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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
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Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 523, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Environmental Entomology
  [SJR: 0.791]   [H-I: 66]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0046-225X - ISSN (Online) 1938-2936
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Environmental Entomology August 2017 Volume 46 Number 4 - Front Cover
    • Authors: Hurd L.
      Abstract: Photo courtesy of Larry Hurd.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx016
  • Information for Contributors
    • PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx018
  • Subscriptions Page
    • PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx019
  • Environmental Entomology Volume 46 Issue 4 August 2017 - TOC
    • PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx020
  • Are Dispersal Mechanisms Changing the Host–Parasite Relationship and
           Increasing the Virulence of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in
           Managed Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies'
    • Authors: DeGrandi-Hoffman G; Ahumada F, Graham H.
      First page: 737
      Abstract: AbstractVarroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) are a serious pest of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), and difficult to control in managed colonies. In our 11-mo longitudinal study, we applied multiple miticide treatments, yet mite numbers remained high and colony losses exceeded 55%. High mortality from varroa in managed apiaries is a departure from the effects of the mite in feral colonies where bees and varroa can coexist. Differences in mite survival strategies and dispersal mechanisms may be contributing factors. In feral colonies, mites can disperse through swarming. In managed apiaries, where swarming is reduced, mites disperse on foragers robbing or drifting from infested hives. Using a honey bee–varroa population model, we show that yearly swarming curtails varroa population growth, enabling colony survival for >5 yr. Without swarming, colonies collapsed by the third year. To disperse, varroa must attach to foragers that then enter other hives. We hypothesize that stress from parasitism and virus infection combined with effects that viruses have on cognitive function may contribute to forager drift and mite and virus dispersal. We also hypothesize that drifting foragers with mites can measurably increase mite populations. Simulations initialized with field data indicate that low levels of drifting foragers with mites can create sharp increases in mite populations in the fall and heavily infested colonies in the spring. We suggest new research directions to investigate factors leading to mite dispersal on foragers, and mite management strategies with consideration of varroa as a migratory pest.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx077
  • The Influence of the Topography of the Ailao Mountains on Congregated
           Landings of Airborne Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    • Authors: Wu Y; Li X, Chen X, et al.
      First page: 747
      Abstract: AbstractThe Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is an important migrating rice pest whose outbreak may be caused by large-scale congregated landings. Hitherto, the meteorological factors that influence congregated landings were thought to be rainfall and downdraft. However, for migratory insects on a plateau, low temperature may be another key factor leading to congregated landings. However, no reports have been published. Therefore, this paper evaluates the reason for a large-scale congregated landing in the mountainous area in Yuanjiang via light trap monitoring. The meteorological backgrounds during light catch peaks were analyzed using the numeric simulation method. The results were as follows: 1) from May 7th to May 9th, 2012, the congregated landing of S. furcifera was caused by precipitation; 2) the congregated landing of S. furcifera on May 10th, 2012, was a result of low temperatures in the mountainous region. The driving airflow of S. furcifera climbed along the mountain terrain, which led to a decrease in temperature with the rise of the mountain terrain. Low temperature created physiological changes in S. furcifera, forcing S. furcifera to a lower flight altitude and eventually to a congregated landing; and 3) in the statistical analysis on 39 peak periods from 2010 to 2016 in the early spring, 20 peaks were caused by precipitation, and 19 peaks were caused by a low temperature barrier. Therefore, this study provided evidence of a plateau-migrating S. furcifera population congregated landing caused by low temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx084
  • Migration Analysis of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in the
           Northeastern Hunan Province in June
    • Authors: Ma M; Wu Y, Peng Z, et al.
      First page: 757
      Abstract: AbstractThe Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is a notorious and destructive insect pest, targeting >4 million hectares of rice cultivated in the Hunan Province. To understand the immigration dynamics, we collected S. furcifera light trap catches from 2006 to 2012 at Niangxiang, Linxiang, and Hanshou. We conducted a migration analysis to estimate the immigration source for the northeastern Hunan Province in June. Moreover, we dissected the ovaries of S. furcifera to classify population characteristics. We found that the first appearance of S. furcifera occurred from late April to early May, with June as the primary time for migrations into the northeastern Hunan Province. The majority of June ovaries caught in light traps were Grade I and Grade II, whereas those collected in paddy fields were Grade III and Grade IV, suggesting that the majority of S. furcifera immigrated into the northeastern Hunan Province. Our analysis points toward the northern and central Indo China Peninsula, the southern Hunan Province, the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Province, the Guangdong Province, and the Hainan Province as possible immigration sources of S. furcifera in June for the northeastern Hunan Province. We propose terrain, loss of forward flow, and wind shear as causes for the difference observed in light trap catches between Ningxiang, Linxiang, and Hanshou monitoring stations in the June of 2009. Thus, our results suggest that monitoring and forecasting of S. furcifera should be done with particular emphasis in June.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx092
  • Cohabiting With the Enemy: Comparative Population Ecology of Two Mantid
           Species in a Successional Old Field
    • Authors: Gall CA; Rose RK, Hurd LE.
      First page: 766
      Abstract: AbstractTwo praying mantids, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure and Tenodera angustipennis Saussure, are commonly found in the same old-field habitats in the eastern United States and in much of temperate zone Asia. Naturally established populations of these two species were studied intensively over two consecutive years (2010 and 2011) in an old field in southeastern Virginia, to compare life history features relevant to how they coexist, or whether one or the other of them is likely to be more successful in the same habitat. Populations of both species declined about 50% from 2010 to 2011 (adults from 47 to 21 for T. a. sinensis; 37 to 20 for T. angustipennis), but T. a. sinensis oviposited 10 oothecae and T. angustipennis only one in 2011. Tenodera a. sinensis was more abundant in the study site in both years, hatched earlier, and matured and oviposited earlier than T. angustipennis. Fewer females of both species survived to maturity in 2011 than in 2010, possibly indicating a reduction in prey or habitat suitability in 2011. We suggest that T. angustipennis will always be at a disadvantage as a result of its smaller body size, because of interspecific predation (and potentially competition) from its congener, lower clutch size, and susceptibility to egg parasitism. Further, environmental variability across field habitats and years profoundly affects populations of both species in successional old fields.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx110
  • Soil and Foliar Arthropod Abundance and Diversity in Five Cropping Systems
           in the Coastal Plains of North Carolina
    • Authors: Adams PR; III, Orr DB, Arellano C, et al.
      First page: 771
      Abstract: AbstractSoil and foliar arthropod populations in agricultural settings respond to environmental disturbance and degradation, impacting functional biodiversity in agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate system level management effects on soil and foliar arthropod abundance and diversity in corn and soybean. Our field experiment was a completely randomized block design with three replicates for five farming systems which included: Conventional clean till, conventional long rotation, conventional no-till, organic clean till, and organic reduced till. Soil arthropod sampling was accomplished by pitfall trapping. Foliar arthropod sampling was accomplished by scouting corn and sweep netting soybean. Overall soil arthropod abundance was significantly impacted by cropping in corn and for foliar arthropods in soybeans. Conventional long rotation and organic clean till systems were highest in overall soil arthropod abundance for corn while organic reduced till systems exceeded all other systems for overall foliar arthropod abundance in soybeans. Foliar arthropod abundance over sampling weeks was significantly impacted by cropping system and is suspected to be the result of in-field weed and cover crop cultivation practices. This suggests that the sum of management practices within production systems impact soil and foliar arthropod abundance and diversity and that the effects of these systems are dynamic over the cropping season. Changes in diversity may be explained by weed management practices as sources of disturbance and reduced arthropod refuges via weed reduction. Furthermore, our results suggest agricultural systems lower in management intensity, whether due to organic practices or reduced levels of disturbance, foster greater arthropod diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx081
  • Decline of Ecological Functions Performed by Dung Beetles in Areas of
           Atlantic Forest and Contribution of Rollers and Tunnellers in Organic
           Matter Removal
    • Authors: Batilani-Filho MM; Hernandez MM.
      First page: 784
      Abstract: AbstractThe feeding behavior of the Scarabaeinae subfamily has positive implications on ecosystem functioning. We characterize the necrophagous and coprophagous dung beetle assemblages, and we quantify the removal of swine carrion and domestic dog dung in two areas with different degrees of environmental disturbance in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. The experiment was setup at eight sampling points in each area, by installing one control and two collection and removal assessment arenas for collecting necrophagous dung beetles while simultaneously evaluating the removal of carrion (50 g of rotting pork for 48 h). We used the same sample design with 50 g of domestic dog dung for evaluating the coprophagous dung beetle assemblage and dung removal. Our results indicated that necrophagous dung beetles were more sensitive to environmental disturbance owing to a lower richness and changes in species dominance, which resulted in a lower removal in the areas with greater disturbance and lower environmental quality (39.6% carrion removal) in relation to less disturbed areas (75.1% carrion removal). The dung beetle assemblages were similar in structure and removal rates between areas (80% of dung was removed). In assessing the influence of richness, abundance, and biomass of dung beetles on resource removal both for the whole assemblage and for each separate functional guild, only the abundance and biomass of rollers contributed significantly to dung removal. These results highlight the implications of environmental disturbances on the functions of dung beetles, which respond differently according to the resource they use.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx091
  • Linking Vegetation Structure and Spider Diversity in Riparian and Adjacent
           Habitats in Two Rivers of Central Argentina: An Analysis at Two Conceptual
    • Authors: Griotti M; Muñoz-Escobar C, Ferretti NE.
      First page: 794
      Abstract: AbstractThe link between vegetation structure and spider diversity has been well explored in the literature. However, few studies have compared spider diversity and its response to vegetation at two conceptual levels: assemblage (species diversity) and ensemble (guild diversity). Because of this, we studied spider diversity in riparian and adjacent habitats of a river system from the Chacoan subregion in central Argentina and evaluated their linkage with vegetation structure at these two levels. To assess vegetation structure, we measured plant species richness and vegetation cover in the herb and shrub - tree layers. We collected spiders for over 6 months by using vacuum netting, sweep netting and pitfall traps. We collected 3,808 spiders belonging to 119 morphospecies, 24 families and 9 guilds. At spider assemblage level, SIMPROF analysis showed significant differences among studied habitats. At spider ensemble level, nevertheless, we found no significant differences among habitats. Concerning the linkage with vegetation structure, BIOENV test showed that spider diversity at either assemblage or ensemble level was not significantly correlated with the vegetation variables assessed. Our results indicated that spider diversity was not affected by vegetation structure. Hence, even though we found a pattern in spider assemblages among habitats, this could not be attributed to vegetation structure. In this study, we show that analyzing a community at two conceptual levels will be useful for recognizing different responses of spider communities to vegetation structure in diverse habitat types.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx094
  • Monitoring Temporal Variation to Assess Changes in the Structure of
           Subtropical Atlantic Forest Butterfly Communities
    • Authors: Iserhard C; Romanowski H, Richter A, et al.
      First page: 804
      Abstract: AbstractThe study of fauna through long-term surveys is important in unveiling how temporal patterns shape the structure of communities in tropical habitats. The butterfly assemblage of the subtropical Atlantic Forest may be considered highly diverse and shows changes in diversity and composition over time, highlighting the importance of long-term inventories. This work assessed temporal diversity patterns in the distribution and composition of butterfly assemblages in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil using combined data from three years of standardized sampling with entomological nets, increasing the knowledge on this group in the Neotropics for monitoring and conservation. The butterfly fauna was analyzed in terms of richness, abundance, and composition. The inventories reached 401 species, with 14,442 butterfly individuals sampled. All the diversity parameters evaluated show significant differences between the first year of sampling compared to the second and third years. The latter had higher values of richness and abundance, followed by the first and second years. Hesperiidae was the richest family, followed by Nymphalidae and Lycaenidae, indicating a good representation of the assemblage as a whole. The results of this work are important for developing conservation programs in the Atlantic Forest and other forested environments in the neotropics, especially concerning reliable diversity assessments for the monitoring and management of protected areas. Decision making and public policy might also benefit from knowledge on temporal patterns of diversity regarding the maintenance of native habitats and integrity of biomes and their associated fauna.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx115
  • Wireworm in Quebec Field Crops: Specific Community Composition in North
    • Authors: Saguez JJ; Latraverse AA, De Almeida JJ, et al.
      First page: 814
      Abstract: AbstractWireworms are important economic pests that attack the seeds and roots of numerous vegetable and field crops worldwide. A 5-yr study was conducted in the main agricultural regions of the province of Quebec (Canada), to identify and characterize the wireworm communities (Coleoptera: Elateridae) that occur in fields planted with economically important crops (maize, soybean, cereals, canola, and grasslands). Bait traps were used to collect wireworms each spring from 2011 to 2015. More than 600 sites were sampled in total, involving ca. 14,000 traps. Wireworms were found in 69% of the sites and 73% of the traps. A total of 6,014 wireworms were collected and identified to genus, or to species when possible. The results show that nine genera occur in Quebec and that Hypnoidus abbreviatus (Say) is currently the most abundant species in arable land in Quebec, representing 72% of all collected wireworms. The other genera collected were Melanotus (8% of all wireworms collected), Ampedus (7%), Limonius (6%), and Agriotes (4%). Wireworms from the genera Aeolus, Dalopius, Hemicrepidius, and Oestodes constituted ca. 3% together. The predominance of H. abbreviatus appeared to be specific to Quebec compared with the other Canadian provinces and the rest of North America. We observed differences in the relative abundance of wireworm genera among the agricultural regions sampled. However, no effect of current and preceding crops was observed in this study. Our results suggest that integrated pest management strategies for managing wireworms in Quebec fields should take into consideration the species present in each agronomical region.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx116
  • Varietal Preferences and Within-Orchard and Tree Distribution of Newly
           Recorded Gall Midges, Dasineura amaramanjarae and Procontarinia mangiferae
           (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), From Commercial Mango Cultivars in Pakistan
    • Authors: Rehman HM; Mahmood RR, Razaq MM, et al.
      First page: 826
      Abstract: AbstractGall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) damage mango by feeding on flowers and fruit tissues, inducing galls on leaves, and providing inoculums of anthracnose. Dasineura amaramanjarae Grover and Procontarinia mangiferae (Felt), two gall midges that damage flowers in all mango-growing areas of the world, have recently been recorded in Pakistan, and studies were conducted in 2011 and 2012 on the within-tree and orchard distribution patterns and cultivar preference of both species in Pakistan at one location (Rahim Yar Khan). Both gall midge species were found on all mango cultivars examined (Chaunsa, Fajri, Dusehri, Surkha, Sindhri, and Anwar Ratul), with the most damage occurring to Surkha and Dusehri. Research on midge distribution patterns in different parts of mango orchards (central, southern, northern, eastern, and western sides) showed these species to be found in all areas, with the greatest numbers in the central and southern regions. In addition, both species were most abundant on the lower parts of the mango tree canopy.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx095
  • Bacterial Inoculant Treatment of Bermudagrass Alters Ovipositional
           Behavior, Larval and Pupal Weights of the Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera:
    • Authors: Murphey Coy R; Held DW, Kloepper JW.
      First page: 831
      Abstract: AbstractNonpathogenic soil bacteria can colonize the rhizosphere and induce unique plant phenotypes that may influence plant–insect interactions. However, few studies have considered the influences of bacteria–plant interactions on insect feeding and oviposition. The objective of this study was to determine how rhizobacterial inoculation of bermudagrass affects larval development and ovipositional behaviors of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith). Eight blends of rhizobacteria known to induce root or shoot growth in grasses were applied weekly to hybrid bermudagrass for 5 wk. Oviposition was evaluated in two no-choice trials with bacteria-treated, fertilized, or nontreated grass. Grass blades from these treatments were extracted in polar and nonpolar solvents and assayed for oviposition responses. Another experiment compared the development of fall armyworm larvae on bermudagrass treated with each of the eight rhizobacterial blends for 5 wk to larvae fed nontreated bermudagrass. Females deposited more eggs on nontreated and fertilized grass and ≤34% of eggs on grass treated with rhizobacterial blends. Moths exposed to polar and nonpolar extracts were unable to reproduce these results. Larval and pupal weights at days 10 and 12 and the number of adults to eclose were lower for larvae fed some, but not all, bacteria-treated bermudagrass relative to controls. This is one of the few studies to investigate plant–microbe–insect interactions in an economically important system. Although the effects noted with fall armyworm are limited, induced changes in roots also reported for these bacteria may have greater utility than foliar changes for mediating interactions with biotic or abiotic stresses.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx102
  • The Effects of Salinity on the Herbivorous Crop Pest Tetranychus urticae
           (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) on Soybean and Corn
    • Authors: Eichele-Nelson JL; Wick AF, DeSutter TM, et al.
      First page: 839
      Abstract: AbstractMany environmental factors, including soil characteristics, are critical for plants, herbivorous arthropods, and their interactions. Despite increasing evidence that soil salinity drastically impacts plants, little is known about how salinity affects the herbivorous arthropod pests feeding on those plants. We investigated how soil salinity affects the twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) feeding on corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.). We performed two greenhouse studies, one focusing on the impact of salinity on individual mite fecundity over a period of 3 d and the other focusing on population growth of T. urticae over 7 d. Both experiments were performed across varying salinity levels; electrical conductivity values ranged from 0.84 to 8.07 dS m−1. We also performed the 3-d fecundity experiment in the field, across naturally varying saline conditions. Overall, the twospotted spider mite performed better as salinity increased; both fecundity and population growth tended to have a positive linear correlation with salinity. These studies suggest that salinity can be important for herbivores, just as it is for plants. Moreover, the negative effects of soil salinity on crop plants in agroecosystems may be further compounded by a greater risk of pest problems. Salinity may be another important environmental stressor that can directly influence crop production while also indirectly influencing herbivorous pests.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx103
  • Host Plants of the Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae)
    • Authors: Cockrell DM; Griffin-Nolan RJ, Rand TA, et al.
      First page: 847
      Abstract: AbstractWheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton) is a pest of economic importance across much of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-growing areas of the western Great Plains of North America as well as an ecologically important insect owing to its wide range of grass hosts. Little research has been published regarding the noncultivated native and invasive grasses attacked by this insect. Knowledge of the complete host range of C. cinctus can inform future research about potential new sources of genetic resistance, improve understanding of the biology and spread of natural enemies, and better define this insect’s role in grassland and agricultural systems. The aim of this review is to compile a checklist of reported host plants of C. cinctus and present data from an extensive survey of noncultivated hosts used by C. cinctus.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx104
  • Oviposition Preference and Survival of the Mexican Rice Borer
           (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and
    • Authors: VanWeelden MT; Wilson BE, Beuzelin JM, et al.
      First page: 855
      Abstract: AbstractOviposition preference and host suitability of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum spp., were examined in a series of greenhouse experiments. Two energycane cultivars, two sugarcane cultivars, two high-biomass sorghum cultivars, and one sweet sorghum cultivar were assessed at two phenological stages (immature and mature). Mature plants possessed greater availability of dry leaf material compared with immature plants, and all E. loftini eggs were observed exclusively on dry leaves. Oviposition did not vary among host combinations (cultivar by phenological stage); however, eggs per plant and eggs per oviposition event were numerically greater on mature plants than immature plants. In a no-choice experiment, survival from egg to adult did not vary among host combinations, with <2.0% of E. loftini larvae surviving to adulthood. Failed establishment by neonates on plants was 13.4- to 53.9-fold greater than successful establishment across all host combinations. Results from this study suggest that plant physical characteristics continue to play an important role in host selection, but further evaluations will be needed to quantify other characteristics which influence host suitability.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx105
  • Within-Plant Distribution and Susceptibility of Hazelnut Cultivars to
           Mikomya coryli (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)
    • Authors: Güncan A; Gümüş E.
      First page: 864
      Abstract: AbstractThe Mikomya coryli (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is widespread in Europe and the most important cecidomyiid pest of hazelnut. Within-plant distribution, susceptibility of 18 Turkish hazelnut cultivars (‘Acı,’ ‘Allahverdi,’ ‘Çakıldak,’ ‘Cavcava,’ ‘Foşa,’ ‘İncekara,’ ‘Kalınkara,’ ‘Kan,’ ‘Karafindık,’ ‘Kargalak,’ ‘Kuş,’ ‘Mincane,’ ‘Palaz,’ ‘Sivri,’ ‘Tombul,’ ‘Uzunmusa,’ ‘Yassı Badem,’ and ‘Yuvarlak Badem’), and the phenology of larvae of this pest in hazelnut leaves and involucres were assessed in 2014 and 2015 in Giresun (Turkey). Mikomya coryli distribution differed significantly within different parts of the hazelnut plant. The highest gall numbers of M. coryli were found in the middle part (0.70–1.40 m) of the plant in both years. Total gall numbers varied between years: 1,779 and 2,588 galls were counted in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Susceptibility to M. coryli damage varied significantly among the cultivars. The highest leaf gall densities and total numbers of galls were found on leaves and involucres of Allahverdi, Yuvaklak Badem, and Yassı Badem cultivars in both years. Mikomya coryli larvae were detected between April and June in the leaf galls. The number of larvae in the involucres changed between April and mid-June. Results of the within-plant distribution, M. coryli larval phenology, and cultivar pest-susceptibility analyses are presented to enable effective control of the pest as a part of hazelnut integrated pest management.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx109
  • Susceptibility, Oviposition Preference, and Biology of Grapholita molesta
           (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Prunus Spp. Rootstock Genotypes
    • Authors: Bernardi DD; Lazzari JC, Andreazza FF, et al.
      First page: 871
      Abstract: AbstractStudying the susceptibility of peach trees to Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the major steps in the development of pest-resistant peach varieties. This work evaluated the susceptibility of 55 genotypes of the “Prunus Rootstock Collection” (“Coleção Porta-enxerto de Prunus”) of Embrapa Temperate Climate (Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) to the natural infestation of G. molesta, assessed the oviposition preference of G. molesta in choice and no-choice bioassays, and estimated the biological parameters and the fertility life table on different Prunus spp. genotypes in the laboratory. Genotypes Prunus kansuensis (Rehder), I-67-52-9, and I-67-52-4 were the most susceptible to G. molesta infestation in the field (>60% of branches infested), while ′Sharpe′ (Prunus angustifolia x Prunus spp.) and Prunus sellowii (Koehne) were the least infested (0% of branches infested). In choice and no-choice bioassays, G. molesta preferred to oviposit on P. kansuensis when compared with Sharpe. The Sharpe genotype also showed an antibiosis effect, resulting in negative effects on the fertility life table parameters when compared with the genotypes P. kansuensis and ′Capdeboscq.′ The results found in the present study can provide information to initiate a long-term breeding program moving desired G. molesta resistance traits from the rootstock into the Prunus spp. cultivars.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx114
  • Evaluation of Food-Based Attractants for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera:
    • Authors: Huang J; Gut L, Grieshop M.
      First page: 878
      Abstract: AbstractThe Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a highly invasive species attacking a wide range of ripening soft-skinned fruits. A series of laboratory choice tests were conducted to determine whether different levels of rice vinegar affected attraction of Merlot wine to D. suzukii, as well as to compare attractiveness of two common fermentation food baits: wine–vinegar and yeast–sugar water mixtures. The relative attraction of various combinations was used to develop a bait whose effectiveness was tested in the field. In laboratory choice experiments, wine–vinegar (80:20, v:v, hereafter referred to as wine) was more preferred over a yeast–sugar water mixture (hereafter referred to as yeast) by D. suzukii. Combination baits, either a mixture of wine and yeast or a mixture of wine and a supernatant from the yeast (comboS), were significantly more attractive than each product alone. The two combination baits were equally attractive to D. suzukii, so were the yeast and its supernatant, suggesting that yeast supernatant could be used as a replacement for the yeast–sugar mixture currently used for trapping D. suzukii. The additive effect between wine and yeast supernatant in the field was not as profound as observed in the laboratory. In the field trial, numerically more male and female D. suzukii were captured in traps baited with comboS than those baited with the wine or yeast alone; however, significant differences were only found between the comboS and wine or between the comboS and yeast in some weeks over the period of the experiment.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx097
  • Attraction, Oviposition Preferences, and Olfactory Responses of
           Corn-Infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) to Various Host-Based Substrates
    • Authors: Owens DD; Nuessly GS, Kendra PE, et al.
      First page: 885
      Abstract: AbstractFresh market sweet corn (Zea mays L., convar. saccharata var. rugosa, Poales: Poaceae) ears produced in Florida are damaged by the larvae of Euxesta stigmatias Loew, Euxesta eluta Loew, and Chaetopsis massyla Walker (Diptera: Ulidiidae) that renders ears unmarketable. No standard lure exists for monitoring these pests. Oviposition substrate and attractant bioassays were designed to identify attractive substrates for further semiochemical investigation. Frass from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was more attractive than other ovipositional substrates tested for E. eluta and C. massyla, and resulted in greater ovipositional output. Tassel-derived armyworm frass was more attractive than leaf-derived frass for oviposition. Frass also resulted in greater oviposition output by two species. In attraction bioassays, frass was generally preferred over the corresponding corn tissue, and only C. massyla demonstrated a preference for silk-frass over tassel-frass. The most promising substrates were then evaluated by electroantennography (EAG) to quantify olfactory responses. Frass volatiles also elicited greater antennal responses than corn volatiles. With tassel-frass, greater amplitude EAG responses were recorded from immature E. eluta female antennae, while mature female E. stigmatias exhibited greater responses. Equivalent antennal response to silk-frass was observed from E. eluta. Overall, silk-frass elicited the greatest EAG responses among all three fly species. Our results indicate that armyworm frass is an important resource in the chemical ecology of corn-infesting silk flies, and this substrate warrants further investigation for potential attractants that may facilitate development of novel management tools for these pests.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx096
  • Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Attraction to Different Wavelengths
           and Intensities of Light-Emitting Diodes in the Laboratory
    • Authors: Schmid RB; Snyder D, Cohnstaedt LW, et al.
      First page: 895
      Abstract: AbstractMonitoring of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), populations is important for targeted management methods. Also, effectiveness of monitoring efforts is critical to surveillance efforts in regions of the world without this pest. Current Hessian fly monitoring traps rely purely on a single attractant, the female sex pheromone, which is ineffective for monitoring females in the population. Our objective was to examine another attractant targeting vision of both males and females. To do this, we evaluated emitted light of various wavelengths and intensities produced by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Hessian flies were released in the center of a four-leaf clover-shaped arena, which contained an LED within each collection cup at the apex of each of the four cloverleaves. Initially, we examined a range of colors, including red, amber, green, and blue, with wavelengths of 624, 590, 527, and 472 nm, respectively. Both sexes of Hessian fly preferred green LEDs; therefore, we examined specific wavelengths within the green spectrum (502, 525, and 565 nm), and varied light intensities (4, 8, 12, and 16 W/m2). Specifically, females preferred wavelengths in the lower region of the green spectrum (502 and 525 nm), and both sexes preferred high intensity light (16 W/m2). This is the first report of Hessian fly attraction to select emitted wavelengths and intensities from LEDs under controlled conditions. Leveraging these results into new trap designs will add a second sensory modality to the existing trap; however, future studies are needed to assess attraction to LED traps under field conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx099
  • Calling Behavior, Copulation Time, and Reproductive Compatibility of
           Corn-Strain Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) From Populations in
    • Authors: Cruz-Esteban S; Rojas JC, Malo EA.
      First page: 901
      Abstract: AbstractThe calling behavior, mating time, and the reproductive compatibility of virgin adults of fall armyworms, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were studied in this work. Larvae were collected on maize (Zea mays L.) from six states located on the Pacific coast (Chiapas, Michoacán, and Sinaloa), on the Gulf of Mexico (Veracruz and Yucatan), and in central Mexico (Morelos). Before the experiments, insects were reared under laboratory conditions for one generation. We recorded the age at which females called for the first time, the onset time of calling, the duration of calling, the onset time of copulation, and the duration of copulation. The calling rhythms of the six populations were dissimilar. Females from all populations began to call in the second or third scotophase. The time for onset of calling and the duration of calling were significantly different among the S. frugiperda populations studied. Spodoptera frugiperda pairs from Sinaloa, Veracruz, Yucatan, and Morelos started to copulate earlier than the pairs from Chiapas and Michoacán. Pairs from Veracruz and Yucatan copulated longer than those from Michoacán, Morelos, Chiapas, and Sinaloa. Our crossing experiment using females and males from the six populations showed that individuals from different populations could copulate and produce fertile offspring. Thus, although the S. frugiperda populations showed variability in the timing of reproduction, the populations were not reproductively incompatible, which indicated that geographic distance has not led to reproductive isolation in corn-strain populations of S. frugiperda in Mexico.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx120
  • Effect of Chemical Ratios of a Microbial-Based Feeding Attractant on Trap
           Catch of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)
    • Authors: Cha DH; Landolt PJ, Adams TB.
      First page: 907
      Abstract: AbstractDrosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila, can be trapped with a feeding attractant based on wine and vinegar volatiles and consisting of acetic acid, ethanol, acetoin, and methionol. Using that four-component blend, we found that the catch of spotted wing drosophila increased with increases in the release rate of acetoin (from 0.5 mg/d to 34 mg/d) from polyethylene sachet dispensers, and with increases in the concentrations of acetic acid (from 0.25% to 4%) or ethanol (from 0.08% to 2%) when dispensed in the trap drowning solution. However, we saw no increase in spotted wing drosophila trapped with increase of the methionol release rate from 0.4 mg/d to 4.9 mg/d or from 0.19 mg/d to 0.8 mg/d, from sachets. A new formulation based on optimized amounts of these four chemicals yielded a doubling of spotted wing drosophila trapped compared to a previously reported formulation. Further field testing confirmed that the simultaneous increases in the release rate of acetoin from a dispenser and the amount of acetic acid in the trap drowning solution provided the increased spotted wing drosophila trap response to the new formulation. These findings provide a practical means to improve the power of this lure to detect and monitor D. suzukii.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx079
  • Sex Pheromone Dosages and Release Point Densities for Mating Disruption of
           Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in NE China Corn Fields
    • Authors: Chen R; Jow C, Klein MG, et al.
      First page: 916
      Abstract: AbstractMating disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with its sex pheromone has not been commonly used in NE China due to a lack of information about optimal sex pheromone dosages and the density of release points required in the field. During 2014–2016, first, the two active pheromone ingredients were evaluated in the laboratory alone at ca. 2.5–5.0 mg, or in combination at 0.2–6.0 mg, to disrupt male O. furnacalis mating behaviors. Then, mating disruption areas, with radii of <8.0 m, were determined with those same dosages in corn, an orchard, and soybean fields by comparing male captures in sentinel traps in the control plots with those in corresponding disruption treatments. Finally, 6.0 (F30) and 0.2 mg (Fs) dosages were used in fields at 20–640 and 200–6,400 release points/ha. We found that ≧6.0 mg of the binary pheromone mixture, or ca. 5.0 mg of either of the two single components, completely disrupted mating behaviors, and F30 of the binary mixture provided a 200-m2 disruption area, with at least 50% capture reductions. At a density of 60–640 and 600–6,400 points/ha in a corn field, F30 and Fs dosages provided >90% mating disruption, leaf protection, and ear protection. The dispenser densities and inverse male catches in traps tended to follow a noncompetitive mechanism of mating disruption. Since 85% disruption of mating with 200–400 0.02 mg release points/ha was obtained, that level is recommended as the choice in future NE China O. furnacalis IPM programs.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx098
  • Evidence for Substrate Influence on Artificial Substrate Invertebrate
    • Authors: Phillips ID; Prestie KS.
      First page: 926
      Abstract: AbstractCobble baskets are frequently used as a tool to measure differences in benthic macroinvertebrate communities between waterbodies; however, underlying differences in substrate type may influence the resultant colonization of baskets, misrepresenting communities. This study tests the hypothesis that cobble basket placement influences the resulting benthic macroinvertebrate community. Cobble basket arrays (n = 4) were deployed in Dog Lake, Saskatchewan, in 2011 (97 d) and 2012 (95 d) on cobble habitats and soft or sandy substrates ∼100 m apart. Baskets placed on cobble substrate had significantly higher Shannon–Weaver diversity relative to those placed on soft substrate in both years, and higher % EPT (Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera) in 2011, but total density was not significantly different. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed that the community was different between both treatments, characterized by higher densities of Gammarus lacustris Sars in baskets placed on soft sediment in both years, higher densities of Aeshna sp. and Mystacides sp. on cobble substrate in 2011, and higher densities of Helobdella stagnalis (L.) and Glossophinia complanata (L.) on cobble substrate in 2012. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that baskets placed on cobble substrate versus soft substrate will result in differing community colonization. The resulting recommendation for monitoring and assessment using cobble baskets in lakes is that baskets be placed on comparable substrate type when comparing between lakes, and that cobble beds be chosen as a more appropriate substrate for deployment, as the added habitat complexity of baskets on soft sediment may act as an attractant and not reflect the true community composition of that habitat.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx106
  • Geostatistical Characterization of Cereal Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera:
           Chrysomelidae) Distributions in Wheat
    • Authors: Reay-Jones FF.
      First page: 931
      Abstract: AbstractA 3-yr study was conducted in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in South Carolina to characterize the spatial distribution of Oulema melanopus (L.) adults, eggs, and larvae using semivariograms, which provides a measure of spatial dependence among sampling data. Moran’s I coefficients for peak densities of each life stage indicated significant positive autocorrelation for seven (two for eggs, one for larvae, and four for adults) of the 16 datasets. Aggregation was detected in 13 of these 16 datasets when analyzed by semivariogram modeling, with spherical, Gaussian, and exponential models best fitting for eight, four, and one dataset, respectively, and with models for two datasets having only one parameter (nugget) significantly different from zero. The nugget-to-sill ratios ranged from 0.043 to 0.774, and indicated strong spatial dependence in six models (three for adults, two for eggs, and one for larvae), moderate spatial dependence in six models (three for adults and six for eggs), and weak spatial dependence in one model (adults). Range values varied from 39.1 m to 234.1 m, with an average of 120.1 ± 14.0 m. Average range values were 104.9, 135.2, and 161.2 m for adults, eggs, and larvae, respectively. Because the majority of semivariogram models in our study indicated aggregated distributions, spatial sampling will provide more information than nonspatial random sampling. Developing our understanding of spatial dependence of crop pests is needed to optimize sampling plans and can provide a basis for exploring site-specific management tactics.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx122
  • Fermentation for Disinfesting Fruit Waste From Drosophila Species
           (Diptera: Drosophilidae)
    • Authors: Noble RR; Dobrovin-Pennington AA, Shaw BB, et al.
      First page: 939
      Abstract: AbstractEconomic losses in a range of fruit crops due to the Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) have become severe. Removal and treatment of fruit waste, which may harbor D. suzukii, is a key step in preventing reinfestation of fruit production. Natural fermentation for disinfesting fruit wastes from D. suzukii was examined at ambient air temperatures of 12–20 °C. Soft and stone fruit wastes infested with eggs, larvae, and pupae of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) or D. suzukii were placed in sealed vessels containing fruit wastes, and samples were retrieved at intervals and tested for the emergence of adults. Mean temperatures of the fruit waste in the sealed vessels during fermentation were 15–23 °C. Fermentation for 3 d was effective in disinfesting waste from different life stages of D. suzukii. Treatment for 4 d also ensured that the waste was free of viable life stages of D. melanogaster, which could be used as an indicator species for disinfestation of waste from D. suzukii owing to its greater tolerance of fermentation. The O2 concentration of the headspace air in the vessels became undetectable after 13–16 h, with a corresponding increase in CO2 concentration, which exceeded 80% vol/vol. The resulting hypoxia and hypercapnia may explain the efficacy of the fermentation treatment in disinfesting the waste. Fermented fruit remained attractive to D. suzukii and retained its capacity to rear a life cycle. Covering or mixing fermented fruit with a sufficient depth (0.1 m) or volume (×9) of soil or coir prevented the reinfestation of treated waste.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx107
  • Developmental Studies of Maize-Infesting Picture-Winged Flies (Diptera:
    • Authors: Goyal G; Nuessly GS, Seal DR, et al.
      First page: 946
      Abstract: AbstractEleven species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae) attack maize (Zea mays L.) in the Americas. Field and laboratory studies were used to determine developmental times on sweet corn ears for the three most common species attacking the crop in the United States, Chaetopsis massyla (Walker), Euxesta eluta Loew, and Euxesta stigmatias Loew. Egg plus larval stage developmental times were evaluated in early Spring and late Fall 2009, and late Spring 2010, by placing newly deposited eggs in protected ears in the field. Newly formed puparia were removed daily from cages and held in the laboratory to determine pupal developmental times. Developmental times were compared with flies reared on artificial diet in the laboratory. Ear- and diet-reared adults were held until their death to determine adult longevity. Developmental times, including for pupae from ear-reared larvae, were significantly affected by species and season. All three species required nearly twice as long to complete development in the late Fall compared to late Spring studies. Flies required 3–13 d longer to complete development on artificial diet than on ears. Euxesta eluta adults lived two to three times longer than the other species, and females of all species lived 10–15% longer than males. Species and seasonal developmental times are discussed in relation to ear developmental times and control strategies. It is estimated that 16–19 generations per year of all three fly species can develop in the field in the sweet corn production area of southern Florida.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx082
  • Rapid Cold Hardening Capacity and Its Impact on Performance of Russian
           Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    • Authors: Saeidi F; Moharramipour S, Mikani A.
      First page: 954
      Abstract: AbstractThe Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), is one of the most important pests of wheat and barley in most wheat-producing countries. Rapid cold hardiness (RCH) is a capacity of insects to develop, within hours, protection against subfreezing temperatures that plays an important role in aphid survival in response to sudden decreases in air temperature. In this research, we investigated the duration and rate of cooling on the induction of RCH of D. noxia and the costs of RCH on aphid development and fecundity. By transferring aphids directly from 20 °C to a range of subzero temperatures for 2 h, the lower lethal temperature for 80% mortality (LT80) was determined to be − 11.9 °C. Preconditioning the aphids at 0 °C for 1–3 h prior to exposure at (LT80) (−11.9 °C) resulted in a sharp increase in survival, with little change with longer durations of preconditioning. The slowest cooling rate (0.05 °C/min) increased survival fourfold, whereas rates from 0.1 to 1 °C/min increased survival twofold compared with a direct transfer to 0 °C, regardless of aphid stage used. Deleterious effects of RCH were not observed on aphid development, longevity, or fecundity. The present study indicates that RCH is induced in D. noxia in just a few hours in response to sudden lowering of temperatures to freezing, with little or no cost in reproductive capacity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx087
  • Physiology of Cold Hardiness, Seasonal Fluctuations, and Cryoprotectant
           Contents in Overwintering Adults of Hypera postica (Coleoptera:
    • Authors: Saeidi M; Moharramipour S.
      First page: 960
      Abstract: AbstractThe alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), is widely distributed in various alfalfa-growing regions in the world. Adults enter the field gradually from hibernation places and overwinter in a nondiapausing state, exhibiting feeding, mating, and oviposition over autumn and winter whenever the weather permits. In this study, the variability of supercooling point (SCP) and cold hardiness in alfalfa weevil was investigated. Adults were collected monthly from alfalfa fields in Karaj, Iran, during autumn, winter, and spring in 2011–2012. Supercooling points and LT50 (exposure at subzero temperatures from −5 to − 13 °C for 24 h and 50% death of the sample) were studied. The average SCP varied from −14.4 ± 0.7 °C in October to − 8.7 ± 0.4 °C in May. Mean SCPs were significantly lower during autumn (−13.4 °C) than winter months (−8.6 °C). The frequency distribution of SCPs in individuals in autumn was bimodal and in winter was unimodal. Insects could survive after exposure to −5 °C in all months, but mortality increased with cold intensity. Percent mortality at −11 °C was ∼89% in November and December and then increased to 100% in January and February. The approximate LT50 values were −5.7 °C and −6 °C in January and February, respectively. Seasonal changes in sorbitol, glycerol, glucose, and trehalose were consistent with a role in freeze protection. However, microhabitat may also play an important role in protecting insects from cold weather and allowing them to tolerate low temperatures and increase their population.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx089
  • Cold Tolerance of Pityophthorus juglandis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) From
           Northern California
    • Authors: Hefty AR; Seybold SJ, Aukema BH, et al.
      First page: 967
      Abstract: AbstractWinter survivorship of insects is determined by a combination of physiological, behavioral, and microhabitat characteristics. We characterized the cold tolerance of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman, a domestic alien invasive bark beetle that vectors a phytopathogenic fungus. The beetle and fungus cause thousand cankers disease in species of Juglans and Pterocarya. The disease is spreading in the United States of America (USA) and Italy. Contact thermocouple thermometry was used to measure the supercooling points of adults and larvae and lower lethal temperatures of adults from a population from northern California. Supercooling points ranged from −12.2 °C to − 25.0 °C for adults and −13.6 °C to − 23.5 °C for larvae; lower lethal temperatures of adults ranged from −14 °C to − 23 °C. We found seasonal changes in adult supercooling points in fall, winter, and spring. The supercooling point for males was 0.5 °C colder than for females over all months and 1 °C colder in the winter than in other seasons. The cold-tolerance strategy shifted in P. juglandis adults from freeze intolerance (December 2013 and January 2014) to partial freeze tolerance (February 2014). An intermediate level of cold tolerance with a plastic response to cold partially explains survival of P. juglandis outside of its native range in the southwestern USA. In addition, we characterized the relationship between minimum air temperatures and minimum phloem temperatures in two Juglans spp. in northern California and Colorado and characterized portions of the native geographic range of eastern black walnut, J. nigra L., that may be too cold currently for this insect to persist.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx090
  • Influence of Temperature on the Reproductive and Developmental Biology of
           Ontsira mellipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for Biological
           Control of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
    • Authors: Golec JR; Duan JJ, Hough-Goldstein J.
      First page: 978
      Abstract: AbstractOntsira mellipes Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a North American parasitoid species that develops on the invasive pest, Anoplophora glabripennis (Moltschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), under laboratory conditions and is currently being considered as a potential new-association biocontrol agent. To develop mass-rearing protocols and field-release strategies for this parasitoid, information on its reproductive biology in relation to temperature is needed. We determined the effect of temperature (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C) on development, survivorship, and sex ratio, and its effect on the longevity, fecundity, and host attack rates (parasitism) of adults. Developmental time for parasitoid eggs to pupae decreased from 26.7 d to 6.1 d as temperature increased from 10 °C to 30 °C. While no pupae eclosed as adults at 10 °C, time of adult emergence from pupae decreased from 39.7 d to 12.2 d as temperature increased from 15 °C to 30 °C. Based on estimated lower development temperature threshold (11.1 °C), the degree-days required for one generation was estimated at 342.9. When female parasitoids were provided with host larvae, parasitism occurred at all temperatures and was maximized at 25 °C. Additionally, increasing temperatures significantly reduced the preoviposition period and longevity of female O. mellipes. In addition, combining these results with temperature data from areas in the United States currently infested with A. glabripennis, we estimated that O. mellipes can complete 1.2–3.7 generations per year. Findings from this study may be considered for the future development of effective mass rearing and augmentative release strategies of O. mellipes for biological control of A. glabripennis.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx100
  • Does Resistance to Buprofezin Improve Heat and Cold Tolerance of
           Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)'
    • Authors: Li Y; Zhang Y, Liu X, et al.
      First page: 988
      Abstract: AbstractThere is ample evidence that insecticide resistance causes fitness costs and benefits in pests, while the impact of insecticide resistance on thermotolerance of pests is mostly unclear. The Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), is an important rice insect pest, which has developed resistance to buprofezin in China. Here, we investigated differences in heat tolerance and cold tolerance among L. striatellus lines with variable buprofezin resistance. The lethal time for 50% of the individuals to die (LT50) at 40 °C increased with an increase in buprofezin resistance level, whereas both the survival rate under −22 °C and the supercooling point of planthoppers did not differ significantly between resistant and susceptible strains. The metabolic enzyme carboxylesterase was found to have an association with buprofezin resistance. Our research showed that buprofezin resistance was positively related with heat tolerance in L. striatellus, but it had no effect on cold tolerance. Insecticide resistance in L. striatellus may therefore have broader implications for the ecology of L. striatellus, and the management of buprofezin resistance in this pest may be challenging.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx101
  • Influence of Host Quality and Temperature on the Biology of Diaeretiella
           rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae)
    • Authors: Souza MF; Veloso LA, Sampaio MV, et al.
      First page: 995
      Abstract: AbstractBiological features of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh), an aphid parasitoid, are conditioned by temperature and host. However, studies of host quality changes due to temperature adaptability have not been performed previously. Therefore, this study evaluated the adaptability of Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) to high temperature, high temperature effect on their quality as hosts for D. rapae, and on parasitoid’s thermal threshold. Aphid development, survivorship, fecundity, and longevity were compared at 19 °C and 28 °C. Host quality in different temperatures was determined through evaluation of parasitoid biology. Thermal threshold of D. rapae was determined using development time data. At 28 °C, development time, rate of immature survival, and total fecundity rates were greater in L. pseudobrassicae than in M. persicae. Development time of D. rapae in L. pseudobrassicae was shorter than that in M. persicae at 28 °C and 31 °C for females and at 31 °C for males. The thermal threshold of D. rapae was 6.38 °C and 3.33 °C for females and 4.45 °C and 3.63 °C for males developed on L. pseudobrassicae and M. persicae, respectively. Diaeretiella rapae size gain was greater in L. pseudobrassicae than that in M. persicae at 25 °C and 28 °C. Lipaphis pseudobrassicae showed better adaptation than M. persicae to elevated temperatures, which resulted in a better quality host for D. rapae at temperatures of 28 °C and 31 °C and a higher lower thermal threshold when the parasitoid developed within L. pseudobrassicae. The host’s adaptation to high temperatures is a determinant of host quality for the parasitoid at that same climatic condition.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx108
  • Heat Tolerance Induction of the Indian Meal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
           Is Accompanied by Upregulation of Heat Shock Proteins and Polyols
    • Authors: Kim M; Lee S, Chun Y, et al.
      First page: 1005
      Abstract: AbstractThe Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, causes massive damage to stored grains and processed foods. Heat treatment has been widely used to control insect pests infesting stored grains. However, heat treatment may result in unsatisfactory control owing to heat tolerance of target insects. This study quantified the heat tolerance and analyzed its induction in P. interpunctella. Susceptibility of P. interpunctella to different high temperatures was assessed in all developmental stages. Heat treatment at 44 °C for 1 h caused significant mortalities to all developmental stages, with late-instar larvae exhibiting the highest tolerance. However, the survivorship to heat treatment was significantly increased by pre-exposure to 37 °C for 30 min. The induction of heat tolerance was accompanied by upregulation of two heat shock proteins of Hsc70 and Hsp90. Trehalose and glycerol concentrations in the hemolymph also increased after pre-exposure to 37 °C for 30 min. RNA interference (RNAi) by specific double-stranded RNAs effectively suppressed the inducible expressions of both Hsc70 and Hsp90 in response to 37 °C for 30 min. Either RNAi of Hsc70 or Hsp90 significantly impaired the heat tolerance induction of P. interpunctella. These results suggest that the induction of heat tolerance in P. interpunctella involves the upregulation of these heat shock proteins and hemolymph polyol levels.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx112
  • Effects of Temperature on Development of Lymantria dispar asiatica and
           Lymantria dispar japonica (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)
    • Authors: Limbu S; Keena M, Chen F, et al.
      First page: 1012
      Abstract: AbstractPeriodic introductions of the Asian subspecies of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij and Lymantria dispar japonica Motschulsky, in North America are threatening forests and interrupting foreign trade. Although Asian gypsy moth has similar morphology to that of European and North American gypsy moth, it has several traits that make it a greater threat, the most important being the flight capability of females. Asian gypsy moth is not yet established in North America; however, infestations have been detected multiple times in Canada and the United States. To facilitate detection and eradication efforts, we evaluated the effect of a range of temperatures on development time, survivorship, and fertility of eight populations of Asian gypsy moth. There were significant impacts of temperature and population on these life history characteristics. The larval developmental rate increased with temperature until it reached an optimum at 29 °C. Larvae experienced significant molting problems at the highest and lowest temperatures tested (10 °C and 30 °C). At 30 °C, female fitness was markedly compromised, as evidenced by reduced fecundity and fertility. This suggests that development and survival of Asian gypsy moth may be limited by summer temperature extremes in the Southern United States. We also determined the degree-day requirements for two critical life stages and two populations of Asian gypsy moth, which represent the extremes in latitude, to predict the timing for biopesticide application and adult trap deployment. Our data will benefit pest managers in developing management strategies, pest risk assessments, and timing for implementation of management tactics.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx111
  • Pan-American Similarities in Genetic Structures of Helicoverpa armigera
           and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) With Implications for
    • Authors: Leite NA; Correa AS, Michel AP, et al.
      First page: 1024
      Abstract: AbstractThe genus Helicoverpa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) includes phytophagous and polyphagous agricultural insect pests. In the Americas, a native pest, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and an invasive pest, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), are causing severe damage in vegetable and agronomic crops. The population structure of both species in South America is poorly understood, and the phylogenetic relatedness of H. armigera and H. zea suggests natural interspecific gene flow between these species. Using microsatellite loci, we investigated: 1) the genetic diversity and gene flow of H. armigera specimens from Brazil; 2) the genetic diversity and gene flow between H. zea specimens from Brazil and the United States; and 3) the possibility of interspecific gene flow and the frequency of putative hybrids in Brazil. We detected high intraspecific gene flow among populations collected in the same country. However, there is a geographic limit to gene flow among H. zea individuals from South and North America. Pairwise Fst and private alleles showed that H. armigera is more similar to H. zea from Brazil than H. zea from the United States. A comparative STRUCTURE analysis suggests natural hybridization between H. armigera and H. zea in Brazil. High gene flow and natural hybridization are key traits to population adaptation in new and disturbed environments, which can influence the management of these pests in the American continent.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx088
  • Analysis of Species, Subgroups, and Endosymbionts of Bemisia tabaci
           (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) From Southwestern Cotton Fields in Turkey
    • Authors: Karut K; Mete Karaca MM, Döker İ, et al.
      First page: 1035
      Abstract: AbstractBemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most important insect pests worldwide including Turkey. Although there are substantial data regarding species composition of Turkish B. tabaci populations, the situation is still not clear and further investigations are needed. Therefore, in this study, species and subgroups of B. tabaci collected from cotton fields in southwestern part of Turkey (Antalya, Aydın, Denizli, and Muğla) were determined using microsatellite analysis, AluI-based mtCOI polymerase chain reaction–random length polymorphism, and sequencing. Secondary endosymbionts were also determined using diagnostic species-specific PCR. Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), Mediterranean (MED) Q1, and MED Q2 were the species and subgroups found in this study. The MED species (85.3%) were found to be more dominant than MEAM1. Species status of B. tabaci varied depending on the location. Although all samples collected from Aydın were found to be Q1, three species and subgroups were found in Muğla. Secondary endosymbionts varied according to species and subgroups. Arsenophonus was found only from Q2, while Hamiltonella was detected in MEAM1 and Q1. In addition, high Rickettsia and low Wolbachia infections were detected in MEAM1 and Q1 populations, respectively. In conclusion, for the first time, we report the presence and symbiotic communities of Q1 from Turkey. We also found that the symbiont complement of the Q1 is more congruent with Q1 from Greece than other regions of the world, which may have some interesting implications for movement of this invasive subgroup.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx093
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