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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 397 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 397 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 599, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
European Journal of International Law
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.694
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 195  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0938-5428 - ISSN (Online) 1464-3596
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [397 journals]
  • Editorial: Publish and Perish: A Plea to Deans, Faculty Chairpersons,
           University Authorities; In this Issue
    • Pages: 673 - 676
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy061
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • A Sophisticated Beast' On the Construction of an ‘Ideal’
           Perpetrator in the Opening Statements of International Criminal Trials
    • Authors: Stolk S.
      Pages: 677 - 701
      Abstract: International criminal trials expose a paradox with regard to the portrayal of the defendants. While criminal law is based on the idea that perpetrators are responsible agents – human members of a community who can be held accountable before the law – speaking about mass atrocity involves a dimension of inhuman evil that places the accused outside the realm of humanity. This article interrogates how, concretely, the dual attribution of a despicable human character as well as inhuman evilness to the defendants takes shape in international courtrooms. It analyses the depiction of the defendants in the opening statements of the prosecution and the subsequent responses of the defence teams in 17 cases at four international criminal courts and tribunals. Opening statements are unique media moments that engage with describing the personality of the defendant rather than merely focusing on his deeds. The empirical material reveals how, in these statements, trial participants conflate humanizing and dehumanizing language and create an ‘ideal’ stereotype of the inhuman human. The article theorizes the function of this stereotype and argues that it is mobilized in order to fit the defendant into a narrative that aims to legitimize international criminal trials and attempts to balance their multiple, contradictory goals.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy041
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • The ‘Ideal’ Victim of International Criminal Law
    • Authors: Schwöbel-Patel C.
      Pages: 703 - 724
      Abstract: The role of victims is increasingly central to discussions in, and practices of, international criminal law. This increased attentiveness to victims, I argue, is leading to a visual and discursive specification of victimhood. Drawing on criminologist Nils Christie’s theorizing of victimhood, and identifying practices inside and outside the international criminal law courtroom, I discuss the social, political and legal construction of an ‘ideal’ victim. The features of an ‘ideal’ victim of international crime are identified as being: (i) weakness and vulnerability; (ii) dependency and (iii) grotesqueness. The features coalesce into a feminized, infantilized and racialized stereotype of victimhood. I argue that this problematic construction of the ‘ideal’ victim is to be contextualized within the ‘attention economy’. The ‘attention economy’ views attention as a finite and highly in-demand resource that rewards the extreme and spectacular at the expense of the moderate and considered.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy056
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • A Different Kind of Court: Africa’s Support for the International
           Criminal Court, 1993–2003
    • Authors: Gissel L.
      Pages: 725 - 748
      Abstract: This article seeks to understand the contemporary crisis in Africa’s relationship with the International Criminal Court (ICC) by going back to the Court’s founding moment. It investigates African states’ participation in the creation of the ICC, asking: Which kind of international criminal court did African countries seek to establish when negotiating the Rome Statute' To understand their vision for the ICC, the article provides an interpretive and systematic analysis of statements by African diplomats on the establishment of the ICC as delivered to the UN General Assembly between 1993 and 2003. Identifying and analysing the most salient themes found in these statements, the article argues that African diplomats sought to establish a court that differed in important respects from the existing ICC. The African diplomatic vision of the ICC centred on particular understandings of universality, participation, complementarity, court independence and sovereign equality. Importantly, the creation of the ICC was never solely about justice; it was also about sovereign inequality and global order. The alternative diplomatic vision for the ICC makes sense of the contemporary critique of the ICC by the African Union and many African countries. This makes the contemporary crisis both intelligible and deep-seated.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy040
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Legacy of the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former
           Yugoslavia and Rwanda and Their Contribution to the Crime of Rape
    • Authors: Adams A.
      Pages: 749 - 769
      Abstract: The article analyses the over 20 years’ jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda with respect to the crime of rape. It discusses how the attitude towards the prosecution of sexual crimes has changed since the Tribunals work began and what impact its jurisprudence has had on other attempts to define rape (elements of crime [EOC]). The article explores in depth the various definitions of rape given by the different chambers of both Tribunals. Consequently, it examines if the ultimate definition of the Kunarac chamber will prevail in international law. Not only are the weaknesses of the Kunarac definition that followed a pure consent approach revealed but the EOC of rape that opted for a combination of the coercion approach with one aspect of the lack-of-consent doctrine (incapacity) also face criticism. This leaves only one response – namely, that the elements of rape in international criminal law today can only be based upon a newly conducted comparison of national laws, thereby reflecting the general principles of the major legal systems of the world. The strongest accomplishment of both Tribunals concerning the crime of rape therefore lies not in the clarification of the elements of rape but, rather, in the revelation of a law-finding method, which is indispensable to the rudimentary field of international criminal law.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy043
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • International Law and the First World War: International Law and the End
           of War
    • Pages: 771 - 771
      Abstract: We continue our interdisciplinary examination of International Law and the First World War in this issue with the third instalment in our four-part symposium.11 The articles which make up this symposium, the result of a fruitful exchange among academics from the fields of history, law and legal history, each reflect different aspects and perspectives on the four-year global conflict and its influence on the development of international law in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The articles in this issue focus on the end of the war, with an article that retraces the development of aggression as a concept of international law prior to the Versailles Peace Treaty and a second article that analyses the Paris Peace Settlement after the Great War.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy062
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • Aggression before Versailles
    • Authors: Lesaffer R.
      Pages: 773 - 808
      Abstract: The roots of aggression as a concept of international law are rarely traced back beyond the end of World War I. The Versailles Peace Treaty of 28 June 1919 and the Covenant of the League of Nations, which constituted its first 26 articles, are often quoted as the first seminal steps towards its emergence as a key concept of the modern jus contra bellum. In this article, this assumption is tested and read against the backdrop of 18th- and 19th-century use of force law. The paper makes three claims. First, although international use of force law underwent important change during the 19th century, it remained deeply rooted in the jus ad bellum of the early modern age, which in turn had its roots in late-medieval scholarship. Therefore, 19th-century doctrine and state practice cannot be fully appreciated without an awareness of the historical tradition they built on. Second, although it cannot be denied that 19th-century international law conceded to states the right to resort to force and war, this right was conditional and restricted. Third, both early modern as well as 19th-century international lawyers referred to a concept of aggravated violation of jus ad bellum which – at least in theory – triggered reaction and even sanction by the international society of states against the perpetrator. This was, from the 18th century onwards, loosely and inconsequentially, but with increasing frequency, referred to as ‘aggression’ or ‘aggressive war’, both in diplomatic practice as well as in legal scholarship. Although the Versailles Peace Treaty broke with existing peace-making practice and returned to a discriminatory conception of war by blaming the war on Germany and its allies and by sanctioning them, it drew on a pre-existing conception of aggression as a violation of use of force law.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy038
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • ‘What We Seek Is the Reign of Law’: The Legalism of the Paris Peace
           Settlement after the Great War
    • Authors: Payk M.
      Pages: 809 - 824
      Abstract: The Paris Peace Settlement of 1919–1920 has decisively influenced the development of international law in the 20th century. We know far less, however, about the legalism that shaped the process of peacemaking after the Great War. Going beyond conventional narratives of reiterating the achievements and failures of the peacemakers, this article develops an outside perspective on the impact that notions of law, justice and legality had on the Paris negotiations. Allied claims of defending international society and establishing the ‘reign of law’ in international affairs created normative expectations that staked out the ground for the entire settlement. The article exhibits the inherent ambivalence of those declarations and demonstrates how the normative reality construed by the Allies fashioned the political and diplomatic agenda of victorious and vanquished nations alike.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy058
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • Roaming Charges: The Crucifixion – Do It Yourself
    • Pages: 825 - 828
      Abstract: We deal in EJIL with the world we live in – often with its worst and most violent pathologies, often with its most promising signs of hope for a better world. But, inevitably, since our vehicle is scholarship, we reify this world. Roaming Charges is designed not just to offer a moment of aesthetic relief, but to remind us of the ultimate subject of our scholarly reflections: we alternate between photos of places – the world we live in – and photos of people – who we are, the human condition. We eschew the direct programmatic photograph: people shot up; the ravages of pollution and all other manner of photojournalism.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy044
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Crime of Aggression before the International Criminal Court:
           Introduction to the Symposium
    • Authors: Akande D; Tzanakopoulos A.
      Pages: 829 - 833
      Abstract: On 17 July 2018, on the 20th anniversary of the adoption of its Statute, the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court (ICC) over the crime of aggression became operational.11 This was the first time in 70 years – since the Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals – that an international tribunal would possess the possibility of prosecuting leaders for the ‘supreme international crime’, the crime against peace. Leaders allegedly responsible for planning or executing an act of aggression that by its character, gravity and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations (UN Charter) are to be called to account before an international criminal jurisdiction. It took a long time to get there, for sure, and it also took quite a lot of work. The decision to include aggression among the crimes within the jurisdiction of the ICC was taken in Rome in 1998, but that decision amounted to nothing more than a placeholder for more difficult decisions to come regarding the definition of the crime and the conditions for the exercise of jurisdiction over it. Amazingly, those decisions were made in the early years of the Court, in Princeton, and then momentously late at night in June 2010 in Kampala at the first Review Conference of the Statute of the ICC. However, states again got cold feet and postponed activation of ICC jurisdiction for at least seven years. Eventually, the decision was made, again late at night and after marathon negotiations, in New York in December 2017, to activate the Court’s jurisdiction over the crime of aggression, with one final delay of just a few months and this time without requiring a further decision by states.22
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy060
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • International Criminal Justice as a Peace Project
    • Authors: Mégret F.
      Pages: 835 - 858
      Abstract: Although the Kampala adoption of a regime for the crime of aggression has been generally hailed as a breakthrough, it needs to be understood as part of the long-term evolution of international criminal justice as a peace project. Jus contra bellum considerations have, if anything, dramatically declined in the second half of the 20th century as a central theme in the comprehension of international criminal justice. Compared to an earlier era, starting in the interwar period and culminating in Nuremberg and Tokyo, that saw ‘crimes against peace’ as the ‘crimes of crimes’, contemporary international criminal tribunals are much more concerned with ‘atrocity crimes’. This evolution is strongly correlated to evolving ideas about the nature of international peace and security that are increasingly understood not in their interstate dimension but, rather, as threatened by the breakdown of societies into conflict. It may even be that, compared to a classical approach in which the international criminal justice project was seen as a crucial part of the collective security regime, international criminal justice is now one of the factors that potentially undermines traditional prohibitions on the use of force. Taking seriously the idea that international criminal justice can be understood as a peace project, this article will delineate some of the ways in which it has also contributed to redefining the very meaning of peace in potentially problematic ways.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy057
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Criminalization of Aggression and Soldiers’ Rights
    • Authors: Dannenbaum T.
      Pages: 859 - 886
      Abstract: This article identifies the core wrong of criminal aggression to be the entailed legally unjustified killing and human violence and not the violation of sovereignty or states’ rights. Its key contribution is to elaborate two implications of that normative account of the crime. First, soldiers have a right to refuse to fight in criminal wars, and they must be recognized as refugees when they flee punishment for engaging in such refusal. Second, those killed or harmed by an aggressor force are the core victims of the crime. As such, they, and not the attacked state, have the primary claim to participation as victims at the International Criminal Court and to the reparations that follow. Those who adhere to the orthodox notion of aggression as a crime against the attacked state miss both of these implications. Soldiers seeking asylum when they refuse to fight in aggressive wars are denied on the grounds that, if they were to fight, they would be far removed from the macro wrong against the state and so should have no difficulty ‘washing their hands of guilt’. This is misguided. Although there are good reasons for the leadership element that protects them from criminal liability for aggression, soldiers perpetrate directly the constituent wrongs of the criminal action, and the reasons not to punish them for doing so are not reasons to deny them the right to disobey. Similarly, adherents to the traditional account would grant states the right to participate as victims and claim reparations in aggression prosecutions. This too is a mistake. The victims of the wrong that renders aggressive war criminally condemnable are soldiers killed or harmed fighting an aggressor force and collaterally killed or harmed civilians. These are the class members eligible for participation and reparations at the International Criminal Court.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy054
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • Criminalizing Aggression: How the Future of the Law on the Use of Force
           Rests in the Hands of the ICC
    • Authors: Ruys T.
      Pages: 887 - 917
      Abstract: The activation of Articles 8bis, 15bis and 15ter of the Rome Statute in July 2018 has once again fuelled debates over the prosecution of the crime of aggression. While various flaws and imperfections of the Kampala Amendments have attracted scholarly attention in recent years, the present article focuses on one particular source for concern – that is, the implications that the activation of the International Criminal Court’s (ICC) jurisdiction may have for the legal regime governing the use of force between states. It is assumed at the outset that, even if investigations into alleged crimes of aggression may not occur on a frequent basis, sooner or later the ICC will inevitably be called upon to apply Article 8bis of the Rome Statute. Indeed, even if the majority of situations dealt with by the Court pertain to non-international armed conflicts, there have also been a number of situations involving an international/interstate element. In essence, each such situation potentially raises jus contra bellum concerns and may accordingly lead to allegations that the crime of aggression has been committed. Even if the lion’s share of these allegations is unlikely to make it past the preliminary examination or investigation phases, the way in which the ICC prosecutor and the Pre-Trial Chambers play their role as gatekeepers with regard to the crime of aggression is bound to have strong repercussions for the interpretation and compliance pull of the law on the use of force. This article first addresses the possible impact of the ICC’s jurisdiction over the crime of aggression on the recourse to, and acceptance of, unilateral humanitarian intervention, before addressing other ways in which it may influence the international legal framework governing the use of force.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy053
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Crime of Aggression’s Show Trial Catch-22
    • Authors: de Hoon M.
      Pages: 919 - 937
      Abstract: The crime of aggression amendment to the statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) that was adopted in Kampala in 2010 was activated on 17 July 2018. This article argues that this new criminal provision is open enough to allow legally equally sound, but mutually exclusive, arguments that lead to opposite positions on whether the use of force in a particular situation is or is not a crime of aggression. It thereby enables the translation of political contestation on the causes of war and legitimacy of use of force into the moralized language of international criminal law, in the setting of a criminal court of law. This article shows how and why the crime of aggression norm is left open to allow contrary argumentation, in particular through its ‘manifest violation’ criterion, how the openness of the norm is used in argumentation about the lawfulness/legitimacy as well as aggressiveness of Russia’s role in separating Crimea from Ukraine as well as what it means to transpose political contestation into a criminal courtroom setting. The article forebodes that it puts the ICC in a Catch-22 position. Whether it allows the accused to argue its counter-narrative or not, it will be accused of holding a show trial when prosecuting for the crime of aggression. In a time when the ICC’s legitimacy is under great stress, this article warns that if prosecutions for the crime of aggression will take place, they are more likely to leave behind the bad taste of a show trial than achieve much in terms of administering justice, suppressing aggression and contributing to more peaceful interaction between states.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy052
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • Treaty Law and ICC Jurisdiction over the Crime of Aggression
    • Authors: Akande D; Tzanakopoulos A.
      Pages: 939 - 959
      Abstract: This article examines the question of who will be subject to International Criminal Court (ICC) jurisdiction with respect to the crime of aggression. One of the most contentious questions in the negotiations regarding the crime of aggression was whether the Court would have jurisdiction over nationals of a state that does not ratify the Kampala Amendments, but which is alleged to have committed an act of aggression on the territory of a state that has accepted the aggression amendments. The question is examined here against the background of the rules in the law of treaties regarding amendments and treaty interpretation. The article considers the legal effect that the resolution adopted by the ICC Assembly of States Parties in New York in December 2017 will have in determining this jurisdictional question. A resolution of an international conference adopted by consensus can, in principle, be regarded as subsequent practice or a subsequent agreement of the parties to the Rome Statute that establishes the authentic interpretation of the Statute within the meaning of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. It is argued, however, that this particular resolution does not, in itself, provide the definitive answer on the correct interpretation of the Rome Statute. Despite being adopted by consensus, and despite being highly relevant for the interpretation of the Rome Statute and the Kampala Amendments, this resolution does not necessarily amount to a subsequent agreement or subsequent practice that the Court is legally bound to follow. Nevertheless, it is further argued that the position adopted in New York with regard to the jurisdiction of the Court over nationals of states parties that do not ratify the Kampala Amendments is the correct legal position and the one that the Court ought to adopt. The answer to the question over whom the Court will have jurisdiction with respect to aggression is to be found in Rome rather than in Kampala, or even in New York. We argue that the key to addressing this issue is to understand how the amendment provisions of the Rome Statute work in conjunction with basic principles of the law of treaties.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy059
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • UNaccountable: A New Approach to Peacekeepers and Sexual Abuse
    • Authors: Freedman R.
      Pages: 961 - 985
      Abstract: The appointment of a new United Nations (UN) Secretary-General brings new opportunities to address issues that have beset the organization over recent decades. A priority in that regard should be accountability for harms caused within peacekeeping. This issue has received significant attention over recent years, with the close scrutiny of cholera in Haiti and lead poisoning in Kosovo being just two examples. While legal scholarship in recent years has focused on how to reform UN accountability, particularly in relation to the Haiti cholera claims, there have been fewer proposals on how to address crimes committed by UN peacekeepers. One of the most serious of those crimes, in terms of harms caused both to victims and to the legitimacy of UN peacekeeping operations, is sexual abuse. Yet the proposals for addressing this issue largely have not been successful. To that end, this article – which is exploratory in nature – sets out why there is a need for a wholesale reform of how we approach accountability for peacekeepers who perpetrate sexual abuse, explaining particularly how the problems relate to laws and normative frameworks as well as to investigations and prosecutions. The article then proposes elements that might be considered in a new victim-centred approach – namely, criminal justice, truth and reconciliation, human rights and political processes.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy039
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • UNaccountable: A Reply to Rosa Freedman
    • Authors: Hovell D.
      Pages: 987 - 997
      Abstract: No other continent has endured such an unspeakably bizarre combination of foreign thievery and foreign goodwill.   – Barbara Kingsolver, The Poisonwood Bible
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy051
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • UNaccountable: A Rejoinder to Devika Hovell
    • Authors: Freedman R.
      Pages: 999 - 1002
      Abstract: ‘We lied to each other so much, that in nothing we trust’   –Megadeth, ‘Trust’, Cryptic Writings, 1997
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy055
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • E Pluribus Unum' A Divisible College': Reflections on the
           International Legal Profession
    • Authors: Hernández G.
      Pages: 1003 - 1022
      Abstract: Anthea Roberts’ ambitious monograph, Is International Law International', calls on international lawyers to suspend our universalist pretensions and reflect from the perspective of different communities of international lawyers, conceived instead as a ‘divisible college’. Her innovative and contemporary empirical work – on the educational and discursive practices across the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council – represents nothing less than a first stab at a sociology of the international legal profession. In doing so, Roberts has adopted a consciously descriptive approach, with all of the consequences entailed thereby. Moreover, her privileging of certain methods and the focus on the five veto-wielding powers has the potential to reproduce the very power imbalances that she seeks to illuminate and possibly to challenge. Finally, an important counterpoint to the divisibility of the international legal profession is that, however diverse we may be, we nevertheless remain united by certain other tenets – in particular, our shared understanding of what concepts and ideas find purchase on the international plane and our engagement with, commitment to, or resistance to these concepts and ideas. The ties that bind our epistemic community might be obscured by undue emphasis on our profession as a divisible college.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy045
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • Queering International Law: Possibilities, Alliances, Complicities, Risks
    • Authors: Arimatsu L.
      Pages: 1023 - 1028
      Abstract: OttoDianne (ed.). Queering International Law: Possibilities, Alliances, Complicities, Risks. New York: Routledge, 2017. Pp. 290. £105. ISBN: 9781138289918.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy046
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • Accessing Asylum in Europe: Extraterritorial Border Controls and Refugee
           Rights under EU Law
    • Authors: Gil-Bazo M.
      Pages: 1029 - 1031
      Abstract: Moreno-LaxVioleta, Accessing Asylum in Europe: Extraterritorial Border Controls and Refugee Rights under EU Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. Pp. 624. £95.00. ISBN 978-0-19-870100-2
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy048
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Impact of Investment Treaty Law on Host States: Enabling Good
    • Authors: Živković V.
      Pages: 1032 - 1038
      Abstract: SattorovaMavluda, The Impact of Investment Treaty Law on Host States: Enabling Good Governance'Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2018. Pp. 220. £65. ISBN: 9781849465854
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy049
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • System, Order, and International Law. The Early History of International
           Legal Thought from Machiavelli to Hegel
    • Authors: Fisch J.
      Pages: 1039 - 1039
      Abstract: KadelbachStefan, KleinleinThomas, and Roth-IsigkeitDavid (ed.). System, Order, and International Law. The Early History of International Legal Thought from Machiavelli to Hegel. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. Pp. 544. £80. ISBN: 9780198768586
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy047
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Quality of Mercy
    • Pages: 1040 - 1040
      Abstract: The quality of mercy is not strain'd,It droppeth as the gentle rain from heavenUpon the place beneath: It is twice bless'd;It blesseth him that gives and him that takes:’Tis mightiest in the mightiest; it becomesThe thronèd monarch better than his crown;His sceptre shows the force of temporal power,The attribute to awe and majesty,Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings;But mercy is above this sceptred sway,It is enthronèd in the hearts of kings,It is an attribute to God Himself,And earthly power doth then show likest God’sWhen mercy seasons justice. Therefore, Jew,Though justice be thy plea, consider this,That in the course of justice none of usShould see salvation: we do pray for mercy,And that same prayer doth teach us all to renderThe deeds of mercy. I have spoke thus muchTo mitigate the justice of thy plea,Which if thou follow, this strict court of VeniceMust needs give sentence ‘gainst the merchant there.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy050
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 3 (2018)
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