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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 372 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 372 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 289, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 593, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)

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Journal Cover Age and Ageing
  [SJR: 1.611]   [H-I: 107]   [86 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0002-0729 - ISSN (Online) 1468-2834
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [372 journals]
  • Editor’s view
    • Authors: Stott D.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • List of Reviewers
    • PubDate: Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Understanding mortality in care facilities—the role of good data
    • Authors: Gordon A; Bowman C.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Alcohol and age
    • Authors: Crome I; Crome P.
      Abstract: Alcohol consumption constitutes a substantial burden of disease. Older people are being admitted to hospital for alcohol problems in increasing numbers. A recent systematic review reports cautious supportive evidence for primary prevention interventions in reducing excessive alcohol consumption in older drinkers, but does not focus on treatment of dependent drinkers. The evidence base for treatment interventions for dependent drinkers is comparatively limited, but it is growing. In addition to brief interventions, specialist outpatient treatment and inpatient treatment have been evaluated.The responses of older people to treatment are promising: they want to abstain, they have the capacity to change, they respond well to brief advice and motivational enhancement therapy, they achieve improvements at least as comparable to younger counterparts—and sometimes better—and they do have the prospect of long-term recovery.There is a need to develop services tailored to the needs of older substance misusers. Education of the workforce, including medical students and other health care professionals, is the key. Collaboration and coordination of services, training, research and policy are essential.There are very few designated services for older substance misusers in the UK and only 7% of older people who need treatment for alcohol problems access them. There is a massive gap in the whole gamut of research from basic to clinical research in this vulnerable patient population: this has to be developed if management is to be effective and up to date.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Improving patient safety for older people in acute admissions:
           implementation of the Frailsafe checklist in 12 hospitals across the UK
    • Authors: Papoutsi C; Poots A, Clements J, et al.
      Abstract: Backgroundchecklists are increasingly proposed as a means to enhance safety and quality of care. However, their use has been met with variable levels of success. The Frailsafe project focused on introducing a checklist with the aim to increase completion of key clinical assessments and to facilitate communication for the care of older patients in acute admissions.Objectivesto examine the use of the Frailsafe checklist, including potential to contribute to improved safety, quality and reliability of care.Methods110 qualitative interviews and group discussions with healthcare professionals and other specialties, 172 h of ethnographic observation in 12 UK hospitals and reporting of high-level process data (completion of checklist and relevant frailty assessments). Qualitative analysis followed a thematic and theory-driven approach.Resultsthrough use of the checklist, hospital teams identified limitations in their existing assessments (e.g. absence of delirium protocols) and practices (e.g. unnecessary catheter use). This contributed to hospitals reporting just 24.0% of sampled patients as having received all clinical assessments across key domains for this population for the duration of the project (1,687/7,021 checklists as fully completed). Staff perceptions and experiences of using the checklist varied significantly, primarily driven by the extent to which the aims of this quality improvement project aligned with local service priorities and pre-existing team communications styles.Conclusionsthe Frailsafe checklist highlighted limitations with frailty assessment in acute care and motivated teams to review routine practices. Further work is needed to understand whether and how checklists can be embedded in complex, multidisciplinary care.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • 200 Years of Parkinson’s disease: what have we learnt from James
    • Authors: McDonald C; Gordon G, Hand A, et al.
      Abstract: 2017 marks 200 years since James Parkinson’s published his ‘Essay on the Shaking Palsy’. Although now most famous for describing the condition that came to bear his name, Parkinson had a wide range of interests and his influence spread beyond medicine. In this review, we provide a biography of James Parkinson’s remarkable life.Parkinson’s paper not only comprehensively described the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD), but challenged his peers to better understand the pathophysiology of the PD. Key observation over the next 2 centuries, included the recognition of the link between the substantia nigra and PD and the discoveries of dopamine deficiency in patients with PD. We review the subsequent development of pharmacological and surgical therapies. Despite great progress over the last 200 years, Parkinson’s hopes for a ‘cure if employed early enough’ or that ‘some remedial process may ere long be discovered by which at least the progression of the disease may be stopped’ remain apposite today and we reflect on the challenges ahead for the next century.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Temporal changes in medication use and disease management in old age:
           where does it all end'
    • Authors: Mangoni A.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Patterns of multi-morbidity and prediction of hospitalisation and
           all-cause mortality in advanced age
    • Authors: Teh R; Menzies O, Connolly M, et al.
      Abstract: Backgroundmulti-morbidity is associated with poor outcomes and increased healthcare utilisation. We aim to identify multi-morbidity patterns and associations with potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP), subsequent hospitalisation and mortality in octogenarians.Methodslife and Living in Advanced Age; a Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ) examined health outcomes of 421 Māori (indigenous to New Zealand), aged 80–90 and 516 non-Māori, aged 85 years in 2010. Presence of 14 chronic conditions was ascertained from self-report, general practice and hospitalisation records and physical assessments. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis identified clusters of participants with co-existing conditions. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between clusters and PIP, 48-month hospitalisations and mortality.Resultssix clusters were identified for Māori and non-Māori, respectively. The associations between clusters and outcomes differed between Māori and non-Māori. In Māori, those in the complex multi-morbidity cluster had the highest prevalence of inappropriately prescribed medications and in cluster ‘diabetes’ (20% of sample) had higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality at 48-month follow-up. In non-Māori, those in the ‘depression-arthritis’ (17% of the sample) cluster had both highest prevalence of inappropriate medications and risk of hospitalisation and mortality.Conclusionsin octogenarians, hospitalisation and mortality are better predicted by profiles of clusters of conditions rather than the presence or absence of a specific condition. Further research is required to determine if the cluster approach can be used to target patients to optimise resource allocation and improve outcomes.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Scaffolding and working together: a qualitative exploration of strategies
           for everyday life with dementia
    • Authors: McCabe L; Robertson J, Kelly F.
      Abstract: Backgroundliving with dementia has been described as a process of continual change and adjustment, with people with dementia and their families adopting informal strategies to help manage everyday life. As dementia progresses, families increasingly rely on help from the wider community and formal support.Methodsthis article reports on a secondary analysis of qualitative data from focus groups and individual interviews with people with dementia and their carers in the North of England. In total, 65 people with dementia and 82 carers took part in the research: 26 in interviews and 121 in focus groups. Focus group and interview audio recordings were transcribed verbatim. A qualitative, inductive, thematic approach was taken for data analysis.Findingsthe article applies the metaphor of scaffolding to deepen understanding of the strategies used by families. Processes of scaffolding were evident across the data where families, communities, professionals and services worked together to support everyday life for people with dementia. Within this broad theme of scaffolding were three sub-themes characterising the experiences of families living with dementia: doing things together; evolving strategies; and fragility and fear of the future.Conclusionsfamilies with dementia are resourceful but do need increasing support (scaffolding) to continue to live as well as possible as dementia progresses. More integrated, proactive work is required from services that recognises existing scaffolds and provides appropriate support before informal strategies become unsustainable; thus enabling people with dementia to live well for longer.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • A greater risk of premature death in residential respite care: a national
           cohort study
    • Authors: Willoughby M; Kipsaina C, Ferrah N, et al.
      Abstract: Backgroundthe demand for residential respite care for older persons is high yet little is known about the occurrence of harm, including death in this care setting.Objectiveto compare the prevalence and nature of deaths among residential respite to permanent nursing home residents.Designretrospective cohort study.Settingaustralian accredited nursing homes between 1 July 2000 and 30 June 2013.Subjectsrespite and permanent residents of Australian accredited nursing homes, whose deaths were investigated by Australian coroners.Methodsprevalence of deaths of nursing home residents were calculated using routinely generated coronial data stored in the National Coronial Information System. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated to examine residency (respite or permanent) by cause of death.Resultsof the 21,672 residents who died during the study period, 172 (0.8%) were in respite care. The majority of deaths were due to natural causes. A lower proportion occurred in respite (n = 119, 69.2%) than permanent (n = 18,264, 84.9%) residents. Falls-related deaths in respite as a proportion (n = 41, 23.8%) was almost double that in permanent care (n = 2,638, 12.3%). Deaths from other injury-related causes (such as suicide and choking) were significantly more likely in respite residents (OR = 2.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.6; P = 0.026).Conclusionsthis is the first national cohort study examining mortality among respite residents. It established that premature, injury-related deaths do occur during respite care. This is the first step towards better understanding and reducing the risk of harm in respite care.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Trajectories of frailty among Chinese older people in Hong Kong between
           2001 and 2012: an age-period-cohort analysis
    • Authors: Yu R; Wong M, Chong K, et al.
      Abstract: Backgroundthere is little evidence to suggest that older people today are living in better health than their predecessors did at the same age. Only a few studies have evaluated whether there are birth cohort effects on frailty, an indicator of health in older people, encompassing physical, functional and mental health dimensions.Objectivesthis study examined longitudinal trajectories of frailty among Chinese older people in Hong Kong.Methodsthis study utilised data from the 18 Elderly Health Centres of the Department of Health comprising a total of 417,949 observations from 94,550 community-dwelling Chinese people aged ≥65 years in one early birth cohort (1901–23) and four later birth cohorts (1924–29, 1930–35, 1936–41, 1942–47) collected between 2001 and 2012, to examine trajectories of the frailty index and how birth cohorts may have contributed to the trends using an age-period-cohort analysis.Resultsmore recent cohorts had higher levels of frailty than did earlier cohorts at the same age, controlling for period, gender, marital status, educational levels, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and social factors. Older age, being female, widowhood, lower education and smoking were associated with higher levels of frailty.Conclusionmore recent cohorts had higher levels of frailty than did earlier cohorts. Frailty interventions, coupled with early detection, should be developed to combat the increasing rates of frailty in Hong Kong Chinese.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate with muscle function
           in older persons who have fallen
    • Authors: Tap L; Boyé N, Hartholt K, et al.
      Abstract: Backgroundstudies suggest that estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is less reliable in older persons and that a low serum-creatinine might reflect reduced muscle mass rather than high kidney function. This study investigates the possible relationship between eGFR and multiple elements of physical performance in older fallers.Methodsbaseline data of the IMPROveFALL-study were examined in participants ≥65 years. Serum-creatinine based eGFR was classified as normal (≥90 ml/min), mildly reduced (60–89 ml/min) or moderately–severely reduced (<60 ml/min). Timed-Up-and-Go-test and Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand-test were used to assess mobility; calf circumference and handgrip strength to assess muscle status. Ancova models adjusted for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index and body mass index were performed.Resultsa total of 578 participants were included. Participants with a normal eGFR had lower handgrip strength than those with a mildly reduced eGFR (−9.5%, P < 0.001) and those with a moderately–severely reduced eGFR (−6.3%, P = 0.033) with mean strengths of 23.4, 25.8 and 24.9 kg, respectively. Participants with a normal eGFR had a smaller calf circumference than those with a mildly reduced eGFR (35.5 versus 36.5 cm, P = 0.006). Mean time to complete the mobility tests did not differ.Conclusionsin this study we found that older fallers with an eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min had smaller calf circumference and up to 10% lower handgrip strength than those with a reduced eGFR. This lower muscle mass is likely to lead to an overestimation of kidney function. This outcome therefore supports the search for biomarkers independent of muscle mass to estimate kidney function in older persons.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • ‘Working away in that Grey Area…’ A qualitative exploration of the
           challenges general practitioners experience when managing behavioural and
           psychological symptoms of dementia
    • Authors: Jennings A; Foley T, McHugh S, et al.
      Abstract: Backgroundgeneral practitioners (GPs) have identified the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) as a particularly challenging aspect of dementia care. However, there is a paucity of research on why GPs find BPSD challenging and how this influences the care they offer to their patients with dementia.Objectivesto establish the challenges GPs experience when managing BPSD; to explore how these challenges influence GPs’ management decisions; and to identify strategies for overcoming these challenges.Designqualitative study of GPs experiences of managing BPSD.Methodssemi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 GPs in the Republic of Ireland. GPs were purposively recruited to include participants with differing levels of experience caring for people with BPSD in nursing homes and in community settings to provide maximum diversity of views. Interviews were analysed thematically.Resultsthree main challenges of managing BPSD were identified; lack of clinical guidance, stretched resources and difficulties managing expectations. The lack of relevant clinical guidance available affected GPs’ confidence when managing BPSD. In the absence of appropriate resources GPs felt reliant upon sedative medications. GPs believed their advocacy role was further compromised by the difficulties they experienced managing expectations of family caregivers and nursing home staff.Conclusionsthis study helps to explain the apparent discrepancy between best practice recommendations in BPSD and real-life practice. It will be used to inform the design of an intervention to support the management of BPSD in general practice.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Review of methodologies of cohort studies of older people
    • Authors: Kingston A; Jagger C.
      Abstract: This paper describes a cohort study in terms of its design, the research questions answered by cohort studies, common analytic techniques and the strengths and limitations of this type of study. We also describe the main cohort studies of older populations, many of which are available for secondary data analysis.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Rehabilitation in dementia care
    • Authors: Cations M; Laver K, Crotty M, et al.
      Abstract: Multidisciplinary rehabilitation is increasingly accepted as valuable in the management of chronic disease. Whereas traditional rehabilitation models focussed on recovery, maintaining independence and delaying functional decline are now considered worthwhile aims even where full recovery is not feasible. Despite this, rehabilitation is notably absent from dementia care literature and practice. People with dementia report frustration with the lack of availability of structured post-diagnosis pathways like those offered for other conditions. Alternative terms such as ‘re-ablement’ are used to refer to rehabilitation-like services, but lack an evidence-base to guide care. This commentary will discuss possible reasons for the resistance to accept multidisciplinary rehabilitation as part of dementia care, and identifies the value of doing so for people with dementia, their families, and for health professionals.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Supported Discharge Teams for older people in hospital acute care: a
           randomised controlled trial
    • Authors: Parsons M; Parsons J, Rouse P, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundSupported Discharge Teams aim to help with the transition from hospital to home, whilst reducing hospital length-of-stay. Despite their obvious attraction, the evidence remains mixed, ranging from strong support for disease-specific interventions to less favourable results for generic services.ObjectiveTo determine whether older people referred to a Supported Discharge Team have: (i) reduced length-of-stay in hospital; (ii) reduced risk of hospital readmission; and (iii) reduced healthcare costs.MethodsRandomised controlled trial with follow-up to 6 months; 103 older women and 80 men (n = 183) (mean age 79), in hospital, were randomised to receive either Supported Discharge Team or usual care. Home-based rehabilitation was delivered by trained Health Care Assistants up to four times a day, 7 days a week, under the guidance of registered nurses, allied health and geriatricians for up to 6 weeks.ResultsParticipants randomised to the Supported Discharge Team spent less time in hospital during the index admission (mean 15.7 days) in comparison to usual care (mean 21.6 days) (mean difference 5.9: 95% CI 0.6, 11.3 days: P = 0.03) and spent less time in hospital in the 6 months following discharge home. Supported discharge group costs were calculated at mean NZ$10,836 (SD NZ$12,087) compared to NZ$16,943 (SD NZ$22,303) in usual care.ConclusionA Supported Discharge Team can provide an effective means of discharging older people home early from hospital and can make a cost-effective contribution to managing increasing demand for hospital beds.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Identification of older adults with frailty in the Emergency Department
           using a frailty index: results from a multinational study
    • Authors: Brousseau A; Dent E, Hubbard R, et al.
      Abstract: Objectivefrailty is a central concept in geriatric medicine, yet its utility in the Emergency Department (ED) is not well understood nor well utilised. Our objectives were to develop an ED frailty index (FI-ED), using the Rockwood cumulative deficits model and to evaluate its association with adverse outcomes.Methodthis was a large multinational prospective cohort study using data from the interRAI Multinational Emergency Department Study. The FI-ED was developed from the Canadian cohort and validated in the multinational cohort. All patients aged ≥75 years presenting to an ED were included. The FI-ED was created using 24 variables included in the interRAI ED-Contact Assessment tool.Resultsthere were 2,153 participants in the Canadian cohort and 1,750 in the multinational cohort. The distribution of the FI-ED was similar to previous frailty indices. The mean FI-ED was 0.26 (Canadian cohort) and 0.32 (multinational cohort) and the 99th percentile was 0.71 and 0.81, respectively. In the Canadian cohort, a 0.1 unit increase in the FI-ED was significantly associated with admission (odds ratio (OR) = 1.43 [95% CI: 1.34−1.52]); death at 28 days (OR = 1.55 [1.38–1.73]); prolonged hospital stay (OR = 1.37 [1.22–1.54]); discharge to long-term care (OR = 1.30 [1.16−1.47]); and need for Comprehensive geriatric Assessment (OR = 1.51 [1.41–1.60]). The multinational cohort showed similar associations.Conclusionthe FI-ED conformed to characteristics previously reported. A FI, developed and validated from a brief geriatric assessment tool could be used to identify ED patients at higher risk of adverse events.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Tumour boards in geriatric oncology
    • Authors: Wildes T; O’Donovan A, Colloca G, et al.
      Abstract: Multidisciplinary tumour board is an integral part of cancer treatment planning. Although no definite survival benefits have yet been shown by mostly observational studies, other benefits of multidisciplinary tumour board have been identified. Traditionally the multidisciplinary tumour board involves participation of treating clinicians—medical, radiation and surgical oncologists. They tend to focus on the cancer alone. There is an increasing awareness that the treatment goal for cancer in older adults is not primarily on prolonging survival, with functional preservation and quality of life being particularly important for this population. The use of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment and the input of the geriatrician in informing the oncologists regarding treatment decision have increasingly been shown to be beneficial. The integration of the geriatrician into the multidisciplinary tumour board should be urgently explored.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effects of multidomain lifestyle intervention, omega-3 supplementation or
           their combination on physical activity levels in older adults: secondary
           analysis of the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT) randomised
           controlled trial
    • Authors: Barreto P; Rolland Y, Cesari M, et al.
      Abstract: Background/objectivesto investigate the effects of a 3-year multidomain lifestyle intervention, omega-3 supplementation or both on physical activity (PA) in older adults with subjective memory complaints.Design/settings/subjectsthe Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial was a 3-year randomised controlled trial that enroled 1,680 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years or over, with subjective memory complaints. Participants were randomised to omega-3 supplementation (total daily dose of 800 mg docosahexanoic acid and up to 225 mg eicosapentanoic acid), multidomain intervention (nutritional and exercise counselling and cognitive training), omega-3 plus multidomain intervention or placebo with usual care.MethodsPA was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire. From this, global moderate-to-vigorous PA, leisure-time PA, non-leisure-time PA and light PA were measured in metabolic equivalent tasks—minutes per week (MET-min/week).Resultsin the multidomain groups, participants significantly increased their moderate-to-vigorous and leisure-time PA at 6 months (≥300 MET-min/week for both in the multidomain groups; P ≤ 0.002) before returning to baseline by the end of the trial. Activity in the placebo/usual care and omega-3/usual care groups declined overtime. Between-group differences remained significant for both multidomain groups for leisure-time physical activity at 2- and 3-year follow-ups. Compared to placebo/usual care, interventions had no significant effects on non-leisure-time PA and light PA. Omega-3 supplementation alone had no effects on PA.Conclusionsa multidomain intervention focused on cognitive training, and nutritional and PA counselling increased PA in the short-term and limited its decline in the long-term among older adults with memory—Registration number: NCT0067268
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Childlessness and vulnerability of older people in China
    • Authors: Feng Z.
      Abstract: Backgroundthe number of childless older people is increasing in China, but relatively little is known about the role of childlessness in health outcomes. This study investigates the relationship between childlessness and three health outcomes: difficulty with Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs), self-rated health and depression.Methodsthis study includes 13,171 individuals aged 50 and above from national survey data of the second wave of the China Family Panel Study (2012). Binary/multinomial logistic and ordinary least squares regression models are presented.Resultschildless individuals whose children have all died exhibit worse health outcomes than individuals with children, but this effect is influenced by demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and social security. On the other hand, individuals who are childless due to other reasons (involuntary or voluntary) are less likely to report difficulty with IADLs and to report depression than older people with all children alive after controlling for demographic and socio-economic and social security factors.Conclusionsthe death of a child has an adverse effect on people’s health for both childless people whose children have all died and those who have lost a child but have other children alive. These two groups are in the most vulnerable position, which could also suggest that their children have died because they grew up in a vulnerable family. The government needs to improve the social security for these two groups and provide social services (particularly mental health services) to older people who have lost a child; these could contribute to alleviating some of the adverse effects of the death of a child.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Alcohol consumption in midlife and old age and risk of frailtyAlcohol
           paradox in a 30-year follow-up study
    • Authors: Strandberg A; Trygg T, Pitkälä K, et al.
      Abstract: Backgroundalcohol consumption has many harmful health effects, but also benefits of moderate consumption on frailty have been reported. We examined this relationship longitudinally from midlife to old age.Methodsdata of reported alcohol consumption in midlife (year 1974) and in old age (years 2000 and 2003) were available of a socioeconomically homogenous sample of 2360 men (born 1919–34, the Helsinki Businessmen Study). Alcohol consumption was divided into zero (N = 131 at baseline), light (1–98 g/week, N = 920), moderate (99–196, N = 593), and high consumption (>196, n = 716). Incidence of phenotypic frailty and prefrailty was assessed in 2000 and 2003. Alcohol consumption (reference 1–98 g/week, adjusted for age, body mass index and smoking) was related to frailty both longitudinally (from 1974 to 2000, and from 2000 to 2003) and cross-sectionally in 2000 and 2003.Resultsduring a 30-year follow-up, high consumption clearly decreased whereas lighter consumption remained stable. High consumption in midlife predicted both frailty (odds ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval = 1.01–2.56) and prefrailty (1.42; 1.06–1.92) in 2000, association with zero and moderate consumption was insignificant. Cross-sectionally in 2000, both zero (2.08; 1.17–3.68) and high consumption (1.83; 1.07–3.13) were associated with frailty, while in 2003 only zero consumption showed this association (2.47; 1.25–4.88).Conclusionthe relationship between alcohol and frailty is a paradox during the life course. High, not zero, consumption in midlife predicts old age frailty, while zero consumption in old age is associated with frailty, probably reflecting reverse causality.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Z-drugs and risk for falls and fractures in older adults—a
           systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Treves N; Perlman A, Kolenberg Geron L, et al.
      Abstract: Objectivezolpidem, zopiclone, eszopiclone and zaleplon, also known as ‘Z-drugs’, are commonly used as alternatives to benzodiazepines (BZDs) to treat insomnia. Z-drugs are often perceived as safer than BZDs. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the association between Z-drugs and fracutres, falls and injuries.Methodsa systematic review was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Pooled effect-sizes were calculated comparing Z-drugs users with non-users, using fixed and random-effect models with corresponding 95% confidence of intervals (CI).Resultswe identified 14 eligible studies reporting on the association between Z-drugs and outcomes of interest. Z-Drugs were associated with a statistically significant increased risk for fractures, with evidence of considerable heterogeneity (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.42–1.87; I2 = 90%; n = 830,877). Likewise, there was a trend suggesting a 2-fold increase in the odds for falls, however, this result was not statistically significant and there was evidence of considerable heterogeneity (OR = 2.40; 95% CI: 0.92–6.27; I2 = 95%; n = 19,505). In an analysis assessing the risk for injuries following exposure to zolpidem we found a statistically significant increased risk of injuries, with no evidence of heterogeneity (OR = 2.05; CI 95%: 1.95–2.15; I2 = 0; n = 160,502). Results were similar in sensitivity analyses, including analyses restricted to studies of high-quality, studies with control groups suffering from insomnia, and with specific Z-drugs.Conclusionour results indicate that Z-drugs are associated with an increased risk for fractures, and suggest a possible increased risk for falls and injuries as well. However, studies included were observational and susceptible to confounding. Physicians should consider these potential risks before prescribing these medications in older adults.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Frailty index as a predictor of mortality: a systematic review and
    • Authors: Kojima G; Iliffe S, Walters K.
      Abstract: Backgroundtwo popular operational definitions of frailty, the frailty phenotype and Frailty index (FI), are based on different theories. Although FI was shown to be superior in predicting mortality to the frailty phenotype, no meta-analysis on mortality risk according to FI has been found in the literature.Methodsan electronic systematic literature search was conducted in August 2016 using four databases (Embase, Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) for prospective cohort studies published in 2000 or later, examining the mortality risk according to frailty measured by FI. A meta-analysis was performed to synthesise pooled mortality risk estimates.Resultsof 2,617 studies identified by the systematic review, 18 cohorts from 19 studies were included. Thirteen cohorts showed hazard ratios (HRs) per 0.01 increase in FI, six cohorts showed HRs per 0.1 increase in FI and two cohorts each showed odds ratios (ORs) per 0.01 and 0.1 increase in FI, respectively. All meta-analyses suggested that higher FI was significantly associated with higher mortality risk (pooled HR per 0.01 FI increase = 1.039, 95% CI = 1.033–1.044, P < 0.001; pooled HR per 0.1 FI increase = 1.282, 95% CI = 1.258–1.307, P < 0.001; pooled OR per 0.01 FI increase = 1.054, 95% CI = 1.040–1.068, P < 0.001; pooled OR per 0.1 FI increase = 1.706, 95% CI = 1.547–1.881, P < 0.001). Meta-regression analysis among 13 cohorts with HR per 0.01 increase in FI showed that the studies with shorter follow-up periods and with lower female proportion were associated with higher mortality risks by FI.Conclusionsthis systematic review and meta-analysis was the first to quantitatively demonstrate that frailty measured by the FI is a significant predictor of mortality.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Medication usage change in older people (65+) in England over 20 years:
           findings from CFAS I and CFAS II
    • Authors: Gao L; Maidment I, Matthews F, et al.
      Abstract: Backgroundmedical practice has changed over the last decades reflecting the ageing population, when multi-morbidity requiring multiple medications is more common.Objectivedescribe and quantify self-reported medicine use including both prescription and over the counter medicines in two comparable population-based studies of older people (65+) in England and to assess the nature and scale of polypharmacy.Methodsdata used were from two separate population-based studies; the Cognitive Function Ageing Study I and II. Descriptive analyses were performed to summarise and quantify general medicine use. Negative binomial regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with the number of medicines used.Resultsmedication use, including both prescribed medicines and over the counter products has increased dramatically over the last 2 decades. The number of people taking five or more items quadrupled from 12 to 49%, while the proportion of people who did not take any medication has decreased from around 1 in 5 to 1 in 13. Cardiovascular drugs were the most frequently taken medication. Polypharmacy is associated with increases in the number of diagnosed long-term conditions.Conclusionscomparison between CFAS I and II reveals marked increases in medication usage and polypharmacy in the older population. The influence of healthcare organisation, introduction of new guidelines and technology changes leading to diagnosis of earlier, milder chronic diseases and treatment may be contributing to this changing pattern. Further research is needed to develop practical solutions to optimise medication management in older people, reducing the harming associated with medication.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Frailty and healthcare costs—longitudinal results of a prospective
           cohort study
    • Authors: Hajek A; Bock J, Saum K, et al.
      Abstract: Objectiveto investigate how frailty and frailty symptoms affect healthcare costs in older age longitudinally.Methodsdata were gathered from a prospective cohort study in Saarland, Germany (two waves with 3-year interval, n = 1,636 aged 57–84 years at baseline). Frailty was assessed by the five Fried frailty criteria. Frailty was defined as having at least three criteria, the presence of 1–2 criteria as ‘pre-frail’. Healthcare costs were quantified based on self-reported healthcare use in the sectors of inpatient treatment, outpatient treatment, professional nursing care and informal care as well as the provision of pharmaceuticals, medical supplies and dental prostheses.Resultswhile the onset of pre-frailty did not increase (log) total healthcare costs after adjusting for potential confounders including comorbidity, progression from non-frailty to frailty was associated with an increase in total healthcare costs (for example, costs increased by ~54 and 101% if 3 and 4 or 5 symptoms were present, respectively). This association of frailty onset with increased healthcare costs was in particular observed in the inpatient sector and for informal nursing care. Among the frailty symptoms, the onset of exhaustion was associated with an increase in total healthcare costs, whereas changes in slowness, weakness, weight loss and low-physical activity were not significantly associated with an increase in total healthcare costs.Conclusionsour data stress the economic relevance of frailty in late life. Postponing or reducing frailty might be fruitful in order to reduce healthcare costs.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • The effect of complex interventions on supporting self-care among
           community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Wong K; Wong F, Yeung W, et al.
      Abstract: Backgroundself-care is critical to enable community-dwelling older adults to live independently. Complex interventions have emerged as a strategy to support self-care, but their effectiveness is unknown. Our objective was to review systematically their effectiveness on both positive (increased scores in self-rated health, Activities of Daily Living, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, quality of life) and negative aspects (increased incidence of falls, fear of falling, hospital and nursing home admission, increased depression score), and to determine which intervention components explain the observed effects.MethodsCINAHL, MEDLINE, British Nursing Index, PsycInfo and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched from January 2006 to October 2016. Randomised controlled trials providing at least two of these components: individual assessment, care planning or provision of information were reviewed. Outcomes were pooled by random-effects meta-analysis.Resultstwenty-two trials with 14,364 participants were included with a low risk of bias. Pooled effects showed significant benefits on positive aspects including self-rated health [standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01–0.17] and the mental subscale of quality of life (SMD 0.44, 95% CI 0.09–0.80) as well as on the negative aspect of incidence of falls [odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% CI 0.46–0.79]. There was no significant improvement in ADL, IADL, overall quality of life, fear of falling, reduction in health service utilisation or depression levels. Meta-regression and subgroup analysis did not identify any specific component or characteristic in complex interventions which explained these effects.Conclusionbased on current evidence, supporting self-care in community-dwelling older adults using complex interventions effectively increases self-rated health, reduces the occurrence of falls and improves the mental subscale of quality of life.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Interventions to prevent and reduce excessive alcohol consumption in older
           people: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Kelly S; Olanrewaju O, Cowan A, et al.
      Abstract: Backgroundharmful alcohol consumption is reported to be increasing in older people. To intervene and reduce associated risks, evidence currently available needs to be identified.Methodstwo systematic reviews in older populations (55+ years): (1) Interventions to prevent or reduce excessive alcohol consumption; (2) Interventions as (1) also reporting cognitive and dementia outcomes. Comprehensive database searches from 2000 to November 2016 for studies in English, from OECD countries. Alcohol dependence treatment excluded. Data were synthesised narratively and using meta-analysis. Risk of bias was assessed using NICE methodology. Reviews are reported according to PRISMA.Resultsthirteen studies were identified, but none with cognition or dementia outcomes. Three related to primary prevention; 10 targeted harmful or hazardous older drinkers. A complex range of interventions, intensity and delivery was found. There was an overall intervention effect for 3- and 6-month outcomes combined (8 studies; 3,591 participants; pooled standard mean difference (SMD) −0.18 (95% CI −0.28, −0.07) and 12 months (6 studies; 2,788 participants SMD −0.16 (95% CI −0.32, −0.01) but risk of bias for most studies was unclear with significant heterogeneity. Limited evidence (three studies) suggested more intensive interventions with personalised feedback, physician advice, educational materials, follow-up could be most effective. However, simple interventions including brief interventions, leaflets, alcohol assessments with advice to reduce drinking could also have a positive effect.Conclusionsalcohol interventions in older people may be effective but studies were at unclear or high risk of bias. Evidence gaps include primary prevention, cost-effectiveness, impact on cognitive and dementia outcomes.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • CorrigendumA closer look at the trajectory of physical functioning in
           chronic hemodialysis
    • Authors: van Loon I; Hamaker M, Boereboom F, et al.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • CorrigendumHappiness, rather than depression, is associated with sexual
           behaviour in partnered older adults
    • Authors: Freak-Poli R; Castro Lima G, Direk N, et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Development and validation of an electronic frailty index using routine
           primary care electronic health record data
    • Authors: Clegg A; Bates C, Young J, et al.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • A longitudinal comparative study of falls in persons with knee
           arthroplasty and persons with or at high risk for knee osteoarthritis
    • Authors: Riddle D; Golladay G.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • ErratumAlcohol dependency in the elderly – are we capturing it'
    • Authors: Murphy C; Buckley M, Kearns R, et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • CorrigendumDementia-associated mortality and its predictors among older
           adults in sub-Saharan Africa: results from a 2-year follow-up in Congo
           (the EPIDEMCA-FU study)
    • Authors: Samba H; Guerchet M, Ndamba-Bandzouzi B, et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cross-national comparison of medication use in Australian and Dutch
           nursing homes
    • Authors: Taxis K; Kochen S, Wouters H, et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT
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