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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 368 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 368 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 489, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Mathematics Research Surveys - advance access     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)
J. of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Fems Microbiology Ecology
  [SJR: 1.687]   [H-I: 115]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0168-6496 - ISSN (Online) 1574-6941
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [368 journals]
  • High frequency of B2 phylogroup among non-clonally related fecal
           Escherichia coli isolates from wild boars, including the lineage ST131
    • Authors: Alonso C; González-Barrio D, Ruiz-Fons F, et al.
      Abstract: Wild boars are worldwide distributed mammals which population is increasing in many regions, like the Iberian Peninsula, leading to an increased exposition to humans. They are considered reservoirs of different zoonotic pathogens and have been postulated as potential vectors of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic distribution of Escherichia coli from wild boar feces. Antimicrobial resistance and integron content was genetically characterized and E. coli of B2 phylogroup was further analyzed by molecular typing and virulence genotyping. The prevalence of AMR E. coli was low, with only 7.5% of isolates being resistant against at least one antimicrobial, mainly ampicillin, tetracycline and/or sulfonamide. An unexpected elevated rate of B2 phylogroup (47.5%) was identified, most of them showing unrelated pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis patterns. ST131/B2 (fimH 22 sublineage), ST28/B2, ST1170/B2, ST681/B2 and ST625/B2 clones, previously described in extraintestinal infections in humans, were detected in B2 isolates, and carried one or more genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). This study demonstrated a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli from wild boars, although they are not exempt of AMR bacteria, and a predominance of genetically diverse B2 phylogroup, including isolates carrying ExPEC which may contribute to the spread of virulence determinants among different ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-02-18
       
  • Threesomes destabilise certain relationships: multispecies interactions
           between wood decay fungi in natural resources
    • Authors: Hiscox J; Savoury M, Toledo S, et al.
      Abstract: Understanding interspecific interactions is key to explaining and modelling community development and associated ecosystem function. Most interactions research has focused on pairwise combinations, overlooking the complexity of multispecies communities. This study investigated three-way interactions between saprotrophic fungi in wood and across soil, and indicated that pairwise combinations are often inaccurate predictors of the outcomes of multispecies competition in wood block interactions. This inconsistency was especially true of intransitive combinations, resulting in increased species coexistence within the resource. Furthermore, the addition of a third competitor frequently destabilised the otherwise consistent outcomes of pairwise combinations in wood blocks, which occasionally resulted in altered resource decomposition rates, depending on the relative decay abilities of the species involved. Conversely, interaction outcomes in soil microcosms were unaffected by the presence of a third combatant. Multispecies interactions promoted species diversity within natural resources, and made community dynamics less consistent than could be predicted from pairwise interaction studies.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
       
  • Biofilm formation by the oral pioneer colonizer Streptococcus gordonii: an
           experimental and numerical study
    • Authors: Rath H; Feng D, Neuweiler I, et al.
      Abstract: For decades, extensive research efforts have been conducted to improve the functionality and stability of implants. Especially in dentistry, implant treatment has become a standard medical practice. The treatment restores full dental functionality, helping patients to maintain high quality of life. However, about 10% of the patients suffer from early and late device failure due to peri-implantitis, an inflammatory disease of the tissues surrounding the implant. Peri-implantitis is caused by progressive microbial colonization of the device surface and the formation of microbial communities, so-called biofilms. This infection can ultimately lead to implant failure. The causative agents for the inflammatory disease, periodontal pathogenic biofilms, have already been extensively studied, but are still not completely understood. As numerical simulations will have the potential to predict oral biofilm formation precisely in the future, for the first time, this study aimed to analyze Streptococcus gordonii biofilms by combining experimental studies and numerical simulation. The study demonstrated that numerical simulation was able to precisely model the influence of different nutrient concentration and spatial distribution of active and inactive biomass of the biofilm in comparison with the experimental data. This model may provide a less time-consuming method for the future investigation of any bacterial biofilm.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02
       
  • Metallibacterium scheffleri : genomic data reveal a versatile metabolism
    • Authors: Bartsch S; Gensch A, Stephan S, et al.
      Abstract: This study describes the physiological properties of the widespread and recently described acid-tolerant microorganism Metallibacterium scheffleri DKE6. Despite that casitone was reported to be the only growth substrate of the organism, using a combination of proteomic, genomic and transcriptomic approaches as well as microbiological assays, we could identify a rather versatile metabolism. The detected casein hydrolysis was corroborated by the detection of proteases in the supernatant of the organism as well as in transcriptome studies. Genomic analysis identified amino acid auxotrophies, which were revealed as the reason for the observed growth deficiency with other substrates in the absence of casein. It was verified that glucose could serve as a growth substrate in the presence of amino acids as building blocks, a finding that was supported by the detection of three glycolytic pathways. Additionally, genes for sulfur and hydrogen oxidation were found, and sulfate formation could be shown during growth with tetrathionate. Metallibacterium scheffleri is able to raise the pH in acidic environments via ammonium production. Overall, the distribution of related Metallibacterium species demonstrates an adaption of this genus to diverse environments with varying pH values. Growth in biofilms or sediments also seems to be a common trait. We hypothesize that this biofilm growth supports the ability of Metallibacterium species to adapt to different pH values via formation of pH microniches.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30
       
  • Gut microbiota may predict host divergence time during Glires evolution
    • Authors: Li H; Qu J, Li T, et al.
      Abstract: The gut microbial communities of animals play key roles in host evolution. However, the possible relationship between gut microbiota and host divergence time remains unknown. Here, we investigated the gut microbiota of eight Glires species (four lagomorph species and four rodent species) distributed throughout the Qinghai–Tibet plateau and Inner Mongolia grassland. Lagomorphs and rodents had distinct gut microbial compositions. Three out of four lagomorph species were dominated by Firmicutes, while rodents were dominated by Bacteroidetes in general. The alpha diversity values (Shannon diversity and evenness) exhibited significant differences between any two species within the lagomorphs, whereas there were no significant differences among rodents. The structure of the gut microbiota showed significant differences between lagomorphs and rodents. In addition, we calculated host phylogeny and divergence times, and used a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how the animal gut microbiota has diverged from their ancestral species. Some core bacterial genera (e.g. Prevotella and Clostridium) shared by more than nine-tenths of all the Glires individuals associated with plant polysaccharide degradation showed marked changes within lagomorphs. Differences in Glires gut microbiota (based on weighted UniFrac and Bray–Curtis dissimilarity metrics) were positively correlated with host divergence time. Our results thus suggest the gut microbial composition is associated with host phylogeny, and further suggest that dissimilarity of animal gut microbiota may predict host divergence time.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30
       
  • Elevated temperature enhances short- to medium-chain acyl homoserine
           lactone production by black band disease-associated vibrios
    • Authors: Bhedi CD; Prevatte CW, Lookadoo MS, et al.
      Abstract: Black band disease (BBD) of corals is a horizontally migrating, pathogenic, polymicrobial mat community which is active above a temperature threshold of 27.5°C on the reef. Bacterial isolates from BBD, the surface mucopolysaccharide layer (SML) of healthy corals and SML of healthy areas of BBD-infected corals were tested for production of short- to medium-chain acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) using the Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 reporter strain. Of 110 bacterial isolates tested, 19 produced AHLs and 15 of these were from BBD. Eight AHLs were identified using LC-MS/MS, with 3OHC4 the most commonly produced, followed by C6. AHL-producing isolates exposed to three temperatures (24°C, 27°C, 30°C) revealed that production of three AHLs (3OHC4, 3OHC5 and 3OHC6) significantly increased at 30°C when compared to 24°C. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that all of the AHL-producing BBD isolates were vibrios. Metagenomic data of BBD communities showed the presence of AHL (and autoinducer-2) genes, many of which are known to be associated with vibrios. These findings suggest that quorum sensing may be involved in BBD pathobiology and community structure due to enhanced production of quorum-sensing signal molecules (AHLs) above the temperature threshold of this globally distributed coral disease.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30
       
  • Competitive interactions between sponge-associated bacteria
    • Authors: Esteves AS; Cullen A, Thomas T, et al.
      Abstract: The diversity of the microbial communities associated with marine sponges has been extensively studied, but their functioning and interactions within the sponge holobiont are only recently being appreciated. Sponge-associated microorganisms are known for the production of a range of inhibitory metabolites with biotechnological application, but the ecological role that these compounds remains elusive. In this work, we explore the competitive interactions between cultivated sponge-associated bacteria to inspect whether bacteria that produce antimicrobial activities are able to inhibit potentially pathogenic bacteria. We isolated a Bacillus sp. bacterium with sponge-degrading activity, which likely has a negative impact on the host. This bacterium, along with other sponge isolates from the same genus, was found to be inhibited by a subpopulation of closely related sponge-derived Pseudovibrio spp. In some Pseudovibrio strains, these inhibitory activities were correlated with the genetic capacity to produce polyketides, such as erythronolide. Our observations suggest that antagonistic activities likely influence the composition of the sponge microbiome, including the abundance of bacteria that can be harmful to the host.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
       
  • Revisiting life strategy concepts in environmental microbial ecology
    • Authors: Ho A; Di Lonardo D, Bodelier PE, et al.
      Abstract: Microorganisms are physiologically diverse, possessing disparate genomic features and mechanisms for adaptation (functional traits), which reflect on their associated life strategies and determine at least to some extent their prevalence and distribution in the environment. Unlike animals and plants, there is an unprecedented diversity and intractable metabolic versatility among bacteria, making classification or grouping these microorganisms based on their functional traits as has been done in animal and plant ecology challenging. Nevertheless, based on representative pure cultures, microbial traits distinguishing different life strategies had been proposed, and had been the focus of previous reviews. In the environment, however, the vast majority of naturally occurring microorganisms have yet to be isolated, restricting the association of life strategies to broad phylogenetic groups and/or physiological characteristics. Here, we reviewed the literature to determine how microbial life strategy concepts (i.e. copio- and oligotrophic strategists, and competitor–stress tolerator–ruderals framework) are applied in complex microbial communities. Because of the scarcity of direct empirical evidence elucidating the associated life strategies in complex communities, we rely heavily on observational studies determining the response of microorganisms to (a)biotic cues (e.g. resource availability) to infer microbial life strategies. Although our focus is on the life strategies of bacteria, parallels were drawn from the fungal community. Our literature search showed inconsistency in the community response of proposed copiotrophic- and oligotrophic-associated microorganisms (phyla level) to changing environmental conditions. This suggests that tracking microorganisms at finer phylogenetic and taxonomic resolution (e.g. family level or lower) may be more effective to capture changes in community response and/or that edaphic factors exert a stronger effect in community response. We discuss the limitations and provide recommendations for future research applying microbial life strategies in environmental studies.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
       
  • Interlaboratory quantification of Bacteria and Archaea in deeply buried
           sediments of the Baltic Sea (IODP Expedition 347)
    • Authors: Buongiorno J; Turner S, Webster G, et al.
      Abstract: Two common quantification methods for subseafloor microorganisms are catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using these methods, we quantified Bacteria and Archaea in Baltic Sea basin sediments (IODP Exp. 347) down to 90 mbsf, testing the following hypotheses in an interlaboratory comparison: (1) proteinase K permeabilization of archaeal cell walls increases CARD-FISH accuracy and (2) qPCR varies by more than an order of magnitude between laboratories using similar protocols. CARD-FISH counts did not differ between permeabilization treatments, demonstrating that proteinase K did not increase accuracy of CARD-FISH counts. However, 91% of these counts were below the quantification limit of 1.3 × 107 cells cm−3. For qPCR, data varied between laboratories, but were largely within the same order of magnitude if the same primers were used, with 88% of samples being above the quantification limit. Copy number values were elevated by preparing a sediment slurry before DNA extraction: 3.88 × 106–2.34 × 109 16S rRNA gene copies cm−3 vs. 1.39 × 107–1.87 × 109 total cells cm−3. By qPCR, Bacteria were more abundant than Archaea, although they usually were within the same order of magnitude. Overall, qPCR is more sensitive than CARD-FISH, but both require optimization to consistently achieve both precision and accuracy.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
       
  • Carbon catabolite repression and cell dispersal affect degradation of the
           xenobiotic compound 3,4-dichloroaniline in Comamonas testosteroni WDL7
           biofilms
    • Authors: Horemans B; Breugelmans P, Hofkens J, et al.
      Abstract: Organic pollutant degrading biofilms in natural ecosystems and water treatment systems are often exposed to other carbon sources in addition to the pollutant. The availability of auxiliary carbon sources can lead to surplus biomass growth, changes in biofilm structure and carbon catabolite repression (CCR) which together will affect pollutant degradation rate and efficiency of the system. To understand the interplay between these processes, continuous biofilms of the 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) degrading Comamonas testosteroni WDL7-RFP were grown in single- and dual-substrate conditions with 3,4-DCA and/or citrate and reciprocal effects on 3,4-DCA/citrate degradation, biofilm biomass and biofilm structure were examined. The main mechanism affecting 3,4-DCA degradation in biofilms in dual-substrate conditions was citrate-mediated CCR as reflected by a decrease in specific 3,4-DCA degrading activity. Growth on citrate partially compensated for the lowered specific 3,4-DCA degradation activity under dual substrate conditions but not to the extent expected from growth observed under single-substrate conditions with citrate. This was explained by higher residual 3,4-DCA concentrations in the presence of citrate that increased cell dispersal in the biofilms. Our results show hampered pollutant removal in biofilms due to a complex interplay of auxiliary organic C source utilization for growth affecting the specific pollutant degradation rate and changes in cell physiology due to increased exposure to the pollutant as a result of lowered pollutant degradation rates.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
       
  • Occurrence of similar mycoviruses in pathogenic, saprotrophic and
           mycorrhizal fungi inhabiting the same forest stand
    • Authors: Vainio EJ; Pennanen T, Rajala T, et al.
      Abstract: Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) are considered to be highly host specific, but phylogenetic analysis supports the occasional occurrence of horizontal transmission between species. We used an extensive sampling strategy to investigate whether similar viruses occur in more than one fungal species of the same forest habitat. Mycelial samples were collected from in-growth mesh bags (N = 259), fruiting bodies (N = 173) and cultured isolates (N = 68) at a forest site where the spatial distribution of viral infections in clonal individuals of the wood decay fungus Heterobasidion parviporum was mapped in detail earlier. The investigation revealed previously known Heterobasidion viruses in ∼2% of the single or pooled mycorrhizal samples from mesh bags, ∼3% of the fruiting body samples and none of the fungal cultures analyzed. Novel virus strains distinct from known Heterobasidion viruses were detected in cultures of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Lactarius tabidus, L. rufus) and saprotrophic fungi (Megacollybia platyphylla, Mucoraceae spp.). Overall, our results support the view that mycoviruses do not readily cross species borders. Regarding potential virocontrol applications, the introduction of Heterobasidion viruses into natural habitats is not expected to cause a major infection pressure towards the indigenous fungal community. However, the ecological consequences of the putative interspecies virus transmission events detected require further investigation.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13
       
  • Cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) is a molecular determinant of the oxidative
           stress response in the extreme acidophilic Leptospirillum sp. CF-1
    • Authors: Zapata C; Paillavil B, Chávez R, et al.
      Abstract: Bioleaching processes are used to recover metals from sulfidic ores. Biofilm formation on ores is important for bioleaching because the attached microorganisms start the leaching process by concentrating ferric ions in the extracellular matrix. It has been shown that hydrogen peroxide is spontaneously generated on the surface of ores and that it negatively influences the growth and activity of microorganisms. However, the mechanism by which bioleaching microorganisms tolerate exogenous H2O2 as an adaptive trait remains elusive. Herein, we demonstrate that the gene yhjA, encoding a predicted periplasmic cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP), is important for the response to exogenously generated oxidative stress in the iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacterium Leptospirillum sp. CF-1. Our results show that yhjA is co-transcribed with the genes encoding the peroxide-responsive transcription regulator PerR and peroxiredoxin AhpC. CcP activity, but not yhjA mRNA level, significantly increased in response to hydrogen peroxide and ferric ion exposure, suggesting a post-translational regulation. In agreement with these results, challenging planktonic cells with hydrogen peroxide significantly increased their attachment to pyrite surfaces. In summation, our results suggest that CcP is important to cope with exogenous H2O2, thus favoring the early steps of attachment to mineral substrates.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13
       
  • Epiphytic Planctomycetes communities associated with three main groups of
           macroalgae
    • Authors: Bondoso J; Godoy-Vitorino F, Balagué V, et al.
      Abstract: Planctomycetes, a unique group of widespread and understudied bacteria, are known to be associated with macroalgae. The temporal dynamics and the host-specific association of planctomycetal communities on Fucus spiralis, Ulva sp. and Chondrus crispus from two locations in the North Coast of Portugal were assessed both by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis with group-specific primers and 16S rDNA amplicon libraries. The epiphytic planctomycetal communities showed a significant association with the host macroalgal species independently of the geographical location and the season. This pattern was confirmed by clone libraries of winter and summer samples: we obtained 720 16S rRNA gene sequences that represented 44 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within the phylum Planctomycetes. Most of the OTUs belonged to Blastopirellula, followed by Rhodopirellula, Planctomyces, the Pir4 lineage and the uncultured class OM190 (this last one nearly 30% of the OTUs). Ulva sp. and C. crispus had more diverse planctomycetal communities than F. spiralis. Analysis of beta diversity showed that the planctomycetal microbiome was host specific. We hypothesize that the specific association of Planctomycetes and their macroalgal hosts is likely determined by nutritional molecules provided by the algae and the set of sulfatases inherent to each Planctomycetes species.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13
       
  • Assemblage composition of fungal wood-decay species has a major influence
           on how climate and wood quality modify decomposition
    • Authors: Venugopal P; Junninen K, Edman M, et al.
      Abstract: The interactions among saprotrophic fungal species, as well as their interactions with environmental factors, may have a major influence on wood decay and carbon release in ecosystems. We studied the effect that decomposer diversity (species richness and assemblage composition) has on wood decomposition when the climatic variables and substrate quality vary simultaneously. We used two temperatures (16 and 21°C) and two humidity levels (70% and 90%) with two wood qualities (wood from managed and old-growth forests) of Pinus sylvestris. In a 9-month experiment, the effects of fungal diversity were tested using four wood-decaying fungi (Antrodia xantha, Dichomitus squalens, Fomitopsis pinicola and Gloeophyllum protractum) at assemblage levels of one, two and four species. Wood quality and assemblage composition affected the influence of climatic factors on decomposition rates. Fungal assemblage composition was found to be more important than fungal species richness, indicating that species-specific fungal traits are of paramount importance in driving decomposition. We conclude that models containing fungal wood-decay species (and wood-based carbon) need to take into account species-specific and assemblage composition-specific properties to improve predictive capacity in regard to decomposition-related carbon dynamics.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
       
  • Aspect has a greater impact on alpine soil bacterial community structure
           than elevation
    • Authors: Wu J; Anderson BJ, Buckley HL, et al.
      Abstract: Gradients in environmental conditions, including climate factors and resource availability, occur along mountain inclines, providing a ‘natural laboratory’ to explore their combined impacts on microbial distributions. Conflicting spatial patterns observed across elevation gradients in soil bacterial community structure suggest that they are driven by various interacting factors at different spatial scales. Here, we investigated the relative impacts of non-resource (e.g. soil temperature, pH) and resource conditions (e.g. soil carbon and nitrogen) on the biogeography of soil bacterial communities across broad (i.e. along a 1500 m mountain elevation gradient) and fine sampling scales (i.e. along sunny and shady aspects of a mountain ridge). Our analysis of 16S rRNA gene data confirmed that when sampling across distances of < 1000 m, bacterial community composition was more closely related to the aspect of a site than its elevation. However, despite large differences in climate and resource-availability factors across elevation- and aspect-related gradients, bacterial community composition and richness were most strongly correlated with soil pH. These findings highlight the need to incorporate knowledge of multiple factors, including site aspect and soil pH for the appropriate use of elevation gradients as a proxy to explore the impacts of climate change on microbial community composition.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23
       
  • Exploring the methanogen and bacterial communities of rumen environments:
           solid adherent, fluid and epimural
    • Authors: De Mulder T; Goossens K, Peiren N, et al.
      Abstract: The rumen microbiome occupies a central role in animal health and productivity. A better understanding of the rumen ecosystem is essential to increase productivity or decrease methane production. Samples were collected from the three main rumen environments: the solid-adherent fraction, the liquid fraction and the epithelium. For the liquid and solid fraction, two alternative sample processing protocols were compared, resulting in a total of five sample types: crude solids (S), the eluted solid-adherent fraction (Ad), free-living species in the crude rumen liquid (CRL), strained liquid samples (Lq) and epimural scrapings (Ep). The bacterial and methanogen communities of these sample types were analysed using 16S metabarcoding and qPCR. The results indicate that the liquid and solid-adherent environments are distinguished mainly by the differential abundance of specific taxonomic groups. Cellulolytic bacteria that pioneer biofilm formation, together with secondary colonisers are prevalent in solid-adherent samples, while dominant species in the fluid samples are primarily identified as consumers of soluble nutrients. Also, methanogen species are found to have a preference for either a solid-adherent or free-living occurrence. The epimural environment is characterised by a different microbial profile. Ten bacterial families and two methanogen genera are almost exclusively found in this environment.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23
       
  • Reconstructing metabolic pathways of a member of the genus Pelotomaculum
           suggesting its potential to oxidize benzene to carbon dioxide with direct
           reduction of sulfate
    • Authors: Dong X; Dröge J, von Toerne C, et al.
      Abstract: The enrichment culture BPL is able to degrade benzene with sulfate as electron acceptor and is dominated by an organism of the genus Pelotomaculum. Members of Pelotomaculum are usually known to be fermenters, undergoing syntrophy with anaerobic respiring microorganisms or methanogens. By using a metagenomic approach, we reconstructed a high-quality genome (∼2.97 Mbp, 99% completeness) for Pelotomaculum candidate BPL. The proteogenomic data suggested that (1) anaerobic benzene degradation was activated by a yet unknown mechanism for conversion of benzene to benzoyl-CoA; (2) the central benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway involved reductive dearomatization by a class II benzoyl-CoA reductase followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage and modified β-oxidation; (3) the oxidative acetyl-CoA pathway was utilized for complete oxidation to CO2. Interestingly, the genome of Pelotomaculum candidate BPL has all the genes for a complete sulfate reduction pathway including a similar electron transfer mechanism for dissimilatory sulfate reduction as in other Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria. The proteome analysis revealed that the essential enzymes for sulfate reduction were all formed during growth with benzene. Thus, our data indicated that, besides its potential to anaerobically degrade benzene, Pelotomaculum candidate BPL is the first member of the genus that can perform sulfate reduction.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23
       
  • Long-term effects of aided phytostabilisation on microbial communities of
           metal-contaminated mine soil
    • Authors: Garaiyurrebaso O; Garbisu C, Blanco F, et al.
      Abstract: Aided phytostabilisation uses metal-tolerant plants, together with organic or inorganic amendments, to reduce metal bioavailability in soil while improving soil quality. The long-term effects of the following organic amendments were examined as part of an aided phytostabilisation field study in an abandoned Pb/Zn mining area: cow slurry, sheep manure and paper mill sludge mixed with poultry manure. In the mining area, two heavily contaminated vegetated sites, showing different levels of soil metal contamination (LESS and MORE contaminated site), were selected for this study. Five years after amendment application, metal bioavailability (CaCl2 extractability) along with a variety of indicators of soil microbial activity, biomass and diversity were analysed. Paper mill sludge mixed with poultry manure treatment resulted in the highest reduction of Cd, Pb and Zn bioavailability, as well as in stimulation of soil microbial activity and diversity, especially at the LESS contaminated site. In contrast, cow slurry was the least successful treatment. Our results emphasise the importance of the (i) long-term monitoring of soil quality at sites subjected to aided phytostabilisation and (ii) selection of the most efficient amendments and plants in terms of both reduction of metal bioavailability and improvement of soil quality.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23
       
  • The specific and exclusive microbiome of the deep-sea bone-eating snail,
           Rubyspira osteovora
    • Authors: Aronson HS; Zellmer AJ, Goffredi SK, et al.
      Abstract: Rubyspira osteovora is an unusual deep-sea snail from Monterey Canyon, California. This group has only been found on decomposing whales and is thought to use bone as a novel source of nutrition. This study characterized the gut microbiome of R. osteovora, compared to the surrounding environment, as well as to other deep-sea snails with more typical diets. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that R. osteovora digestive tissues host a much lower bacterial diversity (average Shannon index of 1.9; n = 12), compared to environmental samples (average Shannon index of 4.4; n = 2) and are dominated by two bacterial genera: Mycoplasma and Psychromonas (comprising up to 56% and 42% average total recovered sequences, respectively). These two bacteria, along with Psychrilyobacter sp. (∼16% average recovered sequences), accounted for between 43% and 92% of the total recovered sequences in individual snail digestive systems, with other OTUs present at much lower proportions. The relative abundance of these three groups remained similar over 6 years of sampling (collection date was not shown to be a significant predictor of community structure), suggesting a long-term association. Furthermore, these bacterial genera were either not present (Mycoplasma and Psychromonas) or at very low abundance (
      PubDate: 2016-12-16
       
  • The contribution of genome mining strategies to the understanding of
           active principles of PGPR strains
    • Authors: Paterson J; Jahanshah G, Li Y, et al.
      Abstract: Pathogenic microorganisms and insects affecting plant health are a major and chronic threat to food production and the ecosystem worldwide. As agricultural production has intensified over the years, the use of agrochemicals has in turn increased. However, this extensive usage has had several detrimental effects, with a pervasive environmental impact and the emergence of pathogen resistance. In addition, there is an increasing tendency among consumers to give preference to pesticide-free food products. Biological control, through the employment of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), is therefore considered a possible route to the reduction, even the elimination, of the use of agrochemicals. PGPR exert their beneficial influence by a multitude of mechanisms, often involving antibiotics and proteins, to defend the host plant against pathogens. To date, these key metabolites have been uncovered only by systematic investigation or by serendipity; their discovery has nevertheless been propelled by the genomic revolution of recent years, as increasing numbers of genomic studies have been integrated into this field, facilitating a holistic view of this topic and the rapid identification of ecologically important metabolites. This review surveys the highlights and advances of genome-driven compound and protein discovery in the field of bacterial PGPR strains, and aims to advocate for the benefits of this strategy.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16
       
  • An improved protocol with a highly degenerate primer targeting
           copper-containing membrane-bound monooxygenase genes for community
           analysis of methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria
    • Authors: Wang J; Xia F, Zeleke J, et al.
      Abstract: The copper-containing membrane-bound monooxygenase (CuMMO) family comprises key enzymes for methane or ammonia oxidation: particulate methane monooxygenase (PMMO) and ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). To comprehensively amplify CuMMO genes, a two-step PCR strategy was developed using a newly designed tagged highly degenerate primer (THDP; degeneracy = 4608). Designated THDP-PCR, the technique consists of primary CuMMO gene-specific PCR followed by secondary PCR with a tag as a single primer. No significant bias in THDP-PCR amplification was found using various combinations of template mixtures of pmoA and amoA genes, which encode key subunits of the pMMO and AMO enzymes, respectively, from different microbes. THDP-PCR was successfully applied to nine different environmental samples and revealed relatively high contents of complete ammonia oxidation (Comammox)-related bacteria and a novel group of the CuMMO family. The levels of freshwater cluster methanotrophs obtained by THDP-PCR were much higher than those obtained by conventional methanotroph-specific PCR. The THDP-PCR strategy developed in this study can be extended to other functional gene-based community analyses, particularly when the target gene sequences lack regions of high consensus for primer design.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
       
 
 
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