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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 369 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 369 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 493, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)
J. of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Alcohol and Alcoholism
  [SJR: 0.935]   [H-I: 80]   [14 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0735-0414 - ISSN (Online) 1464-3502
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [369 journals]
  • Response to Dr Holmes and Dr Angus
    • Authors: Poikolainen K.
      Abstract: Alcohol And Alcoholism, doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agw104
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
  • A Response to Two Papers Critiquing the Total Consumption Model by Kari
    • Authors: Holmes J; Angus C.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
  • Response to Dr Holmes and Dr Angus
    • Authors: Poikolainen K.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
  • The Role of NFkB in Drug Addiction: Beyond Inflammation
    • Authors: Nennig SE; Schank JR.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsNuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor well known for its role in the innate immune response. As such, NFkB is a transcriptional activator of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines. It has recently been demonstrated that alcohol and other drugs of abuse can induce NFkB activity and cytokine expression in the brain. A number of reviews have been published highlighting this effect of alcohol, and have linked increased NFkB function to neuroimmune-stimulated toxicity. However, in this review we focus on the potentially non-immune functions of NFkB as possible links between NFkB and addiction.MethodsAn extensive review of the literature via Pubmed searches was used to assess the current state of the field.ResultsNFkB can induce the expression of a diverse set of gene targets besides inflammatory mediators, some of which are involved in addictive processes, such as opioid receptors and neuropeptides. NFkB mediates complex behaviors including learning and memory, stress responses, anhedonia and drug reward, processes that may lie outside the role of NFkB in the classic neuroimmune response.ConclusionsFuture studies should focus on these non-immune functions of NFkB signaling and their association with addiction-related processes.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Supervised Disulfiram's Superior Effectiveness in Alcoholism Treatment:
           Ethical, Methodological, and Psychological Aspects
    • Authors: Brewer C; Streel E, Skinner M.
      Abstract: AbstractDisulfiram (DSF) causes the ALDH-mediated deterrence of alcohol consumption. We review recent meta-analyses showing the superior effectiveness of supervised disulfiram (SD) in alcoholism treatment compared with oral naltrexone or acamprosate (ACP). The success of SD is also consistent with the almost complete absence of alcoholism in Japanese homozygotes for ‘inefficient’ ALDH. However, SD is an underused treatment and some clinicians have ethical objections to DSF. We examine these objections and argue that they are based on a misunderstanding of how DSF works. In particular, we argue that SD is not as is often claimed a variety of aversion therapy but aids cognitive, behavioural, educational and psychosocial interventions. It has some unique features that need to be better understood if it is to be properly compared with other treatments and effectively employed to help alcoholic patients, especially those who have not responded to other evidence-based interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Alcohol and Alzheimer's Disease—Does Alcohol Dependence Contribute to
           Beta-Amyloid Deposition, Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration in
           Alzheimer's Disease'
    • Authors: Venkataraman A; Kalk N, Sewell G, et al.
      PubDate: 2016-12-21
  • Alcohol and Alzheimer's Disease—Does Alcohol Dependence Contribute to
           Beta-Amyloid Deposition, Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration in
           Alzheimer's Disease'
    • Authors: Venkataraman A; Kalk N, Sewell G, et al.
      Abstract: AimsTo investigate the underlying neurobiology between alcohol use, misuse and dependence and cognitive impairment, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD).MethodsReview of the literature using searches of Medline, Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, and meeting abstracts and presentations.ResultsThe role of alcohol as a risk factor and contributor for cognitive decline associated with AD has received little attention. This is despite the high prevalence of alcohol use, the potential reversibility of a degree of cognitive impairment and the global burden of AD. Until now the focus has largely been on the toxic effects of alcohol, neuronal loss and the role of thiamine.ConclusionWe propose alcohol adds to the cognitive burden seen in dementia through additional mechanisms to neurodegenerative processes or may contribute at various mechanistic points in the genesis and sustenance of AD pathology via neuroinflammation. We describe the common underlying neurobiology in alcohol and AD, and examine ways alcohol likely contributes to neuroinflammation directly via stimulation of Toll-like receptors and indirectly from small bowel changes, hepatic changes, withdrawal and traumatic brain injury to the pathogenesis of AD.Short SummaryAlcohol use, misuse and dependence cause cognitive impairment. We propose alcohol adds to the cognitive burden seen in dementia through additional mechanisms to neurodegenerative processes or may contribute at various mechanistic points in the genesis and sustenance of AD pathology via neuroinflammation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-21
  • Impulsivity Moderates Subjective Responses to Alcohol in Alcohol-Dependent
    • Authors: Westman JG; Bujarski S, Ray LA.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsStudies of social drinkers indicate that subjective response (SR) to alcohol and impulsivity are risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorder which may be related. It is unclear, however, whether there are significant relationships between SR and impulsivity among individuals with alcohol dependence. Using data from an intravenous (IV) alcohol challenge study, the present study is the first to explore the relationship between impulsivity and SR during alcohol administration among alcohol-dependent individuals.MethodsNon-treatment-seeking, alcohol-dependent individuals (N = 42) completed the Delay Discounting Task to measure impulsivity and then completed two counterbalanced, placebo-controlled IV alcohol administration sessions, which included assessments of SR at breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels of 0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 g/dl.ResultsAnalyses revealed that more impulsive participants experienced higher subjective stimulation and positive mood in response to rising BrACs as compared to less impulsive individuals. More impulsive participants also experienced increased sedation over time regardless of condition (i.e. alcohol vs. saline).ConclusionThese findings suggest that among alcohol-dependent individuals, impulsivity is positively associated with the hedonic effects of alcohol as compared to placebo. High impulsivity may characterize a subset of alcohol-dependent individuals who drink to experience the rewarding effects of alcohol.
      PubDate: 2016-12-21
  • Assertive Community Treatment For People With Alcohol Dependence: A Pilot
           Randomized Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Drummond C; Gilburt H, Burns T, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsA pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of assertive community treatment (ACT) in adults with alcohol dependence.MethodsSingle blind, individually randomized, pilot RCT of 12 months of ACT plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU alone in adults (age 18+ years) with alcohol dependence and a history of previous unsuccessful alcohol treatment attending specialist community alcohol treatment services. ACT aimed to actively engage participants for 12 months with assertive, regular, minimum weekly contact. ACT was combined with TAU. TAU comprised access to the full range of services provided by the community teams. Primary outcome is mean drinks per drinking day and percent days abstinent at 12 months follow up. Analysis of covariance was conducted using 80% confidence intervals, appropriate in the context of a pilot trial.ResultsA total of 94 participants were randomized, 45 in ACT and 49 in TAU. Follow-up was achieved with 98 and 88%, respectively at 12 months. Those in ACT had better treatment engagement, and were more often seen in their homes or local community than TAU participants. At 12 months the ACT group had more problems related to drinking and lower quality of life than TAU but no differences in drinking measures. The ACT group had a higher percentage of days abstinent but lower quality of life at 6 months. The ACT group had less unplanned healthcare use than TAU.ConclusionsAn trial of ACT was feasible to implement in an alcohol dependent treatment population.Trial registrationISRCTN22775534
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
  • Alcohol and Alcoholism Publishing Standards for Animal Research
    • Authors: Trunnell ER.
      PubDate: 2016-12-08
  • Chronic Ethanol Consumption and Thiamine Deficiency Modulate β-Amyloid
           Peptide Level and Oxidative Stress in the Brain
    • Authors: Gong Y; Guo J, Hu K, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsThe effects of chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption, associated or not with thiamine deficiency (TD), on β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) level and oxidative stress in the brain were studied in male C57BL/6 mice.MethodsMice were prepared by feeding with an EtOH liquid diet, thiamine-depleted liquid diet and a thiamine-depleted EtOH liquid diet for 7 weeks. Biochemical parameters were measured by corresponding commercial kits.ResultsEtOH consumption or TD induced a significant decrease in the thiamine level, but induced increased in the β-amyloid peptide 1–42 and β-amyloid peptide 1–40 (Aβ1–40) levels. EtOH consumption led to a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities, but a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase activities. TD significantly elevated the MDA content and total NOS and iNOS activities but lowered SOD activity. Aβ1–40 overproduction, the change in the NO level, and SOD activity in the brain induced by chronic EtOH treatment associated with TD were greater than that induced by EtOH or TD alone.ConclusionFindings from this report suggested that chronic EtOH consumption could induce TD, excess Aβ production and oxidative damage, and the association with TD should have more severe effects on the brain.Short summaryChronic EtOH consumption or thiamine deficiency (TD) treatment could reduce the thiamine level, induce β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) overproduction and oxidative stress in the brain. When associated with TD, EtOH consumption caused Aβ overproduction and oxidative damage more serious.
      PubDate: 2016-12-08
  • Placental Morphology in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
    • Authors: Tai M; Piskorski A, Kao JW, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsMaternal alcohol drinking adversely affects pregnancy outcome. Although fetal health and development are highly dependent upon the integrity of placentation, little is known about placental morphology following gestational exposure to alcohol in humans.MethodsIn this clinical study, subjects were recruited between 2010 and 2013 from an outpatient substance abuse and mental health treatment center for women. Data collected included maternal age, substance abuse history, comorbidities, pregnancy outcomes, gestational age at delivery, birth weight and placental weight. Placental histopathological lesions associated with uteroplacental malperfusion (UPM) were scored under code. Villous cytotrophoblasts reflecting another measure of UPM were immunostained with E-cadherin and quantified using stereology. Inter-group comparisons were made using univariate or multivariate analysis.ResultsOf the 92 women enrolled in the study, 61 (66%) had histories of alcohol use during the pregnancy while the remaining 31 served as controls. The alcohol-exposed group significantly differed from controls based on (a) higher rates of smoking and polydrug use during pregnancy, (b) lower mean gestational age and birth weight of their infants, (c) elevated UPM scores, (d) increased densities of villous cytotrophoblastic cells and (e) more extensive chorangiosis in placenta. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated alcohol to be the only significant predictor of these outcomes and responses.ConclusionsGestational alcohol exposure is significantly associated with UPM, which could account for the higher rates of preterm delivery and reduced mean birth weights. Since chorangiosis reflects altered placental oxygen dynamics, the greater abundance of this abnormality could represent a compensatory response to UPM.Short SummaryIn this clinical study, we assessed the effects of maternal alcohol drinking on placental morphology. Applying a cumulative scoring system, we determined that gestational alcohol exposure is significantly associated with uteroplacental malperfusion, which could account for the higher rates of preterm delivery and reduced mean birth weights.
      PubDate: 2016-12-05
  • Pontine Changes in Metabolites and Axonal Fibres of Rats Following
           Four-week Alcohol Exposure: In Vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging and
           1h-magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study at 7.0 T
    • Authors: Luo J; Shen Z, Chen G, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsWe characterized the metabolite content and axonal fibre changes in the rat pontine, in vivo, using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with a 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner following chronic alcohol administration to explore new indicators for the early diagnosis and treatment of chronic alcoholism.MethodsForty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the EtOH and control groups (water group). To establish a chronic alcohol administration rat model, rats were intragastrically administered edible wine (56% vol/vol) twice daily for four weeks. Quantitation of the changes in metabolite concentrations and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), as well as the fractional anisotropy (FA) values, within the pontine of brain stem were detected using MRS and DTI at 7.0 T. Differences of the pontine metabolite content, ADC and FA values between the two groups were compared.ResultsThe 7.0 T MRIs showed no abnormal T2 phase pontine signals in either the EtOH or control groups. A 1H-MRS scan showed that the values for NAA, Cr and Cho in the EtOH group (4.54 ± 0.69, 4.69 ± 0.70 and 1.32 ± 0.18) were lower than those in the controls (6.78 ± 0.76, 8.50 ± 0.83 and 1.89 ± 0.24) (P < 0.01). However, the Glu+Gln values did not significantly differ between the controls (8.11 ± 1.11) and the EtOH group (7.31 ± 0.85) (P> 0.05). DTI showed that the FA value in chronic alcohol exposure rats (0.41 ± 0.12) was lower than the control rats (0.53 ± 0.08) (P < 0.05). However, the difference in the ADC values was not significant between the controls (0.0014 ± 0.00050) and the EtOH group (0.0012 ± 0.00027) rats (P> 0.05).ConclusionsAfter chronic alcohol exposure for four weeks, the metabolite content and axonal fibre changes in the rat pontine can be detected using MRS and DTI at 7.0 T earlier than conventional MRI, which provides information for the early diagnosis and treatment of chronic alcoholism.Short SummaryIn the present study, the authors showed that the metabolite content and axonal fibre changes in the pontine of chronic ethanol-treated rats can be detected using MRS and DTI at 7.0 T earlier than conventional MRI, which provide objective indicators for the early diagnosis and treatment of chronic alcoholism.
      PubDate: 2016-12-05
  • Effect of Screening and Advising on Alcohol Habits in Sweden: A Repeated
           Population Survey Following Nationwide Implementation of Screening and
           Brief Intervention
    • Authors: Lundin A; Danielsson A, Hallgren M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsTo examine: (a) to what extent individuals in contact with heath care had been asked and advised on their alcohol habits; (b) how self-reports of alcohol consumption and patient characteristics affected the probability of being asked and advised on alcohol consumption; (c) the potential effect of alcohol advice on readiness and ability to change, across levels of high alcohol consumption.MethodsA repeated cross-sectional public health postal questionnaire in Uppsala County among 18–84 year old, covering a period of a national programme encouraging alcohol screening, brief interventions and motivational interviewing (2004–2012). Response rates were 65.5–52.2%. Respondent who stated that they had visited health-care services had a further question on whether the staff asked questions about habits including alcohol, and whether the staff had given them advice concerning the same habits. AUDIT-C was the measure of alcohol consumption, and there was a question on wanting to cut down on drinking and/or needing support to do so.ResultsScreening for and advising patients on alcohol consumption increased during the period, but there were no decreases in population-level consumption. Screening occurred independent of self-reports of AUDIT-C and varied with other individual characteristics. Advice was associated with AUDIT-C score. Being advised increased the likelihood of wanting to reduce drinking, both among those scoring above the national hazardous consumption levels and at higher scores.ConclusionsScreening and advising on alcohol habits in health care impacted individual readiness and ability to change. Population-level effects have yet to be proven.Short summaryScreening for and advising patients on alcohol consumption increased following a national programme encouraging alcohol screening, brief interventions and motivational interviewing. Overall consumption levels remained unchanged. Screening was largely systematic. The positive effect of advice on wanting to cut back drinking was similar in moderate and high drinkers.
      PubDate: 2016-12-05
  • Using Alcohol Unit-marked Glasses Enhances Capacity To Monitor Intake:
           Evidence From a Mixed-method Intervention Trial
    • Authors: de Visser R; Brown C, Cooke R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsIn the UK, people tend to have poor knowledge of government guidelines for alcohol use, and lack the motivation and skills required to use them to monitor their drinking. The study aim was to determine whether using glasses marked with such guidelines would improve knowledge and attitudes, increase frequency of counting units and lower alcohol intake.MethodsA total of 450 adults in the UK participated in an intervention vs control study with 1-month follow-up. The intervention group was encouraged to use glasses supplied by the researchers that indicated the unit content of drinks of different strengths and volumes, and stated the intake guidelines. Data were collected online. A further more in-depth interview with 13 intervention group participants enquired into their experiences of using the glasses.ResultsAnalyses adjusted for baseline variables showed that the intervention improved the following: knowledge of unit-based guidelines, ability to estimate the unit content of drinks, attitudes toward the guidelines and frequency of counting unit intake. However, there was no significant difference in alcohol consumption between the groups at follow-up. Interviews suggested that the glasses encouraged people to think about their drinking and to discuss alcohol with other people. The design of the glasses was not appealing to all, and their initial impact did not always persist.ConclusionUse of unit-marked glasses led to changes in people's reported use of unit-based guidelines to monitor their drinking but, in the short term, no change in consumption. Qualitative data suggested that the glasses could have an impact at the individual level (on knowledge and attitudes) and at a broader level (by prompting discussion of alcohol use).
      PubDate: 2016-11-10
  • Internet Support for Dealing with Problematic Alcohol Use: A Survey of the
           Soberistas Online Community
    • Authors: Sinclair JA; E. Chambers S, C. Manson C.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsAdvances in technology have led to an increased range of possibilities for forms of mutual aid in addictions, and patient empowerment in the management of long-term conditions. However, the effective processes involved may be different online than for those that meet in person. Soberistas is a ‘social network site for people who are trying to resolve their problematic drinking patterns’. We aim to describe the population, component parts and processes that define this online community, and consider potential mechanisms of action for future research.MethodsCross-sectional online survey through an advert embedded within the Soberistas website. Participants were asked questions about themselves, their alcohol use and use of the website.ResultsFour hundred and thirty-eight people completed the survey, primarily women, 50% of whom lived with their children. Over 60% described having problematic alcohol use for over 10 years and 46.5% had not tried any form of previous support. Participants accessed the site at different stages of change; over half still drinking alcohol, cutting down or recently stopped. Over 18% reported abstinence of over 1 year. Anonymity, the ability to be honest, being a source of trusted information, and ongoing support were all cited as reasons for continued membership.ConclusionSoberistas offers a form of mutual aid primarily for women who have often not engaged with other treatment or support. This preliminary study suggests that the online, flexible, platform affords members an accessible and anonymous community to address their difficulties and encourages a positive ‘alcohol free’ identity.Short SummarySoberistas is ‘an online community of people who are trying to resolve their problematic drinking patterns’. Preliminary data suggest that it offers a flexible platform for mutual aid primarily for women who have often not engaged with other treatment or support, by encouraging a positive ‘alcohol free’ identity.
      PubDate: 2016-10-25
  • Impact of Financial Incentives on Alcohol Consumption Recording in Primary
           Health Care Among Adults with Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses: A
           Cross-Sectional and Retrospective Cohort Study
    • Authors: Khadjesari Z; Hardoon SL, Petersen I, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsLack of financial incentive is a frequently cited barrier to alcohol screening in primary care. The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) pay for performance scheme has reimbursed UK primary care practices for alcohol screening in people with schizophrenia since April 2011. This study aimed to determine the impact of financial incentives on alcohol screening by comparing rates of alcohol recording in people with versus those without schizophrenia between 2000 and 2013.MethodsCross-sectional and retrospective cohort study. Alcohol data were extracted from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database of UK primary care records using (a) Read Codes for level of alcohol consumption, (b) continuous measures of drinking (e.g. units a week) and (c) Read Codes for types of screening test.ResultsA total of 14,860 individuals (54% (8068) men and 46% (6792) women) from 409 general practices aged 18–99 years with schizophrenia were identified during April 2011–March 2013. Of these, 11,585 (78%) had an alcohol record, of which 99% (8150/8257) of Read Codes for level of consumption were eligible for recompense in the QOF. There was an 839% increase in alcohol recording among people with schizophrenia over the 13-year period (rate ratio per annum increase 1.19 (95% CI 1.18–1.20)) compared with a 62% increase among people without a severe mental illness (rate ratio per annum increase 1.04 (95% CI 1.03–1.05)).ConclusionFinancial incentives offered by the QOF appear to have a substantial impact on alcohol screening among people with schizophrenia in UK primary care.Short summaryAlcohol screening among people with schizophrenia increased dramatically in primary health care following the introduction of the UK pay for performance incentive scheme (Quality and Outcomes Framework) for severe mental illness, with an 839% rise (>8-fold increase) compared with a 62% increase among people without a over the 13-year study period (2000–2013).
      PubDate: 2016-10-13
  • Screening by Total Colonoscopy Following Fecal Immunochemical Tests and
           Determinants of Colorectal Neoplasia in Japanese Men With Alcohol
    • Authors: Mizukami T; Yokoyama A, Yokoyama T, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsAlcohol consumption increases the risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is a widely used screening method for detecting colorectal neoplasia. We evaluated the results of screening and risk factors for colorectal neoplasia in individuals with alcohol dependence.MethodsTotal colonoscopic screening was performed for 1006 Japanese men with alcohol dependence (462 FIT-positive and 544 FIT-negative). Advanced neoplasia was defined as neoplasia ≥10 mm, villous or tubulovillous adenoma, high-grade adenoma, or carcinoma.ResultsThe detection rates for non-advanced adenoma, advanced neoplasia and intramucosal or invasive carcinoma were 38.7%, 39.4% and 9.7% for the FIT-positive group, and 33.3%, 10.8% and 2.2% for the FIT-negative group, respectively. Advanced neoplasia, especially carcinoma, was detected more frequently in the distal colon than in the proximal colon in the FIT-positive group. The respective multivariate odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence interval) for non-advanced adenoma and advanced neoplasia were 2.83 (2.06–3.88) and 9.13 (6.19–13.5) for a positive FIT (vs. negative), 1.68 (1.39–2.02) and 1.83 (1.45–2.30) for age (per +10 years), 1.54 (1.06–2.23) and 1.88 (1.17–3.03) for current smoking (vs. non-smokers), and 1.35 (0.96–1.92) and 1.59 (1.02–2.48) for the presence of marked macrocytosis (mean corpuscular volume ≥106 fl vs.
      PubDate: 2016-10-05
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenases are Beneficial for
           Decidual Stromal Cells to Resist the Damage from Alcohol
    • Authors: Li Z; Li M, Li S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsThe aim of this study was to examine the effect of alcohol on the decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells during early pregnancy.MethodsDuring in vitro decidualization, human endometrial stromal cells were treated with alcohol, 4-methylpyrazole hydrochloride (FPZ), the inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), and tetraethylthiuram disulfide (DSF), the inhibitor of acetaldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), respectively. Cell viability and decidualization were examined. Apoptosis and proliferation were also evaluated.ResultsThe findings showed that ADHs and ALDHs were up-regulated during decidualization. After alcohol treatment, the cell viability of decidual stromal cells was significantly higher than control, which was abrogated by FPZ or DSF. When cells were treated with alcohol, proliferation-related signal pathways were up-regulated in decidualized cells. Additionally, FOXO1 transcriptionally up-regulates ADH1B.ConclusionOur study provided an evidence that highly expressed ADHs and ALDHs endow decidual stromal cells an ability to alleviate the harm from alcohol.
      PubDate: 2016-10-05
  • Alcohol Consumption and Inpatient Health Service Utilization in a Cohort
           of Patients With Alcohol Dependence After 20 Years of Follow-up
    • Authors: Miquel L; Gual A, Vela E, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsTo examine the association between drinking levels and inpatient health service utilization in people with a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence.MethodsA longitudinal prospective study was conducted in a cohort of patients with alcohol dependence who had undergone treatment in 1987. Current results refer to the association between drinking patterns at 20-year follow-up and subsequent inpatient health service utilization. At 20 years after baseline, 530 of 850 patients were alive with administrative data available. Follow-up interview was conducted on 378 patients. There were 88 refusals and 64 could not be traced. Three categories of alcohol consumption were established (abstainers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers) depending on the pattern of alcohol use during the last year prior to the evaluation. Health service utilization was based on official statistics, including admissions to general, rehabilitation and psychiatric hospitals. The time period analysed was 5 years after the assessment of drinking patterns.ResultsAdmission rates were lowest for abstainers compared to people with moderate and heavy drinking. With respect to hospital days, heavy drinking was associated with significantly higher adjusted rates than both abstainers and moderate drinkers. Alcohol-related diagnoses in hospital admissions were more frequent for both moderate and heavy drinkers.ConclusionAbstinence and moderate alcohol consumption were both associated with lower hospitalization in people with a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Thus, not only abstinence-oriented treatment strategies but also those to reduce alcohol intake would reduce inpatient hospitalizations.Short SummaryAbstention and reduced drinking in lifetime alcohol-dependent patients were associated with lower health care utilization compared to heavy drinking. Alcohol treatment strategies for alcohol-dependent patients have a positive impact on the reduction in health care utilization. An increase in treatment rate for alcohol use disorders will consequently have marked population health improvements.
      PubDate: 2016-10-05
  • The Differential Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine-Specific Nitrosamine
           Ketone on White Matter Ultrastructure
    • Authors: Papp-Peka AA; Tong MM, Kril JJ, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsThe chronic consumption of alcohol is known to result in neurodegeneration and impairment of cognitive function. Pathological and neuroimaging studies have confirmed that brain atrophy in alcoholics is mainly due to widespread white matter (WM) loss with neuronal loss restricted to specific regions, such as the prefrontal cortex. Neuroimaging studies of cigarette smokers also suggest that chronic inhalation of tobacco smoke leads to brain atrophy, although the neurotoxic component is unknown. As a high proportion of chronic alcoholics also smoke cigarettes it has been hypothesized that at least some alcohol-related brain damage is due to tobacco smoke exposure.Methods39 Long Evans rats were subjected to 8 weeks exposure to alcohol and/or 5 weeks co-exposure to nicotine-specific nitrosamine ketone (NNK), a proxy for tobacco smoke. Their frontal WM was then assayed with transmission electron microscopy.ResultsNNK and ethanol co-exposure had a synergistic effect in decreasing myelinated fibre density. Furthermore, NNK treatment led to a greater reduction in myelin sheath thickness than ethanol whereas only the ethanol-treated animals showed a decrease in unmyelinated fibre density.ConclusionThese data suggest that NNK causes WM degeneration, an effect that is exacerbated by alcohol, but unlike alcohol, it has little impact on the neuronal components of the brain.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20
  • Comparing Three Cognitive Biases for Alcohol Cues in Alcohol Dependence
    • Authors: Wiers CE; Gladwin TE, Ludwig VU, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsThere is accumulating evidence that automatic processes play a large role in alcohol dependence, which may be related to alcohol craving and consumption. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cognitive biases in alcohol-dependent patients, and how these measures relate to drinking behavior.MethodsThirty alcohol-dependent patients and 15 healthy controls (matched for age, intelligence and education; all male) completed three cognitive bias tasks: the Implicit Association Test (IAT: alcohol-approach association), Approach Avoidance Task (AAT: alcohol approach bias) and Dot Probe Task (DPT: alcohol attentional bias). Task scores were compared between groups and correlated with each other, as well as with craving scores and drinking behavior.ResultsPatients with alcohol dependence showed stronger alcohol-approach associations on the IAT compared with controls, but there were no group differences for approach or attentional biases. Within the patient group, the alcohol approach bias (AAT) correlated positively with the attend-alcohol attentional bias (DPT), but negatively with alcohol-approach associations (IAT). IAT scores were positively associated with lifetime alcohol intake.ConclusionsThis study demonstrates for the first time that alcohol-dependent patients have stronger alcohol-approach association scores on the IAT as compared to controls, and that this bias is associated with drinking behavior. Despite the absence of group differences for the approach and attentional biases, the positive correlation between these biases in alcoholics is in line with incentive salience models of addiction that propose that attentional and approach tendencies have a common underlying mechanism, distinct from that underlying alcohol-approach associations measured by the IAT.Short SummaryThe study investigates associations between cognitive biases involving alcohol cues. Patients with alcohol dependence showed stronger alcohol-approach associations on an Implicit Association Test than controls, but there were no group differences for approach or attentional biases. Alcohol-approach and attentional bias correlated positively in the patient group.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20
  • Implicit and Explicit Alcohol Cognitions: The Moderating Effect of
           Executive Functions
    • Authors: Lavigne AM; Wood MD, Janssen T, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAimsResearch informed by dual-process models of addictions has clearly demonstrated an association between implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions and alcohol consumption. However, the literature is limited with respect to examination of the cognitive abilities that may moderate these associations across populations. This study examined relations among alcohol associations, inhibition and alcohol consumption in a sample of college students. It was hypothesized that the executive ability of response inhibition would moderate relations between alcohol-related cognitions and alcohol consumption, such that individuals with weaker response inhibition would demonstrate stronger relations between implicit cognitions and use, while individuals with stronger response inhibition would demonstrate more robust relations between explicit cognitions and use.MethodsResearch participants (N = 205, age 19.0 years (standard deviation = 1.1)) mostly female (n = 150, 73.2%) completed two implicit association tasks measuring alcohol-related positive/arousal and relaxation associations. In addition, participants completed questionnaires regarding alcohol expectancies, alcohol consumption and problems, and various measures of inhibition. We tested study hypotheses using structural equation modeling and probed significant interactions using simple slope analyses.ResultsWe found support for a moderating effect of response inhibition on relations between implicit relaxation associations and alcohol consumption. We did not find a moderating effect of working memory capacity on relations between alcohol-related associations and use.ConclusionsFindings from this study further our understanding of differential cognitive and inhibition factors that contribute to underage alcohol consumption with implications for preventive interventions to reduce alcohol misuse and consequences.Short summaryWe investigated whether the effect of implicit and explicit alcohol associations on alcohol consumption was moderated by response inhibition and working memory among college students. Response inhibition moderated the effect of implicit relaxation associations on consumption. We did not obtain support for moderation by working memory, or of explicit associations.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20
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