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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 525, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Fems Microbiology Reviews
  [SJR: 7.587]   [H-I: 150]   [25 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0168-6445 - ISSN (Online) 1574-6976
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Editorial: Lactic acid bacteria—a continuing journey in science and
           application
    • Authors: Kleerebezem M; Kuipers OP, Smid EJ.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1093/femsre/fux036
       
  • Bacteriocins and bacteriophage; a narrow-minded approach to food and gut
           microbiology
    • Authors: Mills S; Ross R, Hill C.
      Abstract: AbstractBacteriocins and bacteriophage (phage) are biological tools which exhibit targeted microbial killing, a phenomenon which until recently was seen as a major drawback for their use as antimicrobial agents. However, in an age when the deleterious consequences of broad-spectrum antibiotics on human health have become apparent, there is an urgent need to develop narrow-spectrum substitutes. Indeed, disruption of the microbial communities which exist on and in our bodies can generate immediate and long-term negative effects and this is particularly borne out in the gut microbiota community whose disruption has been linked to a number of disorders reaching as far as the brain. Moreover, the antibiotic resistance crisis has resulted in our inability to treat many bacterial infections and has triggered the search for damage-limiting alternatives. As bacteriocins and phage are natural entities they are relatively easy to isolate and characterise and are also ideal candidates for improving food safety and quality, forfeiting the need for largely unpopular chemical preservatives. This review highlights the efficacy of both antimicrobial agents in terms of gut health and food safety and explores the body of scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness in both environments.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1093/femsre/fux022
       
  • The Evolution of gene regulation research in Lactococcus lactis
    • Authors: Kok J; van Gijtenbeek LA, de Jong A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractLactococcus lactis is a major microbe. This lactic acid bacterium (LAB) is used worldwide in the production of safe, healthy, tasteful and nutritious milk fermentation products. Its huge industrial importance has led to an explosion of research on the organism, particularly since the early 1970s. The upsurge in the research on L. lactis coincided not accidentally with the advent of recombinant DNA technology in these years. The development of methods to take out and re-introduce DNA in L. lactis, to clone genes and to mutate the chromosome in a targeted way, to control (over)expression of proteins and, ultimately, the availability of the nucleotide sequence of its genome and the use of that information in transcriptomics and proteomics research have enabled to peek deep into the functioning of the organism. Among many other things, this has provided an unprecedented view of the major gene regulatory pathways involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism and their overlap, and has led to the blossoming of the field of L. lactis systems biology. All of these advances have made L. lactis the paradigm of the LAB. This review will deal with the exciting path along which the research on the genetics of and gene regulation in L. lactis has trodden.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1093/femsre/fux028
       
  • Phase-variable methylation and epigenetic regulation by type I
           restriction–modification systems
    • Authors: De Ste Croix M; Vacca I, Kwun M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractEpigenetic modifications in bacteria, such as DNA methylation, have been shown to affect gene regulation, thereby generating cells that are isogenic but with distinctly different phenotypes. Restriction–modification (RM) systems contain prototypic methylases that are responsible for much of bacterial DNA methylation. This review focuses on a distinctive group of type I RM loci that , through phase variation, can modify their methylation target specificity and can thereby switch bacteria between alternative patterns of DNA methylation. Phase variation occurs at the level of the target recognition domains of the hsdS (specificity) gene via reversible recombination processes acting upon multiple hsdS alleles. We describe the global distribution of such loci throughout the prokaryotic kingdom and highlight the differences in loci structure across the various bacterial species. Although RM systems are often considered simply as an evolutionary response to bacteriophages, these multi-hsdS type I systems have also shown the capacity to change bacterial phenotypes. The ability of these RM systems to allow bacteria to reversibly switch between different physiological states, combined with the existence of such loci across many species of medical and industrial importance, highlights the potential of phase-variable DNA methylation to act as a global regulatory mechanism in bacteria.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1093/femsre/fux025
       
  • Using murine colitis models to analyze probiotics–host interactions
    • Authors: Martín R; Chain F, Miquel S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractProbiotics are defined as ‘live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host’. So, to consider a microorganism as a probiotic, a demonstrable beneficial effect on the health host should be shown as well as an adequate defined safety status and the capacity to survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and to storage conditions. In this review, we present an overview of the murine colitis models currently employed to test the beneficial effect of the probiotic strains as well as an overview of the probiotics already tested. Our aim is to highlight both the importance of the adequate selection of the animal model to test the potential probiotic strains and of the value of the knowledge generated by these in vivo tests.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1093/femsre/fux035
       
  • Oenococcus oeni and the genomic era
    • Authors: Bartowsky E.
      Abstract: AbstractOenococcus oeni is the main lactic acid bacteria species associated with grapes and wine. It is a bacterium that has adapted itself to the harsh conditions of wine, and demonstrated its importance in the production of quality wines. It has a small genome (1.8 Mb); over 200 strains have had their genome sequenced. Genomic analyses have proposed that there are two major branches of O. oeni strains that might be linked to wine style (sparkling wine versus white and red) and metagenomic studies have suggested a possible influence of terroir. This review explores recent developments of O. oeni including genomic studies examining O. oeni diversity and how this might shape future regional-specific commercial O. oeni starter strains.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1093/femsre/fux034
       
  • Physiology, ecology and industrial applications of aroma formation in
           yeast
    • Authors: Dzialo MC; Park R, Steensels J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractYeast cells are often employed in industrial fermentation processes for their ability to efficiently convert relatively high concentrations of sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Additionally, fermenting yeast cells produce a wide range of other compounds, including various higher alcohols, carbonyl compounds, phenolic compounds, fatty acid derivatives and sulfur compounds. Interestingly, many of these secondary metabolites are volatile and have pungent aromas that are often vital for product quality. In this review, we summarize the different biochemical pathways underlying aroma production in yeast as well as the relevance of these compounds for industrial applications and the factors that influence their production during fermentation. Additionally, we discuss the different physiological and ecological roles of aroma-active metabolites, including recent findings that point at their role as signaling molecules and attractants for insect vectors.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1093/femsre/fux031
       
  • Practical considerations for large-scale gut microbiome studies
    • Authors: Vandeputte D; Tito RY, Vanleeuwen R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractFirst insights on the human gut microbiome have been gained from medium-sized, cross-sectional studies. However, given the modest portion of explained variance of currently identified covariates and the small effect size of gut microbiota modulation strategies, upscaling seems essential for further discovery and characterisation of the multiple influencing factors and their relative contribution. In order to guide future research projects and standardisation efforts, we here review currently applied collection and preservation methods for gut microbiome research. We discuss aspects such as sample quality, applicable omics techniques, user experience and time and cost efficiency. In addition, we evaluate the protocols of a large-scale microbiome cohort initiative, the Flemish Gut Flora Project, to give an idea of perspectives, and pitfalls of large-scale faecal sampling studies. Although cryopreservation can be regarded as the gold standard, freezing protocols generally require more resources due to cold chain management. However, here we show that much can be gained from an optimised transport chain and sample aliquoting before freezing. Other protocols can be useful as long as they preserve the microbial signature of a sample such that relevant conclusions can be drawn regarding the research question, and the obtained data are stable and reproducible over time.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      DOI: 10.1093/femsre/fux027
       
  • Lifestyles in transition: evolution and natural history of the genus
           Lactobacillus
    • Authors: Duar RM; Lin XB, Zheng J, et al.
      Abstract: Lactobacillus species are found in nutrient-rich habitats associated with food, feed, plants, animals and humans. Due to their economic importance, the metabolism, genetics and phylogeny of lactobacilli have been extensively studied. However, past research primarily examined lactobacilli in experimental settings abstracted from any natural history, and the ecological context in which these bacteria exist and evolve has received less attention. In this review, we synthesize phylogenetic, genomic and metabolic metadata of the Lactobacillus genus with findings from fine-scale phylogenetic and functional analyses of representative species to elucidate the evolution and natural history of its members. The available evidence indicates a high level of niche conservatism within the well-supported phylogenetic groups within the genus, with lifestyles ranging from free-living to strictly symbiotic. The findings are consistent with a model in which host-adapted Lactobacillus lineages evolved from free-living ancestors, with present-day species displaying substantial variations in terms of the reliance on environmental niches and the degree of host specificity. This model can provide a framework for the elucidation of the natural and evolutionary history of Lactobacillus species and valuable information to improve the use of this important genus in industrial and therapeutic applications.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      DOI: 10.1093/femsre/fux030
       
  • Host recognition by lactic acid bacterial phages
    • Authors: Mahony J; Cambillau C, van Sinderen D.
      Abstract: AbstractBacteriophage infection of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is one of the most significant causes of inconsistencies in the manufacture of fermented foods, affecting production schedules and organoleptic properties of the final product. Consequently, LAB phages, and particularly those infecting Lactococcus lactis, have been the focus of intensive research efforts. During the past decade, multidisciplinary scientific approaches have uncovered molecular details on the exquisite process of how a lactococcal phage recognises and binds to its host. Such approaches have incorporated genomic/molecular analyses and their partnership with phage structural analysis and host cell wall biochemical studies are discussed in this review, which will also provide our views on future directions of this research field.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27
      DOI: 10.1093/femsre/fux019
       
  • Unexpected complexity in the lactate racemization system of lactic acid
           bacteria
    • Authors: Desguin B; Soumillion P, Hausinger RP, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAnalysis of lactate racemase (Lar) in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been a scientific challenge for many years, as indicated by the numerous contradictory reports on this activity. Recently, genetic and biochemical studies of the Lar system of Lactobacillus plantarum have unveiled the complexity of this particular enzymatic system. Lar activity is associated with LarA and its nickel-containing cofactor, synthesized from nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide by the three biosynthetic enzymes: LarB, LarC, and LarE. In addition to these core Lar enzymes, a nickel transporter (Lar(MN)QO), a lactic acid channel (LarD) and a transcriptional regulator (LarR) which promotes expression of the lar genes in the presence of excess L-lactate are also part of the Lar system of Lb. plantarum and of many other LAB. These proteins promote racemization of external L-lactate, in addition to carrying out intracellular racemization. This additional outcome suggests that racemization of L-lactate is not only required for cell wall biosynthesis, as reported before, but may have additional roles in lactate production and utilization in LAB. Finally, bioinformatics analyses indicate that some Lar homologs probably catalyze reactions other than lactate racemization.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27
      DOI: 10.1093/femsre/fux021
       
  • Polysaccharide production by lactic acid bacteria: from genes to
           industrial applications
    • Authors: Zeidan AA; Poulsen V, Janzen T, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe ability to produce polysaccharides with diverse biological functions is widespread in bacteria. In lactic acid bacteria (LAB), production of polysaccharides has long been associated with the technological, functional and health-promoting benefits of these microorganisms. In particular, the capsular polysaccharides and exopolysaccharides have been implicated in modulation of the rheological properties of fermented products. For this reason, screening and selection of exocellular polysaccharide-producing LAB has been extensively carried out by academia and industry. To further exploit the ability of LAB to produce polysaccharides, an in-depth understanding of their biochemistry, genetics, biosynthetic pathways, regulation and structure–function relationships is mandatory. Here, we provide a critical overview of the latest advances in the field of glycosciences in LAB. Surprisingly, the understanding of the molecular processes involved in polysaccharide synthesis is lagging behind, and has not accompanied the increasing commercial value and application potential of these polymers. Seizing the natural diversity of polysaccharides for exciting new applications will require a concerted effort encompassing in-depth physiological characterization of LAB at the systems level. Combining high-throughput experimentation with computational approaches, biochemical and structural characterization of the polysaccharides and understanding of the structure–function–application relationships is essential to achieve this ambitious goal.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1093/femsre/fux017
       
  • Experimental evolution and the adjustment of metabolic strategies in
           lactic acid bacteria
    • Authors: Bachmann H; Molenaar D, Branco dos Santos F, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractExperimental evolution of microbes has gained lots of interest in recent years, mainly due to the ease of strain characterisation through next-generation sequencing. While evolutionary and systems biologists use experimental evolution to address fundamental questions in their respective fields, studies with lactic acid bacteria are often more directed by applied questions. Insight into population and genome dynamics are valuable for experimental design and data interpretation, and it is becoming increasingly apparent how different constraints limit and govern the outcome of microbial adaptation to a selective environment. Examples for such constraints are the finite membrane and cellular space which can lead to trade-offs between cellular strategies. A powerful perspective is that of resource allocation, which allows cells to maximise fitness. This impacts on metabolic strategies that have different protein/resource demands. This review focuses on parameters and forces that shape cellular optimisation processes and that are determining for the outcome of laboratory evolution experiments. Phenotypic changes of experimentally evolved lactic acid bacteria will be discussed in the light of the selection conditions and the prevailing constraints.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1093/femsre/fux024
       
 
 
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