In present-day conditions, the level of tuna consumption that triggers recruitment failure is lower at increasing fishing mortalities on their prey, providing indications for the future sustainable management of both small-pelagics and bluefin tuna in the area.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx027
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Shifts in spawning phenology of cod linked to rising sea temperatures
    • Authors: McQueen K; Marshall C.
      Pages: 1561 - 1573
      Abstract: AbstractWarming temperatures caused by climate change have the potential to impact spawning phenology of temperate marine fish as some species have temperature-dependent gonadal development. Inter-annual variation in the timing of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) spawning in the northern North Sea, central North Sea and Irish Sea was estimated by calculating an annual peak roe month (PRM) from records of roe landings spanning the last three decades. A trend towards earlier PRM was found in all three regions, with estimates of shifts in PRM ranging from 0.9 to 2.4 weeks per decade. Temperatures experienced by cod during early vitellogenesis correlated negatively with PRM, suggesting that rising sea temperatures have contributed to a shift in spawning phenology. A concurrent reduction in the mean size of spawning females excluded the possibility that earlier spawning was due to a shift in size structure towards larger individuals, as large cod spawn earlier than smaller-sized individuals in the North Sea. Further research into the effects of climate change on the phenology of different trophic levels within the North Sea ecosystem should be undertaken to determine whether climate change-induced shifts in spawning phenology will result in a temporal mismatch between cod larvae and their planktonic prey.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx025
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Spawning locations and larval dispersal of Atlantic Menhaden during
    • Authors: Simpson CA; Bi H, Liang D, et al.
      Pages: 1574 - 1586
      Abstract: AbstractAtlantic Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus exhibit particularly complex recruitment dynamics as a coastal-spawning species with seasonal migrations along the North American Coast from Nova Scotia, Canada, to Florida, United States. Despite a coast-wide reduction in juvenile production from the 1970s to the 1990s, Atlantic Menhaden continues to support one of the oldest and largest commercial fisheries on the US east coast. We used a stochastic partial differential equation model to estimate spawning location and larval dispersal on the Atlantic Coast over two time periods, with data from the Northeast Fisheries Science Center ichthyoplankton surveys conducted in 1977–1987 and 2000–2013. Within the study area, Atlantic Menhaden spawning appears to occur primarily near shore over a large spatial range, from southern New England to North Carolina over the majority of the year, but at greatest levels during November and December. Larger, older larvae were found over a similar spatial and temporal range, dispersing farther from shore. Between the two periods, we observed an increase in secondary, spring-time spawning events. We observed no major, directional spatial shift in spawning or dispersal. However, estimated spawning activity increased near Delaware Bay. Both small and large larvae were most abundant in the Southern portion of the study area during both periods. Yet, total spatial coverage of all larvae varied greatly among years until the mid-2000s, when the Atlantic Menhaden population was believed to have recovered reduction in juvenile production from the 1970s to the 1990s. In most recent years, we observed consistent and large areas of spawning and larval dispersal.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx030
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Using Fishermen’s Ecological Knowledge to map Atlantic cod spawning
           grounds on Georges Bank
    • Authors: DeCelles GR; Martins D, Zemeckis DR, et al.
      Pages: 1587 - 1601
      Abstract: AbstractThe spawning dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) on Georges Bank and Nantucket Shoals are not well understood. To address this uncertainty, we combined Fishermen’s Ecological Knowledge (FEK) with traditional scientific data to develop a more holistic understanding of cod spawning on Georges Bank. Data from historical reports, trawl surveys, fisheries observers, and ichthyoplankton surveys were used to describe the spatial and temporal distribution of cod spawning activity. We also collected FEK regarding cod spawning dynamics through semi-structured interviews (n = 40). The fishermen had detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of cod spawning, and identified persistent fine-scale (i.e. <50 km2) spawning grounds that were often associated with specific habitat features, including spawning grounds that were previously unreported in the scientific literature. The spawning seasons and locations identified by fishermen generally agreed with information from traditional scientific data, but it was evident that seasonal scientific surveys lack the spatial and temporal resolution needed to fully characterize the distribution of cod spawning activity. Our results will help inform management measures designed to promote the rebuilding of Georges Bank cod, and also provide a basis for further investigations of cod spawning dynamics and stock structure.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx031
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Spatial growth variability in marine fish: example from Northeast Pacific
    • Authors: Gertseva V; Matson SE, Cope J.
      Pages: 1602 - 1613
      Abstract: AbstractMarine fish populations exist in a complex environment, with oceanographic and fisheries factors affecting their dynamics. It has been shown that life history characteristics of marine fish vary in space and time. We examined spatial variability in growth of eight groundfish species in the Northeast Pacific Ocean to identify shared spatial patterns and hypothesize about common mechanisms behind them. Growth parameters were estimated in different areas over the latitudinal range of the species, and several hypotheses were tested as to how these parameters vary along the US west coast. Clear differences in spatial growth variability emerged among the species examined. Shelf species exhibit the highest growth rate between Cape Blanco and Cape Mendocino, which may, in part, be attributed to area-specific upwelling patterns in the California Current ecosystem, when nutrient-rich deep water is brought to the surface south of Cape Blanco and is uniquely distributed throughout this area, providing favourable conditions for primary productivity. Slope species showed a cline in asymptotic size (L∞), with L∞ increasing from south to north. This cline, previously attributed to fishery removals, also fits a specific case of the widely described Bergmann’s rule, and we explore specific potential ecological mechanisms behind this relationship.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx016
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Temperature-dependent growth as a function of size and age in juvenile
           Arctic cod ( Boreogadus saida )
    • Authors: Laurel BJ; Copeman LA, Spencer M, et al.
      Pages: 1614 - 1621
      Abstract: AbstractForecasting climate-driven ecosystem impacts in the Arctic is currently limited by the availability of biological data on key species. In this study, we carried out a series of temperature-dependent growth experiments on juvenile Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), an important forage fish species at the Atlantic- and Pacific-Arctic interface. Multi-week growth experiments were conducted across a range of temperatures (−1 to 16 °C), ages (age-0 and age-1) and sizes (45–125 mm SL) to determine best-fit temperature-dependent growth models. Temperature-dependent growth models considered were 1) a single model using pooled fish of mixed ages and sizes (Model A), separate models for age 0 and age 1 fish (Model B0 and B1), and a Lorentzian three-dimensional model incorporating size but not age (Model C). All juvenile Arctic cod demonstrated relatively high growth at cold temperatures (<2 °C; ∼0.75–1.00% d−1) with a deceleration in growth rate above 6.4 °C and 9.0 °C for age-1 and age-0 cod respectively. As such, Model A did not explain as much temperature-dependent growth (R2 = 51%) as Model B0 (R2 = 98%) and Model B1 (R2 = 93%). Model C did reasonably well in explaining growth over a continuous range of sizes (R2 =71%) but explained less variance than either of the age models (Model B). These results stress the importance of considering the early ontogenetic effects on temperature-dependent growth variation in juvenile Arctic cod when projecting climate-driven changes in Arctic marine ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-04-16
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx028
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Temperature-based spawning habitat selection by capelin ( Mallotus
           villosus ) in Newfoundland
    • Authors: Crook KA; Maxner E, Davoren GK.
      Pages: 1622 - 1629
      Abstract: AbstractThe location of reproduction is a key life history trait, as it influences the bio-physical conditions that offspring experience and, thus, fitness. Capelin Mallotus villosus is a small (< 200 mm), short-lived forage fish that spawns in two habitats in coastal Newfoundland: warm beaches and cool, deep water (15–40 m). From 2009 to 2014, we investigated temperature-dependent spawning habitat use by quantifying hourly temperature at spawning sites during July within each habitat along with population-level spawning site use. Capelin did not spawn at sites with temperatures <2 °C or consistently >12 °C, supporting the estimated suitable spawning temperature range (2–12 °C). Spawning typically occurred exclusively at beaches early in July when deep-water habitat was too cold (i.e. <2 °C), and then switched to deep-water habitat later in July when beaches became too warm (i.e. >12 °C). Spawning overlapped for 1–3 d in both habitats when temperatures were within suitable ranges (2011, 2013), but capelin also spawned exclusively in one habitat when temperatures remained suitable in the other. The latter suggests that other factors influence spawning habitat selection, such as conspecific egg densities and other environmental conditions. Overall, the flexible use of spawning habitats, along with wide tolerance ranges of capelin eggs to environmental conditions, are likely key adaptations to maximize fitness and stabilize population dynamics of this important forage fish species in an unpredictable environment.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx023
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Cutting through the Gordian knot: unravelling morphological, molecular,
           and biogeographical patterns in the genus Zapteryx (guitarfish) from the
           Mexican Pacific
    • Authors: Castillo-Páez A; Sandoval-Castillo J, Corro-Espinosa D, et al.
      Pages: 1630 - 1638
      Abstract: AbstractDefining species boundaries is important not only for the appropriate attribution of life history and ecological traits but also for sustainable fishery management and for the conservation of biodiversity. Problems arise from taxonomic uncertainty and incorrect species delineation leading to historical misidentification. This is the case of Pacific guitarfishes in the genus Zapteryx. We use a molecular phylogenetic approach combining mitochondrial and nuclear loci to investigate genetic variation in fish along the Mexican Pacific coast. Our analyses reveal a lack of nuclear and mitochondrial distinction between rays identified morphologically as banded guitarfish Z. exasperata and as southern banded guitarfish Z. xyster, casting doubts on the validity of their current systematics. However, we detected two mitochondrial lineages in accordance with the number of species described for the Pacific: a “northern” lineage corresponding to Z. exasperata and a “southern” lineage possibly attributable to Z. xyster. The poorly understood phenotypic plasticity in coloration and size of the evolutionary lineage of Z. exasperata and its apparently wider than currently thought geographic distribution (at least to Oaxaca) are the major sources of confusion regarding the taxonomic and geographic delineation of these nominal species. In light of our findings, eastern Pacific guitarfishes in the genus Zapteryx require a thorough taxonomic revision using morphological and genetic data to unveil what appears to be a complex pattern of diversification.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx021
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Allelic inflation in depleted fish populations with low recruitment
    • Authors: Niwa H; Nashida K, Yanagimoto T.
      Pages: 1639 - 1647
      Abstract: AbstractWhen the recruitment process in highly fecund species involves within-litter correlations in survival probability, the offspring-number distribution can exhibit a power law. Such reproductive skew appears to be prevalent in abundant marine species. We show that an apparent paradox arises in the reproductive skew model. In years of occasionally large recruitment, we expect to observe elevated levels of relatedness among recruits. Conversely, the effective number of alleles within the population is inflated during periods of low-recruitment. Thus, depressed fish populations have excesses of singleton offspring and thus, overexploitation may cause stock depletion but with increasing genetic diversity. Some studies have documented such a diversity paradox. It does not seem possible to explain large effective population sizes of collapsed species on the basis of normal reproduction models in the domain of attraction of the Kingman coalescent. The approach outlined here provides a novel method to examine the resilience and potential for recovery in depleted populations using short-length time-series data on recruitment.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx022
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Experimental potting impacts on common UK reef habitats in areas of high
           and low fishing pressure
    • Authors: Stephenson F; Mill AC, Scott CL, et al.
      Pages: 1648 - 1659
      Abstract: AbstractImpacts of mobile fishing gears on habitat and benthos have been well-documented; in contrast, less studied physical impacts of static fishing gear on benthic habitats are still debated. Pot fishing, is a growing sector in the UK and evidence of any impacts is needed to inform management. This study simulated high intensity experimental pot fishing on the epibenthos of two common UK reef habitats in Northumberland, UK. Single tethered pots were fished in intensively and lightly fished areas over the course of 2 months. Within each area, three experimental sites and control sites were surveyed before and after fishing using photoquadrats (n =  240 per 290 m2 site) collected by scuba divers. PERMANOVA analysis indicated no evidence of epibenthic species abundances decreasing due to physical crushing or abrasion from potting on either intensively or lightly fished reefs. A shift in community composition over time was detected but was attributed to natural change as epibenthos in control sites shifted similarly. Experimental pot impacts far exceeded those of the local commercial pot fishery, providing relevant evidence for statutory governing bodies revisiting current fisheries management. Results are applicable across Western Europe due to the selection of habitats with abundant and commonly distributed benthic species.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx013
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Reflex impairment, physiological stress, and discard mortality of European
           plaice Pleuronectes platessa in an otter trawl fishery
    • Authors: Methling C; Skov PV, Madsen N.
      Pages: 1660 - 1671
      Abstract: AbstractThe reformed European Common Fisheries Policy introduced a discard ban, with a possibility of exempting species where a high discard survival can be demonstrated. This necessitates a validation of the methods used for estimating the discard mortality of candidate species. In this study, we assess whether reflex impairment can predict short-term mortality in commercially trawled European plaice upon landing and after air exposure of up to 90 min. Sub-lethal stress was assessed by a suite of physiological variables. Over a 10-day period, mortality was monitored for a total of 199 plaice following trawl and air exposure of varying duration, and for 50 control fish scored for reflex impairment on board the vessel. Mortality was only observed in fish exposed to air for >60 min, and averaged 11.1% (95% CI = 7.1–16.3%). Reflex impairment was found to be a significant (P < 0.001) predictor of mortality in a generalized linear model, excluding other initially included variables by using a stepwise method. Plasma cortisol, haematocrit, and plasma osmolality all indicated a profound and increasing level of stress with air exposure, accompanied by a near depletion of muscle phosphocreatine and nucleotides. Fishing site had an unexpected, but significant (p < 0.05) effect on stress levels, which was also reflected in reflex impairment and mortality. Based on these findings, a possible exemption from the discard ban should include considerations on the duration of air exposure.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx004
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Survival of undersized plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa ), sole ( Solea
           solea ), and dab ( Limanda limanda ) in North Sea pulse-trawl fisheries
    • Authors: van der Reijden KJ; Molenaar PP, Chen CC, et al.
      Pages: 1672 - 1680
      Abstract: AbstractThe European Commission landing obligation, including species-specific “high survival” exemptions, has established a need for accurate discard survival estimates. This study presents the first discard survival estimates on-board Dutch commercial pulse trawlers. During seven, six, and one fishing trip(s), respectively, undersized plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), sole (Solea solea), and dab (Limanda limanda) were collected, assessed for vitality and subsequently monitored up to 21 days. Uncorrected for any potential impacts from predation, tagging, research-related handling, or holding conditions overall survival for plaice (n = 349), sole (n = 226), and dab (n = 187) was assessed as 15% [95% CI: 11–19%], 29% [95% CI: 24–35%], and 16% [95% CI: 10–26%] respectively. Survival was mainly effected by water temperature and factors linked to the fishing vessel. Fish length was not found to affect survival. Catch processing time and haul duration affected plaice survival but not sole. Vitality index, which averages reflex impairment and external damage scores, correlated with survival and may be developed as a proxy for discard survival. Compared to tickler-chain beam trawlers, pulse trawlers showed relatively higher discard survival under fishing conditions pertinent to these studies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx019
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Drivers of fuel use in rock lobster fisheries
    • Authors: Parker RR; Gardner C, Green BS, et al.
      Pages: 1681 - 1689
      Abstract: AbstractFuel consumption is a leading cost to fishers and the primary source of greenhouse gas emissions from the global fishing industry. Fuel performance varies substantially between and within fisheries, but the drivers behind this variation are unclear and inconsistent across studies. We surveyed rock lobster fishers in Australia and New Zealand to measure rates of fuel use and assess the influence of technological (e.g. vessel size, engine power), behavioural (e.g. distance travelled, speed), and managerial (e.g. catch per unit effort, fishery capacity) factors. Weighted fuel use intensity across the region was 1,890 l/t. Managerial factors were the most influential drivers of fuel use in single day trips while technological factors heavily influenced multi-day trips. Catch per unit effort was the only significant driver present across both types of fishing trips. The vast majority of surveyed fishers identified fuel use as an important aspect of fishing operations, and nearly half had already implemented changes to try to reduce consumption. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce fuel consumption, costs, and emissions in fisheries need to be tailored to the nature of individual fisheries, as the relative roles of technology, behaviour, and management vary.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx024
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Towards automating underwater measurement of fish length: a comparison of
           semi-automatic and manual stereo–video measurements
    • Authors: Shafait F; Harvey ES, Shortis MR, et al.
      Pages: 1690 - 1701
      Abstract: AbstractUnderwater stereo–video systems are widely used for counting and measuring fish in aquaculture, fisheries, and conservation management. Length measurements are generated from stereo–video recordings by a software operator using a mouse to locate the head and tail of a fish in synchronized pairs of images. This data can be used to compare spatial and temporal changes in the mean length and biomass or frequency distributions of populations of fishes. Since the early 1990s stereo–video has also been used for measuring the lengths of fish in aquaculture for quota and farm management. However, the costs of the equipment, software, the time, and salary costs involved in post processing imagery manually and the subsequent delays in the availability of length information inhibit the adoption of this technology.We present a semi-automatic method for capturing stereo–video measurements to estimate the lengths of fish. We compare the time taken to make measurements of the same fish measured manually from stereo–video imagery to that measured semi-automatically. Using imagery recorded during transfers of Southern Bluefin Tuna (SBT) from tow cages to grow out cages, we demonstrate that the semi-automatic algorithm developed can obtain fork length measurements with an error of less than 1% of the true length and with at least a sixfold reduction in operator time in comparison to manual measurements. Of the 22 138 SBT recorded we were able to measure 52.6% (11 647) manually and 11.8% (2614) semi-automatically. For seven of the eight cage transfers recorde,d there were no statistical differences in the mean length, weight, or length frequency between manual and semi-automatic measurements. When the data were pooled across the eight cage transfers, there was no statistical difference in mean length or weight between the stereo–video-based manual and semi-automated measurements. Hence, the presented semi-automatic system can be deployed to significantly reduce the cost involved in adoption of stereo–video technology.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx007
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Advancing the link between ocean connectivity, ecological function and
           management challenges
    • Authors: Hidalgo M; Kaplan DM, Kerr LA, et al.
      Pages: 1702 - 1707
      Abstract: Abstract“Ocean connectivity” is a dynamic and rapidly evolving field of research in marine science, partly because there is an increasing demand for information on connectivity that informs effective assessment and management of marine resources. Achieving this will require a better alignment between ocean connectivity tools and developments and the needs and challenges of assessments and conservation. For these reasons, the ICES Journal of Marine Science solicited contributions to the article theme set (TS), “Beyond ocean connectivity.” We briefly summarize the nine articles that appear herein, grouping them into four general topics: methodological advances, population dynamics and assessment implications of connectivity, spatial and management implications, and connectivity in ecosystem processes. We also discuss the challenges facing ocean connectivity research if it is to effectively support advancing fisheries assessment frameworks and integrated ecosystem approaches. We hope that the contributions included in this TS serve to convince managers and fisheries scientists of the need to incorporate results from research on connectivity.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx112
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Estuarine retention and production of striped bass larvae: a
           mark-recapture experiment
    • Authors: Secor DH; Houde ED, Kellogg LL.
      Pages: 1735 - 1748
      Abstract: AbstractMark-recapture experiments were conducted in the tidal Nanticoke River (Chesapeake Bay) to determine how the salt front retains striped bass larvae and controls nursery production. During two spring spawning seasons, 25.1 million hatchery-produced, first-feeding larvae (5–12 days post-hatch) were released with chemically marked otoliths at selected locations and times. Surveys tracked the spatial and demographic fates of released and naturally spawned larvae. Released larvae dispersed rapidly within the freshwater tidal portion of the estuary and were retained above the salt front. Their distributions overlapped with natural larvae. Growth and mortality rates did not differ with respect to release location, but did vary with day of release, influenced by storm events and seasonal changes in temperature. In 1993, a group released during a storm event did not yield any recaptured larvae. Zooplankton concentrations in both years were likely sufficient for successful larval feeding. In spring 1993, a season of relatively high freshwater flow, nursery volume was 2.1-fold larger and juvenile production from larval releases was fourfold higher than in 1992. We propose that increased nursery volume reduces variance in water quality, enhances retention of larvae within the nursery, thus increasing production of larval striped bass.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsw245
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Disentangling the relative merits and disadvantages of parentage analysis
           and assignment tests for inferring population connectivity
    • Authors: Christie MR; Meirmans PG, Gaggiotti OE, et al.
      Pages: 1749 - 1762
      Abstract: AbstractAccurately estimating patterns of population connectivity in marine systems remains an elusive goal. Current genetic approaches have focused on assigning individuals back to their natal populations using one of two methods: parentage analyses and assignment tests. Each of these approaches has their relative merits and weaknesses. Here, we illustrate these tradeoffs using a forward-time agent-based model that incorporates relevant natural history and physical oceanography for 135 Kellet’s whelk (Kelletia kelletii) populations from Southern California. Like most marine organisms, Kellet’s whelks live in large meta-populations where local populations are connected by dispersive larvae. For estimating population connectivity, we found parentage analyses to be relatively insensitive to the amount of genetic differentiation among local populations, but highly sensitive to the proportion of the meta-population sampled. Assignment tests, on the other hand, were relatively insensitive to the proportion of the meta-population sampled, but highly sensitive to the amount of genetic differentiation found among local populations. Comparisons between the true connectivity matrices (generated by using the true origin of all sampled individuals) and those obtained via parentage analyses and assignment tests reveal that neither approach can explain >26% of the variation in true connectivity. Furthermore, even with perfect assignment of all sampled individuals, sampling error alone can introduce noise into the estimated population connectivity matrix. Future work should aim to improve the number of correct assignments without the expense of additional incorrect assignments, perhaps by using dispersal information obtained from related individuals as priors in a Bayesian framework. These analyses dispel a number of common misconceptions in the field and highlight areas for both future research and methodological improvements.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx044
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Sensitivity and robustness of larval connectivity diagnostics obtained
           from Lagrangian Flow Networks
    • Authors: Monroy P; Rossi V, Ser-Giacomi E, et al.
      Pages: 1763 - 1779
      Abstract: AbstractLagrangian Flow Network (LFN) is a modelling framework in which ocean sub-areas are represented as nodes in a network interconnected by links representing transport of propagules (eggs and larvae) by currents. We asses the sensitivity and robustness of four LFN-derived connectivity metrics measuring retention and exchange. The most relevant parameters are tested over large ranges and a wide region with contrasting hydrodynamics: density of released particles, node size (spatial scale of discretization), Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) and spawning modality. We find a minimum density of released particles that guarantees reliable values for most of the metrics examined. We also find that node size has a nontrivial influence on them. Connectivity estimates for long PLDs are more robust against biological uncertainties (PLD and spawning date) than for short PLDs. For mass-spawners releasing propagules over short periods (≈ 2-10 days), daily release must be simulated to properly consider connectivity fluctuations due to variable currents. In contrast, average connectivity estimates for species that spawn repeatedly over longer durations (few weeks to few months) remain robust even using longer periodicity (5-10 days). Our results have implications to design connectivity experiments with particle-tracking models and to evaluate the reliability of their results.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsw235
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Seasonal movements and connectivity of an Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua )
           spawning component in the western Gulf of Maine
    • Authors: Zemeckis DR; Liu C, Cowles GW, et al.
      Pages: 1780 - 1796
      Abstract: AbstractMovement patterns of marine fishes can have considerable impacts on their population dynamics. A thorough understanding of fish movements is therefore required for informing stock identification, stock assessment, and fishery management. This study investigated the seasonal movements and connectivity of a spring-spawning component of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the western Gulf of Maine. From 2010 through 2013, spawning cod were sampled within an inshore spawning closure and tagged with conventional tags (n = 2368), acoustic transmitters (n = 106), and archival data storage tags (n = 266). Acoustic receivers were deployed on three inshore spawning sites to test for connectivity among sites. Data from archival tags were used to describe seasonal habitat occupancy and movement patterns via geolocation to statistical areas. Tagging data indicated that cod were primarily residential in the western Gulf of Maine, moving inshore to spawn during the spring (April–July), followed by an offshore migration to their feeding grounds for summer and fall. Cod generally inhabited waters from 45 to 175 m, with the deep offshore basins (>150 m) serving as overwintering habitat. Occupied water temperatures ranged from 4.0 to 13.3 °C, with the coldest temperatures experienced from March through July and the warmest temperatures experienced from September through January. Results provided evidence of spawning site fidelity and connectivity among spawning sites, with some fish visiting multiple spawning sites within or between years. The movements observed during and after the spring-spawning season serve as important mechanisms influencing metapopulation dynamics in the Gulf of Maine region, including both fine- and broad-scale population structure. The improved understanding of cod movement patterns will assist fishery managers in developing management plans, including spawning protection measures, and help to address remaining uncertainties with respect to cod population structure in the Gulf of Maine and other regions.
      PubDate: 2017-01-15
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsw190
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
  • Changes in spatial and temporal variability of prey affect functional
           connectivity of larval and juvenile cod
    • Authors: Lough R; Broughton EA, Kristiansen T.
      Pages: 1826 - 1837
      Abstract: AbstractChanges in structural connectivity as it can affect functional connectivity, the biological and behavioural responses of an organism, has been examined here over 2 contrasting years when the spatial distribution of larval and juvenile cod and their prey shifted from the flank to the crest on Georges Bank. New data on the gut contents of pelagic juvenile cod are compared with known prey distributions, potential growth and how climate warming can change connectivity in this region. Centropages spp. was the most important prey for pelagic juveniles, especially in June 1987 when they had high abundance on the crest and were dominant in the cod stomachs. In June 1986, copepod abundance was low where the juveniles were distributed along the flank. The potential growth of juvenile cod was greater in June 1987, consistent with the higher abundance of Centropages spp., and with higher recruitment survival, compared with June 1986. Annual changes in the spatial distribution of cod early life stages within the environment of cold or warm years can have different impacts on their growth and survival. Whereas the small copepods, Pseudocalanus spp., are primary prey for cod larvae and very abundant in cold years, larger copepods, Calanus finmarchicus and Centropages spp., are important prey for the pelagic juveniles and the latter species can have a high impact in warm years on the crest. The different spatial structure during cold or warm years provides an explanation why different year classes respond differently to environmental change. Depending on the presence or absence of specific prey, the functional connectivity response changes pathways that determine the growth and survival of early life stages and ultimately a role in recruitment.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx080
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 6 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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