Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 0956-540X - ISSN (Online) 1365-246X Published by Oxford University Press[396 journals]

Authors:Sollberger D; Greenhalgh S, Schmelzbach C, et al. Pages: 77 - 97 Abstract: SummaryWe provide a six-component (6-C) polarization model for P-, SV-, SH-, Rayleigh-, and Love-waves both inside an elastic medium as well as at the free surface. It is shown that single-station 6-C data comprised of three components of rotational motion and three components of translational motion provide the opportunity to unambiguously identify the wave type, propagation direction, and local P- and S-wave velocities at the receiver location by use of polarization analysis. To extract such information by conventional processing of three-component (3-C) translational data would require large and dense receiver arrays. The additional rotational components allow the extension of the rank of the coherency matrix used for polarization analysis. This enables us to accurately determine the wave type and wave parameters (propagation direction and velocity) of seismic phases, even if more than one wave is present in the analysis time window. This is not possible with standard, pure-translational 3-C recordings. In order to identify modes of vibration and to extract the accompanying wave parameters, we adapt the multiple signal classification algorithm (MUSIC). Due to the strong nonlinearity of the MUSIC estimator function, it can be used to detect the presence of specific wave types within the analysis time window at very high resolution. We show how the extracted wavefield properties can be used, in a fully automated way, to separate the wavefield into its different wave modes using only a single 6-C recording station. As an example, we apply the method to remove surface wave energy while preserving the underlying reflection signal and to suppress energy originating from undesired directions, such as side-scattered waves. PubDate: Tue, 18 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggx542 Issue No:Vol. 213, No. 1 (2018)

Authors:Liu Y; Farquharson C, Yin C, et al. Pages: 1 - 15 Abstract: SummaryIn this paper, we propose a new wavelet-based 3-D inversion method for frequency-domain airborne electromagnetic (FDAEM) data. Instead of inverting the model in the space domain using a smoothing constraint, this new method recovers the model in the wavelet domain based on a sparsity constraint. In the wavelet domain, the model is represented by two types of coefficients, which contain both large- and fine-scale informations of the model, meaning the wavelet-domain inversion has inherent multiresolution. In order to accomplish a sparsity constraint, we minimize an L1-norm measure in the wavelet domain that mostly gives a sparse solution. The final inversion system is solved by an iteratively reweighted least-squares method. We investigate different orders of Daubechies wavelets to accomplish our inversion algorithm, and test them on synthetic frequency-domain AEM data set. The results show that higher order wavelets having larger vanishing moments and regularity can deliver a more stable inversion process and give better local resolution, while the lower order wavelets are simpler and less smooth, and thus capable of recovering sharp discontinuities if the model is simple. At last, we test this new inversion algorithm on a frequency-domain helicopter EM (HEM) field data set acquired in Byneset, Norway. Wavelet-based 3-D inversion of HEM data is compared to L2-norm-based 3-D inversion's result to further investigate the features of the new method. PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggx545 Issue No:Vol. 213, No. 1 (2017)

Authors:Coltice N; Shephard G. Pages: 16 - 29 Abstract: SummaryOver the past 15 yr, numerical models of convection in Earth’s mantle have made a leap forward: they can now produce self-consistent plate-like behaviour at the surface together with deep mantle circulation. These digital tools provide a new window into the intimate connections between plate tectonics and mantle dynamics, and can therefore be used for tectonic predictions, in principle. This contribution explores this assumption. First, initial conditions at 30, 20, 10 and 0 Ma are generated by driving a convective flow with imposed plate velocities at the surface. We then compute instantaneous mantle flows in response to the guessed temperature fields without imposing any boundary conditions. Plate boundaries self-consistently emerge at correct locations with respect to reconstructions, except for small plates close to subduction zones. As already observed for other types of instantaneous flow calculations, the structure of the top boundary layer and upper-mantle slab is the dominant character that leads to accurate predictions of surface velocities. Perturbations of the rheological parameters have little impact on the resulting surface velocities. We then compute fully dynamic model evolution from 30 and 10 to 0 Ma, without imposing plate boundaries or plate velocities. Contrary to instantaneous calculations, errors in kinematic predictions are substantial, although the plate layout and kinematics in several areas remain consistent with the expectations for the Earth. For these calculations, varying the rheological parameters makes a difference for plate boundary evolution. Also, identified errors in initial conditions contribute to first-order kinematic errors. This experiment shows that the tectonic predictions of dynamic models over 10 My are highly sensitive to uncertainties of rheological parameters and initial temperature field in comparison to instantaneous flow calculations. Indeed, the initial conditions and the rheological parameters can be good enough for an accurate prediction of instantaneous flow, but not for a prediction after 10 My of evolution. Therefore, inverse methods (sequential or data assimilation methods) using short-term fully dynamic evolution that predict surface kinematics are promising tools for a better understanding of the state of the Earth’s mantle. PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggx531 Issue No:Vol. 213, No. 1 (2017)

Authors:Iinuma T. Pages: 30 - 47 Abstract: SummaryA monitoring method to grasp the spatio-temporal change in the interplate coupling in a subduction zone based on the spatial gradients of surface displacement rate fields is proposed. I estimated the spatio-temporal change in the interplate coupling along the plate boundary in northeastern (NE) Japan by applying the proposed method to the surface displacement rates based on global positioning system observations. The gradient of the surface velocities is calculated in each swath configured along the direction normal to the Japan Trench for time windows such as 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 yr being shifted by one week during the period of 1997–2016. The gradient of the horizontal velocities is negative and has a large magnitude when the interplate coupling at the shallow part (less than approximately 50 km in depth) beneath the profile is strong, and the sign of the gradient of the vertical velocity is sensitive to the existence of the coupling at the deep part (greater than approximately 50 km in depth). The trench-parallel variation of the spatial gradients of a displacement rate field clearly corresponds to the trench-parallel variation of the amplitude of the interplate coupling on the plate interface, as well as the rupture areas of previous interplate earthquakes. Temporal changes in the trench-parallel variation of the spatial gradient of the displacement rate correspond to the strengthening or weakening of the interplate coupling. We can monitor the temporal change in the interplate coupling state by calculating the spatial gradients of the surface displacement rate field to some extent without performing inversion analyses with applying certain constraint conditions that sometimes cause over- and/or underestimation at areas of limited spatial resolution far from the observation network. The results of the calculation confirm known interplate events in the NE Japan subduction zone, such as the post-seismic slip of the 2003 M8.0 Tokachi-oki and 2005 M7.2 Miyagi-oki earthquakes and the recovery of the interplate coupling around the rupture area of the 1994 M7.6 Sanriku-Haruka-oki earthquake. The results also indicate the semi-periodic occurrence of slow slip events and the expansion of the area of slow slip events before the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) approaching the hypocentre of the Tohoku-oki earthquake. PubDate: Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggx527 Issue No:Vol. 213, No. 1 (2017)

Authors:Zhang Z; Liu Y, Alkhalifah T, et al. Pages: 48 - 57 Abstract: SummaryThe computational cost of quasi-P wave extrapolation depends on the complexity of the medium, and specifically the anisotropy. Our effective-model method splits the anisotropic dispersion relation into an isotropic background and a correction factor to handle this dependency. The correction term depends on the slope (measured using the gradient) of current wavefields and the anisotropy. As a result, the computational cost is independent of the nature of anisotropy, which makes the extrapolation efficient. A dynamic implementation of this approach decomposes the original pseudo-differential operator into a Laplacian, handled using the low-rank approximation of the spectral operator, plus an angular dependent correction factor applied in the space domain to correct for anisotropy. We analyse the role played by the correction factor and propose a new spherical decomposition of the dispersion relation. The proposed method provides accurate wavefields in phase and more balanced amplitudes than a previous spherical decomposition. Also, it is free of SV-wave artefacts. Applications to a simple homogeneous transverse isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) and a modified Hess VTI model demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. The Reverse Time Migration applied to a modified BP VTI model reveals that the anisotropic migration using the proposed modelling engine performs better than an isotropic migration. PubDate: Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggx543 Issue No:Vol. 213, No. 1 (2017)

Authors:Akbarashrafi F; Al-Attar D, Deuss A, et al. Pages: 58 - 76 Abstract: SummarySeismic free oscillations, or normal modes, provide a convenient tool to calculate low-frequency seismograms in heterogeneous Earth models. A procedure called ‘full mode coupling’ allows the seismic response of the Earth to be computed. However, in order to be theoretically exact, such calculations must involve an infinite set of modes. In practice, only a finite subset of modes can be used, introducing an error into the seismograms. By systematically increasing the number of modes beyond the highest frequency of interest in the seismograms, we investigate the convergence of full-coupling calculations. As a rule-of-thumb, it is necessary to couple modes 1–2 mHz above the highest frequency of interest, although results depend upon the details of the Earth model. This is significantly higher than has previously been assumed. Observations of free oscillations also provide important constraints on the heterogeneous structure of the Earth. Historically, this inference problem has been addressed by the measurement and interpretation of splitting functions. These can be seen as secondary data extracted from low frequency seismograms. The measurement step necessitates the calculation of synthetic seismograms, but current implementations rely on approximations referred to as self- or group-coupling and do not use fully accurate seismograms. We therefore also investigate whether a systematic error might be present in currently published splitting functions. We find no evidence for any systematic bias, but published uncertainties must be doubled to properly account for the errors due to theoretical omissions and regularization in the measurement process. Correspondingly, uncertainties in results derived from splitting functions must also be increased. As is well known, density has only a weak signal in low-frequency seismograms. Our results suggest this signal is of similar scale to the true uncertainties associated with currently published splitting functions. Thus, it seems that great care must be taken in any attempt to robustly infer details of Earth's density structure using current splitting functions. PubDate: Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggx539 Issue No:Vol. 213, No. 1 (2017)

Authors:Qin L; Ben-Zion Y, Qiu H, et al. Pages: 98 - 114 Abstract: SummaryWe image the internal structure of the San Jacinto fault zone (SJFZ) in the trifurcation area southeast of Anza, California, with seismic records from dense linear and rectangular arrays. The examined data include recordings from more than 20 000 local earthquakes and nine teleseismic events. Automatic detection algorithms and visual inspection are used to identify P and S body waves, along with P- and S-types fault zone trapped waves (FZTW). The location at depth of the main branch of the SJFZ, the Clark fault, is identified from systematic waveform changes across lines of sensors within the dense rectangular array. Delay times of P arrivals from teleseismic and local events indicate damage asymmetry across the fault, with higher damage to the NE, producing a local reversal of the velocity contrast in the shallow crust with respect to the large-scale structure. A portion of the damage zone between the main fault and a second mapped surface trace to the NE generates P- and S-types FZTW. Inversions of high-quality S-type FZTW indicate that the most likely parameters of the trapping structure are width of ∼70 m, S-wave velocity reduction of 60 per cent, Q value of 60 and depth of ∼2 km. The local reversal of the shallow velocity contrast across the fault with respect to large-scale structure is consistent with preferred propagation of earthquake ruptures in the area to the NW. PubDate: Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggx540 Issue No:Vol. 213, No. 1 (2017)