Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 413 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 413 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 232, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 396, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 234, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 622, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insect Systematics and Diversity     Hybrid Journal  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Environmental Entomology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.818
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 12  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0046-225X - ISSN (Online) 1938-2936
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [413 journals]
  • Effect of Temperature on Plant Resistance to Arthropod Pests
    • Authors: Nechols J; Hough A, Margolies D, et al.
      Pages: 537 - 545
      Abstract: AbstractTemperature has a strong influence on the development, survival, and fecundity of herbivorous arthropods, and it plays a key role in regulating the growth and development of their host plants. In addition, temperature affects the production of plant secondary chemicals as well as structural characteristics used for defense against herbivores. Thus, temperature has potentially important implications for host plant resistance. Because temperature directly impacts arthropod pests, both positively and negatively, distinguishing direct effects from indirect effects mediated through host plants poses a challenge for researchers and practitioners. A more comprehensive understanding of how temperature affects plant resistance specifically, and arthropod pests in general, would lead to better predictions of pest populations, and more effective use of plant resistance as a management tactic. Therefore, the goals of this paper are to 1) review and update knowledge about temperature effects on plant resistance, 2) evaluate alternative experimental approaches for separating direct from plant-mediated indirect effects of temperature on pests, including benefits and limitations of each approach, and 3) offer recommendations for future research.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa033
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Landscape Ecology of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Ixodida:
           Ixodidae) Outbreaks in the South Texas Coastal Plain Wildlife Corridor
           Including Man-Made Barriers
    • Authors: Showler A; Pérez de León A, Redak R.
      Pages: 546 - 552
      Abstract: AbstractLandscape features and the ecology of suitable hosts influence the phenology of invasive tick species. The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Ixodida: Ixodidae), vectors causal agents of babesiosis in cattle and it infests exotic, feral nilgai, Bosephalus tragocamelus Pallas, and indigenous white-tailed deer, Odocoilus virginianus (Zimmerman), on the South Texas coastal plain wildlife corridor. The corridor extends from the Mexico border to cattle ranches extending north from inside Willacy Co. Outbreaks of R. microplus infesting cattle and nondomesticated ungulate hosts since 2014 in the wildlife corridor have focused attention on host infestation management and, by extension, dispersal. However, there is a knowledge gap on the ecology of R. microplus outbreaks in the South Texas coastal plain wildlife corridor. Ixodid distribution on the wildlife corridor is strongly influenced by habitat salinity. Saline habitats, which constitute ≈25% of the wildlife corridor, harbor few ixodids because of occasional salt toxicity from hypersaline wind tides and infrequent storm surges, and from efficient egg predation by mud flat fiddler crabs, Uca rapax (Smith). Rhipicephalus microplus infestations on nilgai were more prevalent in part of the corridor with mixed low salinity and saline areas than in an area that is more extensively saline. The different levels of R. microplus infestation suggest that man-made barriers have created isolated areas where the ecology of R. microplus outbreaks involve infested nilgai. The possible utility of man-made barriers for R. microplus eradication in the lower part of the South Texas coastal plain wildlife corridor is discussed.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa038
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Effect of Constant and Fluctuating Temperature on the Development,
           Reproduction, Survival, and Sex Ratio of Phenacoccus solenopsis
           (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)
    • Authors: Waqas M; Lin L, Shoaib A, et al.
      Pages: 553 - 560
      Abstract: AbstractEffects of temperature on the development, survival, reproduction, longevity and sex ratio of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, was assessed at five constant temperatures ranging from 20 to 35°C and five fluctuating temperatures ranging from 15 to 40°C under laboratory conditions. Results showed that nymphal development duration, preoviposition period, oviposition period, fecundity, and adult longevity were reduced significantly with increasing temperature until 30°C, but developmental duration of third female nymphal instar and female adult longevity was longer at 35°C than 30°C, and no males could emerge from pupae at the constant temperature 35°C. Fluctuating temperature, in general, significantly accelerated the nymphal developmental duration, prolonged preoviposition period, shortened oviposition period, reduced fecundity, lowered the survival rate of nymphs, and decreased adult longevity of males and females compared to their mean corresponding constant temperature. Overall, it is suggested that one should be prudent when applying the obtained results under constant and fluctuating temperatures under laboratory conditions.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa023
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Mate Choice Behavior of Female Field Crickets Is Not Affected by Exposure
           to Heterospecific Calling Songs
    • Authors: Kuriwada T; Kawasaki R, Kuwano A, et al.
      Pages: 561 - 565
      Abstract: AbstractMany animals produce acoustic signals to mark territories and attract mates. When different species produce acoustic signals simultaneously, the signals create a noisy environment, with potential acoustic interference between species. Theoretical studies suggest that such reproductive interference may have strong effects on species interaction. For example, the inferior resource competitor can survive if its disadvantage is counterbalanced by superiority in reproductive interference. Two field cricket species, Teleogryllus occipitalis (Audinet-Serville) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and Loxoblemmus equestris Saussure (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), cooccur in the same habitat. A previous study has shown that L. equestris is an inferior species to T. occipitalis in terms of resource competition. Therefore, we predicted that mate location and choice behavior of female T. occipitalis would be negatively affected by the acoustic signals of L. equestris and tested this with a series of playback experiments. The mate choice behavior of female T. occipitalis was not significantly affected by the calling song of L. equestris. Our results suggest that the acoustic interference does not explain the cooccurrence of the two species in the same habitat.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa034
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • A Field-Relevant Concentration of the Insecticide Imidacloprid Affects
           Grooming, Locomotion, and Longevity in the Biological Control Agent
           Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)
    • Authors: Burgess E; IV, King B, Morrison W.
      Pages: 566 - 571
      Abstract: AbstractForeign materials like insecticides may increase grooming in insects; and generally, grooming may be expected to reduce effects of insecticides, but this may not be the case when grooming involves the mouth and hence a risk of ingestion. To examine this, female Spalangia endius, a wasp that parasitizes filth fly pupae, were exposed to a surface coated with a low concentration of imidacloprid or not. Their mouthparts were sealed or not to determine whether sealing is a useful method for examining effects of mouth grooming. Wasps mouth-groomed more frequently while exposed to imidacloprid than when not. However, imidacloprid did not increase the number of times that a wasp groomed the rest of her body, and this was true regardless of whether or not her mouthparts were sealed. While exposed to imidacloprid, wasps spent less time locomoting only if their mouthparts were not sealed. Having been exposed to imidacloprid also decreased subsequent longevity, from 9 to 7 d. These effects of imidacloprid on grooming, locomotion, and longevity occurred despite exposure being for just 5 min and to only 2% of the amount that will be present in an area immediately after house fly baits are scattered at their recommended coverage. This is such a low amount that, with 48 h of constant exposure, mortality of these wasps is only 10%. Having mouthparts sealed decreased locomotion and longevity regardless of exposure to imidacloprid. Thus, sealing mouthparts is not useful for measuring effects of mouth grooming.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa040
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Short-Term Dispersal and Long-Term Spatial and Temporal Patterns of
           Carabidae (Coleoptera) in Lowbush Blueberry Fields
    • Authors: Loureiro A; Nams V, White S, et al.
      Pages: 572 - 579
      Abstract: AbstractCarabidae (Coleoptera) are important natural enemies of many insect pests in various cropping systems. Their population dynamics and how they disperse determine how effective they are at carrying out the natural enemy function. There are robust patterns of community dynamics in annual cropping systems, but it is unclear if these would carry over into a relatively underexplored North American perennial crop. In Nova Scotia lowbush blueberry fields, we found that Carabidae diversity did not change with distance from field edge nor with time. Their activity density also did not change with time, but it did change with distance from field edge. We also found that the most abundant carabid of lowbush blueberry, Harpalus rufipes (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Carabidae), can disperse approximately 14.5 m/d. Our results shed more light on the community dynamics of Carabidae in lowbush blueberry fields and can help growers make informed decisions when it comes to incorporating natural enemies into their pest management practices.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa047
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • The Effects of Photoperiod on Diapause Induction in Hypena opulenta
           (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), a Biological Control Agent Against Invasive
           Swallow-Worts in North America
    • Authors: Jones I; Seehausen M, Bourchier R, et al.
      Pages: 580 - 585
      Abstract: AbstractMany insects exhibit a short-day diapause response, whereby diapause is induced when daylength falls below a critical threshold. This response is an adaptation to ensure synchrony between periods of insect activity, and the availability of resources, but it can cause problems when organisms are moved to new locations, where early or late-induced diapause can prove a barrier to establishment. We explored the role of photoperiod in diapause induction in Hypena opulenta, a recently introduced classical biological control agent for invasive swallow-worts in North America. We conducted four experimental cage releases as well as a growth chamber experiment to determine the threshold photoperiod for diapause induction in H. opulenta. We determined that the critical photoperiod for inducing diapause in 50% of H. opulenta is 15 h 35 min, which the moth only experiences in the Ottawa release site around summer solstice. This may lead to univoltinism, premature diapause, and poor establishment at some North American release sites. Our results can inform practical aspects of the biological control program for H. opulenta, such as fine-tuning methodologies for stockpiling diapausing pupae in the laboratory and narrowing down the optimal time window for releases at a given location. Additionally, our results will be important for the development of a temperature-based phenology model to more accurately predict voltinism in H. opulenta across the invasive range of swallow-worts in North America.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa030
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Behavioral Responses of Scolytus schevyrewi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae:
           Scolytinae) to Volatiles From Apricot Tree (Rosales: Rosaceae)
    • Authors: Zhu X; Xu B, Kader A, et al.
      Pages: 586 - 592
      Abstract: AbstractScolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is native to China and Central Asia. Damage by the adults and larvae weakens local apricot trees (Armeniaca spp.), often causing death to many host trees. In previous studies, freshly cut apricot logs were found to be highly attractive to S. schevyrewi adults. To explore the possibility of trapping and monitoring this bark beetle, we evaluated the effect of the apricot tree volatiles on S. schevyrewi behavior. Volatiles from the apricot logs were collected by headspace sampling and subjected to coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analysis. Behavioral responses to EAD-active compounds were assessed using two-choice Y-tube olfactometers. The results showed that the antennae of females responded to 21 volatile compounds from apricot logs. Seventeen compounds were confirmed with authentic compounds. The Y-olfactometer bioassays showed that at a stimulation dose of 100 µg, four compounds [(1S)-(−)-α-pinene, (±)-limonene, (1S)-(+)-3-carene, and 1-hexanol], and some binary mixtures of the four compounds [(1S)-(−)-α-pinene plus (±)-limonene; (1S)-(−)-α-pinene plus (1S)-(+)-3-carene; (1S)-(−)-α-pinene plus camphene; (1S)-(−)-α-pinene plus (±)-limonene, (1S)-(+)-3-carene, and 1-hexanol] were significantly attractive to both sexes (except (±)-limonene and (1S)-(+)-3-carene for males), suggesting that these compounds may play a role in host tree selection by S. schevyrewi and should be evaluated as lures for population monitoring. In contrast, octanal, nonanal, decanal, linalool and N,N-diethylformamide appeared to repel S. schevyrewi adults in Y-tube at the concentration tested.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa027
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Sulcatol: Enantiospecific Attractant for Monarthrum mali (Coleoptera:
           Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Leptostylus asperatus (Coleoptera:
           Cerambycidae) and Associated Predators
    • Authors: Miller D; Crowe C, Ranger C.
      Pages: 593 - 600
      Abstract: AbstractIn 2014–2019, we conducted six experiments in north-central Georgia in an attempt to verify the aggregation pheromone response of the ambrosia beetle Gnathotrichus materiarius (Fitch) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Scolytini: Corthylina) to sulcatol known to be produced by male G. materiarius; we failed to catch any G. materiarius. However, we did find that another corthyline ambrosia beetle species Monarthrum mali (Fitch) was attracted to (R)-(–)-sulcatol, whereas the longhorn beetle Leptostylus asperatus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) was attracted to (S)-(+)-sulcatol. Attraction of both species was unaffected by the respective antipodes. Ethanol enhanced attraction of both species to traps baited with sulcatol. In at least one experiment, attraction to ethanol-baited traps was enhanced by sulcatol for Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), Xyleborus spp., and Hypothenemus spp. but reduced for Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Additionally, traps baited with ethanol and racemic sulcatol [50% (S)-(+): 50% (R)-(-)] caught the greatest numbers of four species of beetle predators: Coptodera aerata Dejean (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Colydium lineola Say (Coleoptera: Zopheridae), Madoniella dislocata (Say), and Pyticeroides laticornis (Say) (Coleoptera: Cleridae). Ethanol but not sulcatol attracted Temnoscheila virescens (F.) (Coleoptera: Trogossitidae). Information on interspecific relationships within forested communities may help us to better determine the roles of these species in maintaining stable and resilient forested ecosystems.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa042
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Winter-Active Spider Fauna is Affected by Plantation Forest Type
    • Authors: Ingle K; Kaur H, Gallé-Szpisjak N, et al.
      Pages: 601 - 606
      Abstract: AbstractPlantations of non-native trees for commercial use are common practice in Europe. They are known to have severe ecological impacts on arthropod fauna by altering microclimatic conditions and reducing microhabitat diversity. However, the effect of plantation tree species on winter-active fauna is relatively unknown. Spiders are a diverse predatory arthropod taxon with strong effect on their prey populations. The composition of spider communities sensitively indicates changes in habitat structure. We established 40 sampling sites in five non-native pine and five native poplar plantations and collected spiders with pitfall traps for two winters in the Southern part of Hungary. We assessed the average height of vegetation and percentage cover of leaf litter, mosses, herbaceous vegetation, and shrubs to characterize habitat structure. We found species richness and activity density of spiders in the non-native compared to the native plantations, presumably due to the more temperate microclimate in pine than in poplar plantations. However, there was no significant effect of habitat structure and its interaction with forest type on species richness and activity density of spiders. Species composition of non-native and native plantation forests differed significantly. Furthermore, we identified six characteristic spider species of non-native plantations with preference for relatively moist habitat conditions. The single characteristic species, (Agroeca cuprea Menge, 1873) for the native plantations preferred dry and partly shaded habitats. We conclude that the effect of microclimatic differences and prey availability presumably overrides the effect of habitat structure on winter-active spiders.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa025
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Invasive Saltcedar and Drought Impact Ant Communities and Isopods in
           South-Central Nebraska
    • Authors: Hoback W; Jurzenski J, Farnsworth-Hoback K, et al.
      Pages: 607 - 614
      Abstract: AbstractThe establishment and spread of non-native species often results in negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem function. Several species of saltcedar, Tamarix spp. L., have been recently naturalized in large portions of the United States where they have altered plant and animal communities. To test the prediction that saltcedar negatively affects invertebrates, we measured ant genera diversity and the activity density of the exotic isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latrielle (Isopoda: Oniscoidea) for 2 yr using pitfall traps located within 30 5-m2 plots with or without saltcedar at a south-central Nebraska reservoir. From 2005 to 2006, we collected 10,837 ants representing 17 genera and 4,953 A. vulgare. Per plot, the average number of ant genera was not different between saltcedar (x̅ = 3.9) and non-saltcedar areas ( x̅ = 3.9); however, saltcedar plots were compositionally different and more similar from plot to plot (i.e., they had lower beta diversity than control plots) in 2005, but not in 2006. Isopods were likewise temporally affected with higher activity density (+89%) in control plots in 2005, but higher activity density (+27%) in saltcedar plots in 2006. The observed temporal differences occurred as the drought that initially enabled the saltcedar invasion became less severe in 2006. Combined, our results suggest that invertebrate groups like ants, which are generally omnivorous, may be better equipped than more specialized taxa like detritivores to withstand habitat changes due to invasions by non-native species, especially during extreme weather events such as prolonged droughts.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa024
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Functional and Taxonomic Beta Diversity of Saproxylic Beetles in
           Mediterranean Forests: On What Factors Do They Depend'
    • Authors: Pérez-Sánchez D; Galante E, Micó E, et al.
      Pages: 615 - 626
      Abstract: AbstractUnderstanding how biodiversity is distributed across geographical and environmental gradients is a main goal of diversity sciences. However, since ecosystem processes are linked to variation in functional traits of the biota, examining functional beta diversity is particularly important. Our objective was to analyze the taxonomic and functional beta diversity patterns of saproxylic beetle assemblages in evergreen Quercus forest of Spain. We tested whether environmental or geographical distance had a greater influence on taxonomic and functional beta diversity, and if both measures of beta diversity were affected by the same environmental variables. We used 45 flight interception traps distributed in three protected areas over a 12-mo period to sample saproxylic beetles. We measured 13 environmental variables around each trap and the geographical distance between traps. For functional composition, we used 12 functional traits from four functional groups (morphological, phenological, trophic, and a surrogate of physiological). Our results showed that environmental differences between areas influenced the taxonomic and functional beta diversity components (replacement and loss/gain) but in different ways. While replacement components (higher for taxonomic composition) increased with environmental distance, the loss or gain components (higher for functional composition) remained constant, indicating that species replacement mostly involved functionally redundant species. Besides, environmental variables influencing both taxonomic and functional composition were strongly dependent on each area. In conclusion, in well-preserved Mediterranean forests, environmental filtering determines the taxonomic and functional composition of saproxylic beetle assemblages, by favoring species replacement but filtering species traits.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa045
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Assessment of Available Tools for Monitoring Wheat Midge (Diptera:
           Cecidomyiidae)
    • Authors: Jorgensen A; Otani J, Evenden M, et al.
      Pages: 627 - 637
      Abstract: AbstractWheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin, is an invasive pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) throughout Canada and the United States. The applicability of available monitoring tools, including sex-pheromone baited traps, yellow sticky cards, and soil core sample surveys, in the northern-most agroecosystem of its invasive range has not been assessed. In this study, the attraction of male wheat midge to two Delta traps (green and orange) baited with one of three pheromone lures (a flex lure and two red septa lures from different sources) were compared. The efficacy of three yellow sticky cards (7 × 12 cm, 14 × 18 cm, and 14 × 18 cm rolled into a cylinder) for capture of male and female midge was assessed. Larvae were extracted from wheat heads sampled at the same sites to determine relationships with earlier adult trap capture. More male adult midges were captured in pheromone-baited traps with a greater surface area and in traps baited with the Scotts flex lure than the Great Lakes IPM septa lure, which had higher and more variable pheromone release rates. The smaller yellow sticky cards captured more male and female midges than the larger yellow sticky cards, regardless of shape. The number of female midges captured on yellow sticky cards predicted the number of larvae in wheat heads. The number of male midges captured in pheromone-baited traps did not predict larval density. Relationships were found between the number of overwintering cocoons recovered in soil core samples and emerging midges the following spring.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa017
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Toxicity of Baits and Their Effects on Population Suppression of
           Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae): Implications for Field
           Management
    • Authors: Nunes M; Baronio C, Schutze I, et al.
      Pages: 638 - 644
      Abstract: AbstractAnastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) is the main pest of fruit in southern Brazil. The use of toxic baits is one of the alternatives for its management. In this study, the toxic baits Anamed + malathion (10,000 mg/liter), Flyral 1.25% + malathion (2,000 mg/liter), and Gelsura (alpha-cypermethrin, 2,000 and 4,000 mg/liter) were highly toxic to the adults of A. fraterculus (lethal time [LT50] < 7 h). In contrast, Success 0.02 CB had an LT50 of 48.4 h. In the absence of rain, all the formulations had residual effects (>90% mortality) on A. fraterculus adults up to 21 d after treatment (DAT). In the presence of 5, 25, and 50 mm of rainfall, there was a significant reduction in the residual effect over time. However, with up to 50 mm of rain, Anamed + malathion and Gelsura 2,000 and 4,000 mg/liter caused between 43.0 and 79.0% of mortality. In the field, during two consecutive seasons (2015/2016 and 2016/2017), applications of Gelsura 2,000 mg/liter (four applications/season) caused population suppression of the pest throughout the apple fruiting period. However, in the 2016/2017 season, in the area using Gelsura, a higher percentage (≈12%) of apple fruits damaged by A. fraterculus females was observed when compared with the area with insecticide application (damage <3%). The toxic bait Gelsura (2,000 and 4.000 mg/liter) was shown to be promising for use in the management of A. fraterculus, with results similar to those with the application of synthetic insecticides.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa035
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Maize Infestation of Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Within
           Agro-Ecological Zones of Togo and Ghana in West Africa 3 Yr After Its
           Invasion
    • Authors: Koffi D; Agboka K, Adenka D, et al.
      Pages: 645 - 650
      Abstract: AbstractThe fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) invaded several West African countries in 2016 causing severe injury to maize plants and economic damage. This study assesses variations in the occurrence of this species in different Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZs) in Togo and Ghana during the 3 yr following its discovery. The surveys were conducted on 120 farms in Togo and 94 farms in Ghana by collecting larvae from 200 maize plants per hectare. Infestation levels were 68.46% in 2016, 55.82% in 2017, and 17.76% in 2018. The number of larvae recorded per hectare and infestation levels were higher in Togo than in Ghana. The lowest number of collected larvae and infestation levels of S. frugiperda were in 2018, compared to the other 2 yr. Larvae per hectare and the infestation level varied regionally inside the two countries. The southern part of Togo (AEZ five) contained higher numbers of larvae and higher infestation levels during the 2 yr following the invasion of the pest. We concluded that infestation levels of S. frugiperda are much lower in 2018 than the two previous years and it is therefore necessary to determine the factors that affect the population dynamics of S. frugiperda in the field, which is a perquisite for developing management interventions.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa048
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Water Loss and Desiccation Tolerance of the Two Yearly Generations of
           Adult and Nymphal Kudzu Bugs, Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)
           
    • Authors: Benk G; Thompson P, Hu X, et al.
      Pages: 651 - 659
      Abstract: AbstractWater loss rate, percentage total body water content (%TBW), cuticular permeability (CP), and desiccation tolerance were investigated in adult and immature stages of the invasive kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), a serious soybean pest and an urban nuisance. Adults and all five nymphal instars were weighed prior to and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 24 h after desiccated at 30 ± 1°C and 0–2% RH. Both % initial mass and %TBW loss increased linearly with time of desiccation. Rates of loss ranged from approximately 1–7%/h. Mortality occurred at 10 h after desiccation. Desiccation tolerance (%TBW lost at death) ranged between 25.6% for first-generation adult females and 75% for first-generation fifth-instar nymphs. First-generation first-instar nymphs had significantly greater %TBW (88.9%) than the other generations and instars, whereas second-generation fifth instars had the lowest %TBW (62.4%). The CP value of first-generation adult females (12.3 ± 1.6 µg cm−1 h−1 mmHg−1) was the greatest across generations. First-generation first instars had the greatest mass loss (111.11 mg/g) among all instars and generations, whereas overwintered second-generation adult females had the lowest mass loss (18.39) across generations. This study demonstrated that desiccation stress differentially affected the survival of adult and nymphal kudzu bugs and may imply that environmental stress can affect the relative abundance of this species in the fields and around homes.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa032
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Low Temperature Duration and Adult Rearing Regimes Affect Eclosion of
           Rhagoletis indifferens (Tephritidae: Diptera)
    • Authors: Neven L; Wakie T, Yee W, et al.
      Pages: 660 - 666
      Abstract: AbstractWestern cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a quarantine pest of sweet cherries in the Pacific Northwest of the United States that overwinters as diapausing pupae. Eclosion responses of R. indifferens puparia to different low temperature durations and postdiapause conditions affect the pest status of the fly. Here, we determined the effects of holding R. indifferens puparia at 3°C for 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 wk on adult eclosion times and rates at two simulated temperate and two simulated tropical climate treatments over 40 wk. When puparia were chilled 0, 1, or 2 wk, adult eclosion across the four climate treatments displayed a bimodal distribution with low eclosion at 3 wk and high eclosion at 23–35 wk. When puparia were chilled ≤ 10 wk, there was a weaker bimodal distribution. However, when puparia were chilled 15–30 wk, eclosion was more synchronous and occurred at 5–7 wk across the four postchill climate treatments. Eclosion was greater at a postdiapause temperature of 26°C than 23°C. Timing to 50% eclosion was faster at longer photoperiod (16:8 L:D) than shorter (12:12 L:D). The bimodality of eclosion in respect to the duration of low temperature exposure may be indicative of univoltine insect species with obligate diapause that may span over two seasons.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa044
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Tolerance and Removal of Four Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Compounds
           (PAHs) by Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)
    • Authors: Fan M; Liu N, Wu X, et al.
      Pages: 667 - 672
      Abstract: AbstractPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well-recognized toxic chemical, cause the public hazard in environments. Here, we demonstrated the black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) could tolerate the PAHs and reduce their content. Four typical PAHs (1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 mg/kg), naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, were individually spiked into BSFL conversion systems. The parameters for larval growth, conversion process, and PAHs removal were determined in spiked group and no-spiked control. The results show that the larval development time (19.7–21.0 d) in the half of PAH groups was significantly longer by 2–4 d than those in the control, while the relative growth rates (1.88–1.99% per day) in the majority PAH groups were lower. The larval mortalities (0–2.83%), harvest yields (80.20–85.91 g), conversion rates (14.71–15.83%), and eclosion rates (60.27–82.67%) in almost all of PAH groups did not significantly different from those in the control. The four PAHs potentially delayed the development time of BSFL, slowed the larval growth, and lower waste reduction rates, but these influences were slight and might be caused by the inhibition of PAHs to microbial activity. The BSFL-mortalities, conversion rates, yields, and eclosion rates were not significantly affected by the PAHs. Furthermore, BSFL effectively removed 34.1–84.2% of PAHs from subtracts in 18–21 d. The removal of PAHs with low concentration could be easier than those with high concentration by BSFL. The present results provide an alternative strategy to treat the waste contaminated by PAHs and elucidate the effect of PAHs on insects in the environment.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa043
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Biodiversity Survey of Flower-Visiting Spiders Based on Literature Review
           and Field Study
    • Authors: Su Q; Qi L, Zhang W, et al.
      Pages: 673 - 682
      Abstract: AbstractMany arthropods exhibit flower-visiting behavior, including a variety of spider species. However, as spiders are assumed to be strictly predatory, flower-visiting spiders are an often neglected group. We conducted a systematic biodiversity study of flower-visiting spiders based on published papers and field surveys. Most previous studies have focused on the herbivorous behavior of flower-visiting spiders (nectivory or pollinivory) and their effects on host flowers (tritrophic interactions with flower-visiting insects). In our field survey, we utilized standard transect walks (active sampling) and colored pan traps (passive sampling) to investigate species occurrence, diurnal and seasonal variation, and flower color preference of flower-visiting spiders. From the transect walks, crab spider species were found to be the dominant flower-visiting spiders and, based on all spider species, juvenile visitors were significantly more common than adults. Furthermore, in terms of spider number and species richness, tulips were the preferred flower to visit. For the pan traps, wolf spiders were found to be the dominant spider species. No significant differences were observed in the number of spiders caught in different colored pans, suggesting that color may not be an important flower trait in regard to spider preference. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to propose the term ‘flower-visiting spiders’ and conduct a systematic investigation of their diversity. However, this is preliminary research and further studies are required, especially as biodiversity is often closely linked to survey sites and ecotopes.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa022
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Detailed Characterization of Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
           Feeding Behavior on Different Host Plants
    • Authors: Souza M; Davis J, Ranger C.
      Pages: 683 - 691
      Abstract: AbstractWorldwide, Melanaphis sacchari Zehntner is reported on several plants in the family Poaceae, including important crops. In the United States, M. sacchari has been present primarily on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.), but recently sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has become a main host. It is not clear how M. sacchari exploits sorghum or other plant species present in the Louisiana agro-ecoscape, but there is potential for these plants to be bridging hosts. Thus, this study determined the feeding behavior of M. sacchari on sorghum, rice, Oryza sativa (L.), sweetpotato, Ipomea batatas (L.), maize, Zea mays (L.), Johnsongrass, S. halepense (L.), and wheat Triticum aestivum (L.) using electrical penetration graphs. Melanaphis sacchari established sustained feeding on sorghum, Johnsongrass, wheat, and rice, only a negligent percentage on maize and no aphid fed on sweetpotato. Differences in Electrical Penetration Graph parameters among the plants in nonpenetrating total time and the lower number of probes, time to penetration initiation, proportion of individuals probing, number of probes shorter than 30 s, number of probes longer than 30 s but shorter than 3 min, pathway phase duration, and number of cell punctures during pathway phase, suggest epidermis and mesophyll factors affecting aphid feeding behavior. While the lack of differences in number of feeding occurrences, total time feeding, and number of sustained feeding occurrences shows that M. sacchari is able to feed on those plants, sieve element factors such as resistance or low nutritional quality prevent the growth of this population in field.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa036
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Nonpreference for Oviposition of Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
           in Sugarcane Seedlings Is Influenced by Ripening Group and Plant Age
    • Authors: Sturza V; da Cunha U, Bernardi D, et al.
      Pages: 692 - 698
      Abstract: AbstractThe sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is considered the main sugarcane pest in many countries. The use of plant genotypes less preferred by insects are among the alternative methods to control this species which can be used alone or associated with other control methods such as biological control in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. We assessed if the nonpreference for oviposition of D. saccharalis in sugarcane genotypes established by seedlings is different according to ripening group and plant age. For that purpose, four experiments were performed: 1) seedlings of early-ripening genotypes, 2) seedlings of late-ripening genotypes, 3) and mix of early- and late-ripening genotypes, seedlings, and 4) plants. There were least preferred genotypes for oviposition by D. saccharalis among seedlings of early-ripening (RB965902 and RB966928) and late-ripening (RB987935) genotypes. It was also observed when the groups were mixed as seedlings (RB965902) or plants (RB925345). The nonpreference for egg deposition in different ripening groups and plant age might be useful to integrate with other strategies for the management of D. saccharalis. Moreover, results of egg distribution might indicate the likely position of resistance factors on leaves, whether morphological or chemical.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa039
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Baseline Flight Potential of Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)
           and Its Implications on Local Dispersal
    • Authors: Babu A; Del Pozo-Valdivia A, Reisig D, et al.
      Pages: 699 - 708
      Abstract: AbstractThe brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), is a damaging pest of multiple crops in the southeastern United States. In addition to crops, both the weedy field borders and wooded areas of a typical farmscape in this region harbor E. servus host plants, many of which are temporally and spatially limiting in availability or nutritional suitability. Therefore, local dispersal is required so that individuals efficiently track and utilize host resources. This research sought to establish the baseline flight capacity of adult E. servus across the season in relation to body weight, sex, and plant host use with a flight mill system. Across this 2-yr study, among the individuals with a flight response in the flight mill, 90.1% of individuals flew in a range of >0–1 km, with an individual maximum flight distance of 15.9 km. In 2017, mean total distance flown varied across the season. Except for the individuals collected from corn in 2019, during both 2017 and 2019, the highest numerical mean flight potential occurred soon after overwintering emergence and a relatively low flight potential occurred during the cropping season. Individuals collected from wheat, corn, and early season weeds lost a higher proportion of body weight after flight than did individuals from soybean and late season weeds. The baseline dispersal potential information generated from this study can be extrapolated to the farmscape level aiming to develop, plan, and implement E. servus management programs.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa041
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Feeding, Survival, and Fecundity of Adult Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera:
           Buprestidae) on Foliage of Two Novel Hosts and Implications for Host Range
           Expansion
    • Authors: Peterson D; Slager B, Anulewicz A, et al.
      Pages: 709 - 716
      Abstract: AbstractInsect herbivores are more likely to successfully use a novel host if the plant is closely related to the ancestral host and the insect is polyphagous. Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a specialist wood borer of ash (Fraxinus spp., Lamiales: Oleaceae) trees and one of the most destructive forest pests in North American forests. Recent studies have found that larvae can develop in stems of two ash relatives; white fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus (L.) [Laminales: Oleaceae]) and cultivated olive (Olea europaea (L.) [Laminales: Oleaceae]). For EAB adults, the ability to consume, successfully mate, and lay viable eggs on foliage of these hosts is unknown. Thus, we conducted two no-choice assays with adult EAB on foliage of white fringetree and olive paired with positive controls of susceptible ash. Larval performance was also examined in a reciprocal study with cut stems of white fringetree and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) to determine whether adult diet impacted the success of progeny. Longevity, consumption rates, and fecundity of adults were similar on white fringetree and ash foliage. In contrast, adults consuming olive died quickly, consumed more over time, and females laid far fewer eggs compared to those on ash. Adult diet did not impact larval success, but larvae in white fringetree stems grew slower. These results indicate that white fringetree is a suitable host for EAB to complete its lifecycle, although larvae perform more poorly on this host than in susceptible ash species. In contrast, the more distantly related olive appears to be a poor host for adult EAB, although some viable eggs were produced by females.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa046
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Evaluating Native Bee Communities and Nutrition in Managed Grasslands
    • Authors: Stein D; Debinski D, Pleasants J, et al.
      Pages: 717 - 725
      Abstract: AbstractNative pollinators are important for providing vital services in agroecosystems; however, their numbers are declining globally. Bees are the most efficient and diverse members of the pollinator community; therefore, it is imperative that management strategies be implemented that positively affect bee community composition and health. Here, we test responses of the bee and flowering plant communities to land management treatments in the context of grasslands in the upper Midwestern United States, a critical area with respect to bee declines. Twelve sites were selected to examine floral resources and wild bee communities based on three different types of grasslands: tallgrass prairie remnants, ungrazed restorations, and grazed restorations. Total bee abundance was significantly higher in ungrazed restorations than remnants, but there were no significant differences among grasslands in community composition or Shannon diversity. Across the three grassland types we also examined mass and lipid stores as nutritional health indicators in three sweat bees (Halictidae), Augochlora pura, Agapostemon virescens, and Halictus ligatus. Although there were no differences in lipid content, total average bee mass was significantly higher in Ag. virescens collected from ungrazed restorations as compared to remnants. Floral abundance of native and non-native species combined was significantly higher in grazed restorations compared to remnants and ungrazed restorations. However, ungrazed restorations had higher abundance and richness of native flowering ramets. These data suggest that bee abundance and nutrition are driven by high abundance of native flowering plant species, rather than total flowering plants.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa009
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Bee Visitation on Flowers in Maine, United States, Reveals the Relative
           Attractiveness of Plants Through Space and Time: Part I
    • Authors: Dibble A; Drummond F, Stack L, et al.
      Pages: 726 - 737
      Abstract: AbstractBee reservoirs can be effective in agricultural and habitat restoration projects, but the relative attractiveness of plants is not fully understood. To improve plant selection with better knowledge of spatial, temporal, and competition aspects, we tested up to 90 plant subjects from 2012 to 2015 at four sites in Maine. We recognized Apis mellifera L., Bombus ternarius Say, 1837, ‘Most Bombus’ (except B. ternarius), ‘Halictidae’ and ‘Other Bees’ (collectively the so-called ‘bee groups’) on open flowers in three 1-min periods per site and day, with numerous repeated observations per plant taxon. In 14,311 observations, we recorded 17,792 bees in 61 species. Most-visited plants included Asclepias tuberosa, Borago officinalis, Clethra alnifolia cv. Hummingbird (especially by A. mellifera), Melilotus officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Rosa palustris (especially before 1400 hours), Spiraea alba var. latifolia, and taxa in the family Asteraceae. Early-flowering shrubs were visited, especially by ‘Other Bees’. Bee groups each ranked plants uniquely, with some overlap, and differed in most-visited of six plant taxa that we had included in all 4 yr and sites. For ‘All Bees’ among 84 plant taxa, the most-visited plants were M. officinalis (June), A. tuberosa (July), and C. alnifolia (August). Indicator Species Analysis revealed low bee fidelity to host plants for all but a few plant taxa. Apis mellifera differed from native bees in plants it visited intensively, with some overlap (e.g., A. tuberosa), and was associated with increased visitation on seven plant taxa by ‘Most Bombus’ and B. ternarius.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa028
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Plant Origin and Other Attributes Impact Bee Forage Patterns in a Common
           Garden Study in Maine, United States; Part II
    • Authors: Dibble A; Drummond F, Stack L, et al.
      Pages: 738 - 752
      Abstract: AbstractIn a common garden study in Maine from 2012 to 2015, we used two bee species (Apis mellifera L. and Bombus ternarius Say (1837)) and three field-recognizable bee categories (‘Most Bombus’, ‘Halictidae’, and ‘Other Bees’) plus an ‘All Bees’ data aggregation to compare 17 native and 68 introduced plant taxa. Data were from three 1-min timed periods per flowering plant taxon on a given day at a site. We observed 17,792 bees and found that their response varied by bee species or group. Using mixed models to analyze our data, we found that native bees had higher visitation rates on native plants, while A. mellifera visited both native and introduced plants. Most groups visited native late-flowering and native mid-late-flowering plants at higher rates. ‘All Bees’ were attracted to native perennials (vs annuals and shrubs) and to tall plants, both native and introduced; A. mellifera was attracted to introduced perennials, to introduced tall plants, and to lower-growing native plants. Asclepias tuberosa L. elicited a strong response from B. ternarius. In only two of six pairs of wild types and cultivars, bees visited wild types more. Plants with long bloom periods and with small, densely arranged white flowers attracted higher bee visitation than did other configurations (e.g., Origanum vulgare L., one of our most attractive taxa). A general linear model showed that linear combinations of flower density, floral resource height, flower corolla depth, and flowering duration explained significant variation in visitation rates for each of the different bee taxa groups.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa029
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Diversified Farming in a Monoculture Landscape: Effects on Honey Bee
           Health and Wild Bee Communities
    • Authors: St. Clair A; Zhang G, Dolezal A, et al.
      Pages: 753 - 764
      Abstract: AbstractIn the last century, a global transformation of Earth’s surface has occurred due to human activity with extensive agriculture replacing natural ecosystems. Concomitant declines in wild and managed bees are occurring, largely due to a lack of floral resources and inadequate nutrition, caused by conversion to monoculture-based farming. Diversified fruit and vegetable farms may provide an enhanced variety of resources through crops and weedy plants, which have potential to sustain human and bee nutrition. We hypothesized fruit and vegetable farms can enhance honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Apis mellifera Linnaeus) colony growth and nutritional state over a soybean monoculture, as well as support a more diverse wild bee community. We tracked honey bee colony growth, nutritional state, and wild bee abundance, richness, and diversity in both farm types. Honey bees kept at diversified farms had increased colony weight and preoverwintering nutritional state. Regardless of colony location, precipitous declines in colony weight occurred during autumn and thus colonies were not completely buffered from the stressors of living in a matrix dominated with monocultures. Contrary to our hypothesis, wild bee diversity was greater in soybean, specifically in August, a time when fields are in bloom. These differences were largely driven by four common bee species that performed well in soybean. Overall, these results suggest fruit and vegetable farms provide some benefits for honey bees; however, they do not benefit wild bee communities. Thus, incorporation of natural habitat, rather than diversified farming, in these landscapes, may be a better choice for wild bee conservation efforts.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa031
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Genetic Variability of Ceraeochrysa cincta, Ceraeochrysa claveri, and
           Ceraeochrysa cubana (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Populations in
           Agroecosystems of Southeast Brazil
    • Authors: Santos A; Barbosa N, Thomazini T, et al.
      Pages: 765 - 775
      Abstract: AbstractThe species of the genus Ceraeochrysa, known as green lacewings or trash-carriers, are widely distributed along the Americas and its islands. In Brazil, 28 species are found, including Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider), Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás), and Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen). These species are recorded on many crops, where they are often used for biological control. For this use, knowledge of the genetic features of the species is extremely important because they are associated to the species’ ability to withstand different conditions in new environments, such as variations of temperature and presence of pathogens. However, little is known about the genetic features of Ceraeochrysa species. Here, we analyze and compare the distribution of the genetic variability of C. cincta, C. claveri, and C. cubana in agroecosystem populations of southeast Brazil. We found a high genetic diversity in each of the three species, and no strong genetic structure was detected, such that genetic diversity is broadly shared among the crops and localities analyzed. We can conclude that there was a high gene flow among the sampled Ceraeochrysa populations (natural or driven by anthropic action) since the exchange of seedlings among crops can lead to the distribution of the specimens.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa021
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Erratum to “Plant Selection by Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in
           Montane Riparian Habitat of California”
    • Pages: 776 - 776
      Abstract: Correction of “Cole J. S., R. B. Siegel, H. L. Loffland, E. A. Elsey, M. W. Tingley, and M. Johnson. 2020. Plant Selection by Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Montane Riparian Habitat of California. Environ. Entomol.”
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvaa026
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2020)
       
 
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