Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 412 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 412 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 391, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 619, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 234, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insect Systematics and Diversity     Hybrid Journal  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 289, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Epidemiologic Reviews
Journal Prestige (SJR): 4.505
Citation Impact (citeScore): 8
Number of Followers: 9  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0193-936X - ISSN (Online) 1478-6729
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [412 journals]
  • The Many Faces of Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Disease
    • Authors: Lessler J; Orenstein W.
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: AbstractThe emergence of disease threats can take many forms, from the adaptation of a traditionally zoonotic pathogen for efficient spread in humans, to the development of antibiotic resistance in well-known pathogens, to the creation of new niches for established disease through social and societal changes. In this commentary, the authors explore these various facets of disease emergence through the lens of the papers included in this issue of Epidemiologic Reviews. The authors explore multiple aspects of emergence and the ways in which emergent pathogens can be controlled with the limited tools available. In doing so, they put the papers in this issue in the context of the broader research agenda around understanding and combatting emergent pathogens.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz011
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
  • Advances in Data-Driven Responses to Preventing Spread of Antibiotic
           Resistance Across Health-Care Settings
    • Authors: Fridkin S.
      Pages: 6 - 12
      Abstract: AbstractAmong the most urgent and serious threats to public health are 7 antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections predominately acquired during health-care delivery. There is an emerging field of health-care epidemiology that is focused on preventing health care–associated infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and incorporates data from patient transfers or patient movements within and between facilities. This analytic field is being used to help public health professionals identify best opportunities for prevention. Different analytic approaches that draw on uses of big data are being explored to help target the use of limited public health resources, leverage expertise, and enact effective policy to maximize an impact on population-level health. Here, the following recent advances in data-driven responses to preventing spread of antibiotic resistance across health-care settings are summarized: leveraging big data for machine learning, integration or advances in tracking patient movement, and highlighting the value of coordinating response across institutions within a region.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz010
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
  • Postexposure Effects of Vaccines on Infectious Diseases
    • Authors: Gallagher T; Lipsitch M.
      Pages: 13 - 27
      Abstract: AbstractWe searched the PubMed database for clinical trials and observational human studies about postexposure vaccination effects, targeting infections with approved vaccines and vaccines licensed outside the United States against dengue, hepatitis E, malaria, and tick-borne encephalitis. Studies of animal models, serologic testing, and pipeline vaccines were excluded. Eligible studies were evaluated by definition of exposure; attempts to distinguish pre- and postexposure effects were rated on a scale of 1 to 4. We screened 4,518 articles and ultimately identified for this review 14 clinical trials and 31 observational studies spanning 7 of the 28 vaccine-preventable diseases. For secondary attack rate, the following medians were found for postexposure vaccination effectiveness: hepatitis A, 85% (interquartile range (IQR), 28; n = 5 sources); hepatitis B, 85% (IQR, 22; n = 5 sources); measles, 83% (IQR, 21; n = 8 sources); varicella, 67% (IQR: 48; n = 9 sources); smallpox, 45% (IQR, 39; n = 4 sources); and mumps, 38% (IQR, 7; n = 2 sources). For case fatality proportions resulting from rabies and smallpox, the median vaccine postexposure efficacies were 100% (IQR, 0; n = 6 sources) and 63% (IQR, 50; n = 8 sources), respectively. Many available vaccines can modify or preclude disease if administered after exposure. This postexposure effectiveness could be important to consider during vaccine trials and while developing new vaccines.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz014
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
  • CEPI: Driving Progress Toward Epidemic Preparedness and Response
    • Authors: Gouglas D; Christodoulou M, Plotkin S, et al.
      Pages: 28 - 33
      Abstract: AbstractThe Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) was formed in the aftermath of the 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak in west Africa to support the development of vaccines that could improve the world’s preparedness against outbreaks of epidemic infectious diseases. Since its launch in 2017, CEPI has mobilized more than US$750 million to support its mission to develop vaccines against agents such as Lassa virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and Nipah virus, as well as several rapid-response vaccine platforms to accelerate response times to unexpected epidemic threats. CEPI has also played a leading role in fostering institutional partnerships between public- and private-sector organizations to optimize allocation of resources for vaccine development against its priority pathogens. CEPI’s priorities include diversification of its current vaccine research and development investment portfolio to include additional pathogens, such as Rift Valley fever and chikungunya; establishment of technical and regulatory pathways for vaccine development across CEPI’s portfolio; development of sustainable manufacturing solutions for vaccine candidates nearing completion of safety and immunogenicity testing in humans; and creation of investigational stockpiles of its vaccine candidates for use in emergency situations. This commentary provides an overview of the global health challenges CEPI was established to address and its achievements to date, and indicates priorities for funding and coordination in the coming years.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz012
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
  • Forecasting the 2014 West African Ebola Outbreak
    • Authors: Carias C; O’Hagan J, Gambhir M, et al.
      Pages: 34 - 50
      Abstract: AbstractIn 2014–2015, a large Ebola outbreak afflicted Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. We performed a systematic review of 26 manuscripts, published between 2014 and April 2015, that forecasted the West African Ebola outbreak while it was occurring, and we derived implications for how results could be interpreted by policymakers. Forecasted case counts varied widely. An important determinant of forecast accuracy for case counts was how far into the future predictions were made. Generally, forecasts for less than 2 months into the future tended to be more accurate than those made for more than 10 weeks into the future. The exceptions were parsimonious statistical models in which the decay of the rate of spread of the pathogen among susceptible individuals was dealt with explicitly. The most important lessons for policymakers regarding future outbreaks, when using similar modeling results, are: 1) uncertainty of forecasts will be greater in the beginning of the outbreak; 2) when data are limited, forecasts produced by models designed to inform specific decisions should be used complementarily for robust decision-making (e.g., 2 statistical models produced the most reliable case-counts forecasts for the studied Ebola outbreak but did not enable understanding of interventions’ impact, whereas several compartmental models could estimate interventions’ impact but required unavailable data); and 3) timely collection of essential data is necessary for optimal model use.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz013
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
  • Global Geographical and Temporal Patterns of Seasonal Influenza and
           Associated Climatic Factors
    • Authors: Dave K; Lee P.
      Pages: 51 - 68
      Abstract: AbstractUnderstanding geographical and temporal patterns of seasonal influenza can help strengthen influenza surveillance to early detect epidemics and inform influenza prevention and control programs. We examined variations in spatiotemporal patterns of seasonal influenza in different global regions and explored climatic factors that influence differences in influenza seasonality, through a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications. The literature search was conducted to identify original studies published between January 2005 and November 2016. Studies were selected using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The primary outcome was influenza cases; additional outcomes included seasonal or temporal patterns of influenza seasonality, study regions (temperate or tropical), and associated climatic factors. Of the 2,160 records identified in the selection process, 36 eligible studies were included. There were significant differences in influenza seasonality in terms of the time of onset, duration, number of peaks, and amplitude of epidemics between temperate and tropical/subtropical regions. Different viral types, cocirculation of influenza viruses, and climatic factors, especially temperature and absolute humidity, contributed to the variations in spatiotemporal patterns of seasonal influenza. The findings reported in this review could inform global surveillance of seasonal influenza and influenza prevention and control measures such as vaccination recommendations for different regions.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz008
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
  • A Review of Asymptomatic and Subclinical Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
           Coronavirus Infections
    • Authors: Grant R; Malik M, Elkholy A, et al.
      Pages: 69 - 81
      Abstract: AbstractThe epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) since 2012 has been largely characterized by recurrent zoonotic spillover from dromedary camels followed by limited human-to-human transmission, predominantly in health-care settings. The full extent of infection of MERS-CoV is not clear, nor is the extent and/or role of asymptomatic infections in transmission. We conducted a review of molecular and serological investigations through PubMed and EMBASE from September 2012 to November 15, 2018, to measure subclinical or asymptomatic MERS-CoV infection within and outside of health-care settings. We performed retrospective analysis of laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV infections reported to the World Health Organization to November 27, 2018, to summarize what is known about asymptomatic infections identified through national surveillance systems. We identified 23 studies reporting evidence of MERS-CoV infection outside of health-care settings, mainly of camel workers, with seroprevalence ranges of 0%–67% depending on the study location. We identified 20 studies in health-care settings of health-care worker (HCW) and family contacts, of which 11 documented molecular evidence of MERS-CoV infection among asymptomatic contacts. Since 2012, 298 laboratory-confirmed cases were reported as asymptomatic to the World Health Organization, 164 of whom were HCWs. The potential to transmit MERS-CoV to others has been demonstrated in viral-shedding studies of asymptomatic MERS infections. Our results highlight the possibility for onward transmission of MERS-CoV from asymptomatic individuals. Screening of HCW contacts of patients with confirmed MERS-CoV is currently recommended, but systematic screening of non-HCW contacts outside of health-care facilities should be encouraged.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz009
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
  • Emerging Evidence for Infectious Causes of Cancer in the United States
    • Authors: Brown H; Dennis L, Lauro P, et al.
      Pages: 82 - 96
      Abstract: AbstractWorldwide, infectious agents currently contribute to an estimated 15% of new cancer cases. Most of these (92%, or 2 million new cancer cases) are attributable to 4 infectious agents: Helicobacter pylori, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B and C viruses. A better understanding of how infectious agents relate to the US cancer burden may assist new diagnostic and treatment efforts. We review US-specific crude mortality rates from infection-associated cancers and describe temporal and spatial trends since 1999. We review the US-specific evidence for infection-cancer associations by reporting available estimates for attributable fractions for the infection-cancer associations. Death due to cancers with established infectious associations varies geographically, but estimates for the US attributable fraction are limited to a few observational studies. To describe the burden of infection-associated cancer in the United States, additional observational studies are necessary to estimate the prevalence of infection nationally and within subpopulations. As infectious associations emerge to explain cancer etiologies, new opportunities and challenges to reducing the burden arise. Improved estimates for the United States would help target interventions to higher-risk subpopulations.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz003
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
  • Evaluation of the Epidemiologic Efficacy of Eradicating Helicobacter
           pylori on Development of Gastric Cancer
    • Authors: Duan F; Song C, Zhang J, et al.
      Pages: 97 - 108
      Abstract: AbstractEradication of Helicobacter pylori colonization has been reported to affect the progression of gastric cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed from 1997 to 2017 using electronic databases. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized controlled trials (non-RCT) evaluated the effect of H. pylori eradication on development of gastric cancer. Four RCTs and 9 non-RCTs were included (n = 40,740 participants; 321,269 person-years). Overall, H. pylori eradication therapy was associated with a significantly reduced risk of gastric cancer (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41, 0.65). Results of mixed-effect Poisson regression meta-analysis were similar to those of traditional meta-analyses. In stratified analyses, the IRRs were 0.59 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.86) in RCTs and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.64) in non-RCTs. The IRRs were 0.45 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.61) in patients and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.90) in the general population. Moreover, the relative risk reduction was approximately 77% on the development of noncardiac gastric cancer with H. pylori eradication therapy in China. Attributable risk percentage and population attributable risk percentage for Chinese patients were 77.08% and 75.33%, respectively, and for Japanese patients were 57.80% and 45.99%, respectively. H. pylori eradication therapy reduces the risk of noncardiac gastric cancer development. The findings indicate the importance of early intervention with H. pylori eradication therapy from the perspective of epidemiology.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz006
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
  • Dietary Inflammatory Potential and the Risk of Neurodegenerative Diseases
           in Adults
    • Authors: Kheirouri S; Alizadeh M.
      Pages: 109 - 120
      Abstract: AbstractNutrition and diet have been suggested to enhance or inhibit cognitive performance and the risk of several neurodegenerative diseases. We conducted a systematic review to elucidate the relationship between the inflammatory capacity of a person’s diet and the risk of incident neurodegenerative diseases. We searched major medical databases for articles published through June 30, 2018. Original, full-text, English-language articles on studies with human participants which investigated the link between dietary inflammatory potential and risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases were included. Duplicate and irrelevant studies were removed, and data were compiled through critical analysis. Initially, 457 articles were collected via the searching method, of which 196 studies remained after removal of duplicates. Fourteen articles were screened and found to be relevant to the scope of the review. After critical analysis, 10 were included in the final review. In all studies but one, a higher dietary inflammatory index (DII) was related to higher risk of developing neurodegenerative disease symptoms, including memory and cognition decline and multiple sclerosis. Of 3 studies that assessed the association of DII with levels of circulating inflammation markers, 2 indicated that DII was positively correlated with inflammatory marker levels. Low literacy, an unhealthy lifestyle, and individual nutritional status were the factors involved in a diet with inflammatory potential. These findings enhance confidence that DII is an appropriate tool for measurement of dietary inflammatory potential and validate the role of diets with inflammatory potential in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. DII may be correlated with levels of circulating inflammatory markers.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz005
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
  • Incubation Period of Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli
    • Authors: Awofisayo-Okuyelu A; Brainard J, Hall I, et al.
      Pages: 121 - 129
      Abstract: AbstractShiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli are pathogenic bacteria found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Severe infections could lead to life-threatening complications, especially in young children and the elderly. Understanding the distribution of the incubation period, which is currently inconsistent and ambiguous, can help in controlling the burden of disease. We conducted a systematic review of outbreak investigation reports, extracted individual incubation data and summary estimates, tested for heterogeneity, classified studies into subgroups with limited heterogeneity, and undertook a meta-analysis to identify factors that may contribute to the distribution of the pathogen’s incubation period. Twenty-eight studies were identified for inclusion in the review (1 of which included information on 2 outbreaks), and the resulting I2 value was 77%, indicating high heterogeneity. Studies were classified into 5 subgroups, with the mean incubation period ranging from 3.5 to 8.1 days. The length of the incubation period increased with patient age and decreased by 7.2 hours with every 10% increase in attack rate.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz001
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
  • Zoonotic Tuberculosis in Humans: Control, Surveillance, and the One Health
    • Authors: Macedo Couto R; Ranzani O, Waldman E.
      Pages: 130 - 144
      Abstract: AbstractZoonotic tuberculosis is a reemerging infectious disease in high-income countries and a neglected one in low- and middle-income countries. Despite major advances in its control as a result of milk pasteurization, its global burden is unknown, especially due the lack of surveillance data. Additionally, very little is known about control strategies. The purpose of this review was to contextualize the current knowledge about the epidemiology of zoonotic tuberculosis and to describe the available evidence regarding surveillance and control strategies in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. We conducted this review enriched by a One Health perspective, encompassing its inherent multifaceted characteristics. We found that the burden of zoonotic tuberculosis is likely to be underreported worldwide, with higher incidence in low-income countries, where the surveillance systems are even more fragile. Together with the lack of specific political commitment, surveillance data is affected by lack of a case definition and limitations of diagnostic methods. Control measures were dependent on risk factors and varied greatly between countries. This review supports the claim that a One Health approach is the most valuable concept to build capable surveillance systems, resulting in effective control measures. The disease characteristics and suggestions to implement surveillance and control programs are discussed.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz002
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
  • A Review of Coccidioidomycosis in California: Exploring the Intersection
           of Land Use, Population Movement, and Climate Change
    • Authors: Pearson D; Ebisu K, Wu X, et al.
      Pages: 145 - 157
      Abstract: AbstractCalifornia has seen a surge in coccidioidomycosis (valley fever), a disease spread by the Coccidioides immitis fungus found in soil throughout the state, particularly in the San Joaquin Valley. We reviewed epidemiologic studies in which outbreak and sporadic cases of coccidioidomycosis were examined, and we considered the possible relationship of these cases to environmental conditions, particularly the state’s increasing aridity, drought, and wildfire conditions. Most of the studies we reviewed pertained to cases occupationally acquired in construction, military, archeological, and correctional institutional settings where workers were exposed to dust in C. immitis–endemic areas. A few reviewed outbreaks in the general population related to dust exposure from natural disasters, including an earthquake-associated landslide and a dust storm that carried particles long distances from endemic areas. Although many of California’s coccidioidomycosis outbreaks have been occupationally related, changing demographics and new, immunologically naïve populations in dry, endemic areas could expose the general population to C. immitis spores. Given the high rate of infection among workers who, for the most part, are healthy, the general population, including some elderly and immunocompromised individuals, could face additional risk. With climate-related events like drought and wildfires also increasing in endemic areas, research is needed to address the possible associations between these phenomena and coccidioidomycosis outbreaks.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz004
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
  • Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Indigenous Populations in the United States
           and Canada
    • Authors: Bruce V; Eldredge J, Leyva Y, et al.
      Pages: 158 - 167
      Abstract: AbstractAmerican Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) and Canadian Indigenous people are disproportionally affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection yet are frequently underrepresented in epidemiologic studies and surveys often used to inform public health efforts. We performed a systematic review of published and unpublished literature and summarized our findings on HCV prevalence in these Indigenous populations. We found a disparity of epidemiologic literature of HCV prevalence among AI/AN in the United States and Indigenous people in Canada. The limited data available, which date from 1995, demonstrate a wide range of HCV prevalence in AI/AN (1.49%–67.60%) and Indigenous populations (2.28%–90.24%). The highest HCV prevalence in both countries was reported in studies that either included or specifically targeted people who inject drugs. Lower prevalence was reported in studies of general Indigenous populations, although in Canada, the lowest prevalence was up to 3-fold higher in Aboriginal people compared with general population estimates. The disparity of available data on HCV prevalence and need for consistent and enhanced HCV surveillance and reporting among Indigenous people are highlighted. HCV affects Indigenous peoples to a greater degree than the general population; thus we recommend tribal and community leaders be engaged in enhanced surveillance efforts and that funds benefitting all Indigenous persons be expanded to help prevent and cover health care expenses to help stop this epidemic.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz015
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
  • A Systematic Literature Review of Reviews on the Effectiveness of
           Chlamydia Testing
    • Authors: Wong W; Lau S, Choi E, et al.
      Pages: 168 - 175
      Abstract: AbstractChlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection, causing significant morbidity and economic burden. Strategies like national screening programs or home-testing kits were introduced in some developed countries, yet their effectiveness remains controversial. In this systematic review, we examined reviews of chlamydia screening interventions to assess their effectiveness and the elements that contribute to their success to guide public policy and future research. We assessed English material published after 2000 in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the British Nursing Index, Medical Database, and Sociological Abstracts, in addition to World Health Organization Global Health Sector Strategies, the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control guidelines, and the Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. Systematic reviews that focused on chlamydia screening interventions were included. Using the socioecological model, we examined the levels of interventions that may affect the uptake of chlamydia screening. A total of 19 systematic reviews were included. Self-collection in home-testing kits significantly increased screening among girls and women 14–50 years of age. At the organizational level, using electronic health records and not creating additional costs facilitated testing. At the community level, outreach interventions in community and parent centers and homeless shelters achieved high screening rates. At the policy level, interventions with educational and advisory elements could result in significant improvements in screening rates.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/epirev/mxz007
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2019)
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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