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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 548, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Family Practice
  [SJR: 1.048]   [H-I: 77]   [12 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-2136 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2229
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • The role of physicians and their professional bodies in containing health
           care costs
    • Authors: van der Wees P; Wammes J, Jeurissen P, et al.
      Abstract: Containing health care costs is a key policy priority in many countries, in which all stakeholders potentially play a role. Physicians may play an important role in controlling health care spending, for example by reducing lower-value services and by encouraging patients to engage in shared-decision making (1). Physicians are in a good position to address health care costs in an appropriate and justifiable manner, combining cost control with patient advocacy in delivering high-value services. This especially holds for family doctors who tend to work in low-cost environments and cover the vast majority of patient demands. Furthermore, family doctors build long-lasting relationships with patients and may best be able to provide high-value, coordinated, person-centred care. In addition, in many health systems, family doctors are ought to function as gatekeepers for costly hospital care.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31
  • Stewardship of primary care physicians to contain cost in health care: an
           international cross-sectional survey
    • Authors: Van der Wees P; Wammes J, Jeurissen P, et al.
      Abstract: PurposePhysician stewardship towards cost control is potentially important in enhancing the financial sustainability of health care systems.ObjectiveAim of this study was to identify the level of stewardship of cost containment of primary care physicians (PCPs) and to assess the associations between stewardship and characteristics of PCPs and health care systems.MethodsSecondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional survey among 10 countries: Australia, Canada, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA. Participants were a random sample of 33312 PCPs with 11547 responses (34.7%). Outcome measure was a stewardship scale addressing cost-awareness and cost-consideration.ResultsAcross countries, 41.6% and 45.7% of the PCPs responded that they often were aware of treatment costs and considered cost, respectively. Female PCPs were less aware of costs (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.69–0.81) and considered costs less frequently in making treatment decisions (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.76–0.89). Older PCPs were more aware of the costs than younger PCPs for all age categories compared to those <35 years (P < 0.001). PCPs older than 65 years (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.54–0.78) and 55–64 years (OR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0.73–0.97) were less likely to consider costs than the youngest age group. Cost-consideration of PCPs residing in countries with a single payer system was lower (OR: 0.58; 95% CI 0.35–0.95) than their colleagues in multiple payer systems.ConclusionPCPs show moderate stewardship of health care resources with large intercountry differences. Cost-awareness may not be a necessary precondition for cost-consideration, and policies aimed at raising cost-consideration may be more important.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31
  • Concomitant pulmonologist and primary care for chronic obstructive
           pulmonary disease: a population study
    • Authors: Gershon A; Macdonald E, Luo J, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundPulmonologists provide quality care, however, their number is not adequate to take care of all the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) needs of the population and their services come with a cost. Their optimal role should be defined, ideally based on evidence, to ensure that their abilities are applied most efficiently where needed.ObjectiveTo determine if concomitant pulmonologist and primary care physician care after COPD hospital or emergency department discharge was associated with better health outcomes than primary care services alone.MethodsA population cohort study was conducted in Ontario, Canada from 2004 to 2011. All individuals with a COPD hospital or emergency department discharge were included. Patients who visited both a pulmonologist and a primary care physician within 30 days of the index discharge were matched to patients who had visited a primary care physician alone using propensity scores. The composite outcome of death, COPD hospitalization or COPD emergency department visit was compared using proportional hazards regression.ResultsIn the propensity score matched sample, 39.7% of patients who received concomitant care and 38.9% who received primary care only died or visited the emergency department visit or hospital for COPD within 1 year (adjusted hazard ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.17). The former, however, were more likely to receive diagnostic testing and medications.ConclusionPatients who received concomitant care after COPD emergency department or hospital discharge did not have better outcomes than those who received primary care alone, however, they did receive more testing and medical management.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
  • Multimorbidity and immigrant status: associations with area of origin and
           length of residence in host country
    • Authors: Gimeno-Feliu L; Calderón-Larrañaga A, Díaz E, et al.
      Abstract: AimMultimorbidity is a growing phenomenon in primary care, and knowledge of the influence of social determinants on its evolution is vital. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between multimorbidity and immigration, taking into account length of residence in the host country and area of origin of the immigrant population.MethodsCross-sectional retrospective study of all adult patients registered within the public health service of Aragon, Spain (N = 1092279; 144238 were foreign-born), based on data from the EpiChron Cohort. Age-standardized prevalence rates of multimorbidity were calculated. Different models of binary logistic regressions were conducted to study the association between multimorbidity, immigrant status and length of residence in the host country.ResultsThe risk of multimorbidity in foreign-borns was lower than that of native-borns [odds ratio (OR): 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53–0.55]. The probability of experiencing multimorbidity was lowest for Asians (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.31–0.37) and Eastern Europeans (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.40–0.43), and highest for Latin Americans (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.68–0.72). Foreign-born immigrants residing in Aragon for ≥5 years had a higher multimorbidity risk than those residing for <5 years (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 2.2–2.4).ConclusionPrevalence of multimorbidity is lower among foreign-borns as compared with native-borns, but increases rapidly with length of residence in the host country. However, the progressive development of multimorbidity among immigrants varies widely depending on area of origin. These findings provide important insight into the health care needs of specific population groups and may help minimize the negative impact of multimorbidity among the most vulnerable groups.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
  • Comprehensive geriatric assessment for identifying older people at risk of
           hip fracture: cross-sectional study with comparative group
    • Authors: Ramírez-Martín R; Castell Alcalá M, Alarcón T, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundHip fracture (HF) is by far the most common serious fragility fracture. Its care is a major challenge to all healthcare systems.AimTo determine whether there are characteristics of older people identified via comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) that help identify those with an increased risk of HF.MethodsThe demographic, functional, cognitive and nutritional data of a cohort of patients admitted for acute HF were compared with those of a population cohort representing community-dwelling older people in the same urban district without HF. Bivariate analysis was performed on the variables in both the complete samples and in a subsample of age and sex paired subjects, followed by logistic regression analysis.ResultsA total of 509 HF patients and 1315 community-dwelling older people were included. The HF patients were older and more frequently women and had more frequent disability and cognitive impairment, lower handgrip strength, lower body mass index (BMI) and a higher frequency of vitamin D deficiency compared with the community controls (P < 0.001). The variables most strongly associated with the presence of HF in the multivariate analysis, aside from age and female sex, were BMI<22 kg/m2 [odds ratio (OR) = 5.11], disability (OR = 4.32), muscle weakness (OR = 3.01), and vitamin D deficiency (OR = 2.13).ConclusionsThere are easily obtained CGA determinants that are strongly associated with fragility HF. The detection of low weight, disability, malnutrition, muscle weakness, and vitamin D deficiency can help identify at-risk older people to implement prevention strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
  • Reducing barriers to consulting a General Practitioner in patients at
           increased risk of lung cancer: a qualitative evaluation of the CHEST
           Australia intervention
    • Authors: Murray S; Kutzer Y, Habgood E, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundLung cancer has one of the lowest survival outcomes of any cancer because over two-thirds of patients are diagnosed when curative treatment is no longer possible, partly due to later presentation with symptoms to a healthcare provider.ObjectiveTo explore the theoretical underpinning of the Scottish CHEST intervention in participants randomized to the intervention group within the CHEST Australia trial.MethodsA purposive maximum variation sample of participants who received the intervention in the CHEST trial in Perth, Western Australia (N = 13) and Melbourne, Victoria, (N = 7) were interviewed. Patients were asked about their experience of the CHEST consultation, their recall of the main messages, their symptom appraisal and issues relating to help seeking when they develop symptoms. Thematic analysis was conducted to draw common themes between the participants.ResultsWe identified themes consistent with the theoretical basis of the CHEST intervention. Barriers to consultation identified in the CHEST Australia trial participants were smoker stigmatization, guilt, fatalism and symptom normalization. We identified a general perceived mistrust of GPs based on previous negative experiences of visiting their GP in relation to their smoking. The intervention tackled barriers around lecturing and feelings of guilt and stigma related to smoking. We identified expected effects on salience and personal relevance of symptoms. Participants reported a clearer understanding of what to look out for and when to take action after the CHEST intervention.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that the CHEST Australia intervention is achieving the desired objectives at the qualitative level through the proposed theoretical mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
  • A multidisciplinary intervention programme for overweight and obese
           children in deprived areas
    • Authors: van Middelkoop M; Ligthart K, Paulis W, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundGPs can refer obese children living in deprived areas to multidisciplinary programmes for a weight loss intervention, though the effectiveness of these local initiatives targeted to this specific group is unknown.ObjectiveTo evaluate the effectiveness of the Kids4Fit intervention in deprived areas on child’s weight status.MethodsDesign and setting: cohort study, including a waiting list control period. Subjects: children (N = 154) aged 6–12 years, who signed up for the Kids4Fit intervention programme, led by a dietitian, physiotherapist and child psychologist were included. Measurements of standardized body mass index (BMI-z) and waist circumference were taken at start of the waiting list period, at start and at the end of the intervention and after 52 weeks. Mixed model analyses (random effects models) were used, expressed in effect per week [β with 95% confidence interval (CI)], compared to the waiting list expectancy over the 52-week study period.ResultsMixed model analyses showed a non-significant trend towards a lower BMI-z up to 52 weeks after start of Kids4Fit (β: −0.0024; 95% CI: −0.0053; 0.0004), compared to the waiting list expectancy. A significantly lower waist circumference was found over time compared to the waiting list expectancy (β: −0.0558; 95% CI: −0.0950; −0.0166). No differences were found in lifestyle and health-related quality of life.ConclusionA local multidisciplinary intervention programme in deprived areas is effective in reducing waist circumference of obese children, compared to a waiting list expectancy, but no significant changes in lifestyle and quality of life were shown.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
  • Comparing watchful waiting with antidepressants for the management of
           subclinical depression symptoms to mild–moderate depression in primary
           care: a systematic review
    • Authors: Iglesias-González M; Aznar-Lou I, Gil-Girbau M, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundThe benefits of watchful waiting (WW) over antidepressants (ADs) for the treatment of depression in primary care (PC) are unclear.ObjectiveWe aimed to systematically review the evidence supporting either WW or ADs for the treatment of subclinical depressive symptoms and mild-moderate depression in a PC setting.MethodsThis systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (42016036345). Four electronic sources (EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge) were systematically searched from inception to November 2016 for controlled trials comparing WW and ADs in PC following established guidelines. The studies had to include adult population with new symptoms of subclinical depression or mild-moderate depression. Patients in the intervention group should receive a WW approach, while patients in the control group underwent treatment with ADs. The abstraction form included information on the setting, characteristics of the study population, total sample size, size of the control and intervention groups and date of the study. Outcome measures and variability were extracted.ResultsThe scarcity of studies and the considerable clinical and methodological heterogeneity discouraged us from performing a meta-analysis. Three articles were included and qualitatively synthesized. There was no evidence for the superiority of one treatment option over the other, although two of the studies suggested small differences in favour of ADs when less conservative analyses were conducted (per protocol analysis and analysis not adjusted for missingness predictors).ConclusionsSuperiority was not demonstrated by either treatment option. More robust evidence is needed to inform recommendations for the management of depressive symptoms in PC.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
  • What do tests do for doctors' A qualitative study of blood testing in
           UK primary care
    • Authors: Watson J; de Salis I, Banks J, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundRates of blood testing are rising with significant geographical variability. Most research into diagnostic testing focuses on the role of tests in diagnostic decision-making.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to explore the non-medical motives for blood testing by considering what tests do for doctors, through qualitative interviews with general practitioners (GPs).MethodsWe undertook 23 in-depth semi-structured interviews with UK GPs. Reasons for performing recent inflammatory marker blood tests were explored by reviewing GPs pathology inboxes to ground discussions in real-life clinical practice. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a grounded theory approach.ResultsBlood tests offer doctors a tool to manage uncertainty; within a context of increased litigation, risk aversion and reduced continuity of care. Tests can also be offered as a ‘gift’ for patients, a way to be seen to be ‘doing something’; in the social context of time pressures and perceived patient pressures. There was a tension however. On the one hand, doctors talked about using tests for reassurance and as a ‘gift’ offering ‘truth’. Yet paradoxically, they also discussed the challenges of uncertainty and anxiety from inconclusive test results.ConclusionOur study emphasises that defining ‘unnecessary’ blood testing may not be as simple as determining medical criteria for testing; psychosocial reasons may be equally valid and interlinked. Further research is needed to help GPs manage uncertainty within the context of a risk averse society, and to explore the congruence and dissonance between doctors’ and patients’ perceptions of testing.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
  • Development and validation study of a non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
           risk scoring model among adults in China
    • Authors: Zhang Q; Wong C, Kung K, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases in China. It is usually asymptomatic and transabdominal ultrasound (USS) is the usual means for diagnosis, but it may not be feasible to have USS screening of the whole population.ObjectiveTo develop a risk scoring model for predicting the presence of NAFLD using parameters that can be easily obtain in clinical settings.MethodsA retrospective study on the data of 672 adults who had general health check including a transabdominal ultrasound. Fractional polynomial and multivariable logistic regressions of sociodemographic and biochemical variables on NAFLD were used to identify the predictors. A risk score was assigned to each predictor using the scaled standardized β-coefficient to create a risk prediction algorithm. The accuracy for NAFLD detection by each cut-off score in the risk algorithm was evaluated.ResultsThe prevalence of NAFLD in our study population was 33.0% (222/672). Six significant factors were selected in the final prediction model. The areas under the curve (AUC) was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.78–0.85). The optimal cut-off score, based on the ROC was 35, with a sensitivity of 76.58% (95% CI: 70.44–81.98%) and specificity of 74.89% (95% CI: 70.62–78.83%).ConclusionA NAFLD risk scoring model can be used to identify asymptomatic Chinese people who are at risk of NAFLD for further USS investigation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
  • Incidence and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding in general practice
    • Authors: van den Brink M; Saaltink A, Groenhof F, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundHeavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common problem in women of reproductive age. In 2008, the Dutch guideline for general practitioners (GPs) was revised to recommend the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) as a first-choice treatment for HMB. However, GP prescribing practices have not been studied in depth.ObjectivesTo investigate the incidence and initial treatment of HMB in general practice, and to identify if there were changes in prescribing practices after the revision of the national guideline in 2008.MethodsRetrospective analysis of data from the Registration Network Groningen, the Netherlands. We selected data for prescriptions and referrals related to women consulting their GP for HMB between 2004 and 2013. We calculated the incidence rates and investigated potential trends in prescribing over time, with particular attention to the prescribing of LNG-IUS.ResultsOver 10 years, 881 women consulted their GP for HMB, with a mean annual incidence of 9.3 per 1000 person years (95% confidence interval: 8.5–10.2). Most women received hormonal treatment (406/881; 46%) within three months of diagnosis, but many (387/881; 44%) received no medication. The LNG-IUS was prescribed for 2.4%, but there was no significant increase in the number of prescriptions over time.ConclusionIn this cohort, most women with HMB were treated with oral hormone therapy, and few received the LNG-IUS. If patients are to benefit from the LNG-IUS, further research is needed into the reasons for this lack of change in prescribing practices.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
  • Guideline adherence for diagnostic faeces testing in primary care patients
           with gastroenteritis
    • Authors: Schierenberg A; Broekhuizen B, Nipshagen M, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundGastroenteritis (GE) is a common reason for primary care consultation. Dutch clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommend diagnostic faeces testing (DFT) only in primary care patients with severe illness, comprised immunity or increased transmission risk. For its superior accuracy, shorter turnaround time and ease of use, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DFT has largely replaced conventional techniques. It is unknown whether this changed CPG adherence.ObjectiveTo quantify the effect of PCR introduction on adherence to CPG indications for DFT in primary care patients with GE.MethodsWe performed a cohort study using routine care data of 225 GPs. Episodes of GE where DFT was performed were extracted from electronic patient records. Presenting symptoms were identified and adherence to CPG indications for DFT assessed in two randomly drawn samples of each 500 patients, one from the period before PCR introduction (2010–11) and one after (2013). The association between PCR introduction and adherence was estimated using multivariable regression analysis.ResultsIn 88% of all episodes relevant presenting symptoms were reported, most often ‘frequent watery stool’ (58%) and ‘illness duration >10 days’ (40%). DFT was performed in 15% of episodes before PCR introduction and in 18% after. Overall, in 17% the DFT request was considered adherent to the CPG, 16% before PCR introduction and 18% after (adjusted OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9–1.7).ConclusionOverall adherence to CPG indications when requesting DFT in primary care patient with GE was 17%. Implementation of PCR-based DFT was not associated with a change in CPG adherence.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
  • Dutch practice nurses’ adherence to evidence-based smoking cessation
           treatment guidelines
    • Authors: de Ruijter D; Smit E, de Vries H, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundPractice nurses in general practice sub-optimally adhere to evidence-based smoking cessation treatment guidelines, but factors explaining their adherence have not yet been investigated. Understanding such factors is important to develop interventions improving practice nurses’ smoking cessation guideline adherence and patients’ subsequent cessation success. This study explored the association between different socio-cognitive and predisposing factors, and practice nurses’ adherence to the Dutch smoking cessation guideline in general (i.e. overall adherence) and to each guideline step individually (i.e. step-based adherence).MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted among practice nurses (N = 157) in January–March 2015 via web-based questionnaires, assessing constructs from the Integrated Change Model. Spearman’s correlations and linear regression analysis were used to identify potential determinants of overall guideline adherence; Mann–Whitney U-tests and logistic regression analyses were used to identify potential determinants of step-based adherence.ResultsOn average five out of nine steps were completely adhered to by practice nurses; and step-based adherence ranged from 34% to 75%. Overall guideline adherence was associated with high levels of self-efficacy to use a guideline (β = 0.32, P = 0.00), and step-based adherence was additionally associated with spending more time on counselling. Regression results showed positive associations between self-efficacy (8/9 steps) and perceived advantages (7/9 steps) with step-based adherence.ConclusionThis study quantitatively confirmed practice nurses’ sub-optimal guideline adherence and found associations between socio-cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived advantages) and predisposing factors (time spent on counselling), and guideline adherence. Detailed insights in these factors offer preliminary directions for intervention development to improve practice nurses’ adherence to evidence-based smoking cessation guidelines.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
  • ‘Meet and greet’ intake appointments in primary care: a new pattern of
           patient intakes'
    • Authors: Marshall E; Ogah I, Lawson B, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundFamily physicians (FPs) are expected to take on new patients fairly and equitably and to not discriminate based on medical or social history. ‘Meet and greet’ appointments are initial meetings between physicians and prospective patients to establish fit between patient needs and provider scope of practice. The public often views these appointments as discriminatory; however, there is no empirical evidence regarding their prevalence or outcomes.ObjectivesTo determine the proportion of FPs conducting ‘meet and greets’ and their outcomes.MethodsStudy design and setting: Census telephone survey of all FP practices in Nova Scotia (NS). Participants: Person who answers the FP office telephone. Main Outcomes: Proportion of FPs holding ‘meet and greets’; proportion of FPs conducting ‘meet and greets’ who have ever decided not to continue seeing a patient after the meeting.Results9.2% of FPs accept new patients unconditionally; 51.1% accept new patients under certain conditions. Of those accepting patients unconditionally or with conditions, 46.9% require a ‘meet and greet’; 41.8% have a first-come, first-serve policy. Among FPs who require a ‘meet and greet’, 44.0% decided, at least once, not to continue seeing a patient after the first meeting.Conclusion‘Meet and greets’ are common among FPs in NS and result in some patients not being accepted into practice. More research is needed to understand the intentions, processes, and outcomes of ‘meet and greets’. We recommend that practice scope be made clear to prospective patients before their first visit, which may eliminate the need for ‘meet and greets’.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
  • Considerations on requests for euthanasia or assisted suicide; a
           qualitative study with Dutch general practitioners
    • Authors: ten Cate K; van Tol D, van de Vathorst S.
      Abstract: BackgroundIn the Netherlands, euthanasia or assisted suicide (EAS) is neither a right of the patient nor a duty of the physician. Beside the legal requirements, physicians can weigh their own considerations when they decide on a request for EAS.ObjectiveWe aim at a better understanding of the considerations that play a role when physicians decide on a request for EAS.MethodsThis was a qualitative study. We analysed 33 interviews held with general practitioners (GPs) from various regions in the Netherlands.ResultsThe considerations found can be divided in three main types. (i) Perceived legal criteria, (ii) individual interpretations of the legal criteria and (iii) considerations unrelated to the legal criteria. Considerations of this 3rd type have not been mentioned so far in the literature and the debate on EAS. Examples are: the family should agree to EAS, the patient’s attitude must reflect resignation, or conflicts must be resolved.ConclusionsOur study feeds the ethical discussion on the tension that can arise between a physician’s own views on death and dying, and the views and preferences of his patients. When considerations like ‘no unresolved conflicts’ or ‘enough resignation’ influence the decision to grant a request for EAS this poses questions from an ethical and professional point of view. We hypothesise that these considerations reflect GPs’ views on what ‘good dying’ entails and we advocate further research on this topic.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
  • Oncologists’ views on the importance of general practitioners for cancer
           patients: a qualitative interview study from Germany
    • Authors: Engler J; Kone I, Holmberg C, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundIntegrated cancer care requires cooperation between specialists and general practitioners (GPs). Mutual understanding of each other’s tasks and responsibilities is essential if cooperation is to be successful. While GPs’ opinions about oncologists have been addressed in previous studies, less is known about oncologists’ views on the role of GPs’ in cancer care, especially with regard to GPs’ patient-centred, communication-based tasks.ObjectiveTo assess oncologists’ views on the importance of GPs for cancer patients.MethodsWe conducted 15 qualitative guideline-based telephone interviews with oncologists using open-ended questions and analysed these interviews using thematic analysis.ResultsOncologists situated GPs as persons of trust for patients in a rather amicable sphere of caring in contrast to themselves who were situated in a rather biomedical sphere of evidence-based treatment decisions. Oncologists’ appraisal of an overlapping of these spheres varied: While most stressed opportunities for patients (and themselves), others also mentioned risks.ConclusionOur analysis found that oncologists clearly distinguish between their own sphere of evidence-based treatment decision-making and GPs’ sphere of psychosocial caring. The question remains how these roles get interconnected in real life situations in order to meet patients’ needs adequately. So far it seems that it is often the patient who is travelling between both spheres and needs to initiate interconnection to get comprehensive cancer care.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
  • Adverse impacts of chronic pain on health-related quality of life, work
           productivity, depression and anxiety in a community-based study
    • Authors: Kawai K; Kawai A, Wollan P, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundChronic pain has major clinical and social consequences. Few studies have examined any variation in the extent of impairment on quality of life and work productivity by site and type of chronic pain.ObjectiveThe objective of our study is to examine adverse impacts of chronic pain on physical and psychological health and work productivity.MethodsOur community-population study was based on a phone-interview of adults with chronic pain, residing in Olmsted County, MN. Chronic pain groups were categorized into abdominal pain, back pain, joint pain, multisite pain, neuropathic pain or no chronic pain. We used standardized instruments, including the Brief Pain Inventory, the Patients Health Questionnair-9, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire.ResultsWe evaluated 591 patients suffering from chronic pain and 150 participants with no chronic pain. Almost one third of patients with multisite pain (33%) and neuropathic pain (32%) reported mild/major depressive symptoms. Patients suffering from chronic pain, particularly from multisite pain and neuropathic pain, reported significant pain interferences with daily activities and impairments in physical function. Chronic pain was significantly associated with reduced performance at work but not with missed work hours. The average reported reduction in work productivity ranged from 2.4 hours (±5.6) per week for adults with joint chronic pain to 9.8 hours (±11.1) per week for adults with multisite chronic pain.ConclusionsChronic pain, particularly multisite pain and neuropathic pain, significantly affected physical and psychological health. Chronic pain is a multifaceted health condition that requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach.
      PubDate: 2017-04-22
  • Undocumented and documented migrants with chronic diseases in Family
           Practice in the Netherlands
    • Authors: van de Sande J; van den Muijsenbergh M.
      Abstract: BackgroundUndocumented migrants (UM) face many barriers in accessing healthcare. It is unknown how these affect the care of UM with chronic diseases in general practices. In the Netherlands, a General practitioner (GP) is the gatekeeper to the healthcare system and primary care provider for UM.ObjectiveTo get insight into GP care for chronic diseases in UM compared with documented migrants (DM).MethodsA survey study of medical records of UM and DM in five general practices in the Netherlands with extensive experience in caring for UM. UM and DM were matched for gender, age and region of origin. Consultation rates, values of HbA1C, blood pressure, spirometry, number of referrals and medicine prescriptions were compared in all people with cardiovascular disease, diabetes or asthma/ COPD.ResultsIn overall, 729 migrants were included (407 UM and 322 DM). UM consulted their GP significantly less often than DM (3.24 versus 5.04 times a year). UM with cardiovascular disease had a slightly higher blood pressure (148.1 versus 140.8 mmHg), and UM with diabetes had their blood pressure checked less frequently (0.70 versus 1.95 times a year). Overall however, the differences between UM and DM with chronic diseases were small.ConclusionUndocumented migrants with chronic diseases in general practices in the Netherlands that are experienced in caring for UM receive to a large extent equitable care compared to documented migrants.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
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