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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 294, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 163, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 578, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.133
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 16  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0015-752X - ISSN (Online) 1464-3626
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • The effect of planting spacing on Pinus patula stem straightness,
           microfibril angle and wood density
    • Authors: Erasmus J; Kunneke A, Drew D, et al.
      Pages: 247 - 258
      Abstract: Improved growth rates and shorter rotation ages have caused a reduction in the stiffness of structural lumber from South African-grown pine plantations. Microfibril angle (MFA) and wood density are known to be two wood properties that influence wood stiffness. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of planting spacing of Pinus patula trees, on the MFA and wood density, as well as stem straightness. A total of 171 trees from four spacing treatments (403, 1097, 1808 and 2981 stems ha−1) from an 18-year old experimental P. patula plantation located in Mpumalanga, South Africa, were analysed for wood density, MFA, and ring width. A sub-sample of 81 trees was scanned for tree form using a terrestrial laser scanner. A non-linear mixed-effects model using a power function was developed to model MFA and wood density as a function of ring number and ring width. Planting spacing had a highly significant effect on stem straightness with the most widely spaced trees having the worst mean stem straightness. However, the stem straightness did not increase consistently with increasing stems ha−1. The dynamic modulus of elasticity of standing P. patula trees increased greatly with closer spacing – more so than any other species reported in literature. The mixed model showed that, after accounting for differences due to ring number and ring width, spacing treatment had a significant effect on both the initial MFA and its rate of change with age. For wood density, this remaining effect of spacing treatment was only displayed in its radial rate of change. Based on these results, it seems as if planting spacing has great potential as a management intervention to improve the mechanical wood properties and in certain cases also the stem straightness of South African-grown P. patula at final harvest.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpy005
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2018)
  • Probability models that relate nondestructive test methods to lumber
           design values of plantation loblolly pine
    • Authors: Dahlen J; Montes C, Eberhardt T, et al.
      Pages: 295 - 306
      Abstract: Within-grade variability in mechanical properties for visually graded lumber has led to increased deployment of nondestructive testing (NDT) methods, even though the relationships between static bending and NDT-predicted values are often highly variable. Dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEdyn) was measured using two acoustic velocity instruments and one transverse vibration instrument, along with specific gravity, for 819 pieces of visually graded loblolly pine lumber. Static modulus of elasticity (MOE) and bending strength (Fb) were measured via destructive testing. The probability of meeting design values was compared using (1) normal distribution linear and power regression models and (2) binomial distribution logistic regression models; the parameters of both models were fit using maximum likelihood estimation. For the normal distribution models, the standard error of the estimate, which ranged from 1.28 to 1.82 GPa for MOE and 4.47 to 5.07 MPa for Fb, was incorporated into predictions in order to calculate the probability of meeting design values. At 50 per cent probability, transverse vibration MOEdyn values of 10.9 (normal) and 11.0 (binomial) GPa would meet the No. 2 MOE design value (9.7 GPa). At probabilities of 75 per cent and 95 per cent, the required values were 12.1 and 13.8 (normal) GPa and 12.0 and 13.5 (binomial) GPa, respectively. The normal and binomial approaches required similar NDT values to meet thresholds, although the advantage of the normal approach is that the regression parameters do not need to be recalculated for each threshold value, but at the expense of increased model complexity.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpy001
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2018)
  • Variation of lumber properties in genetically improved full-sib families
           of Douglas-fir in British Columbia, Canada
    • Authors: Filipescu C; Stoehr M, Pigott D.
      Pages: 320 - 326
      Abstract: Tree breeding to increase forest productivity and resilience is an active area of research. Many studies have examined wood traits of interest to lumber manufacturing, such as wood density, knottiness and microfibril angle, due to the generally negative correlation between rate of growth and wood quality. Relatively little is known, however, about the variation in structural parameters of lumber, i.e. modulus of elasticity (MoE) and modulus of rupture (MoR), in genetically improved trees. In this study we evaluate physico-mechanical properties of lumber from 12 full-sib families in a first-generation Douglas-fir progeny trial. Trees were harvested at age 33 and milled into boards that were tested for MoE and MoR, with specific gravity (SG) and acoustic velocity (AV) also measured. Results indicate that families with lower growth tend to perform better for MoE and MoR, although there are certain families that exhibit higher growth and better MoE and MoR. Boards with less juvenile wood had higher MoE and MoR indicating the significance of board orientation due to sawing pattern; this suggests that radial variation of wood properties is an important factor for genetically improved families. Overall, AV was a better predictor than SG for both MoE and MoR, indicating the potential of using AV in future tree breeding, as well as for product segregation. Findings from this study provide evidence to further develop breeding programmes of Douglas-fir in order to optimize wood production, product quality and ultimately value recovery.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpy011
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2018)
  • Variation in occurrence and extent of internal stem decay in standing
           trees across the eastern US and Canada: evaluation of alternative
           modelling approaches and influential factors
    • Authors: Frank J; Castle M, Westfall J, et al.
      Pages: 382 - 399
      Abstract: The occurrence (probability) and extent (proportion) of tree internal stem decay are important attributes influencing potential wood quality and value, but variation in decay by species, tree size and geographic range are rarely evaluated and modelled. In this analysis, we used 1246 destructively sampled trees across 33 species in the northeastern United States and New Brunswick, Canada to determine the factors influencing the combined probability and proportion of decay. In the process, we evaluated three modelling approaches including a two-part conditional model, multinomial model and generalized additive model for location, scale and shape (gamlss) that simultaneously predicted both probability and proportion of decay. Predictive capability for all three methods were nearly identical when classifying decay occurrence. Compared with the other methods, the gamlss model had a lower mean bias and root mean square error (RMSE) when predicting decay extent. Tree diameter to height ratio (ratio of diameter at breast height to total height), height, crown ratio, species tolerance to flooding and drought, leaf longevity, and an assessment of perceived tree risk of mortality (risk class) were selected as predictors in the best overall model for decay occurrence. For predicting decay extent, the best model included risk class, crown ratio and the last freezing date of spring. Further analysis identified significant species differences, which we used to develop functional species groupings based on decay occurrence and extent. Despite these observed relationships, a high degree of unexplained variation remained, highlighting the challenges of modelling decay in trees of different species across a range of growing environments.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpx054
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2018)
  • Modelling the variation of bark thickness within and between European
           silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) trees in southwest Germany
    • Authors: Stängle S; Dormann C.
      Pages: 283 - 294
      Abstract: This study examined bark thickness variability of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in southwest Germany over time and space by comparing a dataset of bark measurements from the 1970s with more recent assessments. Within-tree variability of bark thickness was analysed to estimate the required number of sampling locations per tree for defined accuracy levels. A range of models from the literature that predict bark thickness were compared for their predictive performance and Monte-Carlo simulations were used to estimate the effect of the number of sample trees and plots on the precision of the predictions. In addition, net log volume after bark subtraction was compared for logs of varying lengths to assess the influence of log assortments on calculated sales volume. Results show that several sampling locations are needed per tree and that at least five trees from at least 35 plots should be selected for measurements in the study region. For practical applications, diameter outside bark and breast height diameter are suggested as explanatory variables for models that predict double bark thickness. Additionally, relative tree height and age – and therefore growth rate – significantly improved predictions; however, environmental factors could not explain the variation between stands. Log lengths from 5 to 21 m only slightly influenced bark thickness equations that were fit on measurements at log midpoints. The findings highlight the need to consider bark thickness variability at different levels when developing bark thickness equations. In general, bark thickness was found to be smaller in more recent assessments and this indicates the need to regularly review existing bark equations for their validity.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpx047
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • Effects of early respacing on the density and microfibril angle of Sitka
           spruce wood
    • Authors: Auty D; Moore J, Achim A, et al.
      Pages: 307 - 319
      Abstract: Although significant advances have been made in modelling the effects of silviculture on wood properties, few models have been calibrated using data from long-term stand density or respacing experiments. In this study we examined the effects of early respacing on the density and microfibril angle (MfA) of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis [Bong.] Carr.) wood using samples taken from a fully-replicated 57-year-old trial located in Northern Ireland, which had been thinned at age 11 years. Using a mixed-effects modelling approach, radial profiles of density and MfA from four different respacing treatments (1.83 m × 3.66 m, 3.66 m × 3.66 m, 3.66 m × 5.49 m and 5.49 m × 5.49 m) were compared with those of timber from an unthinned control (1.83 m × 1.83 m). After accounting for radial position and ring width, we found significant differences in both density and MfA between respacing treatments. Mean predicted values of wood density for rings 40–50 were 400 and 494 kg m−3 for the widest respacing treatment and the unthinned control, respectively, and fell between these two extremes for the other respacing treatments. Predicted latewood proportions in ring 50 were 12 and 22 per cent, for the same respacing treatments, respectively. There was some evidence of an age-related decline in wood density in the two narrowest respacing treatments. While there was a significant effect of respacing on MfA variation, the trends between respacing treatments were less apparent. Overall, these results indicate that the timing of respacing treatments is an important consideration in Sitka spruce management; early and severe respacing should be avoided to avoid deleterious effects on wood density and MfA.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpx004
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • Quantifying the influence of seedlot and stand density on growth, wood
           properties and the economics of growing radiata pine
    • Authors: Moore J; Dash J, Lee J, et al.
      Pages: 327 - 340
      Abstract: There is increasing pressure to raise yields from intensively managed forests in order to improve profitability and to provide for future expected demand for wood products. Deployment of genetically improved tree stocks and control of tree spacing are two means by which forest managers can manipulate total yield, log properties and the economic value of forest stands. In this paper, we present the results from the end-of-rotation assessment of two long-term trials that were established in New Zealand to examine the performance of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) seedlots with different levels of genetic improvement when grown at a range of stand densities. We found that there were significant differences in total recoverable volume, total monetary value of the logs produced, stem form, branch size, wood density and acoustic velocity (a proxy for wood stiffness) among both seedlots and stand densities. Significant interactions between seedlot and stand density were not observed for any of the attributes of interest. Significant positive relationships were observed between Total Value ($ ha−1) and a seedlot's trait ratings for diameter growth, stem straightness and branch cluster frequency. Together, these trait ratings along with stand density were able to explain 82 per cent of the variation in Total Value. Results indicate that large gains in volume production and total realized value appear possible in radiata pine stands through the appropriate combination of stand density and genetically improved tree stocks. Increases in value do not solely come from increases in volume production, but also from improvements in stem form and branch size which result in a higher proportion of more valuable log grades.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpx016
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • Predicting volume distributions of hardwood sawn products by tree grade in
           eastern Canada
    • Authors: Bédard S; Duchesne I, Guillemette F, et al.
      Pages: 341 - 353
      Abstract: Northern hardwoods are an ecologically and economically important forest type in eastern North America. Historically, the hardwood supply came from old-growth forests dominated by large-diameter trees. Unfortunately, the repeated removal of high-quality trees has substantially degraded hardwood forests and reduced the profitability of the primary manufacturing sector. In this context, forest managers need tools to guide silvicultural investment decisions and to estimate pre-harvest stand value based on forest inventories. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of classification systems and measured variables used at the tree level to predict sawn product volumes of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.). We developed statistical models to estimate the volume of lumber products, pulpwood, sawdust and residues based on tree DBH, species, tree grades in different combinations and tree height. Results show that the tree grade variable increased the explained variation in product volumes. As expected, the accuracy of product volumes estimation, based on root mean square error (RMSE), was poor for an individual tree, but improved as the number of trees increased.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpx043
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • Parametric bootstrap estimators for hybrid inference in forest inventories
    • Authors: Fortin M; Manso R, Schneider R.
      Pages: 354 - 365
      Abstract: In forestry, the variable of interest is not always directly available from forest inventories. Consequently, practitioners have to rely on models to obtain predictions of this variable of interest. This context leads to hybrid inference, which is based on both the probability design and the model. Unfortunately, the current analytical hybrid estimators for the variance of the point estimator are mainly based on linear or nonlinear models and their use is limited when the model reaches a high level of complexity. An alternative consists of using a variance estimator based on resampling methods (Rubin, D. B. (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse surveys. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA). However, it turns out that a parametric bootstrap (BS) estimator of the variance can be biased in contexts of hybrid inference. In this study, we designed and tested a corrected BS estimator for the variance of the point estimator, which can easily be implemented as long as all of the stochastic components of the model can be properly simulated. Like previous estimators, this corrected variance estimator also makes it possible to distinguish the contribution of the sampling and the model to the variance of the point estimator. The results of three simulation studies of increasing complexity showed no evidence of bias for this corrected variance estimator, which clearly outperformed the BS variance estimator used in previous studies. Since the implementation of this corrected variance estimator is not much more complicated, we recommend its use in contexts of hybrid inference based on complex models.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpx048
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • Effect of thinning on the relationship between mean ring density and
           climate in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.)B.S.P.)
    • Authors: Franceschini T; Gauthray-Guyénet V, Schneider R, et al.
      Pages: 366 - 381
      Abstract: Relationships between wood density and climatic variables have generally been developed from unmanaged stands near the treeline. Using black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) samples from the managed boreal zone in Canada, we investigated whether the relationship between mean ring density (MRD) and climatic variables is altered by silvicultural practices. We analysed the MRD of 10 384 growth rings from 72 trees sampled among 18 stands (nine thinned, nine controls) across Quebec, Canada. We constructed a mixed-effects model relating MRD to cambial age and ring width (RW). Model residuals (εM1), i.e. the difference between observed and predicted MRD, were then related to monthly temperature and precipitation of the year of ring formation and the year before. After thinning, RW slightly increased while MRD remained constant, thus lowering the strength of the relationship between MRD and RW. εM1 were positively related to spring temperatures and negatively related to summer temperatures and precipitation. No effect of thinning on the relationship between εM1 and climatic variables was observed. The sample trees grew in less limiting conditions than at the treeline so the reduced strength of the relationship between MRD and growth rate in thinned stands may result from a higher photosynthetic capacity. Such results may have implications in forest management as thinning could increase the value of black spruce wood.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpx040
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • Predicting hardwood quality and its evolution over time in Quebec's
    • Authors: Power H; Havreljuk F.
      Pages: 259 - 270
      Abstract: Long-term success of forest management requires knowledge of standing tree characteristics and, an estimation of their evolution over time. In this study, hardwood stem quality was assessed using a specifically designed, non-destructive quality classification system that comprises four categorical output classes based on stem size and occurrence of external defects. We used data from national forest inventory sample plots distributed across Quebec (Canada) to predict hardwood stem quality and its evolution over time. We used ordinal logistic regression to model multiple stem quality classes. Hardwood stem quality was strongly related to stem harvest priority class and bioclimatic subdomain. Stem quality generally improved with d.b.h. and stand basal area. Changes in hardwood stem quality were strongly related to initial stem quality, with most trees retaining their initial quality over time. Stem quality evolution was also positively related to diameter growth. Overall, both initial and future stem quality were estimated with acceptable precision and minimal bias. Our results suggest that the equations could predict hardwood stem quality distribution and evolution among groups of forest stands.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Nov 2016 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpw059
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2016)
  • Growth and wood quality of black spruce and balsam fir following careful
           logging around small merchantable stems (CLASS) in the boreal forest of
           Quebec, Canada
    • Authors: Lemay A; Krause C, Achim A, et al.
      Pages: 271 - 282
      Abstract: Careful logging around small merchantable stems (CLASS) is a partial cutting treatment in which 70–90 per cent of the merchantable volume of uneven-aged, irregular or multi-layered conifer stands is harvested. The decrease in stand density by means of partial cutting is known to induce an increase in residual stem growth, which could also influence wood properties. This research aims to evaluate the effect of CLASS on the growth and some wood quality parameters of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Four uneven-aged black spruce-balsam fir stands were selected for the study and 15 black spruce and 15 balsam fir trees were sampled in each stand, distributed between a treated and a control area. Radial growth, latewood proportion, ring density, tracheid length and the moduli of elasticity and rupture were measured in each tree. A high proportion of residual stems significantly increased their radial growth after CLASS. No significant change was obtained for latewood proportion, average ring density, tracheid length or mechanical properties for black spruce. However, latewood proportion and ring density were significantly reduced in balsam fir after treatment, with no effect on modulus of elasticity or modulus of rupture. When looking at the wood properties comprehensively, a canonical discriminant analysis did not detect any significant difference between the wood properties before and after treatment for either species. This suggests that CLASS can stimulate the radial growth of residual stems with limited short-term effects on wood quality.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2016 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpw060
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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