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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 294, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 579, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access  
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Environmental Entomology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.818
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0046-225X - ISSN (Online) 1938-2936
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • Routes of Pesticide Exposure in Solitary, Cavity-Nesting Bees
    • Authors: Kopit A; Pitts-Singer T.
      Pages: 499 - 510
      Abstract: Declines of pollinator health and their populations continue to be commercial and ecological concerns. Agricultural practices, such as the use of agrochemicals, are among factors attributed to honey bee (Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) population losses and are also known to have negative effects on populations of managed non-Apis pollinators. Although pesticide registration routinely requires evaluation of impacts on honey bees, studies of this social species may not reveal important pesticide exposure routes where managed, solitary bees are commonly used. Studies of solitary bees offer additional bee models that are practical from the aspect of availability, known rearing protocols, and the ability to assess effects at the individual level without confounding factors associated with colony living. In addition to understanding bees, it is further important to understand how pesticide characteristics determine their environmental whereabouts and persistence. Considering our research expertise in advancing the management of solitary bees for crop pollination, this forum focuses on routes of pesticide exposure experienced by cavity-nesting bees, incorporating the relative importance of environmental contamination due to pesticide chemical behaviors. Exposure routes described are larval ingestion, adult ingestion, contact, and transovarial transmission. Published research reports of effects of several pesticides on solitary bees are reviewed to exemplify each exposure route. We highlight how certain pesticide risks are particularly important under circumstances related to the cavity nesters.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy034
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Food Suitability and Population Dynamics of Lorryia formosa (Acari:
           Tydeidae)
    • Authors: Gautam S; Ouyang Y, Gu P, et al.
      Pages: 511 - 518
      Abstract: Lorryia formosa Cooreman (Acari: Tydeidae) is a species of mite commonly associated with citrus in many countries including the United States. A survey report in 1957 suggested phytophagous nature, while other studies claimed that L. formosa populations are associated with honeydew producing insects and sooty mold and it acts as a sanitizing agent. We investigated the effect of various diets on the survival and progeny production of L. formosa on excised leaves and the survival and potential to cause feeding damage to leaves of potted plants in a greenhouse study. A 2-yr field survey of a mandarin orchard was also conducted to elucidate the seasonal infestation, damage potential and population structure of L. formosa in a natural habitat. Results showed that all L. formosa adults and immatures died in less than 14 d on excised leaves, did not survive beyond 7 d on potted citrus plants alone, and caused no observable feeding damage to leaves or fruit. When sugar water, honeydew, or cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), was present, adults and immatures survived the duration of the experiments and produced additional generations. The field survey showed that all stages of L. formosa were present in a mandarin orchard throughout the year and insecticide applications affected but did not eliminate mite populations. Fruit generally had a greater percentage infestation of mites (44.8 ± 4.0) than leaves (16.0 ± 4.7). These studies confirmed that L. formosa cannot sustain a population on leaf tissue alone and is nondamaging to citrus in California.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy043
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Spatial Variation in Body Size and Wing Dimorphism Correlates With
           Environmental Conditions in the Grasshopper Dichroplus vittatus
           (Orthoptera: Acrididae)
    • Authors: Rosetti N; Remis M.
      Pages: 519 - 526
      Abstract: Wing dimorphism occurs widely in insects and involves discontinuous variation in a wide variety of traits involved in fight and reproduction. In the current study, we analyzed the spatial pattern of wing dimorphism and intraspecific morphometric variation in nine natural populations of the grasshopper Dichroplus vittatus (Bruner; Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Argentina. Considerable body size differences among populations, between sexes and wing morphs were detected. As a general trend, females were larger than males and macropterous individuals showed increased thorax length over brachypterous which can be explained by the morphological requirements for the development of flight muscles in the thoracic cavity favoring dispersal. Moreover, when comparing wing morphs, a higher phenotypic variability was detected in macropterous females. The frequency of macropterous individuals showed negative correlation with longitude and positive with precipitations, indicating that the macropterous morph is more frequent in the humid eastern part of the studied area. Our results provide valuable about spatial variation of fully winged morph and revealed geographic areas in which the species would experience greater dispersal capacity
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy025
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • The Distribution and Habitat Affinities of the Invasive Ant Myrmica rubra
           (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Southern New England
    • Authors: Chen W; Adams E.
      Pages: 527 - 534
      Abstract: The Eurasian ant Myrmica rubra (L.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was first discovered in North America in the early 1900s in Massachusetts. Populations have since appeared in at least seven states within the United States and in seven Canadian provinces. We conducted a systematic search for the ant across southern New England—the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island—where M. rubra is spreading from multiple loci. The species occurs in two large regions in Massachusetts, each spanning approximately 75 km, and in several smaller populations in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. No populations were discovered anywhere in Connecticut or across large expanses of central Massachusetts and northern Rhode Island, despite the presence of apparently favorable habitat. This pattern of distribution suggests a combination of long-distance dispersal by human transport coupled with slow local spread. Resurveys of sites previously known to support M. rubra showed that populations persist for decades. Within invaded areas, M. rubra was strongly associated with particular habitats. Colonies were most prevalent in freshwater wetlands and in moist forests near wetlands and water; they were uncommon in drier forests and were rare in open habitats outside of wetlands. The slow rate of spread over the last 110 yr suggests that the ants do not easily disperse between patches of suitable habitat.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy042
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Natural History and Ecology of Soldier Beetles (Coleoptera: Cantharidae)
           in the Mexican Tropical Dry Forests
    • Authors: Pérez-Hernández C.
      Pages: 535 - 544
      Abstract: Until today, most information about the natural history and ecology of soldier beetles came from temperate zones, mainly from Holarctic areas, while tropical regions have been poorly studied. The aim of this contribution is to compile and synthesize information concerning the natural history and ecology of Cantharidae (Coleoptera) from the Mexican tropical dry forest (TDF), to serve as a starting point for more in-depth study of the group in one of the Mexico’s most endangered ecosystems. All compiled data on the family have been organized into the following topics: distributional patterns and habitat preferences, feeding behavior and host plants, and daily and seasonal activity cycles. For the first time, it was provided a list of host plants for TDF Cantharidae genera and species, and it was also observed a high ecological diversity in the phenology and behavior of TDF Cantharidae assemblages. Further research concerning cantharids and other TDF insects needs to have a more comprehensive and integrated approach toward understanding the patterns of distribution and diversity, and elucidating the role that cantharids play in ecosystems, especially in TDF, which is one of the most endangered ecosystem in the world.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy012
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Disturbance Mediates Homogenization of Above and Belowground Invertebrate
           Communities
    • Authors: Roeder K; Roeder D, Kaspari M.
      Pages: 545 - 550
      Abstract: Natural disturbances can occur stochastically with profound impacts on fauna and flora. Here we quantified the impact of a one in 100-yr flood on terrestrial invertebrate communities in south central Oklahoma. Before the flood, we observed 4,082 individuals from 92 species weighing a total of 18.61 g that belonged to compositionally different above or belowground communities. One year after the initial sampling period and 9 mo post-flood, we measured a 93% decrease in abundance, a 60% decrease in species richness, and a 64% decrease in biomass as well as increased compositional similarity between the above and belowground communities. Of the eight insect orders that were present before the flood, only the Coleoptera and Orthoptera increased immediately after the flood. Of these, only the Orthoptera remained at an elevated level across all post-flood sampling periods, specifically due to an increase in crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). As we enter an era of global change, using natural perturbation experiments will improve our knowledge about the ecological processes that shape patterns of community assembly and biodiversity.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy022
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Identifying Ant-Mirid Spatial Interactions to Improve Biological Control
           in Cacao-Based Agroforestry System
    • Authors: Bagny Beilhe L; Piou C, Tadu Z, et al.
      Pages: 551 - 558
      Abstract: The use of ants for biological control of insect pests was the first reported case of conservation biological control. Direct and indirect community interactions between ants and pests lead to differential spatial pattern. We investigated spatial interactions between mirids, the major cocoa pest in West Africa and numerically dominant ant species, using bivariate point pattern analysis to identify potential biological control agents. We assume that potential biological control agents should display negative spatial interactions with mirids considering their niche overlap. The mirid/ant data were collected in complex cacao-based agroforestry systems sampled in three agroecological areas over a forest-savannah gradient in Cameroon. Three species, Crematogaster striatula Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Crematogaster clariventris Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with high predator and aggressive behaviors were identified as dominant and showed negative spatial relationships with mirids. The weaver ant, O. longinoda was identified as the only potential biological control agent, considering its ubiquity in the plots, the similarity in niche requirements, and the spatial segregation with mirids resulting probably from exclusion mechanisms. Combining bivariate point pattern analysis to good knowledge of insect ecology was an effective method to identify a potentially good biological control agent.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy018
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Co-occurrence Among Intraguild Predators: Avoidance or Aggregation'
    • Authors: Prescott K; Andow D.
      Pages: 559 - 566
      Abstract: Intraguild predation (IGP) may interact with prey availability to structure predator communities. However, if predators are able to avoid each other, its effect on predator community structure may be minimized or absent. To determine whether co-occurrence among IG predators is limited, we estimated co-occurrence among predators in experimental plots of maize and soybean. These crops provide high densities of shared resources (aphids) as well as known IG predators (primarily coccinellids). Despite documented intraspecific and interspecific avoidance behaviors, aggregation to patchy resources could bring IG predators into contact. We, therefore, hypothesized that despite documented intraspecific avoidance behaviors, aphidophagous IG coccinellid predators would not significantly avoid co-occurrence, making IGP likely. Co-occurrence was estimated from visual counts of aphid predators and their prey on randomly selected plants over the course of the growing season. For each habitat, we used maximum likelihood analysis to determine whether observed co-occurrence deviated significantly from that expected for each possible pairwise combination of IG predators. We repeated this analysis using published data on co-occurrence among aphid predators on tansy. We found that most co-occurrence among IG predators was random, suggesting that avoidance does not limit co-occurrence. Failure to limit co-occurrence could be the result of ineffective avoidance mechanisms or because predators balance aggregating on shared resources with avoiding IG predators.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy016
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Seasonal Occurrence of Key Arthropod Pests and Beneficial Insects in
           Michigan High Tunnel and Field Grown Raspberries
    • Authors: Leach H; Isaacs R.
      Pages: 567 - 574
      Abstract: Berry crops are increasingly produced in high tunnels, which provide growers with the opportunity to extend their production season. This is particularly beneficial for the northern region of the United States with short and unpredictable growing seasons and where rainfall limits fruit quality. However, little is known about the effect of high tunnels on the community of pests, natural enemies, or pollinators, especially in berry crops, and there are few reports of the insect community in raspberries in this region. We compared the abundance of these insects during two growing seasons in field-grown and tunnel-grown floricane and primocane producing raspberries through direct observation and trapping at five sites in southwestern and central Michigan. We found eight key pests, including spotted wing Drosophila, leafhoppers, and thrips, and seven key natural enemies including parasitoid wasps, spiders, and lacewings, that were common across all sites. Pest populations were up to 6.6 times higher in tunnels, and pests typical of greenhouse systems became more dominant in this environment. Natural enemies observed on plants under tunnels were also more abundant than in the field, but this trend was reversed for natural enemies trapped on yellow sticky cards. There was also a reduction of both honey bees and wild bees under the high tunnels, which was balanced by use of commercial bumble bees. These data not only provide much-needed information on the phenology of the insect community on raspberry plantings, they also highlight the entomological implications of protected raspberry culture.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy030
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Managed Fire Frequency Significantly Influences the Litter Arthropod
           Community in Longleaf Pine Flatwoods
    • Authors: Atchison R; Hulcr J, Lucky A.
      Pages: 575 - 585
      Abstract: Frequent prescribed burns are essential to pine forest restoration and management. Research studies have assessed effects of prescribed fire and burn frequency on plants and vertebrates, but impacts of fire on terrestrial invertebrate communities are still poorly understood. This case study investigated effects of burning frequency on species richness and community composition of social insects (ants, Hymenoptera: Formicidae and termites, Blattodea: Isoptera) in fire-managed Southern longleaf pine flatwoods in central Florida. Community response to different fire frequencies was assessed: burned annually, every 2 yr, or every 3 yr, 30 yr unburned and 75 yr unburned. Richness was similar across all treatments, but ant community composition and species density significantly differed between frequently burned (1, 2, and 3 yr) and long-unburned (30 and 75 yr) treatments. Long-unburned treatments had higher ant abundance, but the species present were less characteristic of open canopy longleaf pine habitat than ants in frequently burned treatments. The annual burn treatment differed from 2-yr burn in species density, but to a lesser degree. Exotic species abundance was highest in frequently burned sites; only native species were detected in the 75-yr unburned plot. The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), was detected in all regularly burned plots but not in long-unburned sites. Frequent burning at this site increased habitat suitability for ant species adapted to the sunny, open canopy, and diverse niches characteristic of longleaf pine forest; however, regular fire disturbance also increased the likelihood of exotic ant species establishment.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy038
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Chemical Assay for the Detection of Vertebrate Fecal Metabolites in Adult
           Blow Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
    • Authors: Owings C; Skaggs C, Sheriff W, et al.
      Pages: 586 - 593
      Abstract: Filth flies are commonly implicated in pathogen transmission routes due to their affinity for vertebrate waste and their synanthropic associations. However, solidifying the link between flies and infected feces in the wild can be difficult, as interpretations made solely from microbial culturing or sequencing methods may represent an incomplete picture of pathogen acquisition. We present an analytical assay using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC MS/MS) to detect vertebrate fecal metabolites (urobilinoids) in adult blow fly guts. Proof of concept experiments consisted of controlled feeding in which flies were grouped into three treatments (unfed, exposure to beef liver tissue, and exposure to canine feces; N = 20/treatment) using the black blow fly Phormia regina Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae). It was revealed that only feces-related samples exhibited peaks with an m/z of 591 and MS/MS spectra consistent with urobilinoids. These peaks were not seen for beef liver tissue, flies exposed to beef liver tissue, or unfed flies. Samples taken directly from beef liver tissue and from feces of several animals were also tested. To test this assay in wild flies, 216 flies were additionally analyzed to determine whether they had ingested vertebrate feces. About 13% of the wild flies exhibited these same peaks, providing a baseline measure of blow flies collected in urban and residential areas consuming feces from the environment. Overall, this assay can be used for P. regina collected in an applied setting and its integration with microbial culturing and sequencing methods will help to improve its use.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy027
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Laboratory and Field Evaluation of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria
           bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for Population Management of
           Spruce Beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), in Felled
           Trees and Factors Limiting Pathogen Success
    • Authors: Davis T; Mann A, Malesky D, et al.
      Pages: 594 - 602
      Abstract: An isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) was tested for its ability to reduce survival and reproduction of spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), under laboratory and field conditions. Conidial suspension applied directly to adults or to filter papers that adults contacted had a median survival time of 3–4 d in laboratory assays and beetles died more rapidly when exposed to conidial suspension than when treated with surfactant solution only. In the field, conidial suspension was applied to the surface of felled and pheromone-baited Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) trees using a backpack sprayer. Mortality of colonizing parent beetles (F0), reproduction (abundance of F1 offspring in logs), and emergence of F1 beetles from logs was compared between treated and nontreated logs. Application of spore suspension increased mortality of F0 adults by 36% on average. Total F1 reproduction was reduced by 17% and emergence from logs was reduced by 13% in treated logs, but considerable variability in reproduction and emergence was observed. Viable spores were re-isolated from treated logs up to 90 d after application, indicating that spores are capable of long-term persistence on the tree bole microhabitat. Subsequent in vitro tests revealed that temperatures below 15°C and exposure to spruce monoterpenes likely limit performance of B. bassiana under field conditions, but exposure to low-intensity light or interactions with spruce beetle symbiotic fungi were not strongly inhibitory. It is concluded that matching environmental tolerances of biocontrol fungi to field conditions can likely improve their usefulness for control of spruce beetle in windthrown trees.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy036
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Phenology of Honey Bee Swarm Departure in New Jersey, United States
    • Authors: Gilley D; Courtright T, Thom C.
      Pages: 603 - 608
      Abstract: Departure of swarms from honey bee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) nests is an important reproductive event for wild honey bee colonies and economically costly in managed bee colonies. The seasonal timing of swarm departure varies regionally and annually, creating challenges for honey bee management and emphasizing the potential for swarming behavior to be affected by plant-pollinator phenological mismatch. In this study, we first document variability in the timing of swarm departure across the large and heterogeneous geographical area of New Jersey over 4 years using 689 swarm-cluster observations. Second, hypothesizing that honey bee colonies adaptively tune the timing of swarm departure to match floral food-resource availability, we predicted that growing degree-days could be used to account for regional and annual variability. To test this idea, we used local weather records to determine the growing degree-day on which each swarm cluster was observed and tested for differences among climate regions and years. The state-wide mean swarm cluster date was May 15 (± 0.6 d), with moderate but significant differences among the state’s five climate regions and between years. Use of degree-day information suggests that local heat accumulation can account for some climate-region differences in swarm-departure timing. Annual variation existed on a scale of only several days and was not accounted for by growing degree-days, suggesting little adaptive tuning of swarm-departure timing with respect to local heat accumulation.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy039
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A New Gall Midge Species of Asphondylia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Inducing
           Flower Galls on Clinopodium nepeta (Lamiaceae) From Europe, Its Phenology,
           and Associated Fungi
    • Authors: Bernardo U; Nugnes F, Gualtieri L, et al.
      Pages: 609 - 622
      Abstract: A new gall midge, Asphondylia nepetae sp. n. Viggiani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), causing flower gall on Clinopodium nepeta (L.) Kuntze (Lamiaceae), is described from Europe. The morphological characteristics of adult, larvae, and pupa are described and illustrated. Molecular approach (by sequencing 28S-D2, ITS2, and COI) confirmed that A. nepetae is a distinct species. The development of the gall is always associated with the presence of the fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug.: Fr.) Ces. and De Not. (Botryosphaeriales: Botryosphaeriaceae). The new species can complete several generations per year, on the flowers of the same host plant and its adults emerge from late spring to autumn. Pupae overwinter inside peculiar flower galls in a state of quiescence. The impact of the pest is highly variable with a percentage of flowers infested that ranged between 3 and 57.5% in the sampled years. Insect mortality was, at least in part, due to parasitoids that attack the young stages of the midge. Among them, the dominant species was Sigmophora brevicornis (Panzer) (Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae).
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy028
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Comparison of Frankliniella fusca and Frankliniella occidentalis
           (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as Vectors for a Peanut Strain of Tomato Spotted
           Wilt Orthotospovirus
    • Authors: Arthurs S; Heinz K, Mitchell F.
      Pages: 623 - 628
      Abstract: Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV) is a major disease in peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., across peanut producing regions of the United States and elsewhere. Two thrips, Frankliniella fusca Hinds and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), are considered important vectors of TSWV in peanut in the Southeast. We compared the efficiency of acquisition (by larvae) and transmission (adults) of both thrips species for TSWV (Texas peanut-strain) to leaf disks of peanut (Florunner), as well as to Impatiens walleriana Hook. f. (Dwarf White Baby) and Petunia hybrida Juss. ‘Fire Chief’ using double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Both species were competent TSWV vectors in peanut and Impatiens, although F. fusca was the more efficient vector overall, i.e., virus acquisition and transmission rates for F. fusca averaged over several bioassays were 51.7 and 26.6%, respectively, compared with 20.0 and 15.3% for F. occidentalis. Neither species effectively transmitted this TSWV strain to Petunia (i.e., ≤3.6% transmission). We found statistically similar virus acquisition and transmission rates between both sexes for each species. We also detected no differences in TSWV-acquisition and transmission frequency between macropterous and brachypterous (short-wing) forms of F. fusca collected from a field population in south Texas. DAS-ELISA failed to detect low levels of TSWV in a few thrips that subsequently proved to be competent vectors.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy037
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Oviposition Preference and Larval Host Range of the Sugarbeet Root Maggot
           (Diptera: Ulidiidae)
    • Authors: Msangosoko K; Boetel M.
      Pages: 629 - 637
      Abstract: The sugarbeet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis Röder (Diptera: Ulidiidae), is native to North America. However, its primary crop host, sugarbeet, Beta vulgaris L., was introduced to the continent from Europe in the late 19th century. This field and greenhouse research was conducted to compare the relative attractiveness of eight cultivated and wild plant species for oviposition by T. myopaeformis, and the suitability of these potential host plants for larval development to elucidate the potential native and current host range of this pest. Results indicated that females preferred ovipositing in soil immediately adjacent to or on the following plant species: sugarbeet; spinach, Spinacia olerocea L.; common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L.; redroot pigweed, Amaranthus retroflexus L.; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.; and to a lesser extent, spear saltbush, Atriplex patula L. Larval survival was greatest on spinach, sugarbeet, and spear saltbush, which all belong to the family Chenopodiaceae. Larval survival on these plants suggests that T. myopaeformis could have exploited wild chenopodiaceous plants or others within the order Caryophyllales before sugarbeet was introduced to North America. Low larval survival on common lambsquarters, redroot pigweed, and Palmer amaranth suggests that these species are suboptimal hosts, despite demonstrated attractiveness for oviposition. A general lack of oviposition preference by T. myopaeformis females was observed for sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., and common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. These results provide insights regarding the successful and somewhat rapid host preference shift by this insect to sugarbeet after cultivation of the crop began in the continent.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy026
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Pine Engravers Carry Bacterial Communities Whose Members Reduce
           Concentrations of Host Monoterpenes With Variable Degrees of Redundancy,
           Specificity, and Capability
    • Authors: Howe M; Keefover-Ring K, Raffa K.
      Pages: 638 - 645
      Abstract: Bark beetles are eruptive forest insects that have the potential to cause landscape level mortality to conifer forests. The pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the predominant pest of mature red pine (Pinus resinosa Aiton) plantations throughout the Great Lakes region of North America. Pine engraver attack elicits a localized response by host trees in which concentrations of terpenes rapidly exceed the tolerance levels of beetles and their fungal associates. We considered how bacterial associates degrade these toxins from the perspective of the symbiont communities of individual beetles. We demonstrate that 1) most pine engravers harbor bacterial communities that reduce monoterpene concentrations in vivo; 2) several individual bacterial isolates can reduce monoterpenes even at high concentrations; and 3) bacteria isolated from pine engravers are similar to those found in other bark beetles. Bacteria isolated from pine engravers decreased concentrations of (−)-α-pinene, myrcene, and 3-carene. Most beetles carried at least one bacterial isolate that reduced concentrations of at least one monoterpene. Different bacteria vary in the uppermost concentrations at which they can degrade monoterpenes. The community of bacteria associated with an individual beetle appears to have some manner of functional redundancy that could collectively increase the likelihood of successful host colonization.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy032
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Behavioral Evidence for Host Transitions in Plant, Plant Parasite, and
           Insect Interactions
    • Authors: Halbritter D; Willett D, Gordon J, et al.
      Pages: 646 - 653
      Abstract: Specialized herbivorous insects have the ability to transition between host plant taxa, and considering the co-evolutionary history between plants and the organisms utilizing them is important to understanding plant insect interactions. We investigated the role of a pine tree parasite, dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.) M. Bieb. Santalales: Viscaceae, in mediating interactions between Neophasia (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) butterflies and pine trees, the butterflies’ larval hosts. Mistletoe is considered the butterflies’ ancestral host, and the evolutionary transition to pine may have occurred recently. In Arizona, United States, we studied six sites in pine forest habitats: three in Neophasia menapia (Felder and R. Felder, 1859) habitat and three in Neophasia terlooii Behr, 1869 habitat. Each site contained six stands of trees that varied in mistletoe infection severity. Butterfly behavior was observed and ranked at each stand. Volatile compounds were collected from trees at each site and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Female butterflies landed on or patrolled around pine trees (i.e., interacted) more than males, and N. terlooii interacted more with pine trees than N. menapia. Both butterfly species interacted more with tree stands harboring greater mistletoe infection, and N. terlooii interacted more with heavily infected tree stands than did N. menapia. The influence of mistletoe on Neophasia behavior may be mediated by differences in tree volatiles resulting from mistletoe infection. Volatile profiles significantly differed between infected and uninfected pine trees. The role of mistletoe in mediating butterfly interactions with pines has implications for conservation biology and forest management, and highlights the importance of understanding an organism’s niche in an evolutionary context.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy033
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Effect of Potato virus Y Presence in Solanum tuberosum (Solanales:
           Solanaceae) and Chenopodium album on Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Behavior
           
    • Authors: Murphy A; Rondon S, Moreno A, et al.
      Pages: 654 - 659
      Abstract: This study establishes the effect of Potato Virus Y (PVY; Potyvirus) in potatoes, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae) and in common-lambs’ quarter Chenopodium album L. (Amaranthaceae) on Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) behavior, host preference, transmission, and fitness under field and laboratory studies. In the field, several weeds, besides C. album, were collected, including: Sisymbrium altissimum L. (Brassicaceae), Erodium cicutarium L., Lactuca serriola L., Solanum sarrachoides Sendtner (Solanaceae), and S. dulcamara L. (Solanaceae). All weeds were serologically tested for the presence of PVY. From all weeds collected, 2.3 and 34% of C. album and S. sarrachoides, respectively, were PVY-positive. From those positive samples, 72% of the PVY found were PVYN; the remaining 28% was PVYO. In addition, several aphid species were collected from those weeds: Ovatus crataegarious Walker, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Hyalopterus pruni Geoffroy (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Rophalosiphum madis Fitch, and ‘others aphid’ species were collected. The highest number of aphids were collected in E. cicutarium, followed by S. dulcamara, L. serriola, S. altissimum, and C. album. In laboratory studies, PVY-infected C. album does not induce the production of aphids. Moreover, M. persicae did not appear to have a strong preference for either healthy or PVY-infected potato plant, but they did develop a preference for infected plants after prolonged feeding. M. persicae and M. euphorbiae transmitted PVY from C. album to S. tuberosum, 44 and 37.5 % of the time. Future research should seek to identify not only other sources and prevalence of PVY in the field but vector relationships. In insect-pathogen complex continues to persist in solanaceous field crops around the world.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy041
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Landscape Effects on Reproduction of Euschistus servus (Hemiptera:
           Pentatomidae), a Mobile, Polyphagous, Multivoltine Arthropod Herbivore
    • Authors: Olson D; Prescott K, Zeilinger A, et al.
      Pages: 660 - 668
      Abstract: Landscape factors can significantly influence arthropod populations. The economically important brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a native mobile, polyphagous and multivoltine pest of many crops in southeastern United States and understanding the relative influence of local and landscape factors on their reproduction may facilitate population management. Finite rate of population increase (λ) was estimated in four major crop hosts—maize, peanut, cotton, and soybean—over 3 yr in 16 landscapes of southern Georgia. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to characterize the surrounding landscape structure. LASSO regression was used to identify the subset of local and landscape characteristics and predator densities that account for variation in λ. The percentage area of maize, peanut and woodland and pasture in the landscape and the connectivity of cropland had no influence on E. servus λ. The best model for explaining variation in λ included only four predictor variables: whether or not the sampled field was a soybean field, mean natural enemy density in the field, percentage area of cotton in the landscape and the percentage area of soybean in the landscape. Soybean was the single most important variable for determining E. servus λ, with much greater reproduction in soybean fields than in other crop species. Penalized regression and post-selection inference provide conservative estimates of the landscape-scale determinants of E. servus reproduction and indicate that a relatively simple set of in-field and landscape variables influences reproduction in this species.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy045
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Physiological Response of Pedunculate Oak Trees to Gall-Inducing Cynipidae
    • Authors: Kot I; Rubinowska K.
      Pages: 669 - 675
      Abstract: Gall-inducing Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) manipulate the leaves of their host plants and induce local resistance, resulting in a diversity of physiological changes. In this study, three gall morphotypes caused by the asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L., Neuroterus numismalis (Fourc.) and Neuroterus quercusbaccarum L. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on pedunculate oaks (Quercus robur L. (Fagales: Fagaceae)), were used as a model to examine physiological alterations in galls and foliar tissues, compared to non-galled tissues. Our goal was to investigate whether plant physiological response to insect feeding on the same host plant varies depending on gall-wasp species. In particular, the cytoplasmic membrane condition, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and changes in antioxidative enzyme activities, including guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were examined in this study. All cynipid species increased H2O2 levels in the leaves with galls, while the level of H2O2 in galls depended on the species. The presence of galls of all species on oak leaves caused an increase of electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation level. A significant induction of GPX activity was observed in the leaves with galls of all species, indicating stress induction. Conversely, the decrease in APX activity in both leaves with galls and galled tissues exposed to feeding of all cynipid species.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy047
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Population Structure, Movement Patterns, and Frequency of Multiple Matings
           in Tenodera sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae)
    • Authors: Christensen T; Brown W.
      Pages: 676 - 683
      Abstract: Models of the evolution of sexual cannibalism show that the frequency of male mating opportunities has significant impact on male choice and male risk aversion. In this study, we examined ecological components that should affect opportunities for multiple mating in wild populations of the Chinese mantid (Tenodera sinensis Saussure). While conducting mark-recapture studies of two field populations over the course of two seasons, along with Global Positioning System data on locations of individuals, we collected data on population densities, movement patterns, and individual ranges to estimate the overlap of adult males and female mantids. Our results show that local populations of mantids range from 89 to 161 individuals and occur at densities ranging from 10 to 39 mantids per 1,000 m2. Males move greater distances daily compared with females, giving males larger home range sizes. The ranges of male mantids overlapped with multiple females, thus offering the potential for multiple mating by males. We directly observed 11 encounters between male and female T. sinensis, including one multiple mating by an individual male. The overall mate encounter rate for males was 12.5%. We also provide additional observations of interspecific sexual attraction between T. sinensis and Mantis religiosa Linne (Mantodea: Mantidae). Mantids were most commonly found within the top 20% of two flowering plants, goldenrod (Solidago Linnaeus spp. (Asterales: Asteraceae)) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris Linnaeus (Asterales: Asteraceae)), which should place them in prime locations for capturing flying pollinators.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy048
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Acceptability and Suitability of Three Liriomyza Species as Host for the
           Endoparasitoid Halticoptera arduine (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)
    • Authors: Muchemi S; Zebitz C, Borgemeister C, et al.
      Pages: 684 - 691
      Abstract: In the scope of using Halticoptera arduine (Walker; Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in a classical biological control program in East Africa, laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the acceptability and suitability of the three economically important Liriomyza leafminer species to the exotic parasitoid. Searching time, number of oviposition attempts, F1 parasitoid developmental period, parasitism rates, sex ratio, host mortality, and body size indices were assessed. H. arduine parasitized and developed successfully in the three Liriomyza species reported in East Africa. Female parasitoids took on average between 10.45 ± 0.83 to 15.80 ± 0.91 (means ± SE) seconds to encounter their first host and made significantly more oviposition attempts on Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard; Diptera: Agromyzidae) than Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard; Diptera: Agromyzidae) and Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess; Diptera: Agromyzidae) (P = 0.0006). Parasitoid development period from egg to adult ranged between 19.32 ± 0.96 and 22.86 ± 0.27 d. Parasitism rate ranged from 27.96 ± 3.86 to 44.10 ± 4.56 in the three host species and was significantly higher in L. huidobrensis than in L. sativae (P = 0.0397). H. arduine did not induce significant nonreproductive host mortality in any of the three Liriomyza hosts. A female-biased parasitoid sex ratio was observed in L. huidobrensis, a balanced sex ratio in L. sativae and a male-biased in L. trifolii. Parasitoids progeny were significantly larger on L. huidobrensis for both tibia and wing length than L. sativae and L. trifolii (P = 0.0109 and P = 0.0192, respectively). The implication for the environmentally friendly management of Liriomyza leafminers in East Africa is discussed.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy050
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Interaction Between Two Leafminer Parasitoids, Halticoptera arduine
           (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae),
           in the Management of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae)
    • Authors: Muchemi S; Zebitz C, Borgemeister C, et al.
      Pages: 692 - 699
      Abstract: Liriomyza spp., leafminer flies (Mik; Diptera: Agromyzidae), are economically important quarantine pests that puncture and mine leaves and fruits of various horticultural crops worldwide, affecting yield and trade. Halticoptera arduine (Walker; Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a key parasitoid from the pests’ areas of origin in South America, was introduced as a potential alternative management strategy. Prior to H. arduine release, its potential interactions with the dominant local ectoparasitoid, Diglyphus isaea (Walker; Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were assessed. Halticoptera arduine and D. isaea were released in single, sequential and simultaneous combinations on Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard; Diptera: Agromyzidae) to evaluate possible effect on the parasitism rate, reproduction and host mortality. The combination of both parasitoids did not significantly affect the specific parasitism rates of either of them, an indication that H. arduine and D. isaea can coexist. Parasitism rates of the exotic H. arduine were significantly superior to the indigenous D. isaea in all release combinations except when both species were released simultaneously. While 50 individuals of D. isaea resulted only in 21.23 ± 2.1% parasitism, 50 parasitoids composed of 25 H. arduine and 25 D. isaea caused 53.27 ± 4.99%. Both parasitoids further induced significant nonreproductive host mortalities. Both parasitoids’ F1 progenies sex ratios were female-biased in all parasitoid release combinations except in single release of D. isaea with a balanced sex ratio. The improvement in D. isaea’s sex ratio induced by the presence of H. arduine suggests a synergetic effect on D. isaea’s reproductive performance. The introduction of H. arduine in horticulture production systems may therefore improve natural control of Liriomyza leafminers in East Africa.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy051
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Comparative Antennal and Behavioral Responses of Summer and Winter Morph
           Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to Ecologically Relevant
           Volatiles
    • Authors: Kirkpatrick D; Leach H, Xu P, et al.
      Pages: 700 - 706
      Abstract: Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a devastating global pest of berry crops and cherries. Little is understood about its biology during the winter in northern temperate regions, including potential resources that it may utilize during this period. In this study, olfactory and behavioral responses of female D. suzukii to six volatiles (methionol, acetic acid, linalool, bornyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and geosmin) were evaluated separately for electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral assays between summer and winter morphs. Results of EAG indicated that isoamyl acetate, acetic acid, and geosmin elicited significantly higher olfactory responses from the antennae of female summer morph D. suzukii compared with those of female winter morph D. suzukii. Winter morph D. suzukii showed reduced antennal response to the volatiles overall. Geosmin and bornyl acetate elicited significantly different behavioral responses from the two morphs in no-choice laboratory behavioral assays. T-maze behavioral assays with geosmin further revealed that summer morphs had a significant aversion, while winter morphs showed no significant aversion to geosmin. Overall, we demonstrate that responses of the two seasonally induced morphs to environmental stimuli are different, and future studies are justified to further understand how these physiological and behavioral differences may contribute to improved pest management of D. suzukii.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy046
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Juice Grape Canopy Structure and Cluster Availability Do Not Reduce
           Middle- and Late-Season Captures of Male Paralobesia viteana (Lepidoptera:
           Totricidae) in Sex Pheromone Traps
    • Authors: Mason K; Isaacs R.
      Pages: 707 - 714
      Abstract: Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), the grape berry moth, is a major economic pest of cultivated grapes in eastern North America. Although pheromone lures and traps are available for monitoring this pest, male moth captures in these traps decline as the infestation risk increases through the multiple generations that occur during a season. This makes it difficult to use traps to monitor this pest’s population dynamics and complicates the timing of pest management activities. To test whether seasonal changes in the plant canopy affect captures of male grape berry moth, we manipulated grapevine fruit density or canopy structure in multiple growing seasons, and measured male captures under these conditions. Removal of either 50 or 100% of the fruit clusters from vineyard plots did not consistently affect captures in pheromone traps. In 2013, significantly more males were captured in traps in plots where clusters were not removed compared to captures in traps in plots where 50 or 100% of clusters were removed, but this effect was not seen in 2014 or 2015. In the first year of a separate experiment, there were no differences in male captures between unaltered canopies and those held open artificially. In subsequent years we detected significant differences in male captures for some sample periods, and there was a prevailing trend of arithmetically more male captures in unaltered than in open canopies. We conclude that fruit presence, fruit density and canopy fullness do not reduce male P. viteana captures late in the season, and that other factors are driving this pattern.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy044
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Novel Temperature-Dependent Development Rate Models for Postdiapause Egg
           Eclosion of Three Important Arthropod Pests Found in Commercial Christmas
           Tree Plantations of Southern Québec, Canada
    • Authors: Doherty J; Guay J, Cloutier C.
      Pages: 715 - 724
      Abstract: The balsam twig aphid Mindarus abietinus Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae), the spruce spider mite Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and the pine needle scale Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are three important pests for the Christmas tree industry of Québec, Canada. Temperature-dependent development rates for postdiapause overwintering eggs of these species have never been studied for populations of southern Québec, where the vast majority of Christmas trees are grown. The accumulation of physiological time in growing degree days (GDD) is a standard tool to predict egg eclosion dates for pests, when first generation immatures are most vulnerable to insecticidal control. Development rates for postdiapause eggs were tested at four or five constant temperatures in the 11–23°C range under controlled conditions, based on time before hatching for eggs collected in a balsam fir plantation in late winter. The standard linear model and three published nonlinear models were fitted to the data and compared for their ability to estimate key biological temperature parameters and to predict development rates of postdiapause eggs. Validation of model predictions of egg eclosion time on balsam fir in the field was reasonably accurate using the classical linear model where field-accumulated GDD were calculated with a particular interpretation of the average method based on daily maximum and minimum temperatures. The linear model could predict mean egg eclosion within around 5 d of eclosion dates observed in the field.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy003
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A Laboratory Curse: Variation in Temperature Stimulates Embryonic
           Development and Shortens Diapause
    • Authors: Srygley R; Senior L.
      Pages: 725 - 733
      Abstract: An ongoing biological debate concerns the difference in trait expression in continuous versus cycling temperature regimes, but are even daily cycling temperatures sufficient to generate natural expression of traits' We compared embryonic development and the duration of diapause for Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex Haldeman (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) eggs incubated in a daily cycling temperature constant in both amplitude and thermoperiod with those in a cycling temperature that was patterned after natural fluctuations in ambient temperature. Although the proportion of eggs developing did not differ between treatments, 128 d of vernalization was required to hatch after incubation in the constant cycling treatment relative to 42 d in the more variable cycle. We then compared these same development and diapause traits for eggs incubated in a daily cycling temperature that was constant in amplitude but varied in thermoperiod with those in the cycling temperature patterned after natural fluctuations in ambient temperature. The proportion of eggs developing in this constant cycling treatment was nearly half that in the variable treatment, and 128 d was insufficient time to break diapause following the constant cycling treatment even though the thermoperiods were now more similar. We have found that variation in the cycling temperature to mimic natural fluctuations in amplitude and period broadens the time when eggs can be warmed up for hatching and improves hatching success. Daily cycling temperatures that are constant over the season are insufficient to generate natural trait expression.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy024
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Factors Affecting Population Dynamics of Thrips Vectors of Soybean vein
           necrosis virus
    • Authors: Keough S; Danielson J, Marshall J, et al.
      Pages: 734 - 740
      Abstract: Thrips-infesting soybeans were considered of minor economic importance, but recent evidence of their ability to transmit a newly identified soybean virus, Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV), has raised their profile as pests. Season-long surveys were conducted using suction traps to determine the effects of temperature and precipitation on the spatiotemporal patterns of three vector species of SVNV, Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (soybean thrips), Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (eastern flower thrips), and Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (tobacco thrips) in soybean fields in Indiana in 2013 and 2014. In addition, soybean fields were surveyed for presence of SVNV in both years. We found that the magnitude and timing of thrips activity varied greatly for the three species. N. variabilis activity peaked in mid-August each year. The peak activity for F. tritici occurred between late-June, and a second peak in activity was observed in early-August, while F. fusca activity remained more or less the same with no peak. There was no gradient in thrips populations from southern to northern locations. This suggests that these insects are not migratory and may overwinter in soil or perennial noncrop host plants and other weed hosts in Indiana. The capture rates of N. variabilis and F. tritici were only related to temperature, and capture rates of F. fusca were not related to either variable. SVNV was first detected in mid-late August, which coincided with the peak of the primary vector, N. variabilis. The virus was not detected earlier in the season despite peaks in F. tritici activity. Our results may be used in weather-based models to predict both thrips dynamics as well as SVNV outbreaks.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy021
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Antioxidant Effects of Four Heartwood Extractives on Midgut Enzyme
           Activity in Heterotermes indicola (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae)
    • Authors: Hassan B; Ahmed S, Kirker G, et al.
      Pages: 741 - 748
      Abstract: Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) is a species of subterranean termite that is a destructive pest of wood and wood products in Pakistan. This study evaluated the antioxidant and antienzyme potential of heartwood extractives against H. indicola. Heartwood extractives of four durable wood species, Tectona grandis (L.f), Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.), Cedrus deodara (Roxb.), and Pinus roxburghii (Sarg.) were removed from wood shavings via soxhlet extraction with an ethanol:toluene solvent system. The antioxidant potential of the extractive compounds was determined using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging test. Results showed maximum antioxidant activity for extractives of D. sissoo. D. sissoo had the lowest IC50 (the concentration where 50% inhibition of the DPPH radical is obtained) at 28.83 µg/ml among the heartwood extractives evaluated. This antioxidant activity, however, was not concentration dependent as was observed in the other heartwood extractives tested. At the maximum test concentration, T. grandis showed the highest percent inhibition at 89.7%, but this inhibition was lower compared to the positive control antioxidant compounds butylated hydroxytoluene and quercetin. When termites were fed filter paper treated with IC50s of the extractives and control compounds, glutathione S-transferase activity in the guts of H. indicola workers was significantly reduced by T. grandis and D. sissoo extractives. Similarly, esterase activity was reduced more by P. roxburghii extractives compared to control antioxidant treatments and other tested extractives. However, none of the extractives examined significantly reduced the activity of catalase enzymes in H. indicola compared to treatments with the antioxidant control compounds.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy029
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Effect of Tea Saponin-Treated Host Plants on Activities of Antioxidant
           Enzymes in Larvae of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella
           (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
    • Authors: Lin S; Chen Y, Bai Y, et al.
      Pages: 749 - 754
      Abstract: Tea saponin (TS) is extracted from the seeds of the tea plant and is generally regarded as a safe compound that has insecticidal properties and can act synergistically with other compounds. In this study, the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared in midgut tissues of third instar larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The larvae were fed on three different host plants, cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radiculus Persi [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), or rape (Brassica campestris L. [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), that had been treated with TS. Higher SOD, POD, and CAT activities were found in DBM larvae fed on cabbage after LC20 (concentration that induced 20% larval mortality) or LC50 (concentration that induced 50% larval mortality) treatment than on the control. On rape, TS treatments led to lower SOD and CAT activities than in the control and to higher POD activities after 24 h. MDA content increased in larvae fed on rape but decreased in larvae fed on radish after 12 h. Our results indicated that DBM larvae are more susceptible to TS on rape than on cabbage and radish, suggesting that this treatment may be an economic and effective means of controlling DBM on rape.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy031
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Effects of Adult Feeding and Overwintering Conditions on Energy Reserves
           and Flight Performance of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)
    • Authors: Tussey D; Aukema B, Charvoz A, et al.
      Pages: 755 - 763
      Abstract: Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle from Asia, spreads through human-mediated movement and active flight. The effects of adult feeding and overwintering conditions on A. planipennis energy reserves (e.g., lipid, glycogen, and sugars) and flight are poorly understood. We conjectured that the potential energetic demands associated with the production of cryoprotectants might affect dispersal capacity and partially explain slower spread of A. planipennis in Minnesota than in the other states. Two studies sought to measure the effects of adult feeding on lipid content and flight capacity. Adult A. planipennis were fed shamel ash, Fraxinus uhdei Wenzig, leaves for 0–20 d after emergence, and half were flown on a custom flight mill for 24 h, before being frozen for comparative lipid analysis with a control group. The second study compared the effects of adult feeding on energy reserves and flight capacity of A. planipennis that were originally from St. Paul, Minnesota but overwintered in infested logs placed in Grand Rapids, Minnesota (low winter temperature, −34°C) or St. Paul, Minnesota (−26.3°C). Live adults consumed foliage at a constant rate, but lipid content (percentage of fresh mass) did not change with increases in feeding or flight. Adult glycogen content declined with flight and increased only slightly with feeding. Overwintering location affected survival rates but not energy reserves or flight capacity. These results suggest that the flight capacity of A. planipennis is largely determined before emergence, with no differences in energy reserves after cryoprotectant investment.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy040
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Thermal Performance of Two Indigenous Pupal Parasitoids Attacking the
           Invasive Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)
    • Authors: Wang X; Serrato M, Son Y, et al.
      Pages: 764 - 772
      Abstract: Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani) and Trichopria drosophilae (Perkins) are among a few indigenous parasitoids attacking the invasive Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in North America. Both parasitoid species occur in California, whereas only P. vindemiae has been reported from Oregon. We compared the thermal performance of the California populations of P. vindemiae and T. drosophilae, and the Oregon population of P. vindemiae at eight constant temperatures (12.6–32.8°C). Both P. vindemiae populations could develop at all tested temperatures. T. drosophilae failed to develop at or above 29.6°C. This species was, however, able to develop at a diurnal temperature regime of 15–32°C, and survival was higher in older developmental stages. T. drosophilae was less tolerant to both low and high temperatures than P. vindemiae, whereas the Oregon P. vindemiae population was more cold-tolerant but less heat-tolerant than the California population in terms of offspring survival, development, and reproduction. To develop storage strategies for mass-cultured parasitoids, we compared the cold tolerance of immature P. vindemiae and T. drosophilae of the California populations at 12°C for 1, 2, or 3 mo, followed by a 23°C holding period. Successful development to the adult stage decreased as cold storage duration increased. Successful development, however, increased when cold storage was initiated during the older developmental stages for 1-mo exposure for both parasitoid species. The results are discussed with regards to parasitoid thermal adaptation and the potential use of P. vindemiae and T. drosophilae for biological control of spotted-wing drosophila.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy053
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Corrigendum to “Landscape Effects on Reproduction of Euschistus servus
           (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a Mobile, Polyphagous, Multivoltine Arthropod
           Herbivore”
    • Pages: 773 - 773
      Abstract: Correction of “Olson, D. M., K. R. Prescott, A. R. Zeilinger, S. Hou, A. W. Coffin, C. M. Smith, J. R. Ruberson, and D. A. Andow. 2018. Landscape Effects on Reproduction of Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a Mobile, Polyphagous, Multivoltine Arthropod Herbivore. Environ. Entomol.”
      PubDate: Wed, 16 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy073
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
 
 
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