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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 406 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 338, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 605, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 113, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 202, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Environmental Entomology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.818
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 11  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0046-225X - ISSN (Online) 1938-2936
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [406 journals]
  • Growth Chamber Data Should Not be Used to Predict Invasive Liriomyza
           huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Establishment
    • Authors: Weintraub P.
      Pages: 271 - 273
      Abstract: The pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard), was first described from Agrentina but has since spread worldwide as an invasive, economic pest of many crops (see review, Weintraub et al. 2017). They reported that this leafminer has been recorded from 365 host plant species in 49 plant families and is found on all continents except Australia and Antarctica. With such a broad phytophagy, the invasiveness of the pea leafminer is probably limited by the two most important abiotic factors for ectothermic poikilotherms: temperature and humidity. Three studies on lethal temperature limits of L. huidobrensis have been published: Lanzoni et al. (2002), Maharjan and Jung (2016), and Rodriguez-Castaneda et al. (2017) with details shown in Table 1. Lanzoni et al. (2002) and Maharjan and Jung (2016) found 100% mortality when pupae were kept at 30°C constant temperature and humidity in a growth chamber. Rodriguez-Castaneda et al. (2017), using variable day:night temperature and humidity regimes, found an upper developmental threshold of 28–29°C and concluded that there is a low risk of L. huidobrensis establishing in the United States if it moved through ports in Miami, Florida.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz003
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Are Changes in Plants due to Enhanced CO2 Contributing to Insect
           Population Declines'
    • Authors: Aucott M.
      Pages: 274 - 275
      Abstract: Recently there have been startling reports about dramatic declines in arthropod populations, and various possible reasons for the declines have been suggested, including higher maximum temperatures due to climate change (Lister and Garcia 2018). One possible cause that has not been mentioned so far is enriched CO2 and the increased fitness and other changes in plants subject to insect herbivory that this enrichment may be causing.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz021
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Inter- and Intrafield Distribution of Cereal Leaf Beetle Species
           (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Belgian Winter Wheat
    • Authors: Van de Vijver E; Landschoot S, Van Roie M, et al.
      Pages: 276 - 283
      Abstract: Cereal leaf beetles (CLBs), a group of chrysomelid beetles of the genus Oulema (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are well-known pest insects of small-grain cereals in many countries of the Northern hemisphere. Due to the small differences in morphology of species within this genus, classification up to species level remains a challenging task. Since an accurate view of species composition is important for developing targeted control strategies, the goal of this study was to unravel the Oulema species composition in Flanders’ wheat fields. During three subsequent years at a series of different fields, Oulema species were collected and classified up to species level (2016: 28 fields, 2017: 30 fields, and 2018: 23 fields). This study reveals that the population consists of four different species: Oulema melanopus, Oulema duftschmidi, and Oulema obscura were most frequently encountered, while Oulema rufocyanea was only marginally present. Furthermore, the population was highly dynamic, as the population share of each species varied between different growing seasons and between the various sampling events within each season. The distance from the field edge had a minor influence on the species composition, but the abundance of beetles increased with the distance to the field edge. A discriminant analysis revealed that based on the measurements of various body parts, an accurate classification up to species level is possible. In conclusion, we observed that the population densities fluctuated within and between years, resulting in variable incidence of CLB in winter wheat fields in the Flanders region.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz002
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Population Fluctuations and Effect of Climatic Factors on the Relative
           Abundance of Simulium damnosum Complex (Diptera: Simuliidae)
    • Authors: Oforka L; Adeleke M, Anikwe J, et al.
      Pages: 284 - 290
      Abstract: Simulium damnosum (Theobald) sensu lato (s.l.) is a complex of many species of black flies that transmit Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) to varying capacities based on their ecological zones in Africa. The presence of three ecological zones in Osun, an onchocerciasis endemic state in Nigeria, is the basis of this study that is aimed at determining the population dynamics of S. damnosum s.l. in the state. Adult S. damnosum s.l. were collected fortnightly in the wet and dry seasons for 2 yr between October 2014 and September 2016 in the Guinea savanna (Iwo), derived savannah (Ede), and rainforest (Obokun) zones. Temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall of the study area were measured. The results showed that in the first year, Ede had 62.8% of the total black fly population while Obokun had the lowest (1.5%). In the second year, Iwo had 94.1% of the total black fly population while Obokun had the least population. The black fly population was significantly higher during the wet season than dry season in Iwo and Ede, but was not significant in Obokun. The results further showed that black fly populations were strongly correlated with ambient temperature and rainfall in Iwo, whereas no relationships were recorded for Ede and Obokun. The results suggest that abundance of black flies during the wet season was due to increased rainfall which in turn created rapids and conditions suitable for development of preimaginal stages into adults. These vector surveillance findings will guide control decisions necessary for endemic communities to meet elimination targets.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz004
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • The Morphological Changes of Moths on Nakajima Island, Hokkaido, Japan
    • Authors: Yama H; Soga M, Evans M, et al.
      Pages: 291 - 298
      Abstract: Overgrazing by large mammalian herbivores has led to significant adverse impacts on ecosystems globally. Insects are often a key taxon affected by large herbivores because the plants that are grazed provide crucial food and habitat. By changing vegetation, overgrazing by herbivores could affect aspects of insect morphology, including through changes to larval development due to reduced food availability, and adult dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation. We investigated the wing morphology of moth species in two contrasting sites at Lake Toya in Hokkaido, Japan. We compared moths on Nakajima Island where deer are overabundant, with moths from the lakeshore 3 km away where deer are far less abundant. We compared forewing size and aspect ratio (length/width) of 13 moth species from both lakeshore and island sites. Four species, three of which were herb-feeding generalists, had significantly smaller wings on the island compared with the lakeshore. Seven species demonstrated a reduction in wing aspect ratio, whereas one species, the largest we measured, showed an increase in wing aspect ratio. We suggest that these morphological changes could be induced by overgrazing by deer (i.e., a reduction in moth host plant biomass and quality) and/or the isolation of moth populations on Nakajima Island. Further work is needed to reveal how these confounded but potentially interacting effects contribute to the morphological changes we found in the moths on the island. Our results show that habitat isolation and overabundance of deer populations can affect moth wing morphology, with potential implications for their population dynamics and community structure.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz011
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Oilfield Reclamation Recovers Productivity but not Composition of
           Arthropod Herbivores and Predators
    • Authors: Sylvain Z; Espeland E, Rand T, et al.
      Pages: 299 - 308
      Abstract: Arthropods are key components of grassland ecosystems. Though arthropod communities are often strongly influenced by plant communities, plants and arthropods may respond differently to disturbance. Studying plant responses alone may, therefore, not fully capture altered ecosystem dynamics; thus multi-trophic approaches are critical to fully understand ecosystem responses to disturbance. Energy development is a large-scale driver of disturbance in northern Great Plains rangelands, and recovery of arthropod communities following reclamation is not well understood. We sampled Orthoptera and spiders in western North Dakota, United States, in 2016. Samples were collected from 14 reclaimed oil well sites (‘reclaims’) 2–33 yr since reclamation, and native prairie at two distances (50 and 150 m) from reclaim edges. Overall Orthopteran and spider abundances on reclaims and native prairie did not differ; however, Orthopteran community composition and species abundances were distinct on reclaims versus native prairie, including increased abundances of Melanoplus femurrubrum (De Geer) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) (a noted crop pest) on reclaims. In contrast, NMS analyses revealed no differences in spider community composition between reclaims and native prairie, although abundances of one group (Salticidae) strongly decreased on reclaims. We present one of the first studies to investigate impacts of energy development and reclamation on arthropod communities. While reclamation efforts successfully recovered abundances and biomass of arthropod herbivores and predators, Orthopteran (but not spider) community composition on reclaims has not recovered to match that of intact prairie even 30 yr after reclamation. These findings suggest that energy development may have long-term or potentially irreversible impacts to rangeland arthropod communities.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz012
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Determining Spread Rate of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) and Its
           Associations With Environmental Factors in a Heterogeneous Landscape
    • Authors: Liang W; Tran L, Wiggins G, et al.
      Pages: 309 - 317
      Abstract: By the end of 2017, kudzu bug was reported in 652 counties in the United States since it was first observed in Georgia in 2009. Modeling its invasion dynamics is valuable to guide management through early detection and prevention of further invasion. Herein, we initially estimated the spread rate of kudzu bug with county-level invasion records and then determined important spatial factors affecting its spread during years 2010–2016. As kudzu bug infests a large heterogeneous area and shows asymmetric spread, we first utilized spatially constrained clustering (SCC), an unsupervised machine learning method, to divide the infested area into eight spatially contiguous and environmentally homogenous neighborhoods. We then used distance regression and boundary displacement methods to estimate the spread rates in all neighborhoods. Finally, we applied multiple regression to determine spatial factors influencing the spread of kudzu bug. The average spread rate reached 76 km/yr by boundary displacement method; however, the rate varied largely among eight neighborhoods (45–144 km/yr). In the southern region of the infested area, host plant density and wind speed were positively associated with the spread rate, whereas mean annual temperature, precipitation in the fall, and elevation had inverse relationships. In the northern region, January minimum temperature, wind speed, and human population density showed positive relationships. This study increases the knowledge on the spread dynamics of kudzu bug. Our research highlights the utility of SCC to determine natural clustering in a large heterogeneous region for better modeling of local spread patterns and determining important factors affecting the invasions.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz014
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Organic Regime Promotes Evenness of Natural Enemies and Planthopper
           Control in Paddy Fields
    • Authors: Yuan X; Zhou W, Jiang Y, et al.
      Pages: 318 - 325
      Abstract: Planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens, Sogatella furcifera, and Laodelphax striatellus) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) are the most important pests affecting rice production. Pesticide spraying for its control may cause harmful effects on human health and the environment, especially the loss of biodiversity. The consequences of these changes on biodiversity and ecological services are well studied in tropical irrigated paddy fields, but are largely unknown in subtropical areas. Organic regime provides an environment-friendly method for biodiversity conservation; however, it is unclear whether this regime can suppress planthopper populations effectively in paddy fields. Consequently, we compared species richness, abundance, community structure, and evenness of natural enemies and planthoppers between organic and conventional rice fields (n = 35) distributed across four sites in China. The results showed that species richness was higher in organic fields than in conventional fields. Shannon index and evenness of predators and parasitoids were higher in most of the organic fields than their conventional counterparts. Furthermore, planthopper density showed a significant negative relationship with increased richness and evenness for both predators and parasitoids. These results underscore the notion that management regimes influence biodiversity in rice field. Most importantly, this has direct implications on the efficacy of natural pest control services rendered by predators and parasitoids associated with planthoppers in China and potentially other rice production regions in Asia.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz013
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales) Infections in Isolated
           Aphid Populations from Oceanic Islands of the Azores Archipelago:
           Revisiting the Supergroups M and N
    • Authors: Moreira M; Aguiar A, Bourtzis K, et al.
      Pages: 326 - 334
      Abstract: Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have provided a suitable model to study endosymbionts, their community, and dynamics since the discovery of the obligate endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola in these organisms. In previous studies, Wolbachia was found in some aphid species. In the present study, we report the prevalence of Wolbachia in aphids sampled from a geographically isolated region (Azores Islands), aiming at a better understanding and characterization of the two newly reported supergroups, M and N. The description of the supergroup M was based on 16S rRNA as well as some protein-coding genes. However, the assignment of the supergroup N was according to 16S rRNA gene sequences of a very few samples. We collected aphid samples and performed phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene as well as four protein-coding genes (gatB, ftsZ, coxA, and hcpA). The results demonstrate that the 16S rRNA gene data can unambiguously assign the strain supergroup and that the two supergroups, N and M, are equally prevalent in Azorean aphids. The available sequence data for the protein-coding markers can identify supergroup M but the status of supergroup N is inconclusive, requiring further studies. The data suggest that horizontal transmission of Wolbachia (Hertig and Wolbach) between two phylogenetically distant aphid species cohabiting the same plant host.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy189
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Comparison of Transeius montdorensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to Other
           Phytoseiid Mites for the Short-Season Suppression of Western Flower
           Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
    • Authors: Labbé R; Gagnier D, Shipp L.
      Pages: 335 - 342
      Abstract: Under winter and early spring greenhouse growing conditions, suppression of thrips by predatory mites can vary considerably on a species basis. For certain mite species, shorter photoperiods, cooler temperatures, and lower vapor pressures translate to reductions in predation, oviposition, and survival. Therefore, predator species need to be assessed simultaneously to identify those most suitable for use under short-season conditions. In this study, laboratory trials were first conducted to compare rates of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) thrips predation, and oviposition by the phytoseiid predator Transeius montdorensis (Schicha) under simulated summer and winter conditions. Transeius montdorensis consumed similar numbers of first instar thrips, and laid a similar number of eggs under both conditions. In short-season greenhouse cage trials, crop establishment and predatory capacity of T. montdorensis were compared to those for three other predatory mites: Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), Amblydromalus limonicus (Garman & McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Over 4–5-wk trials performed in early spring in 2014 and 2016, the number of T. montdorensis mites on pepper plants was either equal or greater to levels in other treatments. In T. montdorensis cages, high levels of thrips suppression were observed, equal to those achieved by A. swirskii or A. limonicus treatments in the 2016 trial, and superior to those by N. cucumeris in both trial years. These findings show that T. montdorensis is a good thrips predator, and provides rationale for the development of this species as a new agent for greenhouse pest management in an expanded temperate area of the world.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz017
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Documenting Potential Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) (Fabaceae)
           Pollinators in Florida
    • Authors: Meagher R, Jr; Watrous K, Fleischer S, et al.
      Pages: 343 - 350
      Abstract: Sunn hemp, Crotalaria juncea L., is a warm-season legume that can be planted in rotation to cash crops to add nitrogen and organic matter to the soils, for weed growth prevention, and to suppress nematode populations. Sunn hemp flowers also provide nectar and pollen for pollinators and enhance biological control by furnishing habitat for natural enemies. Experiments were conducted in Northern and North Central Florida to evaluate bee populations that visited flowers within mixed plots of sunn hemp and sorghum-sudangrass and plots of two sunn hemp germplasm lines. Collections of bees that visited ‘AU Golden’ and Tillage Sunn flowers indicated that Xylocopa virginica (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Xylocopa micans Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Megachile sculpturalis Smith (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), Megachile mendica (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), and Megachile georgica Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) were present in large numbers in May through July and then again in October. Although Tillage Sunn seeds planted in March flowered in May, percent bloom and number of bee visits were low. Compared with short day sunn hemp cultivars, ‘AU Golden’ plants produced flowers early in the season to provide food and habitat for pollinators and have the potential to produce an abundant seed crop in Northern and North Central Florida.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy190
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Tracking Pesticide Residues to a Plant Genus Using Palynology in Pollen
           Trapped from Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) at Ornamental Plant
    • Authors: Stoner K; Cowles R, Nurse A, et al.
      Pages: 351 - 362
      Abstract: Worldwide studies have used the technique of pollen trapping, collecting pollen loads from returning honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foragers, to evaluate the exposure of honey bees to pesticides through pollen and as a biomonitoring tool. Typically, these surveys have found frequent contamination of pollen with multiple pesticides, with most of the estimated risk of acute oral toxicity to honey bees coming from insecticides. In our survey of pesticides in trapped pollen from three commercial ornamental plant nurseries in Connecticut, we found most samples within the range of acute toxicity in a previous state pollen survey, but a few samples at one nursery with unusually high acute oral toxicity. Using visual sorting by color of the pollen pellets collected in two samples from this nursery, followed by pesticide analysis of the sorted pollen and palynology to identify the plant sources of the pollen with the greatest acute toxicity of pesticide residues, we were able to associate pollen from the plant genus Spiraea L. (Rosales: Rosaceae) with extraordinarily high concentrations of thiamethoxam and clothianidin, and also with high concentrations of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos. This study is the first to trace highly toxic pollen collected by honey bees to a single plant genus. This method of tracking high toxicity pollen samples back to potential source plants could identify additional high-risk combinations of pesticide application methods and timing, movement into pollen, and attractiveness to bees that would be difficult to identify through modeling each of the contributing factors.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz007
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Short-Term Physiological Response of a Native Hawaiian Plant, Hibiscus
           arnottianus, to Injury by the Exotic Leafhopper, Sophonia orientalis
           (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)
    • Authors: Avanesyan A; Snook K, Follett P, et al.
      Pages: 363 - 369
      Abstract: Sophonia orientalis (Matsumura), also known as the two-spotted leafhopper, is a widespread exotic pest of many economically important crop plants and ornamental plants in Hawaii. Sophonia orientalis is highly polyphagous and is a major threat to some of the native endemic plants. Despite the successful establishment in Hawaii, interactions of S. orientalis with its host plants remain poorly understood. Previous studies primarily focused on distribution, parasitism, and oviposition of S. orientalis in Hawaii, whereas plant physiological responses to the leafhopper’s injury, and, specifically, gas exchange rates in plants, have not yet been described. In this study, we examined a short-term physiological response of a native Hawaiian plant, Hibiscus arnottianus (A. Gray), to injury by S. orientalis. We also explored whether Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, a native host plant of S. orientalis in Asia, exhibits a similar response. We found that H. arnottianus plants demonstrated a rapid (2-d) physiological response to injury accompanied by 40% reduction in rate of photosynthesis and 42% reduction in rate of transpiration, whereas C. sinensis did not exhibit any reduction in gas exchange rates. We did not record any changes in plant chlorophyll levels after plant injury in either species. Our results suggest that H. arnottianus is responding to the leafhopper feeding with a generalized wound response predicted for novel plant–insect herbivore associations. We discuss potential future directions for studies which might focus on host plant responses to S. orientalis in its native versus introduced range.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy193
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Mycorrhiza-Induced Resistance in Potato Involves Priming of Defense
           Responses Against Cabbage Looper (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera)
    • Authors: Schoenherr A; Rizzo E, Jackson N, et al.
      Pages: 370 - 381
      Abstract: Most plants form mutualistic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi that are ubiquitous in soils. Through this symbiosis, plants can withstand abiotic and biotic stresses. The underlying molecular mechanisms involved in mediating mycorrhiza-induced resistance against insects needs further research, and this is particularly true for potato (Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae)), which is the fourth most important crop worldwide. In this study, the tripartite interaction between potato, the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (Glomerales: Glomeraceae), and cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was examined to determine whether potato exhibits mycorrhiza-induced resistance against this insect. Plant growth, insect fitness, AM fungal colonization of roots, and transcript levels of defense-related genes were measured in shoots and roots after 5 and 8 d of herbivory on mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. AM fungal colonization of roots did not have an effect on potato growth, but root colonization levels increased by herbivory. Larval weight gain was reduced after 8 d of feeding on mycorrhizal plants compared with nonmycorrhizal plants. Systemic upregulation of Allene Oxide Synthase 1 (AOS1), 12-Oxo-Phytodienoate Reductase 3 (OPR3) (jasmonic acid pathway), Protease Inhibitor Type I (PI-I) (anti-herbivore defense), and Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) transcripts (phenylpropanoid pathway) was found during the tripartite interaction. Together, these findings suggest that potato may exhibit mycorrhiza-induced resistance to cabbage looper by priming anti-herbivore defenses aboveground. This study illustrates how mycorrhizal potato responds to herbivory by a generalist-chewing insect and serves as the basis for future studies involving tripartite interactions with other pests.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy195
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Variation in Host Plant Usage and Diet Breadth Predict Sibling Preference
           and Performance in the Neotropical Tortoise Beetle Chelymorpha alternans
           (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae)
    • Authors: Morrison C; Aubert C, Windsor D.
      Pages: 382 - 394
      Abstract: Specialized interactions between insects and the plants that they consume are one of the most ubiquitous and consequential ecological associations on the plant. Decades of investigation suggest that a narrow diet favors an individual phytophagous insect’s performance relative to a dietary generalist. However, this body of research has tended to approach questions of diet breadth and host usage from the perspective of temperate plant–insect associations. Relationships between diet breadth, host usage, and variation in tropical insect preference and performance remain largely uninvestigated. Here we characterize how variation in diet breadth and host usage affect oviposition preference, development, survival, and gain in mass of a Neotropical tortoise beetle Chelymorpha alternans Boheman 1854 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using a split-brood, sibling experimental design. Host performance was measured after splitting broods among four no-choice host diets. Groups consuming single hosts varied among themselves in developmental time and survival from larva to adult. Performance did not vary among groups consuming multiple and single hosts. Oviposition preference was measured in choice and no-choice tests. Females displayed preference for the original host in both experiments. Developmental time and survival of offspring sourced from the no-choice experiment was measured for two complete generations to explore correlations with female oviposition preference. Preference for the original host correlated with high survivorship and an intermediate developmental time. Survivorship and time to develop were also high on an alternative host that was less preferred. Departures from predictions of prevailing preference–performance hypotheses suggest that host usage presents C. alternans with fitness trade-offs.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy194
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Contributions of Soil Meso- and Microfauna to Nutrient Release During
           Broadleaved Tree Litter Decomposition in the Changbai Mountains
    • Authors: Qiu L; Yin X, Jiang Y.
      Pages: 395 - 403
      Abstract: Soil meso- and microfauna (<2 mm in size) play an important role in the decomposition and nutrient release of litter. However, most research has focused on the influences of soil fauna on decomposition rates, while the impact of soil fauna on nutrient release has not been fully understood. We evaluated the influence of soil meso- and microfauna communities on nutrient release from decomposing Tilia amurensis Rupr. (Malvales:Tiliaceae) and Acer mono Maxim. (Sapindales:Aceraceae) leaves from the coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests of the Changbai Mountains. Litter decomposition and nutrient release were assessed using litterbags placed at the surface of the litter and using designs both with and without 2-mm mesh to either permit or exclude soil meso- and microfauna. The soil meso- and microfauna increased the decomposition of T. amurensis (not significantly) and A. mono (significantly, by 15%) litters. Presence of the soil meso- and microfauna accelerated the release rate of Mn in the A. mono litter by 59%, whereas it significantly decreased the release rates of Ca (in the T. amurensis litter) and P (in the A. mono litter) by 28 and 48%, respectively. These results suggest that a stronger understanding of the influence of soil fauna on nutrient cycling is necessary to understand the mechanisms of matter circulation.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz005
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Influence of Density on Interspecific Competition Between Spathius galinae
           (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:
           Eulophidae), Larval Parasitoids of the Invasive Emerald Ash Borer
           (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)
    • Authors: Jennings D; Wang X, Duan J.
      Pages: 404 - 409
      Abstract: The outcomes of interspecific interactions between parasitoids depend on a variety of factors. Understanding the influence of these factors is important for classical biological control, where the success of parasitoid releases partly depends on interactions with native and other introduced species. However, results from laboratory experiments may not always reflect those in the field, as densities may be artificially inflated. To mitigate this problem, we examined the effects of multiple densities on interspecific competition between two larval parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire): Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang. Parasitoid species were housed individually or together at two different densities, and we measured the effects on percent parasitism and progeny production, before calculating the interaction strengths. We found no significant effects of parasitoid density on percent parasitism, but the effect of competition on parasitism generally was reduced at lower densities. However, there were significant differences in parasitism by species, with S. galinae parasitizing more larvae than T. planipennisi. There were also no significant effects of parasitoid density on the number of progeny produced by each species, though the effect of competition on progeny production was greater at higher densities. Similarly, though, there were significant differences between species in the number of progeny produced. Specifically, T. planipennisi consistently produced larger broods than S. galinae. Our findings complement existing research suggesting that competition between these two species in the field will likely be negligible.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz008
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Sexual Dimorphism in Wax Secretion Offers Ecological Adaptability During
           Ericerus pela (Hemiptera: Coccidae) Evolution
    • Authors: Qi Q; Lv P, Chen X, et al.
      Pages: 410 - 418
      Abstract: The scale insect, Ericerus pela Chavannes, shows a typical sexual dimorphism. Males and females are different not only in morphology, but also in their ability to secrete wax and ecological adaptability. Here we report the morphological and structural characteristics of wax glands on E. pela females and males. The differences in wax glands and wax secretion between females and males reflect their different needs for living habitats and different ecological strategies. Sciophilous male nymphs are with five types of wax glands, and the wax glands on the dorsum secrete a layer of wax filaments plausibly for protection against direct light irradiation. On the other hand, five types of wax glands were found on the abdomen of females. Heliophilous female nymphs hardly secrete any wax, but the wax glands located along the spiracle on the abdomen may help this insect to breathe. Female adults secrete wax filaments on eggs to protect them from predators and prevent themselves from sticking to each other. In summary, males appear to secreted wax for creating a shaded niche that fits their sciophilous life style, whereas females are likely to adopt an ecological strategy with thickened epidermis for heliophilous acclimatization and overwintering.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz009
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Herbivorous Caterpillars Can Utilize Three Mechanisms to Alter Green Leaf
           Volatile Emission
    • Authors: Jones A; Seidl-Adams I, Engelberth J, et al.
      Pages: 419 - 425
      Abstract: Green plants emit green leaf volatiles (GLVs) as a general damage response. These compounds act as signals for the emitter plant, neighboring plants, and even for insects in the ecosystem. However, when oral secretions from certain caterpillars are applied to wounded leaves, GLV emissions are significantly decreased or modified. We examined four caterpillar species representing two lepidopteran families for their capacity to decrease GLV emissions from Zea mays leaf tissue. We also investigated the source of the GLV modifying components in the alimentary tract of the various caterpillars. In Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and Manduca sexta (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), we found three distinct mechanisms to modify GLV emission: a heat-stable compound in the gut, a heat-labile enzyme in salivary gland homogenate (previously described in Bombyx mori (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and an isomerase in the salivary gland homogenate, which catalyzes the conversion of (Z)-3-hexenal to (E)-2-hexenal (previously described in M. sexta). These mechanisms employed by caterpillars to suppress or modify GLV emission suggest a counteraction against the induced indirect volatile defenses of a plant and provides further insights into the ecological functions of GLVs.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy191
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • An Efficient Method for Monitoring Predatory Minute Pirate Bugs Orius spp.
           (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Populations Using Blue-Colored Sticky Traps
    • Authors: Furihata S; Tabuchi K, Okudera S, et al.
      Pages: 426 - 433
      Abstract: Minute pirate bugs of genus Orius (Wolff) are known important generalist predators of microinvertebrate pests and are therefore useful in many agricultural contexts. Effective sampling methods are thus of great importance to monitor Orius spp. populations. Sticky traps are one such sampling method; however, trap color must be carefully selected for the target insect species. In this study, we examined the most suitable sticky trap color (i.e., white, blue, or yellow) to capture Orius spp. individuals in eggplant Solanum melongena (Linnaeus) (Solanales: Solanaceae), Italian ryegrass Lolium multiflorum (Lamarck) (Poales: Poaceae), soybean Glycine max (Linnaeus) (Fabales: Fabaceae), and white clover Trifolium repens (Linnaeus) (Fabales: Fabaceae) fields. More Orius spp. adults were caught on blue and white traps than on yellow traps. The white traps also caught other insects, which hampered the counting of Orius spp. individuals and, therefore, reduced trapping efficiency. In addition, seasonal prevalence investigations showed that blue sticky traps had similar patterns to those of field observations. Thus, as the blue sticky trap can avoid capturing nontarget insects, we concluded that blue was the most suitable trap color for monitoring Orius spp. In addition, because blue sticky traps are more efficient and less-labor intensive, they can be useful as an alternative to field observations.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz001
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Host Preference and Plastic Mulches for Managing Melon Thrips
           (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Field-Grown Vegetable Crops
    • Authors: Razzak M; Seal D, Stansly P, et al.
      Pages: 434 - 443
      Abstract: Melon thrips, Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a serious pest of vegetable, ornamental, and fruit crops. As a potential component of an integrated pest management (IPM) program, different plastic mulches including white-on-black, black-on-white, black-on-black, two metalized ultraviolet (UV)-reflective mulches, and a no mulch control were evaluated for managing T. palmi on six field-grown vegetable crops (eggplant, cucumber, squash, snap bean, Jalapeno pepper, and tomato) during the Fall of 2015 and 2016. Metalized reflective mulch significantly reduced the number of T. palmi in all vegetable crops compared with the other treatments. The highest numbers of T. palmi were observed on the white-on-black mulch and control treatments. The numbers of adults and larvae were highest on eggplant followed by cucumber, snap bean, squash, and Jalapeno pepper. The lowest numbers of T. palmi were observed on tomato plants. This study indicated that growing vegetable crops on metalized mulch is an effective method of reducing T. palmi populations in vegetable crops and should be considered in IPM programs for this insect species.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz010
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Influence of Weed Manipulation in Field Borders on Brown Stink Bug
           (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Densities and Damage in Field Corn
    • Authors: Babu A; Reisig D, Walgenbach J, et al.
      Pages: 444 - 453
      Abstract: Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), is a damaging pest of corn, Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae), in the southeastern United States. In North Carolina, during the spring, winter-planted wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (Cyperales: Poaceae), serves as the earliest available crop host, and E. servus seems to prefer this crop over seedling corn. In the absence of wheat in the agroecosystem, weeds serve as a bridge host for a portion of overwintered E. servus populations until they move to corn and other subsequent crops. Our objective was to reduce densities of E. servus in corn by manipulating the weedy field borders with mowing and applications of dicamba herbicide. During the study, multiple species of stink bugs (n =16) were found associated with weed plots. However, E. servus was the predominant (>94%) stink bug species in the corn. In this farmscape, density of E. servus adults in the unmanaged weed plots began declining around the second week of May, followed by an increase in density in adjacent corn plots. This movement coincided with the seedling growth of corn. In 2016, applications of dicamba in the weedy field border resulted in a lower density of E. servus in herbicide-treated weed plots compared with untreated plots. Despite this difference, manipulations of weeds did not lead to any significant changes in density of E. servus adults in corn. Further evidence suggested that a prominent external source of E. servus, other than field-bordering weeds, in the farmscape was likely driving densities in corn.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz016
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Interactions Between Biotic and Abiotic Factors Affect Survival in
           Overwintering Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)
    • Authors: Stockton D; Wallingford A, Rendon D, et al.
      Pages: 454 - 464
      Abstract: Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is an invasive species affecting berry crops and cherries throughout North America, South America, and Europe. Previous research suggests that in temperate climates, the overwintering success of D. suzukii is likely dependent on access to food, shelter, and adequate cold hardening. We performed a multi-state study under field conditions for two winters to determine whether D. suzukii sex, phenotype (summer-morphotype, winter-morphotype), and life stage (adults, pupae) affected survival over time while recording naturally-occurring spatial and temporal variation in temperature. Access to food was provided and the flies were buried under leaf litter. Baited traps were deployed to determine whether local populations of D. suzukii were active throughout the winter season. The duration of exposure, mean daily temperature, and cumulative time below freezing significantly affected survival. Below freezing, D. suzukii survival was significantly reduced, particularly in northern locations. In contrast, we observed sustained survival up to 10 wk in southern locations among adults and pupae. Biotic factors also significantly affected survival outcomes: female survival was greater than male survival, winter-morphotype survival was greater than summer-morphotype survival, and adult survival was greater than pupal survival. In the north, wild D. suzukii were captured only in early winter, while in the south they were found throughout the winter. These data suggest that although adult D. suzukii may overwinter in sheltered microclimates, this ability may be limited in regions where the ground temperature, or site of overwintering, falls below freezing for extended durations.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy192
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
  • Development and Dispersal of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on
           Non-Bt and Bt Pyramided Cotton
    • Authors: Braswell L; Reisig D, Sorenson C, et al.
      Pages: 465 - 477
      Abstract: Bollworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) can cause economic losses in both non-Bt and Bt cotton. Larvae modify their behavior in the presence of Bt by moving away from terminals faster in Bt cotton compared to non-Bt cotton and avoiding Bt-treated diets. Our objectives were to understand differences in bollworm egg and larvae populations within, and dispersal away from, non-Bt and Bt pyramided-toxin cotton. We conducted small plot experiments in 2016 and 2017 to monitor on-plant egg and larval numbers, and off-plant dispersal of larvae, from non-Bt and different Bt toxin pyramided cotton. Bollworm adults preferred to oviposit in most Bt toxin pyramids compared to non-Bt; this was likely unrelated to detection of Bt by adults, but rather density-dependent aversion from high larval populations. First instar numbers were similar in all non-Bt/Bt toxin pyramids and dispersed at a similar rate. Second through fifth instar numbers were higher in non-Bt than Bt toxin pyramids but dispersed equally from all non-Bt/Bt toxin pyramids, regardless of Bt pyramid type. Development times of larvae were often slower in Bt toxin pyramids compared to non-Bt. Fifth instars were found in, and dispersing from, Bt toxin pyramids containing Vip3A, raising concerns of resistance development. Furthermore, differences in oviposition rate among non-Bt/Bt toxin pyramids and slowed development rate of larvae on Bt varieties could create inconsistencies in generation times emerging from Bt and non-Bt hosts, which could contribute to resistance development.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvz006
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2019)
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