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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 297, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 520, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Environmental Entomology
  [SJR: 0.791]   [H-I: 66]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0046-225X - ISSN (Online) 1938-2936
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Environmental Entomology June 2017 Volume 46 Number 3 - Front Cover
    • Authors: Wild A.
      Abstract: Photo by Alex Wild.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx011
  • Information for Contributors
    • PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx013
  • Subscriptions Page
    • PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx014
  • Environmental Entomology Volume 46 Issue 3 June 2017 - TOC
    • PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx015
  • Ecological Factors Affecting the Flight Phenology of the Endangered
           Coenonympha nipisiquit (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
    • Authors: Chiasson B; Moreau G.
      First page: 419
      Abstract: Coenonympha nipisiquit McDunnough (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is an endemic butterfly species that has been recorded only in 10 salt marshes of eastern Canada. Despite obtaining the endangered status and benefiting from a conservation program, the populations of this species appear to be declining. However, a lack of information about the ecology of the species and current demographics undermines potential in-situ conservation efforts. To identify the environmental factors affecting the emergence phenology and flight period of this species, daily visual counts of adult C. nipisiquit were carried out on a daily basis from 2011 to 2015 during the flight period along transects in four marshes where the butterfly maintains a continuous presence. A series of environmental parameters was collected during the monitoring. Additive modeling indicated that the accumulation of degree-days above 7 °C from mid-May contributed to the synchronization of adult emergence and flight in C. nipisiquit and identified a number of abiotic factors having an impact on the activity and monitoring of this insect. Data also indicated that some demographic aspects of this butterfly differ between sites and confirmed that C. nipisiquit has been declining from 2011 to 2015. In conclusion, this study not only generated information critical to the adjustment of the conservation program for C. nipisiquit, but also indicated that the extirpation of this species from its natural range should remain a concern.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvw170
  • Cereal Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Regional Dispersion and
           Relationship With Wheat Stand Denseness
    • Authors: Reisig DD; Bacheler JS, Herbert D, et al.
      First page: 425
      Abstract: Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L., is a pest of small grains and the literature conflicts on whether it is more abundant in sparse or dense stands of wheat. Our objectives were to determine the impact of stand denseness on cereal leaf beetle abundance and to investigate the regional dispersion of cereal leaf beetles across North Carolina and Virginia. One-hundred twenty fields were sampled across North Carolina and Virginia during 2011 for stand denseness, and cereal leaf beetle eggs, larvae, and adults. Two small-plot wheat experiments were planted in North Carolina using a low and a high seeding rate. Main plots were split, with one receiving a single nitrogen application and one receiving two. Egg density, but not larva or adult density, was positively correlated with stand denseness in the regional survey. Furthermore, regional spatial patterns of aggregation were noted for both stand denseness and egg number. In the small-plot experiments, seeding rate influenced stand denseness, but not nitrogen application. In one experiment, egg densities per unit area were higher in denser wheat, while in the other experiment, egg densities per tiller were lower in denser wheat. Larvae were not influenced by any factor. Overall, there were more cereal leaf beetle eggs in denser wheat stands. Previous observations that sparse stands of wheat are more prone to cereal leaf beetle infestation can be attributed to the fact that sparser stands have fewer tillers, which increases the cereal leaf beetle to tiller ratio compared with denser stands.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx034
  • Precipitation and Temperature Effects on Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)
           Population Dynamics
    • Authors: Taylor DB; Friesen K, Zhu J.
      First page: 434
      Abstract: The dynamics of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations relative to temperature and precipitation were evaluated in a 13-yr study in eastern Nebraska. During the course of the study, >1.7 million stable flies were collected on an array of 25 sticky traps. A log-normal model using degree-days with a 15 °C threshold and weekly lags 0–4 for temperature and 2–7 for precipitation provided the best fit with the observed data. The relationships of temperature and precipitation to stable fly trap catches were both curvilinear, with maxima at 6.6 degree-day-15 (≈22 °C) and 7.4 mm precipitation per day, respectively. The temperature and precipitation model accounted for 72% of the variance in seasonal trap catches.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx032
  • Biology of Scolytus piceae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in
           Northern Idaho and Notes on Comparative Anatomical Features of the Larva
    • Authors: Furniss MM; Kegley SJ.
      First page: 440
      Abstract: The forests of the northern Rocky Mountains are hosts of nine species of Nearctic conifer-infesting bark beetles of the genus Scolytus Geoffroy. One of these, Scolytus piceae Swaine (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infests spruces across the continent including Picea engelmannii Parry (Pinaceae) in Idaho. Mature larvae overwintered before transforming to adults, which infested new hosts in early June. Scolytus piceae most commonly infested shaded out lower branches of mature live spruce. In sporadic wind-felled spruce, the beetle infested the terminal portion of branches throughout the crown, whereas another Scolytinae, Polygraphus rufipennis (Kirby), infested the thicker bark basal portion of the same branches. This niche separation resulted from difference in time of their dispersal flight and ability of S. piceae to colonize thin bark by engraving the underlying sapwood. Population recruitment of S. piceae was low in shaded out lower branches, in balance with this limited host resource. Features of the head of S. piceae larvae differed from that reported in literature, including the mandible dentition, antennal field, and pattern of setae on the postlabium.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx048
  • Livestock Grazing Shapes the Vegetation Structure and Subsequent Habitat
           Use by the Endangered Skipper Pyrgus ruralis lagunae (Lepidoptera:
    • Authors: Marschalek DA; Faulkner DK, Deutschman DH.
      First page: 445
      Abstract: Many species adapted to alpine and montane meadow ecosystems are at risk of extinction. The skipper Pyrgus ruralis lagunae Scott is a mountaintop butterfly restricted to San Diego County, CA, a federally listed endangered species, and is in imminent risk of extinction. Historically, P. r. lagunae was found in the Laguna and Palomar mountains. We did not detect the skipper in the Laguna Mountains, and the species has likely been extirpated from this area, which represents half of its historical range and is the type locality. We studied three populations on Palomar Mountain. Skippers primarily occupied areas close to creeks or in adjacent ravines at two nongrazed sites. The third site is grazed by cattle, and skippers were found close to the forest edge. At nongrazed locations, creek areas had higher cover of intermediate-height vegetation, more bare ground, and more flowers compared with unoccupied areas of the same meadow. The vegetation at occupied and unoccupied areas within the grazed meadow were similar. Even so, skippers occupied areas with more bare ground as well as greater species richness of flowering plants. A grazing exclosure was previously installed in an attempt to protect and enhance skipper habitat, but skippers did not use the dense grasslands that developed inside the exclosures. Contrary to the prevailing theory, protection from grazing did not improve skipper habitat. This illustrates how management based on inadequate biological information can hinder well-intentioned conservation efforts.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx058
  • Diversity and Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Soil Macrofauna Communities
           Along Elevation in the Changbai Mountain, China
    • Authors: Yin X; Qiu L, Jiang Y, et al.
      First page: 454
      Abstract: The understanding of patterns of vertical variation and diversity of flora and fauna along elevational change has been well established over the past century. However, it is unclear whether there is an elevational distribution pattern for soil fauna. This study revealed the diversity and spatial-temporal distribution of soil macrofauna communities in different vegetation zones from forest to alpine tundra along elevation of the Changbai Mountain, China. The abundance, richness, and Shannon–Wiener diversity index of soil macrofauna communities were compared in four distinguished vegetation zones including the coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest zone, the coniferous forest zone, the subalpine dwarf birch (Betula ermanii) forest zone, and the alpine tundra zone. Soil macrofauna were extracted in May, July, and September of 2009. In each season, the abundance and richness of the soil macrofauna decreased with the ascending elevation. The Shannon–Wiener diversity indices of the soil macrofauna were higher in the vegetation zones of lower elevation than of higher elevation. Significant differences were observed in the abundance, richness, and Shannon–Wiener diversity index for the studied vegetation zones. Soil macrofauna congregated mainly to the litter layer in the low-elevation areas and in the 0–5 cm soil layer of the higher elevation areas. The results emphasized that the diversity of soil macrofauna communities decreased as the elevation increased and possess the distinct characteristics of zonation in the mountain ecosystem. The diversity and distribution of soil macrofauna communities were influenced by mean annual precipitation, altitude, annual radiation quantity, and mean annual temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx051
  • Diversity of Sarcosaprophagous Calyptratae (Diptera) on Sandy Beaches
           Exposed to Increasing Levels of Urbanization in Brazil
    • Authors: Barbosa T; Carmo R, Silva L, et al.
      First page: 460
      Abstract: Sandy beaches are among the most impacted ecosystems worldwide, and the effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of these habitats are largely unknown, particularly in Brazil. We investigated the composition and structure of assemblages of sarcosaprophagous insects (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae) on six sandy beaches exposed to differential levels of human impact in Pernambuco State, Brazil. In total, 20,672 adults of 40 species were collected, of which 70% were Calliphoridae. Sarcophagidae had the highest diversity with 26 species of nine genera. A strong overlap in the composition of the assemblages across the six beaches was observed, with only a few species being restricted to one type of beach. The flesh flies Dexosarcophaga carvalhoi (Lopes), Peckia intermutans (Walker), and Titanogrypa larvicida (Lopes) occurred exclusively in beaches under low anthropogenic impact. Species with strong medical and veterinary importance such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) occurred even in beaches under low human presence. The invasive species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Calliphoridae) were dominant in all beaches, which exposes the vulnerability of sandy beaches to exotic species. Our data imply that sarcosaprophagous flies can be used as early biological indicators to suggest urbanization in coastal environments.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx059
  • Effectiveness of Winkler Litter Extraction and Pitfall Traps in Sampling
           Ant Communities and Functional Groups in a Temperate Forest
    • Authors: Mahon MB; Campbell KU, Crist TO.
      First page: 470
      Abstract: Selection of proper sampling methods for measuring a community of interest is essential whether the study goals are to conduct a species inventory, environmental monitoring, or a manipulative experiment. Insect diversity studies often employ multiple collection methods at the expense of researcher time and funding. Ants (Formicidae) are widely used in environmental monitoring owing to their sensitivity to ecosystem changes. When sampling ant communities, two passive techniques are recommended in combination: pitfall traps and Winkler litter extraction. These recommendations are often based on studies from highly diverse tropical regions or when a species inventory is the goal. Studies in temperate regions often focus on measuring consistent community response along gradients of disturbance or among management regimes; therefore, multiple sampling methods may be unnecessary. We compared the effectiveness of pitfalls and Winkler litter extraction in an eastern temperate forest for measuring ant species richness, composition, and occurrence of ant functional groups in response to experimental manipulations of two key forest ecosystem drivers, white-tailed deer and an invasive shrub (Amur honeysuckle). We found no significant effect of sampling method on the outcome of the ecological experiment; however, we found differences between the two sampling methods in the resulting ant species richness and functional group occurrence. Litter samples approximated the overall combined species richness and composition, but pitfalls were better at sampling large-bodied (Camponotus) species. We conclude that employing both methods is essential only for species inventories or monitoring ants in the Cold-climate Specialists functional group.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx061
  • Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in Herbaceous and Shrub Strata of
           Atlantic Forest Remnants in Northeastern Brazil
    • Authors: Firmino JL, Mendonça MS, Jr; Lima IM, et al.
      First page: 480
      Abstract: Most pentatomids are phytophagous, many of which are economically important crop pests. The family may also be a potentially important group to monitor the health of neotropical forests. However, there is a lack of biological inventories of Pentatomidae, especially in forest remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. This is the first systematic survey of pentatomids reported in three Atlantic forest fragments in northeastern Brazil. In total, 997 individuals belonging to 38 species were recorded, some of which are considered economically important pests. Singletons and doubletons represented 45.9% of all species collected. The most abundant genera were Mormidea Amyot & Serville, 1843; Stictochilus Bergroth, 1918; Xynocoris Garbelotto & Campos 2014; and Edessa F., 1803. Species richness differed among fragments, with a richness gradient correlated with decreased urbanization and increased fragment size. The species abundance distribution fitted the logseries function but not the lognormal, in accordance with what is found for other assemblages in southern Brazil. Species composition also changed, in association with changes in temperature (revealed by the canonical correspondence analysis [CCA]), among fragments. Murici is one of the last remaining dense forests with high plant diversity in the region, having higher pentatomid species richness and a distinctive fauna. This first diversity study for Pentatomidae in fragments of tropical Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil reveals richness comparable with those from subtropical southern Brazil, with some species in common as well.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx062
  • Seasonal Occurrence and Interspecific Interactions of Egg Parasitoids of
           Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Japan
    • Authors: Hoshino K; Adati T, Olson DM, et al.
      First page: 487
      Abstract: We conducted a field study to determine seasonal egg parasitism rates of the kudzu bug Megacopta cribraria (F.) on the kudzu plant, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen et Almeida ex Sanjappa and Pradeep, in Tokyo, Japan, during the period from May 2014 to September 2014. The eggs of M. cribraria per 1 m2 of kudzu at four locations in Tokyo were collected weekly and parasitism rates were assessed. Eggs of M. cribraria were laid on the kudzu plant from May to September. Megacopta cribraria eggs were parasitized by two parasitoid species, Paratelenomus saccharalis (Dodd) and Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii. Paratelenomus saccharalis first appeared in May, and its parasitism rates peaked in July and September. Ooencyrtus nezarae first appeared in June and its parasitism rates peaked in July. Except for one location which could not be statistically analyzed because of the small sample size, occurrence of parasitism by P. saccharalis and O. nezarae in M. cribraria egg masses was independent at one location and positively associated at two locations, suggesting that the use of host egg masses by P. saccharalis and O. nezarae is not mutually exclusive. Parasitism rates by P. saccharalis and O. nezarae were significantly lower for egg masses parasitized by both species than for those parasitized by a single species. The proportion of males among O. nezarae progeny was significantly higher for egg masses parasitized by O. nezarae together with P. saccharalis than for those parasitized by O. nezarae alone. These results suggest that parasitism of host egg masses by the two species is influenced by their interspecific interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx060
  • Congeneric Predaceous Diving Beetle Species Fail to Segregate in a
           Floodplain System: A Case of Amplified Sympatry
    • Authors: McDaniel C; McHugh JV, Batzer DP.
      First page: 494
      Abstract: Coexistence of closely related species has long been a focus of biologists in their efforts to explain mechanisms that drive community assembly. Dytiscidae (predaceous diving beetles) are a group that shows a particularly high affinity for sympatry despite their relatedness. Our objective was to investigate the degree of overlap among Neoporus (Guignot) species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in floodplains of the southeastern United States. We sampled two floodplain habitats (permanent oxbow lakes and temporarily flooded pools) of the Altamaha River (Georgia, USA) for Neoporus species over three years. Six species of Neoporus were collected during our study, and a significant amount of overlap (spatial and temporal) was documented. Analysis suggested that none of the species exhibited a preference toward one habitat type or the other. Temporally, no striking patterns of segregation emerged. No negative correlations between species were documented, but neither were significant positive correlations found. This absence of distinct patterns suggests a lack of segregation among Neoporus species in floodplains of the Altamaha River. While Dytiscidae in general appears to be a particularly sympatric group of organisms, overlap among congeneric species within the family has been documented less frequently. Our study provides new insight into the degree to which dytiscids are capable of coexisting in space and time.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx063
  • Temporal Patterns in the Abundance and Species Composition of Spiders on
           Host Plants of the Invasive Moth Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera:
    • Authors: Hogg BN; Mills NJ, Daane KM.
      First page: 502
      Abstract: Generalist predators such as spiders may help mitigate the spread and impact of exotic herbivores. The lack of prey specificity and long generation times of spiders may allow them to persist when pests are scarce, and to limit the growth of pest populations before they reach damaging levels. We examined whether resident spiders are likely to play a role in maintaining populations of the invasive light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), below outbreak levels in California. We surveyed the spider community on two E. postvittana host plants, the ornamental Australian tea tree, Leptospermum laevigatum, and the weed French broom, Genista monspessulana, to characterize spider and larval E. postvittana abundance and spider species composition throughout the year. Spider densities and species composition showed slight seasonal changes. Spiders were present during periods of high and low E. postvittana abundance. Anyphaenid hunting spiders, Anyphaena aperta Banks in Australian tea tree and Anyphaena pacifica Banks in French broom, dominated spider species composition at four of five sampled sites, and underwent only slight seasonal variation in abundance. Adult A. aperta were rare at all times of the year, suggesting that high mortality among juvenile A. aperta limits the potential of this species as a predator of E. postvittana. Nevertheless, the continued presence of spiders throughout the year indicates that the resident spider community is likely to play a key role in reducing E. postvittana populations in California.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx065
  • The Distribution of Cicadellinae Leafhoppers and Other Auchenorrhyncha on
           Coffee and Citrus in Puerto Rico
    • Authors: Brodbeck BV; Andersen PC, Oden S, et al.
      First page: 511
      Abstract: Cicadellinae leafhoppers and other Auchenorrhyncha in coffee and citrus farms in Puerto Rico were surveyed five times over 18 mo. We frequently collected four of the seven species of Cicadellinae previously found in Puerto Rico, yet only one species (Caribovia coffeacola Dozier) fed directly on coffee; no species was observed to feed directly on citrus. Populations of C. coffeacola were higher during the rainy season and were more common at higher elevations. Feeding preference and performance experiments established that C. coffeacola preferentially fed, and could survive exclusively, on coffee and the common shade host Inga vera. Within-farm distribution of C. coffeacola was examined at a site with high populations, and abundances were higher with proximity to I. vera. Lastly, sets of novel sites were selected in four municipalities to test hypotheses concerning effects of season, elevation, and host plant assemblages on Cicadellinae populations. These tests confirmed that C. coffeacola was the only species that frequently fed on coffee and no species fed on citrus. Populations of C. coffeacola were higher in the rainy season and at higher elevations. Abundances were also higher when Inga vera was interspersed in coffee plantings compared to when other shade species were present or when coffee was grown as a monoculture (sun coffee). Cicadellinae were our focus, as within this study this subfamily is the predominant potential vector of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Wells). Xylella fastidiosa has yet to be confirmed in Puerto Rico, but both citrus and coffee are susceptible to X. fastidiosa diseases.Key words: Caribovia coffeacola, Cicadellinae, coffee, Xylella fastidiosa
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx086
  • Parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Adjusts
           Reproductive Strategy When Competing for Hosts
    • Authors: Kant R; Minor MA.
      First page: 521
      Abstract: Parasitoid fitness depends on its ability to manipulate reproductive strategies when in competition. This study investigated the parasitism and sex allocation strategies of the parasitic wasp Diaeretiella rapae McIntosh at a range of host (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) and conspecific densities. The results suggest that D. rapae females adjust their progeny production and progeny sex ratio with changing competition. When foraging alone, female D. rapae parasitize larger number of B. brassicae nymphs when the number of available hosts is increased, but the overall proportion of parasitized hosts decreases with increase in host density. The proportion of female offspring also decreases with elevated host density. Increase in the number of female D. rapae foraging together increased total parasitism, but reduced relative contribution of each individual female. The number of female progeny decreased when multiple females competed for the same host. However, foraging experience in the presence of one or more conspecifics increased the parasitism rate and proportion of female progeny. Competing females were more active during oviposition and had shorter lives. The study suggests that both host and foundress (female parasitoid) densities have significant effect on progeny production, sex allocation, and longevity of foraging females.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx057
  • Impact of Agroecological Infrastructures on the Dynamics of Dysaphis
           plantaginea (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Its Natural Enemies in Apple
           Orchards in Northwestern France
    • Authors: Albert L; Franck P, Gilles Y, et al.
      First page: 528
      Abstract: Apple orchard production is facing new environmental and societal challenges, resulting, in particular, in strong pressure to reduce pesticide use. Cider-apple production, for which the perfect visual aspect of fruits is not a marketability imperative, offers good opportunities to study production systems that are developing new agronomic strategies, which could be subsequently extended to all apple-production types. Agroecological infrastructures play an important role in providing shelter, food resources, or reproduction habitats to many arthropods. Consequently, setting-up agroecological infrastructures in the vicinity of or within orchards could increase natural enemy presence and thus improve the biological control of pests. In this study, we focused on Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), one of the major pests in apple orchards in Europe, which causes important economic production losses. During two years (2014 and 2015), we monitored the population dynamics of D. plantaginea, its natural enemies, and mutualistic ants in commercial production cider-apple orchards. The influences of the cider-apple cultivar, insecticide use, and distance to agroecological infrastructures (hedgerows and flower strips) were assessed. Our results suggest that flower strips favor an increase in natural enemy abundance in the vicinity of the orchards and could thus play an important role in the production system by improving the biological control of D. plantaginea.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx054
  • Functional Response and Prey Preference of Neoseiulus bicaudus
           (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) to Three Important Pests in Xinjiang, China
    • Authors: Zhang Y; Jiang J, Zhang Y, et al.
      First page: 538
      Abstract: Knowledge about the prey preference of polyphagous predators is important for determining their ability to suppress pest insects. Tetranychus truncatus (Tetranychidae), Tetranychus turkestani (Tetranychidae), and Thrips tabaci (Thripidae) often coexist in crops. Neoseiulus bicaudus (Wainstein) is a native predatory mite that was recently observed in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of N. bicaudus as a bio-control agent against the three pest species mentioned above. The results showed that N. bicaudus protonymphs, deutonymphs, and adults can be effective biological control agents for the three pest species. Neoseiulus bicaudus at all three developmental stages exhibited a Holling’s Type II (convex) functional response to the prey. Neoseiulus bicaudus exhibited no preference between T. truncatus adults and T. turkestani adults, irrespective of the prey ratio. In comparison, N. bicaudus clearly preferred first-instar T. tabaci larvae to T. turkestani adults. The results of this study suggest that N. bicaudus could help control T. truncatus, T. turkestani, and T. tabaci. Among these pests, N. bicaudus may be most effective for first-instar T. tabaci.
      PubDate: 2017-04-08
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx073
  • Numerical Response and Impact of Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera:
           Derodontidae) on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in Their Native
    • Authors: Mausel DL; Kok LT, Salom SM.
      First page: 544
      Abstract: To determine if key attributes for a successful biological control agent are possessed by the predator, Laricobius nigrinus Fender, field studies were conducted in its native range of Seattle, WA. The relationship between adult and immature L. nigrinus abundance to different densities of its prey, Adelges tsugae Annand, were determined. In a second study, predator and prey densities, and survivorship of each sistens A. tsugae stage were determined to gauge the impact of predation. The predator strongly aggregated and increased its reproduction when prey density increased, the two mechanisms of a numerical response. Immature predator–prey ratios were high and average prey density was low in comparison with invaded areas of the eastern United States. Survivorship of aestivating first-instar sistens A. tsugae was low and survivorship of each instar (second, third, and fourth) and adults was high and increased with each stage. When pooled, however, the survivorship of sistens second instar–ovisac stages was low primarily owing to L. nigrinus larval consumption of ovisacs. In its native range, L. nigrinus has key attributes of a successful biological control agent, such as a strong numerical response, high predator–prey ratios, and an important larval impact on A. tsugae populations. Demographic data could serve as important benchmarks for future studies to determine if L. nigrinus and other predators can regulate densities of A. tsugae below eastern hemlock’s physiological damage threshold in the eastern United States.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx078
  • Impacts of the Psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on Invasive
           French Broom in Relation to Plant Size and Psyllid Density
    • Authors: Hogg BN; Moran PJ, Smith L.
      First page: 552
      Abstract: The impacts of weed biological control agents may vary with plant ontogeny. As plants grow, structural and chemical changes can alter plant resistance, which may reduce herbivory via chemical or structural defenses, and plant tolerance, which may enable plants to maintain fitness despite attack. Resistance and tolerance generally increase as plants grow. Nonetheless, prerelease tests of agent efficacy often overlook plant ontogeny. Here, we assess the performance and impacts of a candidate biocontrol agent, the psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Loginova), in relation to the age of its host plant, the invasive shrub French broom, Genista monspessulana. We also examined whether the psyllid can consistently kill plants when its densities are sufficiently high. Survival of psyllids to adulthood and the timing of adult emergence did not differ between plant sizes, indicating that performance of nymphs was not influenced by plant size. However, adult psyllid survival was reduced on small plants, suggesting that nymphs and adults responded differently to ontogenetic changes in plant quality. Psyllids affected the growth of small and large plants similarly; all measured plant growth parameters were lower in the presence of psyllids regardless of plant size. In a separate experiment, effects on plant survival depended on psyllid density, as higher realized densities of ∼9 psyllids per cm stem length were necessary to consistently kill plants. Thus, results suggest that the psyllid would be equally effective on a range of plant sizes, particularly at high densities, and show the potential of the psyllid to help control French broom in California.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx074
  • Wildflower Plantings Do Not Compete With Neighboring Almond Orchards for
           Pollinator Visits
    • Authors: Lundin O; Ward KL, Artz DR, et al.
      First page: 559
      Abstract: The engineering of flowering agricultural field borders has emerged as a research and policy priority to mitigate threats to pollinators. Studies have, however, rarely addressed the potential that flowering field borders might compete with neighboring crops for pollinator visits if they both are in bloom at the same time, despite this being a concern expressed by growers. We evaluated how wildflower plantings added to orchard borders in a large (512 ha) commercial almond orchard affected honey bee and wild bee visitation to orchard borders and the crop. The study was conducted over two consecutive seasons using three large (0.48 ha) wildflower plantings paired with control orchard borders in a highly simplified agricultural landscape in California. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) and wild bee visitation to wildflower plots were at least an order of magnitude higher than to control plots, but increased honey bee visitation to wildflower plots did not lead to any detectable shifts in honey bee visitation to almond flowers in the neighboring orchard. Wild bees were rarely observed visiting almond flowers irrespective of border treatment, indicating a limited short-term potential for augmenting crop pollination using wild bees in highly simplified agricultural landscapes. Although further studies are warranted on bee visitation and crop yield from spatially independent orchards, this study indicates that growers can support bees with alternative forage in almond orchards without risking competition between the wildflower plantings and the crop.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx052
  • Using Publicly Available Data to Quantify Plant–Pollinator Interactions
           and Evaluate Conservation Seeding Mixes in the Northern Great Plains
    • Authors: Otto CV; O’Dell SS, Bryant RB, et al.
      First page: 565
      Abstract: Concern over declining pollinators has led to multiple conservation initiatives for improving forage for bees in agroecosystems. Using data available through the Pollinator Library (, we summarize plant–pollinator interaction data collected from 2012–2015 on lands managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and private lands enrolled in U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in eastern North Dakota (ND). Furthermore, we demonstrate how plant–pollinator interaction data from the Pollinator Library and seed cost information can be used to evaluate hypothetical seeding mixes for pollinator habitat enhancements. We summarize records of 314 wild bee and 849 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) interactions detected on 63 different plant species. The wild bee observations consisted of 46 species, 15 genera, and 5 families. Over 54% of all wild bee observations were represented by three genera―Bombus, Lassioglossum, and Melissodes. The most commonly visited forbs by wild bees were Monarda fistulosa, Sonchus arvensis, and Zizia aurea. The most commonly visited forbs by A. mellifera were Cirsium arvense, Melilotus officinalis, and Medicago sativa. Among all interactions, 13% of A. mellifera and 77% of wild bee observations were made on plants native to ND. Our seed mix evaluation shows that mixes may often need to be tailored to meet the unique needs of wild bees and managed honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Our evaluation also demonstrates the importance of incorporating both biologic and economic information when attempting to design cost-effective seeding mixes for supporting pollinators in a critically important part of the United States.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx070
  • Does Passive Sampling Accurately Reflect the Bee (Apoidea: Anthophila)
           Communities Pollinating Apple and Sour Cherry Orchards?
    • Authors: Gibbs J; Joshi NK, Wilson JK, et al.
      First page: 579
      Abstract: During bloom of spring orchard crops, bees are the primary providers of pollination service. Monitoring these insects for research projects is often done by timed observations or by direct aerial netting, but there has been increasing interest in blue vane traps as an efficient passive approach to collecting bees. Over multiple spring seasons in Michigan and Pennsylvania, orchards were monitored for wild bees using timed netting from crop flowers and blue vane traps. This revealed a distinctly different community of wild bees captured using the two methods, suggesting that blue vane traps can complement but cannot replace direct aerial netting. The bee community in blue vane traps was generally composed of nonpollinating species, which can be of interest for broader biodiversity studies. In particular, blue vane traps caught Eucera atriventris (Smith), Eucera hamata (Bradley), Bombus fervidus (F.), and Agapostemon virescens (F.) that were never collected from the orchard crop flowers during the study period. Captures of bee species in nets was generally stable across the 3 yr, whereas we observed significant declines in the abundance of Lasioglossum pilosum (Smith) and Eucera spp. trapped using blue vane traps during the project, suggesting local overtrapping of reproductive individuals. We conclude that blue vane traps are a useful tool for expanding insights into bee communities within orchard crop systems, but they should be used with great caution to avoid local extirpation of these important insects.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx069
  • Effects of Altered Seasonality of Precipitation on Grass Production and
           Grasshopper Performance in a Northern Mixed Prairie
    • Authors: Branson DH.
      First page: 589
      Abstract: Climatic changes are leading to differing patterns and timing of precipitation in grassland ecosystems, with the seasonal timing of precipitation affecting plant biomass and plant composition. No previous studies have examined how drought seasonality affects grasshopper performance and the impact of herbivory on vegetation. We modified seasonal patterns of precipitation and grasshopper density in a manipulative experiment to examine if seasonality of drought combined with herbivory affected plant biomass, nitrogen content, and grasshopper performance. Grass biomass was affected by both precipitation and grasshopper density treatments, while nitrogen content of grass was higher with early-season drought. Proportional survival was negatively affected by initial density, while survival was higher with early drought than with full-season drought. Drought timing affected the outcome, with early summer drought increasing grass nitrogen content and grasshopper survival, while season-long and late-season drought did not. The results support arguments that our knowledge of plant responses to seasonal short-term variation in climate is limited and illustrate the importance of experiments manipulating precipitation phenology. The results confirm that understanding the season of drought is critical for predicting grasshopper population dynamics, as extreme early summer drought may be required to strongly affect Melanoplus sanguinipes (F.) performance.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx053
  • Development and Survival of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on
           Alternate Crops in Cotton Cropping Pattern, With Implications to
           Integrated Pest Management
    • Authors: Saeed Q; Ahmad F, Saeed S.
      First page: 595
      Abstract: Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) is a polyphagous pest that shifts its population to different hosts during its life cycle to receive nutritive advantages. Therefore, demographic evaluation of alternate hosts is important for effective pest management. Here, we have evaluated castor (Ricinus communis L.), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) for growth, survival, and population development of S. exigua. Development of early populations of S. exigua is best supported on castor where earlier instars had least mortalities (10%) compared with spinach (36%), although later instars and pupae had significantly higher mortalities (20.8%) on it. Spinach and okra, on the other hand, promote larval survivals in later instars. Little or no differences in stadia lengths were observed during early development of larvae and, interestingly, the longevity of female moths increased significantly when reared on castor, cauliflower, and spinach (12.3, 11.3, and 11.7 d, respectively), resulting into significantly higher fecundity. The survival curves of all five populations have clearly demonstrated a steep early decline in larval numbers when reared on okra and only 60% larvae could survive. These findings conclude that S. exigua when fed on spinach was greatly disadvantaged in terms of growth and development; hence, the pest’s field population can be opportunistically controlled by spraying adjacent spinach fields. In addition, the results highlight the vulnerable stages in pest’s life cycle in the field where we can apply integrated control strategies for its effective management.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx056
  • Orientation of Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae and Adults
    • Authors: Bush DS; Lawrance A, Siegel JP, et al.
      First page: 602
      Abstract: The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker, 1863, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California tree nuts, is associated with the fungus Aspergillus flavus, and previous research suggests these species are facultative mutualists. Because navel orangeworm larvae exhibit improved performance on diets containing this fungus, orientation toward hostplants infected with A. flavus may be adaptive. We conducted behavioral assays to determine if larvae respond to chemical cues produced by almond hull split and fungal infection. In petri dish arenas, larvae showed a preference for 1-octen-3-ol and 2-phenylethanol, volatiles characteristic of damaged plants, as well as methanolic extracts of almond meal with 1-octen-3-ol and the fungal volatile conophthorin. In contrast, larvae displayed aversion to ethyl benzoate, an inhibitor of fungal growth. When we assessed oviposition behavior relative to substrates with and without A. flavus, females laid almost twice as many eggs near inoculated surfaces. Moreover, an average of 63% of eggs laid near inoculated substrates were fertilized, compared with 24% of eggs near uninoculated sites. We also tested the hypothesis that unfertilized eggs are laid on nutrient-poor substrates to provide supplemental nutrition for larvae in an assay comparing larval survivorship in the presence and absence of unfertilized eggs. Neonates given eggs survived 2.5 times longer on an average than unprovisioned neonates (208.8 h vs. 85.2 h), indicating that this species may compensate with cannibalism for oviposition on lower-quality food sources. We conclude that larvae orient to probable host plant and fungal volatiles associated with hull split and document a possible strategy for larvae to establish on low-quality hosts.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx068
  • Plant Water Stress Affects Interactions Between an Invasive and a
           Naturalized Aphid Species on Cereal Crops
    • Authors: Foote NE; Davis TS, Crowder DW, et al.
      First page: 609
      Abstract: In cereal cropping systems of the Pacific Northwestern United States (PNW), climate change is projected to increase the frequency of drought during summer months, which could increase water stress for crop plants. Yet, it remains uncertain how interactions between herbivore species are affected by drought stress. Here, interactions between two cereal aphids present in PNW cereal systems, Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) subsp. cerealium (a newly invasive species) and Rhopalosiphum padi L. (a naturalized species), were tested relative to wheat water stress. When aphids were confined in leaf cages on wheat, asymmetrical facilitation occurred; per capita fecundity of R. padi was increased by 46% when M. festucae cerealium was also present, compared to when only R. padi was present. Imposed water stress did not influence this interaction. When aphids were confined on whole wheat plants, asymmetrical competition occurred; cocolonization inhibited M. festucae cerealium population growth but did not affect R. padi population growth. Under conditions of plant water stress, however, the inhibitory effect of R. padi on M. festucae cerealium was not observed. We conclude that beneficial effects of cocolonization on R. padi are due to a localized plant response to M. festucae cerealium feeding, and that cocolonization of plants is likely to suppress M. festucae cerealium populations under ample water conditions, but not when plants are water stressed. This suggests that plant responses to water stress alter the outcome of competition between herbivore species, with implications for the structure of pest communities on wheat during periods of drought.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx071
  • Initial Response by a Native Beetle, Chrysochus auratus (Coleoptera:
           Chrysomelidae), to a Novel Introduced Host-Plant, Vincetoxicum rossicum
           (Gentianales: Apocynaceae)
    • Authors: deJonge RB; Bourchier RS, Smith SM.
      First page: 617
      Abstract: Native insects can form novel associations with introduced invasive plants and use them as a food source. The recent introduction into eastern North America of a nonnative European vine, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., allows us to examine the initial response of a native chrysomelid beetle, Chrysochus auratus F., that feeds on native plants in the same family as V. rossicum (Apocynaceae). We tested C. auratus on V. rossicum and closely related or co-occurring native plants (Apocynum spp., Asclepias spp., and Solidago canadensis L.) using all life stages of the beetle in lab, garden, and field experiments. Experiments measured feeding (presence or absence and amount), survival, oviposition, and whether previous exposure to V. rossicum in the lab or field affected adult beetle feeding. Beetles fed significantly less on V. rossicum than on native Apocynum hosts. Adult beetles engaged in exploratory feeding on leaves of V. rossicum and survived up to 10 d. Females oviposited on V. rossicum, eggs hatched, and larvae fed initially on the roots; however, no larvae survived beyond second instar. Beetles collected from Apocynum cannabinum L. field sites intermixed with V. rossicum were less likely to feed on this novel nonnative host than those collected from colonies further from and less likely to be exposed to V. rossicum (>5 km). Our experimental work indicates that V. rossicum may act as an oviposition sink for C. auratus and that this native beetle has not adapted to survive on this recently introduced novel host plant.
      PubDate: 2017-04-08
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx072
  • Pretty Picky for a Generalist: Impacts of Toxicity and Nutritional Quality
           on Mantid Prey Processing
    • Authors: Rafter JL; Vendettuoli JF, Gonda-King L, et al.
      First page: 626
      Abstract: Prey have evolved a number of defenses against predation, and predators have developed means of countering these protective measures. Although caterpillars of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L., are defended by cardenolides sequestered from their host plants, the Chinese mantid Tenodera sinensis Saussure guts the caterpillar before consuming the rest of the body. We hypothesized that this gutting behavior might be driven by the heterogeneous quality of prey tissue with respect to toxicity and/or nutrients. We conducted behavioral trials in which mantids were offered cardenolide-containing and cardenolide-free D. plexippus caterpillars and butterflies. In addition, we fed mantids starved and unstarved D. plexippus caterpillars from each cardenolide treatment and nontoxic Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner caterpillars. These trials were coupled with elemental analysis of the gut and body tissues of both D. plexippus caterpillars and corn borers. Cardenolides did not affect mantid behavior: mantids gutted both cardenolide-containing and cardenolide-free caterpillars. In contrast, mantids consumed both O. nubilalis and starved D. plexippus caterpillars entirely. Danaus plexippus body tissue has a lower C:N ratio than their gut contents, while O. nubilalis have similar ratios; gutting may reflect the mantid’s ability to regulate nutrient uptake. Our results suggest that post-capture prey processing by mantids is likely driven by a sophisticated assessment of resource quality.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx038
  • Flight Capacity of the Walnut Twig Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) on a
           Laboratory Flight Mill
    • Authors: Kees AM; Hefty AR, Venette RC, et al.
      First page: 633
      Abstract: The walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman, and associated fungus Geosmithia morbida Kolařík, Freeland, Utley, & Tisserat constitute the insect–fungal complex that causes thousand cankers disease in walnut, Juglans spp., and wingnut, Pterocarya spp. Thousand cankers disease is responsible for the decline of Juglans species throughout the western United States and more recently, the eastern United States and northern Italy. We examined the flight capacity of P. juglandis over 24-h trials on a flight mill in the laboratory. The maximum total flight distance observed was ∼3.6 km in 24 h; however, the mean and median distances flown by beetles that initiated flight were ∼372 m and ∼158 m, respectively. Beetles flew for 34 min on average within a 24-h flight trial. Male and female flight capacities were similar, even though males were larger than females (0.64 vs. 0.57 mm pronotal width). Age postemergence had no effect on flight distance, flight time, or mean flight velocity. The propensity to fly, however, decreased with age. We integrated results of flight distance with propensity to fly as beetles aged in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the maximum dispersal capacity over 5 d, assuming no mortality. Only 1% of the insects would be expected to fly >2 km, whereas one-third of the insects were estimated to fly <100 m. These results suggest that nascent establishments remain relatively localized without anthropogenic transport or wind-aided dispersal, which has implications for management and sampling of this hardwood pest.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx055
  • A Place to Grow? Host Choice and Larval Performance of Microplitis similis
           (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the Host Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera:
    • Authors: Chen X; Hopkins RJ, Zhao Y, et al.
      First page: 642
      Abstract: Host selection is a key stage in the lifecycle of parasitoids, and is critical to both their function in control and to the maintenance of their population. The solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis similis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a potential biological control agent of Spodoptera litura (F.) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In this study, we examined the preference M. similis exhibits for different instars of the host, host instar effects on parasitoid development, and the weight gain and food consumption of different instars of parasitized larvae. In no-choice tests, parasitization rates were highest in second- and early third-instar larvae, and no fourth- or fifth-instar hosts were parasitized. When provided with a choice of first- to late third-instar host larvae, M. similis preferred to parasitize early third-instar host larvae (41%) with a selection coefficient of 0.37. All morphometric features of wasp offspring increased with increasing age of the host at parasitization. A lower proportion of females emerged from first-instar larvae than any other instar. Parasitized S. litura larvae showed a pronounced reduction in food consumption and weight gain. Microplitis similis may have the potential to significantly suppress population growth and the damage caused by S. litura.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx076
  • Attraction of Cerambycid Beetles to Their Aggregation-Sex Pheromones Is
           Influenced by Volatiles From Host Plants of Their Larvae
    • Authors: Wong JH; Zou YY, Millar JG, et al.
      First page: 649
      Abstract: Here, we describe a field experiment that tested for attraction of cerambycid beetles to odors from angiosperm hosts, and whether plant volatiles also serve to enhance attraction of beetles to their aggregation-sex pheromones. Traps were baited with a blend of synthesized chemicals that are common pheromone components of species in the subfamilies Cerambycinae and Lamiinae. The source of plant volatiles was chipped wood from trees of three angiosperm species, as well as from one nonhost, gymnosperm species. Bioassays were conducted in wooded areas of east-central Illinois. Traps were baited with the pheromone blend alone, the blend + wood chips from one tree species, wood chips alone, or a solvent control lure. Seven species of cerambycids were significantly attracted to the pheromone blend, with or without wood chips. In two cases, wood chips from angiosperms appeared to enhance attraction to pheromones, whereas they inhibited attraction in another three cases. Pine chips did not strongly influence attraction of any species. Overall, our results suggest that host plant volatiles from wood chips may improve trap catch with synthesized pheromones for some cerambycid species, but the effect is not general, necessitating case-by-case testing to determine how individual target species are affected.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx067
  • Identification of Candidate Odorant-Binding Protein and Chemosensory
           Protein Genes in Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Hemiptera: Miridae), a Key
           Predator of the Rice Planthoppers in Asia
    • Authors: Wang G; Zhu M, Jiang Y, et al.
      First page: 654
      Abstract: Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important predatory natural enemy of planthopper and leafhopper eggs in Asian rice paddy fields. Cyrtorhinus lividipennis is known to rely largely on herbivore-induced plant volatiles to identify eggs embedded in rice stem tissues for feeding and on pheromones for mating. However, exactly how C. lividipennis decode these chemical information is unclear. In most insects, the odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and the chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are essential for seeking out food resources and mates. In this study, we identified 10 OBP and 5 CSP genes in C. lividipennis and investigated their expression patterns in various tissues of adult males and females by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Six OBP genes (ClivOBP1, 2, 4, 6, 9, and 10) were mainly expressed in the male antennae, whereas three genes (ClivOBP3, ClivOBP7, and ClivOBP8) had high expression in the female antennae. ClivCSP1 was predominantly expressed in the male antennae. These findings suggest that most ClivOBPs and ClivCSPs are likely involved in food-searching behavior. The recognition of the pheromone molecules provides the basis for further functional studies on the chemoreception system of C. lividipennis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx075
  • Spatial Patterns and Sequential Sampling Plans for Predators of Aphis
           glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Minnesota Soybean
    • Authors: Tran AK; Koch RL.
      First page: 663
      Abstract: The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is an economically important soybean pest. Many studies have demonstrated that predatory insects are important in suppressing A. glycines population growth. However, to improve the utilization of predators in A. glycines management, sampling plans need to be developed and validated for predators. Aphid predators were sampled in soybean fields near Rosemount, Minnesota, from 2006–2007 and 2013–2015 with sample sizes of 20–80 plants. Sampling plans were developed for Orius insidiosus (Say), Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), and all aphidophagous Coccinellidae species combined. Taylor’s power law parameters from the regression of log variance versus log mean suggested aggregated spatial patterns for immature and adult stages combined for O. insidiosus, H. axyridis, and Coccinellidae in soybean fields. Using the parameters from Taylor’s power law and Green’s method, sequential fixed-precision sampling plans were developed to estimate the density for each predator taxon at desired precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25. To achieve a desired precision of 0.10 and 0.25, the average sample number (ASN) ranged from 398–713 and 64–108 soybean plants, respectively, for all species. Resulting ASNs were relatively large and assumed impractical for most purposes; therefore, the desired precision levels were adjusted to determine the level of precision associated with a more practical ASN. Final analysis indicated an ASN of 38 soybean plants provided precision of 0.32–0.40 for the predators. Development of sampling plans should provide guidance for improved estimation of predator densities for A. glycines pest management programs and for research purposes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx040
  • Tempo-Spatial Dynamics of Adult Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
           Based on Semiochemical-Baited Trap Captures in Blueberries
    • Authors: Hernandez-Cumplido J; Leskey TC, Holdcraft R, et al.
      First page: 674
      Abstract: Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), has become an important pest of highbush blueberries in the northeastern United States. Here, we conducted experiments in 2010–2013 to compare the efficacy of semiochemical-baited traps for C. nenuphar versus conventional (beating cloth) sampling methods in blueberries, and to understand the seasonal abundance and distribution of C. nenuphar adults within and among blueberry fields using these traps. Black pyramid traps baited with the C. nenuphar aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid and the fruit volatile benzaldehyde caught three to four times more adults than unbaited traps without causing an increase in injury to berries in neighboring bushes. Numbers of adult weevils caught in traps correlated with those on bushes (beating cloth samples), indicating that trap counts can predict C. nenuphar abundance in the field. Early in the season, traps placed 20 m from field edges near a forest caught higher C. nenuphar numbers than traps placed at farther distances, suggesting movement of overwintered weevils from outside fields. Using a trapping network across multiple fields in an organic farm, we found evidence of C. nenuphar aggregation in “hotspots”; early in the season, C. nenuphar numbers in traps were higher in the middle of fields, and there was a correlation between these numbers and distance from the forest in 2013 but not in 2012. These results show that semiochemical-baited traps are effective in capturing C. nenuphar adults in blueberries, and that these traps should be placed in the interior of fields preferably, but not exclusively, near wooded habitats to maximize their efficacy.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx047
  • Diversity of Platygastridae in Leaf Litter and Understory Layers of
           Tropical Rainforests of the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot, India
    • Authors: Manoj KK; Rajesh TP, Prashanth Ballullaya UU, et al.
      First page: 685
      Abstract: Platygastridae is the third largest family of parasitic Hymenoptera in the world. It includes important egg and larval parasitoids of insects and spiders. Therefore, Platygastridae is functionally important in maintaining the stability of tropical rainforests and agroecosystems. Although the diversity of Platygastridae is relatively well-known in agroecosystems, we know little about their diversity in tropical rainforests, and particularly about that of the leaf litter layer. Here, we address the importance of monitoring Platygastridae in tropical rainforests, using data from the relic primary forests of the sacred groves of the Western Ghats. First, we demonstrate that pitfall traps allow us to catch a wide array of representative diversity of Platygastridae of the tropical rainforests, and we establish an efficient collection method to study Platygastridae of leaf litter layer. Second, we demonstrate that the community structure and composition of Platygastridae of the leaf litter layer is different from that seen in the understory of the forests. This indirectly informs us that the Malaise traps capture only a minor subset of the species active in the rainforests. Third, we find that the dry and wet seasons captured dissimilar community of Platygastridae, suggesting that the season might alter the potential host species or host stages. We conclude that monitoring parasitic Hymenoptera in the leaf litter layer of tropical rainforests can provide fresh insights on the species distribution of both the parasitoids and their hosts, and allows us to examine the current state of the tropical rainforests from a functional point of view.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx080
  • Thiamethoxam Toxicity and Effects on Consumption Behavior in Orius
           insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) on Soybean
    • Authors: Camargo C; Hunt TE, Giesler LJ, et al.
      First page: 693
      Abstract: Neonicotinoid residues can be present in soybean vegetative tissue, prey insects, and flower tissues, possibly making them toxic to pollinators and natural enemies. Baseline information on the toxicity of neonicotinoids to beneficial insects other than pollinators through multiple routes of insecticide exposure is limited. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the toxicity of thiamethoxam to the hemipteran predator, Orius insidiosus Say, exposed to residues through treated vegetative tissue and insect prey, and 2) to evaluate the effect of thiamethoxam on the abundance of this predator species in soybean fields. Predators were exposed to thiamethoxam in soybean leaves and Aphis glycines Matsumura using a systemic bioassay. Abundance of the predator was evaluated in thiamethoxam seed-treated fields during two different soybean seasons. Our results indicate that concentrations required to kill >50% of the evaluated insects were higher than the concentrations that the insects are likely to encounter in the field. Consumption of A. glycines by O. insidiosus was affected at 10 ng/ml and 5 ng/ml of thiamethoxam at 24 h of evaluation. There was significant mortality for O. insidiosus at 24 h after exposure to thiamethoxam-treated aphids at these concentrations. In soybean fields, there were no significant differences in O. insidiosus number between the plots treated with thiamethoxam and the control. Thiamethoxam may have significant effects on the predators if O. insidiosus feeds on early soybean vegetative tissue or contaminated prey. These results suggest that the compatibility of thiamethoxam with IPM programs for A. glycines needs further evaluation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx050
  • Mortality of Eggs and Newly Hatched Larvae of Lobesia botrana
    • Authors: Kiaeian Moosavi FF; Cargnus EE, Pavan FF, et al.
      First page: 700
      Abstract: The hypothesis that bunch-zone leaf removal reduces infestations of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), by increasing egg and larval mortality owing to sunlight exposure was evaluated in the laboratory by subjecting different egg stages (white, red-eyes, and black-head) and newly hatched larvae to high temperatures. Based on temperatures recorded in a northern Italian vineyard on sun-exposed berries belonging to south-west facing bunches, eggs were subjected to constant temperatures of 40 °C and 37 °C for one or two periods of 3 or 6 h, and to 24-h temperature cycle with peak of 40 °C. Larvae were exposed to 24-h high-temperature cycles with peaks of 35, 37, and 40 °C. The results showed partial egg mortality at 40 °C, increasing with exposure hours and periods, and as eggs matured. Egg mortality was not affected by exposure to 37 °C. Larval survival already decreased significantly at 37 °C and was even lower at 40 °C. These laboratory data are in agreement with the hypothesis that temperatures reached by berries exposed to sunlight cause egg and larval mortality. Data on egg and larval susceptibility to high temperatures have also implications for species distribution and effects of climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx035
  • Impact of Prolonged Absence of Low Temperature on Adult Eclosion Patterns
           of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    • Authors: Neven LG; Yee WL.
      First page: 708
      Abstract: Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in tropical export markets because cold temperatures, below 5 °C, in those regions appear insufficient to complete diapause. However, it is unclear how prolonged absence of cold exposure affects diapause termination in R. indifferens. Here, we examined this question by exposing R. indifferens pupae for 40 wk to simulated temperate and tropical conditions of 23 or 26 °C, 40 or 80% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 or 12:12 (L:D) h. Eclosion patterns among fly groups in the four conditions did not differ. For all groups, fly eclosion from pupae not exposed to cold exhibited a bimodal distribution. The first major peak, comprising 3.2% of the total fly emergence, occurred at 1–10 wk. The second major peak, comprising the remaining 96.8%, occurred at a mode of ∼30 wk. Based on responses to no cold and cold (3 ± 1.5 °C) exposures, there were three distinct pupal diapause groups: the first eclosion group was likely nondiapausing pupae; the second eclosion group was likely diapausing pupae; a third group that remained viable but did not produce adults after 40 wk may represent prolonged dormancy pupae. We suggest that eclosion of adults after prolonged absence of cold exposure needs to be incorporated into models for potential fly establishment in warm climates.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx064
  • The Role of Sex and Mating Status in the Expansion Process of Arhopalus
           rusticus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)—an Exotic Cerambycid in Argentina
    • Authors: Grilli M; Fachinetti R.
      First page: 714
      Abstract: In Córdoba province, central Argentina, there is an area of introduced pine trees, in which an invading Cerambycid, Arhopalus rusticus (L.), was detected in this region for the first time in 2006. The species has since expanded its range until it now occupies the whole area. Arhopalus rusticus is a common species in pine forests of the northern hemisphere. In this paper, we analyze how sex and mating status affects flight performance and the potential distribution of this species. The study was performed with individuals collected from introduced pine forests in the center-west of Córdoba Province (Argentina). The dispersal capability of A. rusticus was determined by measuring flight speed and distance traveled by recently emerged mated and unmated A. rusticus in flight mills. Data of preflight body weight, postflight body weight, body length, and elytron size were obtained from the individuals that were flown in the flight mill. We found that females had a greater body length, weighed more, had longer elytra, and were stronger flyers than males. We also found that mated individuals flew faster and longer distances than unmated individuals, and consumed a smaller fraction of their body weight. A positive ratio was observed between elytra size and flight speed. A map of males’ and females’ dispersal distances was produced for the study region, using the adjusted dispersal distance distribution of males and females. The flight performance showed that, as females disperse after copulation, they increase the chances of establishing the species in unoccupied areas.En la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, hay una importante área de pinos implantados. En esta región durante el año 2006 se detectó por primera vez a Arhopalus rusticus (L.), un Cerambycidae invasor. A. rusticus es una especie común en los bosques de pino del hemisferio norte. En este trabajo analizamos de qué manera el sexo y el estado de apareamiento afectan el desempeño de vuelo y la distribución potencial de esta especie. Utilizamos individuos recolectados de los bosques de pino implantados en la región centro oeste de la provincia de Córdoba (Argentina). La capacidad de dispersión de Arhopalus rusticus se determinó haciendo volar individuos recién emergidos en un molino de vuelo. Se registró el peso previo y posterior al vuelo, el largo del cuerpo y el tamaño del élitro. Las hembras fueron mejores voladoras, más largas, más pesadas, con élitros más largos que los machos. Observamos diferencias entre el potencial de dispersión dependiendo del estado de apareamiento de los individuos. Los individuos apareados volaron más rápido y mayores distancias que los individuos no apareados y consumieron una menor fracción de su peso corporal. Se observó una relación positiva entre el tamaño del élitro y la velocidad de vuelo. Se generó un mapa de las distancias de dispersión potencial de los machos y de las hembras para la región de estudio utilizando las distribuciones de las distancias obtenidas del molino de vuelo. La dispersión post copulación incrementa las chances de que la especie se establezca en zonas no ocupadas.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx066
  • The Influence of Elevated CO 2 Concentration on the Fitness Traits of
           Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera:
    • Authors: ShuQi H; Ying L, Lei Q, et al.
      First page: 722
      Abstract: Development and fecundity were investigated in an invasive alien thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and a related native species, Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), under high CO2 concentration. Results show that the two thrips species reacted differently toward elevated CO2 concentration. Developmental duration decreased significantly (11.93%) in F. occidentalis at the CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter; survival rate of all stages also significantly increased (e.g., survival rate of first instar increased 17.80%), adult longevity of both female and male extended (e.g., female increased 2.02 d on average), and both fecundity and daily eggs laid per female were higher at a CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter than at 400 µl/liter. Developmental duration of F. intonsa decreased, insignificantly, at a CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter. Unlike F. occidentalis, survival rate of F. intonsa declined considerably at higher CO2 concentration level (e.g., survival rate of first instar decreased 19.70%), adult longevity of both female and male curtailed (e.g., female reduced 3.82 d on average), and both fecundity and daily eggs laid per female were reduced to 24.86 and 0.83, respectively, indicating that there exist significant differences between the two CO2 levels. Results suggest that the population fitness of invasive thrips species might be enhanced with increase in CO2 concentration, and accordingly change the local thrips population composition with their invasion.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx083
  • Flight Capacities and Diurnal Flight Patterns of the Ambrosia Beetles,
           Xyleborus glabratus and Monarthrum mali (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    • Authors: Seo M; Martini X, Rivera MJ, et al.
      First page: 729
      Abstract: We compared the flight activity of Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, vector and symbiont of the causal agent of laurel wilt disease (Raffaelea lauricola), with a native species Monarthrum mali (Fitch) using flight mills. Flight mills were operated either for 24 h or for three 3-h time intervals. During the 3-h interval experiment, the shortest time to flight initiation for X. glabratus occurred at 1600–1900 hours. The average flight time and total flying distance during 1600–2100 hours were also higher than those quantified during the other two recording times investigated. However, total flight duration and proportion of fliers was highest at 1000–1300 hours. We compared several flight parameters. About 64.0% of tested X. glabratus flew <20 m. During 24-h recording periods, M. mali flew longer distances than X. glabratus. Over 50.0% of M. mali flew over 100 m on the flight mill. Xyleborus glabratus flight activity was greatest between 1200 and 1800 hours, while M. mali flew most frequently between 1500 and 2100 hours. Monarthrum mali flew more than five times more frequently than X. glabratus, and their longest single flight distance (37.5 ± 12.5 m) and total flight distance (213.7 ± 85.5 m) were greater than those of X. glabratus. These data will be useful for development of species-specific control and monitoring protocols for these ambrosia beetles based on greater understanding of their flight capacities and associated invasion distance.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx085
  • Erratum
    • First page: 735
      Abstract: Correction of “Moorhead, D. L., C. M. Helbing, L. Mitchell. 2014. Population dynamics of Culex restuans and C. pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) related to climatic factors in Northwest Ohio.”
      PubDate: 2017-03-26
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvv166
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