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Showing 1 - 200 of 369 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 494, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)
J. of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research
  [SJR: 0.903]   [H-I: 44]   [17 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0015-752X - ISSN (Online) 1464-3626
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [369 journals]
  • Erratum
    • PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Editor's Note
    • PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Methods for variable selection in LiDAR-assisted forest inventories
    • Authors: Moser P; Vibrans AC, McRoberts RE, et al.
      Abstract: Estimation of wood volume and biomass is an important assignment of any National Forest Inventory. However, the estimation process is often expensive, laborious and sometimes imprecise because of small sample sizes relative to population variability. Remote sensing techniques are an option to assist in surveying large areas by providing data that can be related to the forest attribute of interest through mathematical models of relationships. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a technology that can provide data that are closely related to forest wood volume and biomass. With these data, linear regression is often used to estimate forest attributes. If the relationship provides evidence of nonlinearity, a transformation in the variables can be considered. However, modern computation allows fitting nonlinear regression models without transformations of the variables. Nonlinear least squares (NLS) techniques also give more freedom to assure satisfaction of natural conditions such as non-negativity and/or lower and upper asymptotes. Like any estimation technique, NLS is subject to overfitting when using a large number of predictor variables. Because NLS is more computationally intensive than linear regression, stepwise selection techniques may require considerable programming effort. We compared three methods to select predictor variables for nonlinear models of relationships between forest attributes and LiDAR metrics, two of them based on genetic algorithms (GAs) and one based on random forest (RM). GAs were implemented to optimize a cost function that yields root mean square error or the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), while RM was based on variable importance in decision trees. A model with the predictor variable most correlated with the response variable was also considered. We compared the results of overall estimation for two datasets using the model-assisted, generalized regression estimator and concluded that the combination of GAs and AIC was the most efficient and stable procedure for selection of variables. We attribute this result to the penalty that AIC applies to models with large numbers of variables, which leads to a more efficient model with a minimum loss of information.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Does management improve the carbon balance of forestry?
    • Authors: Pukkala T.
      Abstract: The long-term carbon balance (CB) of unmanaged forest was compared to the CBs of management scenarios which included cuttings. The calculations were done for a typical forest holding representing mineral soil sites in Central Finland. CB was calculated for twenty-one 10-year periods. Three carbon stores and sub-balances were included in the analysis: (1) below- and above-ground biomass of living trees; (2) forest soil (dead organic matter); and (3) wood-based products. Substitution effects and the releases from harvesting, transporting and manufacturing were included in the CB of products. The no-cutting scenario had the best CB for 120–130 years, after which the cutting scenarios were better. In the no-cutting scenario, the CB of living biomass turned zero after 150 years and the CB of forest soils was still positive after 200 years. At the end of the 210-year simulation period the CB of the unmanaged forest was 0.09 Mg C ha−1a−1 suggesting that old-growth forest is a weak carbon sink. Heavy selective cutting in a mature forest removing half of growing stock volume had a negative influence on the CB of forestry for three decades, after which the balance was better than without cutting. Since the negative and positive effects of cutting have different durations, conclusions about the effect of cutting depend on the length of the time horizon. Because the net effect of cutting is negative in the short term, a short-sighted analysis leads to no-cutting decision when carbon sequestration is maximized, which is a wrong decision in a longer term. When harvested volume was equal to volume increment, the carbon stocks stabilized to 65 Mg C ha−1 for living biomass, 80 Mg C ha−1 for soil and 18 Mg C ha−1 for products.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Long-term changes in the flora of oak forests and of oak:spruce mixtures
           following removal of conifers
    • Authors: Kirby KJ; Goldberg EA, Orchard NN.
      Abstract: Ground vegetation changes under coppice regimes have been well-described but less work has been done in Britain on the changes that take place under managed high-forest. In 1982/3 60 14.1 × 14.1 m2 quadrats were recorded across stands of oak (Quercus robur L.) and spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.)/oak mixtures, of various ages in Salcey Forest, Southern England. In 2014 the survey was repeated and changes in the ground flora over this 31-year period in the different crop types were compared. There was a decline in the species richness (number of species per quadrat) in most stands, mainly of species with a high Ellenberg light score, even under mature oak (>100-year old) where no intervention had taken place. Plant species richness increased in stands that had been felled or heavily thinned. The flora of stands where the spruce had been removed leaving a predominantly oak canopy had become similar in richness and individual species frequency to the mature oak crops, supporting the case for restoration of plantations on ancient woodland sites. The changes in the frequency of Woodland specialist plants were similar to those for other woodland species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Identification of Armillaria species on declined oak in Britain:
           implications for oak health
    • Authors: Denman S; Barrett G, Kirk SA, et al.
      Abstract: The identity of 51 isolates of Armillaria from 15 Quercus robur trees in poor health, and a single healthy tree, at nine sites in England, was determined using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of three gene regions. Sequences of the ITS-1, IGS-1 and EF-1α gene regions were obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing, and phylogenetic trees were generated based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference of phylogenies. Four Armillaria species were isolated: Armillaria gallica, A. mellea, A. ostoyae and A. tabescens. Armillaria gallica was most frequently isolated (40/51 isolates), but only from woodland trees. Armillaria mellea was isolated infrequently (3/51), from garden trees; A. tabescens was isolated infrequently (4/51), from trees either in a garden or a parkland location. Armillaria ostoyae (4/51 isolates) was co-isolated with A. gallica, raising interesting questions about the synecology of these species, suggesting that more thorough investigations are required to detect all species present on a single host. The distribution of these Armillaria species in Britain and historical information about them on oak are described. It is concluded that further studies are necessary to determine the role of Armillaria in oak declines; A. gallica should be a key focus, but investigations should include polymicrobial interactions with other microorganisms, including other Armillaria species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • A demographic study of the exponential distribution applied to uneven-aged
    • Authors: Gove JH.
      Abstract: A demographic approach based on a size-structured version of the McKendrick-Von Foerster equation is used to demonstrate a theoretical link between the population size distribution and the underlying vital rates (recruitment, mortality and diameter growth) for the population of individuals whose diameter distribution is negative exponential. This model supports the conclusion that the negative exponential distribution as applied to balanced natural uneven-aged stands is a stable equilibrium model under appropriate assumptions. These assumptions include constant recruitment of stems into the smallest class that balances total mortality, and a simple relation between per capita mortality and diameter growth. A simple maximum likelihood-based solution to parameter estimation in the inverse problem is developed allowing the estimation of recruitment and mortality given reasonable sample of diameters, along with an estimate of population size and diameter growth rate. Two sets of stand dynamics equations are developed that are based on (i) the form of the underlying negative exponential distribution, and (ii) more generally, from the derivation of the McKendrick-Von Foerster equation. Applications of the methods and their assumptions are discussed with regard to both managed and old growth uneven-aged stands. Stands or forests that are close to negative exponential structure and are judged to be reasonably close to steady state will have vital rates that support this model. In contrast, the negative exponential is likely more important and applicable as a pragmatic target distribution when used in managed forests.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Improved accuracy of aboveground biomass and carbon estimates for live
           trees in forests of the eastern United States
    • Authors: Radtke P; Walker D, Frank J, et al.
      Abstract: Accurate estimation of forest biomass and carbon stocks at regional to national scales is a key requirement in determining terrestrial carbon sources and sinks on United States (US) forest lands. To that end, comprehensive assessment and testing of alternative volume and biomass models were conducted for individual tree models employed in the component ratio method (CRM) currently used in the US’ National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. The CRM applies species-specific stem volume equations along with specific gravity conversions and component expansion factors to ensure consistency between predicted stem volumes and weights, and additivity of predicted live tree component weights to match aboveground biomass (AGB). Data from over 76 600 stem volumes and 6600 AGB observations were compiled from individual studies conducted in the past 115 years – what we refer to as legacy data – to perform the assessment. Scenarios formulated to incrementally replace constituent equations in the CRM with models fitted to legacy data were tested using cross-validation methods, and estimates of AGB were scaled using forest inventory data to compare across 33 states in the eastern US. Modifications all indicated that the CRM in its present formulation underestimates AGB in eastern forests, with the range of underestimation ranging from 6.2 to 17 per cent. Cross-validation results indicated the greatest reductions in estimation bias and root-mean squared error could be achieved by scenarios that replaced stem volume, sapling AGB, and component ratio equations in the CRM. A change in the definitions used in apportioning biomass to aboveground components was also shown to increase prediction accuracy. Adopting modifications tested here would increase AGB estimates for the eastern US by 15 per cent, accounting for 1.5 Pg of C currently unaccounted for in live tree aboveground forest C stock assessments. Expansion of the legacy data set currently underway should be useful for further testing, such as whether similar gains in accuracy can be achieved in estimates of regional or national-scale C sequestration rates.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Impact of Brexit on the forest products industry of the United Kingdom and
           the rest of the world
    • Authors: Johnston CT; Buongiorno J.
      Abstract: The Global Forest Products Model was applied to forecast the effect of Brexit on the global forest products industry to 2030 under two scenarios: an optimistic and pessimistic future storyline regarding the potential economic effect of Brexit. The forecasts integrated a range of gross domestic product growth rates using an average of the optimistic and pessimistic projections from recent reports. According to the results, Brexit caused a sustained modest decline in UK demand for wood products through 2030. The consumption of sawnwood in Britain was 1.0–2.1% lower by 2030, 2.9–6.1% lower for wood-based panels and 1.9–4.1% lower for paper and paperboard. With Brexit, the UK net trade deficit in sawnwood decreased by 4.8–9.9% by 2030, 4.4–9.1% for wood-based panel and 5.5–10.8% for paper and paperboard. The effects on industrial roundwood consumption and production within the UK were negligible. Both scenarios had a modest adverse effect on the global market for wood products. The consequences of Brexit were mostly within Europe and driven predominantly by reduced consumption within the UK itself. While the effect was greater under the pessimistic scenario, the overall impact on the global wood products industry was small, and it had no discernable effect on prices.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Transverse fracture properties of green wood and the anatomy of six
           temperate tree species
    • Authors: Özden S; Ennos A, Cattaneo MV.
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of wood anatomy and density on the mechanics of fracture when wood is split in the radial–longitudinal (RL) and tangential–longitudinal (TL) fracture systems. The specific fracture energies (Gf, J m−2) of the trunk wood of six tree species were studied in the green state using double-edge notched tensile tests. The fracture surfaces were examined in both systems using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). Wood density and ray characteristics were also measured. The results showed that Gf in RL was greater than TL for five of the six species. In particular, the greatest degree of anisotropy was observed in Quercus robur L., and the lowest in Larix decidua Mill. ESEM micrographs of fractured specimens suggested reasons for the anisotropy and differences across tree species. In the RL system, fractures broke across rays, the walls of which unwound like tracheids in longitudinal–tangential (LT) and longitudinal–radial (LR) failure, producing a rough fracture surface which would absorb energy, whereas in the TL system, fractures often ran alongside rays.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Climate and disturbance regime effects on aspen ( Populus tremuloides
           Michx.) stand structure and composition along an east–west transect in
           Canada's boreal forest
    • Authors: Nlungu-Kweta P; Leduc A, Bergeron Y.
      Abstract: Stand structure and composition play a key role in maintaining the ecological integrity of the boreal forest. However, future changes in climate and disturbance regime could affect these forest attributes. Using provincial forest inventory datasets, we analysed stands dominated by aspen (≥75% of the plot total basal area) distributed along a wide longitudinal gradient of environmental conditions across Canada. Stands were classified into three diameter structure types (inverted J, intermediate and advanced). There was no major difference in the distribution pattern of structural types of aspen-dominated stands between the western and eastern Canadian boreal mixedwood forests, despite a marked contrast in climatic conditions and fire regime. These results suggest that the predominance of juvenile structures in the western aspen forests is mainly related to the frequent recurrence of fires, while within eastern aspen forests, the longer fire cycle was not the controlling factor of stand structure. Anthropogenic activities would have strongly shaped the structure of aspen forests in eastern Canada. White spruce in the west and balsam fir in the east are among the main shade-tolerant conifer companion species associated with these stands. Although stand structure and composition were highly related to stand age and site productivity, regional climate and human activities, through their influence on disturbance regime, might have impacted these forest attributes.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Beetle diversity in two types of fine woody debris: lessons for bioenergy
    • Authors: Maňák V; Jonsell M.
      Abstract: Logging residues, i.e. thin branches and tree tops, are increasingly harvested as a source of bioenergy. However, many saproxylic species use this type of wood, thus bioenergy harvesting will decrease their breeding substrate. The magnitude of the threat to these species depends mainly on the availability of alternative breeding substrates. Fine wood exists in large quantities as dead bottom branches attached to living trees. In this paper, we hypothesized that such branches were not an alternative breeding substrate for the species breeding in logging residues. We tested the hypothesis by comparing the saproxylic beetle communities of (1) spruce twigs retained within clear-cuts and (2) the dead bottom branches attached to living spruce. Abundance of beetles was measured by the area covered by larval galleries. Ten taxa were encountered. Species density was higher in twigs retained in clear-cuts compared with dead bottom branches. The two twig types had very different species composition, with four species significantly associated with twigs retained on clear cuts, and two with dead bottom branches. This suggests that dead bottom branches are not an alternative substrate for species using logging residues. We relate the results to models estimating habitat loss for various organisms found across areas subjected to bioenergy harvest and suggest that this difference needs to be taken into account. An intensive removal of logging residues poses a larger threat than the models suggest.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Promoting sustainability behaviours through forestry
    • Authors: O'Brien L; Morris J, Marzano M, et al.
      Abstract: Recent UK government policy design has drawn heavily on insights from behavioural sciences, however, engagement with these ideas in the forestry sector has been limited. This article critically reflects on the interface between forest policy and ‘behaviour’. After considering what the term ‘behaviour’ may mean in the forestry context, we draw on a literature review to develop four key principles that can be used to guide forestry interventions seeking behavioural change. These recommend that interventions: (1) are grounded on an understanding of individual's and groups’ values and motivations, (2) seek to affect the wider social and physical context of its target groups, (3) adopt a multifaceted approach at various scales and (4) facilitate active involvement by participants in project design and implementation. These principles are then applied to the analysis of four UK forestry case studies. We conclude that forestry interventions have affected behaviours but without explicitly linking them to ‘behavioural’ discourses. Furthermore, robust monitoring and evaluation to track behaviour change is currently lacking. We argue that the principles we have developed can be used in forest programme design to ensure that participatory processes, monitoring and evaluation criteria and adequate periods for reflection are built into interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Optimizing nearest neighbour configurations for airborne laser
           scanning-assisted estimation of forest volume and biomass
    • Authors: McRoberts RE; Chen Q, Domke GM, et al.
      Abstract: Inferences for forest-related spatial problems can be enhanced using remote sensing-based maps constructed with nearest neighbours techniques. The non-parametric k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) technique calculates predictions as linear combinations of observations for sample units that are nearest in a space of auxiliary variables to population units for which predictions are desired. Implementations of k-NN require four choices: a distance or similarity metric, the specific auxiliary variables to be used with the metric, the number of nearest neighbours, and a scheme for weighting the nearest neighbours. The study objective was to compare optimized k-NN configurations with respect to confidence intervals for airborne laser scanning-assisted estimates of mean volume or biomass per unit area for study areas in Norway, Italy, and the USA. Novel features of the study include a new neighbour weighting scheme, a statistically rigorous method for selecting feature variables, simultaneous optimization with respect to all four k-NN implementation choices and comparisons based on confidence intervals for population means. The primary conclusions were that optimization greatly increased the precision of estimates and that the results of optimization were similar for the k-NN configurations considered. Together, these two conclusions suggest that optimization itself is more important than the particular k-NN configuration that is optimized.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
  • Challenges facing gap-based silviculture and possible solutions for mesic
           northern forests in North America
    • Authors: Kern CC; Burton JI, Raymond P, et al.
      Abstract: Gap-based silvicultural systems were developed under the assumption that richness, and diversity of tree species and other biota positively respond to variation in size of harvest-created canopy gaps. However, varying gap size alone often does not meet diversity objectives and broader goals to address contemporary forest conditions. Recent research highlights the need to consider site factors and history, natural disturbance models, within-gap structure and recruitment requirements in addition to light resources for desired tree diversity. This synthesis brings together silvicultural developments and ecological literature on gap-based management, highlighting interactions with other factors such as microsite conditions, non-tree vegetation and more. We pose a revised concept for managers and researchers to use in prescriptions and studies focused on integrated overstory and understory manipulations that increase structural complexity within and around canopy openings.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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