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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 409 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 409 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 608, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insect Systematics and Diversity     Hybrid Journal  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 270, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Integrative Organismal Biology
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2517-4843
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [409 journals]
  • The Development of Integration in Marsupial and Placental Limbs

    • Authors: Kelly E; Marcot J, Selwood L, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe morphological interdependence of traits, or their integration, is commonly thought to influence their evolution. As such, study of morphological integration and the factors responsible for its generation form an important branch of the field of morphological evolution. However, most research to date on post-cranial morphological integration has focused on adult patterns of integration. This study investigates patterns of correlation (i.e., morphological integration) among skeletal elements of the fore- and hind limbs of developing marsupial and placental mammals. The goals of this study are to establish how patterns of limb integration vary over development in marsupials and placentals, and identify factors that are likely responsible for their generation. Our results indicate that although the overall pattern of correlation among limb elements is consistent with adult integration throughout mammalian development, correlations vary at the level of the individual element and stage. As a result, the relative integration among fore- and hind limb elements varies dynamically between stages during development in both marsupial and placental mammals. Therefore, adult integration studies of the limbs may not be indicative of developmental integration. Results are also consistent with integration during early limb development being more heavily influenced by genetic and developmental factors, and later by function. Additionally, results are generally consistent with a constraint on marsupial forelimb evolution caused by the functional requirements of the crawl to the teat that operates by limiting morphological variation before and at the time of birth, and not after.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • 3D Muscle Architecture of the Pectoral Muscles of European Starling
           (Sturnus vulgaris)

    • Authors: Sullivan S; McGechie F, Middleton K, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAvian flight is achieved through a number of modifications to the body, including the pectoral girdle, yet little is known about the architecture of the pectoral musculature. Muscle architecture is a critical variable in determining the biomechanical function of the vertebrate musculoskeletal system; however, accurate three-dimensional (3D) understanding of muscle architecture has been historically difficult to acquire. Here, we present a musculoskeletal model of a European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) pectoral girdle generated from iodine contrast-enhanced micro-computed-tomography (CT) data and 3D fiber tracking analysis. We used a template-based fiber-tracking algorithm to reconstruct muscle fibers in 3D based on grayscale differences in CT images, which allowed us to estimate fascicle lengths, pennation angles, muscle volumes, and physiological cross-sectional area. Our modeled muscles were qualitatively accurate; however, quantitative muscle architecture data differed between digital and traditional gross-dissection methods reflecting the complex organization of the tissue and differing natures of data collection. We found that model quality is affected by the resolution of CT image data and the fiber-tracking program’s input parameters. Nonetheless, digital fiber tracking offers numerous advantages over gross-dissection methods, most importantly, the ability to visualize and quantify entire muscles in three-dimensions, yielding a much more accurate estimation of whole muscle architecture.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Cloacal Microbiome Changes with the Breeding Season in a Wild Bird

    • Authors: Escallón C; Belden L, Moore I.
      Abstract: AbstractThe symbiotic microbial communities, or “microbiomes,” that reside on animals are dynamic, and can be affected by the behavior and physiology of the host. These communities provide many critical beneficial functions for their hosts, but they can also include potential pathogens. In birds, bacteria residing in the cloaca form a complex community, including both gut and sexually-transmitted bacteria. Transmission of cloacal bacteria among individuals is likely during the breeding season, when there is direct cloacal contact between individuals. In addition, the major energetic investment in reproduction can draw resources away from immune responses that might otherwise prevent the successful establishment of microbes. We assessed dynamic variation in the cloacal microbiome of free-living rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) through sequential breeding and non-breeding seasons. We found that the cloacal bacterial communities differed between the sexes when they were in breeding condition. Further, in males, but not in females, the bacterial community became more diverse with the onset of reproduction, and then decreased in diversity as males transitioned to non-breeding condition. Individuals sampled across sequential breeding seasons did not accumulate more bacterial taxa over seasons, but bacterial community composition did change. Our results suggest that the cloacal microbiome in birds is dynamic and, especially in males, responsive to breeding condition.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Ontogeny of Polycotylid Long Bone Microanatomy and Histology

    • Authors: O’Keefe F; Sander P, Wintrich T, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractPlesiosauria is an extinct clade of diapsid marine reptiles that evolved in the Late Triassic and radiated globally for the remainder of the Mesozoic. The recent description of a pregnant specimen of Polycotylus latipinnis demonstrates that some plesiosaurs were viviparous. To establish a baseline of histological data on plesiosaur ontogeny, we sampled the mother and fetus of the gravid plesiosaur specimen. To widen the base of data concerning ontogeny and life history of plesiosaurs, we gathered additional morphologic and histologic data from a securely identified growth series of polycotylids from the Pierre Shale of South Dakota. Paleohistological thin sections were prepared from the three humeri. Both adults show a dense, heavily remodeled cortex consisting entirely of longitudinally oriented secondary osteons, except for a thin rind of superficial primary bone. The mother exhibits an external fundamental system, indicating it was fully mature; the other adult does not. In both adults the cortex grades into a spongy medulla, comprising large vascular canals and erosion rooms surrounded by secondary lamellar trabecular bone, and lacking a marrow cavity. The fetal humerus possesses a medullary region similar to that of the Dolichorhynchops bonneri adult, although its lamellar bone is primary and deposited around calcified cartilage. The medulla is demarcated from the cortex by a prominent Kastschenko’s line. The cortex of the fetus is a relatively thin layer of periosteal woven bone, longitudinally to radially vascularized, and interfingered with columns of osteoblasts surrounded by rapidly-deposited extracellular matrix. The neonate humerus resembles the fetus, with its trabeculae identical in both size and histology, although it lacks calcified cartilage. The cortex is also similar but much thicker, consisting entirely of rapidly deposited, radially vascularized, woven to fibrolamellar bone. The cortex carries a line near its surface. This feature is not a line of arrested growth, but a sudden change in vascular angle and increase in bone density. We argue this feature is a birth line indicating a change in growth regime, possibly in response to increased hydrodynamic forces after birth. The birth line indicates that the neonate was about 40% of maternal length when born. Our histological data demonstrate that polycotylids had very high fetal growth rates, and that birth size was large. Comparison with the geologically oldest plesiosaur confirms that rapid growth evolved in the Triassic, although histological details differ, and the degree to which the polycotylid ontogenetic pattern is generalizable to other plesiosaurs is currently unknown. Further histological research utilizing full growth series is needed, particularly for Jurassic taxa.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Shifting Paradigms in the Mechanics of Nectar Extraction and Hummingbird
           Bill Morphology

    • Authors: Rico-Guevara A; Rubega M, Hurme K, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAs functional morphologists, we aim to connect structures, mechanisms, and emergent higher-scale phenomena (e.g., behavior), with the ulterior motive of addressing evolutionary patterns. The fit between flowers and hummingbird bills has long been used as an example of impressive co-evolution, and hence hummingbirds’ foraging behavior and ecological associations have been the subject of intense study. To date, models of hummingbird foraging have been based on the almost two-centuries-old assumption that capillary rise loads nectar into hummingbird tongue grooves. Furthermore, the role of the bill in the drinking process has been overlooked, instead considering it as the mere vehicle with which to traverse the corolla and access the nectar chamber. As a scientific community, we have been making incorrect assumptions about the basic aspects of how hummingbirds extract nectar from flowers. In this article, we summarize recent advances on drinking biomechanics, morphological and ecological patterns, and selective forces involved in the shaping of the hummingbird feeding apparatus, and also address its modifications in a previously unexpected context, namely conspecific and heterospecific fighting. We explore questions such as: how do the mechanics of feeding define the limits and adaptive consequences of foraging behaviors' Which are the selective forces that drive bill and tongue shape, and associated sexually dimorphic traits' And finally, what are the proximate and ultimate causes of their foraging strategies, including exploitative and interference competition' Increasing our knowledge of morphology, mechanics, and diversity of hummingbird feeding structures will have implications for understanding the ecology and evolution of these remarkable animals.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Janzen’s Hypothesis Meets the Bogert Effect: Connecting Climate
           Variation, Thermoregulatory Behavior, and Rates of Physiological Evolution

    • Authors: Muñoz M; Bodensteiner B.
      Abstract: AbstractUnderstanding the motors and brakes that guide physiological evolution is a topic of keen interest, and is of increasing importance in light of global climate change. For more than half a century, Janzen’s hypothesis has been used to understand how climatic variability influences physiological divergence across elevation and latitude. At the same time, there has been increasing recognition that behavior and physiological evolution are mechanistically linked, with regulatory behaviors often serving to dampen environmental selection and stymie evolution (a phenomenon termed the Bogert effect). Here, we illustrate how some aspects of Janzen’s hypothesis and the Bogert effect can be connected to conceptually link climate, behavior, and rates of physiological evolution in a common framework. First, we demonstrate how thermal heterogeneity varies between nighttime and daytime environments across elevation in a tropical mountain. Using data from Hispaniolan Anolis lizards, we show how clinal variation in cold tolerance is consistent with thermally homogenous nighttime environments. Elevational patterns of heat tolerance and the preferred temperature, in contrast, are best explained by incorporating the buffering effects of thermoregulatory behavior in thermally heterogeneous daytime environments. In turn, climatic variation and behavior interact to determine rates of physiological evolution, with heat tolerance and the preferred temperature evolving much more slowly than cold tolerance. Conceptually bridging some aspects of Janzen’s hypothesis and the Bogert effect provides an integrative, cohesive framework illustrating how environment and behavior interact to shape patterns of physiological evolution.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Rib Motions Don’t Completely Hinge on Joint Design: Costal Joint Anatomy
           and Ventilatory Kinematics in a Teiid Lizard, Salvator merianae

    • Authors: Capano J; Moritz S, Cieri R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractRib rotations contribute to lung ventilation in most extant amniotes. These rotations are typically described as bucket-handle rotation about a dorsoventral axis, caliper rotation about a craniocaudal axis, and pump-handle rotation about a mediolateral axis. A synapomorphy for Lepidosauria is single-headed costovertebral articulations derived from the ancestral double-headed articulations of most amniotes. With a single articular surface, the costovertebral joints of squamates have the potential to rotate with three degrees-of-freedom (DOFs), but considerable variation exists in joint shape. We compared the costovertebral morphology of the Argentine black and white tegu, Salvator merianae, with the green iguana, Iguana iguana, and found that the costovertebral articulations of I. iguana were hemispherical, while those of S. merianae were dorsoventrally elongated and hemiellipsoidal. We predicted that the elongate joints in S. merianae would permit bucket-handle rotations while restricting caliper and pump-handle rotations, relative to the rounded joints of I. iguana. We used X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology to quantify rib rotations during breathing in S. merianae for comparison with prior work in I. iguana. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found less caliper motion in S. merianae than in I. iguana, but unexpectedly found similar pump-handle magnitudes in each species. The dorsoventrally elongate costovertebral morphology of S. merianae may provide passive rib support to reduce the conflict between locomotion and ventilation. Moreover, the observation of multiple DOFs during rib rotations in both species suggests that permissive costovertebral morphology may be more related to the biological roles of ribs outside of ventilation and help explain the evolution of this trait.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Lithophagy Prolongs Voluntary Dives in American alligators (Alligator

    • Authors: Uriona T; Lyon M, Farmer C.
      Abstract: AbstractMany vertebrates ingest stones, but the function of this behavior is not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that lithophagy increases the duration of voluntary dives in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). After ingestion of granite stones equivalent to 2.5% of body weight, the average duration of dives increased by 88% and the maximum duration increased by 117%. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that gastroliths serve to increase specific gravity, and that the animals compensate by increasing lung volume, thereby diving with larger stores of pulmonary oxygen.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Expression of agrp1, A Hypothalamic Appetite-Stimulating Neuropeptide,
           Reveals Hydrodynamic-Induced Starvation in a Larval Fish

    • Authors: Koch L; Shainer I, Gurevich T, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractLarval fish suffer dramatic mortality in the days following transition to autonomous feeding, with over 90% of larvae being eliminated within a period of few weeks. Recent work has shown that the hydrodynamic environment experienced by recently-hatched larvae impedes their feeding rates even under high prey densities. Here, we quantified starvation through early ontogeny in Sparus aurata larvae (8–18 days post-hatching; DPH) and tested whether the emerging ontogenetic pattern is consistent with that expected one based on the hydrodynamic environment that these larvae experience. We screened three candidate genes agrp1, npy, and hsp70, whose expression was previously shown to respond to starvation in fish. Of the three genes, agrp1 was identified as a suitable indicator for starvation. Localization of agrp1 mRNA by whole-mount in-situ hybridization confirmed that, in S. aurata larvae, agrp1 is expressed only in the hypothalamus. Quantification of agrp1 mRNA using real-time PCR revealed that the expression of this gene is elevated in starved compared to fed larvae, and in younger (8 DPH) compared to older larvae (18 DPH). Manipulating the water viscosity to simulate the hydrodynamic conditions during the onset of the critical period led to increased agrp1 expression. These findings suggest that the hydrodynamic constraints on larval feeding lead to the starvation of small larvae. Further, they provide a mechanistic explanation for the “safe harbor” hypothesis, which postulates that larvae should allocate resources toward rapid linear growth to escape detrimental effects of dwelling in an environment where viscous fluid forces dominate.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Variation in Morphology and Kinematics Underlies Variation in Swimming
           Stability and Turning Performance in Freshwater Turtles

    • Authors: Mayerl C; Youngblood J, Rivera G, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAmong swimming animals, stable body designs often sacrifice performance in turning, and high turning performance may entail costs in stability. However, some rigid-bodied animals appear capable of both high stability and turning performance during swimming by propelling themselves with independently controlled structures that generate mutually opposing forces. Because such species have traditionally been studied in isolation, little is known about how variation within rigid-bodied designs might influence swimming performance. Turtles are a lineage of rigid-bodied animals, in which most species use contralateral limbs and mutually opposing forces to swim. We tested the stability and turning performance of two species of turtles, the pleurodire Emydura subglobosa and the cryptodire Chrysemys picta. Emydura subglobosa exhibited both greater stability and turning performance than C. picta, potentially through the use of subequally-sized (and larger) propulsive structures, faster limb movements, and decreased limb excursions. These data show how, within a given body design, combinations of different traits can serve as mechanisms to improve aspects of performance with competing functional demands.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Integrative Organismal Biology—A Journal We Want and Need

    • Authors: Summers A; Blob R, Butler M, et al.
      Abstract: On behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology we are delighted to formally launch the new, open access journal—Integrative Organismal Biology (IOB). There is a long tradition of journals serving as organizing centers for ideas and fields. The Journal of Morphology was founded in 1887, at a time when there was a critical mass of biologists producing information on the structure of organisms. It has been central to that field for 131 years. In 1923, when experimental investigations of life needed a focal point, the Journal of Experimental Biology was founded to serve that purpose. We are currently in a new and delightful time to be a biologist. We have unprecedented access to tools that allow deep reductionist approaches to the mechanisms of life, and new technologies allow unprecedented access to both the natural history of organisms and their environment. We have a renewed appreciation of the organism as central to biological questions; and the fields of mathematics, physics, and chemistry are increasingly turning to organismal biology for complex and rewarding problems. It is time for a journal that has organismal biology at its center. A place where an examination of physiology spanning satellite remote sensing of the environment, camera traps, robotic data collection, molecular and genetic approaches to endocrinology, and sensory biology, can be published as an integrative manuscript with far reaching implications. IOB aims to be the journal that our scientific community will turn to for these discipline-spanning manuscripts.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Do Life History Traits Influence Patterns of Maternal Immune Elements in
           New World Blackbirds (Icteridae)'

    • Authors: Fassbinder-Orth C; Igl L, Hahn D, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAvian immunology developed originally by investigating domesticated poultry species (Galliformes), but in recent decades eco-immunological studies of wild bird species have revealed that avian immune systems are more diverse than initially assumed. This study compares six immunological elements in eggs of six species within the same family, the New World blackbirds (Icteridae),whose members differ most notably in two life history parameters, brood parasitism and body size. We measured the maternal immune investment of passive immune components in both yolk and albumen: lysozyme, ovotransferrin, and immunoglobulins (Igs), and LPS-specific Igs. We predicted that brood parasites would have higher levels of immune activity for both innate and adaptive immunity compared with non-brood parasites, and that increased body size could increase microbial exposure of larger animals, resulting in an increase in some adaptive immune responses, such as LPS-specific Igs. We found that brood parasites had significantly higher levels of Igs and lysozyme levels in albumen, but significantly lower levels of Igs in yolk compared with non-brood parasites. Igs in yolk scaled according to body size, with the smallest organisms (the brood parasites) having the lowest levels, and the largest organism (common grackle) having the highest. Our results confirm the findings of other studies of comparative immunity among species in a single taxon that (1) similarities in immune investment cannot be assumed among closely related species and (2) single measures of immune defense cannot be assumed to be indicators of a species’ overall immune strategy, as life history traits can differentially affect immune responses.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
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