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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 548, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Current Zoology
  [SJR: 0.999]   [H-I: 20]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1674-5507 - ISSN (Online) 2396-9814
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Restricted cross-scale habitat selection by American beavers
    • Authors: Francis R; Taylor J, Dibble E, et al.
      Abstract: Animal habitat selection, among other ecological phenomena, is spatially scale dependent. Habitat selection by American beavers Castor canadensis (hereafter, beaver) has been studied at singular spatial scales, but to date no research addresses multi-scale selection. Our objectives were to determine if beaver habitat selection was specialized to semiaquatic habitats and if variables explaining habitat selection are consistent between landscape and fine spatial scales. We built maximum entropy (MaxEnt) models to relate landscape-scale presence-only data to landscape variables, and used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate fine spatial scale habitat selection using global positioning system (GPS) relocation data. Explanatory variables between the landscape and fine spatial scale were compared for consistency. Our findings suggested that beaver habitat selection at coarse (study area) and fine (within home range) scales was congruent, and was influenced by increasing amounts of woody wetland edge density and shrub edge density, and decreasing amounts of open water edge density. Habitat suitability at the landscape scale also increased with decreasing amounts of grass frequency. As territorial, central-place foragers, beavers likely trade-off open water edge density (i.e., smaller non-forested wetlands or lodges closer to banks) for defense and shorter distances to forage and obtain construction material. Woody plants along edges and expanses of open water for predator avoidance may limit beaver fitness and subsequently determine beaver habitat selection.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
  • Evolutionary computation in zoology and ecology
    • Authors: Boone R.
      Abstract: Evolutionary computational methods have adopted attributes of natural selection and evolution to solve problems in computer science, engineering, and other fields. The method is growing in use in zoology and ecology. Evolutionary principles may be merged with an agent-based modeling perspective to have individual animals or other agents compete. Four main categories are discussed: genetic algorithms, evolutionary programming, genetic programming, and evolutionary strategies. In evolutionary computation, a population is represented in a way that allows for an objective function to be assessed that is relevant to the problem of interest. The poorest performing members are removed from the population, and remaining members reproduce and may be mutated. The fitness of the members is again assessed, and the cycle continues until a stopping condition is met. Case studies include optimizing: egg shape given different clutch sizes, mate selection, migration of wildebeest, birds, and elk, vulture foraging behavior, algal bloom prediction, and species richness given energy constraints. Other case studies simulate the evolution of species and a means to project shifts in species ranges in response to a changing climate that includes competition and phenotypic plasticity. This introduction concludes by citing other uses of evolutionary computation and a review of the flexibility of the methods. For example, representing species’ niche spaces subject to selective pressure allows studies on cladistics, the taxon cycle, neutral versus niche paradigms, fundamental versus realized niches, community structure and order of colonization, invasiveness, and responses to a changing climate.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06
  • Using accelerometry to compare costs of extended migration in an arctic
    • Authors: Weegman M; Bearhop S, Hilton G, et al.
      Abstract: Understanding how individuals manage costs during the migration period is challenging because individuals are difficult to follow between sites; the advent of hybrid Global Positioning System–acceleration (ACC) tracking devices enables researchers to link spatial and temporal attributes of avian migration with behavior for the first time ever. We fitted these devices on male Greenland white-fronted geese Anser albifrons flavirostris wintering at 2 sites (Loch Ken, Scotland and Wexford, Ireland) to understand whether birds migrating further during spring fed more on wintering and staging areas in advance of migration episodes. Although Irish birds flew significantly further (ca. 300 km) than Scottish birds during spring, their cumulative hours of migratory flight, flight speed during migration, and overall dynamic body ACC (i.e., a proxy for energy expenditure) were not significantly different. Further, Irish birds did not feed significantly more or expend significantly more energy in advance of migration episodes. These results suggest broad individual plasticity in this species, although Scottish birds arriving on breeding areas in Greenland with greater energy stores (because they migrated less) may be better prepared for food scarcity, which might increase their reproductive success.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
  • Effects of study area size on home range estimates of common bottlenose
           dolphins Tursiops truncatus
    • Authors: Nekolny S; Denny M, Biedenbach G, et al.
      Abstract: Knowledge of an animal’s home range is a crucial component in making informed management decisions. However, many home range studies are limited by study area size, and therefore may underestimate the size of the home range. In many cases, individuals have been shown to travel outside of the study area and utilize a larger area than estimated by the study design. In this study, data collected by multiple research groups studying bottlenose dolphins on the east coast of Florida were combined to determine how home range estimates increased with increasing study area size. Home range analyses utilized photo-identification data collected from 6 study areas throughout the St Johns River (SJR; Jacksonville, FL, USA) and adjacent waterways, extending a total of 253 km to the southern end of Mosquito Lagoon in the Indian River Lagoon Estuarine System. Univariate kernel density estimates (KDEs) were computed for individuals with 10 or more sightings (n = 20). Kernels were calculated for the primary study area (SJR) first, then additional kernels were calculated by combining the SJR and the next adjacent waterway; this continued in an additive fashion until all study areas were included. The 95% and 50% KDEs calculated for the SJR alone ranged from 21 to 35 km and 4 to 19 km, respectively. The 95% and 50% KDEs calculated for all combined study areas ranged from 116 to 217 km and 9 to 70 km, respectively. This study illustrates the degree to which home range may be underestimated by the use of limited study areas and demonstrates the benefits of conducting collaborative science.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16
  • Restricted dispersal determines fine-scale spatial genetic structure of
           Mongolian gerbils
    • Authors: Wang G; Liu W, Wang Y, et al.
      Abstract: Restricted gene flow may cause positive spatial genetic autocorrelation of animal populations at fine spatial scales. The Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus is a territorial, social rodent. Territoriality may create social fences to restrict dispersal or gene flow of Mongolian gerbils to a short distance. Restricted dispersal may differentiate fine-scale spatial genetic structure of populations with increasing distances (i.e., isolation by distance [IBD]). Competition for mates and inbreeding avoidance may result in equal dispersal propensity and subsequently similar spatial genetic autocorrelation between males and females of monogamous gerbils. We genotyped 327 gerbils, live captured from 26 burrow systems on a 9-ha plot in northcentral Inner Mongolia, China, using seven microsatellite loci. Spatial genetic autocorrelation was positive within 80 m and became negative from 80 m to 200 m, suggesting restricted gene flow. Inter-group genetic and geographic distances were related positively, supporting the IBD model. Live trapping data demonstrated equal dispersal propensities of male and female gerbils. Restricted dispersal and social organization may determine fine-scale spatial population genetic structure of social rodents.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
  • Invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a South
           Pacific island rainforest
    • Authors: Duron Q; Bourguet E, De Meringo H, et al.
      Abstract: Invasive rats (Rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. To conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. However, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. Here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats (Rattus rattus and R. exulans) on native bird eggs in a New Caledonian rainforest, using artificial bird-nest monitoring. A total of 178 artificial nests containing two eggs of three different sizes were placed either on the ground or 1.5 m high and monitored at the start of the birds’ breeding season. Overall, 12.4% of the nests were depredated during the first 7 days. At site 1, where nests were monitored during 16 days, 41.8% of the nests were depredated. The main predator was the native crow Corvus moneduloides, responsible for 62.9% of the overall predation events. Rats were responsible for only 22.9% of the events, and ate only small and medium eggs at both heights. Our experiment suggests that in New Caledonia, predation pressure by rats strengthens overall bird-nest predation, adding to that by native predators. Experimental rat control operations may allow reduced predation pressure on nests as well as the recording of biodiversity responses after rat population reduction.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
  • Nesting tree characteristics of heronry birds of urban ecosystems in
           peninsular India: implications for habitat management
    • Authors: Roshnath R; Sinu P.
      Abstract: Wetland ecosystems, particularly the mangrove forest, are the primary wild habitat of heronry birds. However, urban ecosystems have become a favorite breeding habitat of these birds. To provide inputs into the habitat management for conservation of these birds, we investigated the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nesting trees of heronry birds in the urban environment of the North Kerala region of peninsular India. Census on nesting trees was done in 3 major microhabitats of the urban ecosystem: avenues of national highways and towns, nonresidential plots, and residential areas apart from the mangrove islets in the peri-urban locality. The study found that 174 trees of 22 species hosted 1,928 heronry bird nests in the urban habitats; mangrove forests, although plentiful in the study area, hosted only about 20% of the total nests encountered in the study. Rain trees Samanea saman (43.7%) were the most available nesting tree. The greatest number of nests and nesting trees were encountered on the roads of urban areas, followed by nonresidential areas and residential areas. The differences in the observed frequencies of nesting trees in 3 microhabitats and in 3 types of roads (national highways > state highways > small pocket road) were significant. Canopy spread, girth size, and quality of the trees predicted the tree selection of the heronry birds in urban environments. Therefore, we recommend proper management and notification of the identified nesting trees as protected sites for the conservation of herorny birds.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
  • Islands conserve high species richness and areas of endemism of
           Hormaphidinae aphids
    • Authors: Li Y; Chen J, Jiang L, et al.
      Abstract: Patterns of biodiversity and endemism are important and form the foundation for biogeography and conservation studies. Hormaphidinae is an aphid group mainly distributed in the Sino-Japanese, Oriental, and Nearctic zoogeographic realms. To infer the areas of endemism of Hormaphidinae aphids in the Sino-Japanese and Oriental realms, we employed a geographical distribution dataset covering all 225 species in subfamily Hormaphidinae. In total, 1,245 distribution occurrence records for all species were analyzed in addition to the number of species in a certain grid cell to calculate species richness. Two methods (parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) and the use of an optimization criterion—NDM/VNDM) using a total of 6 grid sizes were applied to detect possible areas of endemism and to assess the probable effects of the 2 different methods and 6 grid sizes on the results of the patterns of the areas of endemism. The results revealed that islands presented most of the areas with high species richness and endemic species, particularly Japan, Taiwan Island, Java Island, the Malaysian Peninsula, southeast Himalaya, and the Hengduan Mountains. Most of these areas of endemism were located on islands or a peninsula. Islands were therefore shown to play an essential role in facilitating the formation of high species richness and endemism. Different grid sizes directly determined the regions of the areas of endemism, with small grid sizes tending to detect small and discrete areas of endemism and large grid sizes identifying continuous areas of endemism. In terms of the two methods, NDM/VNDM was found to identify more areas of endemism than PAE.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
  • The origin of invasion of an alien frog species in Tibet, China
    • Authors: Wang S; Fan L, Liu C, et al.
      Abstract: Identifying the origins of alien species has important implications for effectively controlling the spread of alien species. The black-spotted frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus, originally from East Asia, has become an alien species on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this study, we collected 300 individuals of P. nigromaculatus from 13 native regions and 2 invasive regions (including Nyingchi and Lhasa) on the TP. To identify the source region of the TP introductions, we sequenced portions of the mitochondrial cyt b gene. We sequenced a ∼600-bp portion of the mitochondrial cyt b gene to identify 69 haplotypes (124 polymorphic sites) in all sampled populations. According to the network results, we suggest that the P. nigromaculatus found on the TP was most likely originated from Chongqing by human introduction. Furthermore, we found that the genetic diversity was significantly lower for invasive than for native sites due to founder effects. Our study provides genetic evidence that this alien species invaded the cold environment of high elevations and expanded the distribution of P. nigromaculatus in China.
      PubDate: 2017-01-16
  • Smaller and bolder prey snails have higher survival in staged encounters
           with the sea star Pisaster giganteus
    • Authors: Foster W; Armstrong C, Chism G, et al.
      Abstract: Temporally consistent individual differences in behavior, also known as animal personality, can have large impacts on individual fitness. Here, we explore the degree to which individual differences in anti-predator response (or boldness) influence survival rates in groups of snails Chlorostoma funebralis when they encounter a predatory sea star Pisaster giganteus. The snail C. funebralis shows consistent individual variation in predator response where some fearful snails actively flee bodies of water occupied by predators whereas bolder snails consistently do not. We show here that bold snails are significantly more likely to survive encounters with a predatory sea star and, somewhat counterintuitively, fearful snails actually suffer higher mortality rates. We also found that smaller snails and those occurring at higher experimental densities experienced higher per capita survival rates. Positive effects of prey boldness on survival are not uncommonly reported in the animal personality literature; however, such results are inconsistent with classic animal personality theory borrowed from the optimal foraging literature. The findings herein add to the growing body of evidence that consistent individual differences in behavior can impact predator–prey interactions and that boldness is potentially under positive predator-driven selection in some systems.
      PubDate: 2017-01-16
  • Group dynamics and relocation decisions of a trap-building predator are
           differentially affected by biotic and abiotic factors
    • Authors: Katz N; Shavit R, Pruitt J, et al.
      Abstract: Most habitats in nature are heterogeneous, incorporating favorable and unfavorable microhabitats for different animals, based on their ecological niche. Unsuitable microhabitats have negative consequences for individual growth and survival. Animals, therefore, should fine-tune their location within the habitat by dispersing away from such microhabitats. We studied the suitability of different constant microhabitat conditions for wormlion larvae, a trap-building predator, tested in groups under laboratory conditions. Wormlions construct pit-traps in loose soil and capture small arthropod prey. As wormlions occur in high densities in nature, testing in groups is thus more indicative of their natural behavior than testing individuals. Wormlions responded strongly to biotic conditions—high conspecific density, starvation, and large body mass of conspecifics—by either increasing pit-relocation events or moving away from the microhabitat center to the periphery of the arena, probably opting for a way out. In other instances, individuals increased their distance to the nearest neighbor, thereby changing the spatial pattern toward a more regular pattern, potentially indicating interference competition. The only abiotic condition apparently perceived by wormlions as unsuitable was shallow sand, which led to frequent relocations. The two other abiotic factors—illumination and sand particle size—had no observable effect on behavior, although wormlions in nature always occur under shade in fine sand, and prefer both shade and fine sand particle size under laboratory conditions when given a choice. Under the fine spatial scale of the present experiment, biotic factors appear to be more influential than abiotic ones.
      PubDate: 2017-01-16
  • Prey reduce risk-taking and abundance in the proximity of predators
    • Authors: Møller A; Kwiecinski Z, Tryjanowski P.
      Abstract: Prey have evolved anti-predator defences that reduce or eliminate the risk of predation. Predators often reproduce at specific sites over many years causing permanent threats to local prey species. Such prey may respond by moving elsewhere thereby reducing local population abundance, or they may stay put and adjust their behavior to the presence of predators. We tested these predictions by analyzing population abundance and anti-predator behavior within 100 m of and 500 m away from nests of sparrowhawks Accipiter nisus and goshawks A. gentilis for 80 species of birds. Population abundance of prey was reduced by 11% near goshawk nests and by 15% near sparrowhawk nests when compared with nearby control sites in similar habitats. Flight initiation distance (FID) of prey, estimated as the distance at which birds took flight when approached by a human, increased by 50% in the presence of hawk nests, providing evidence of adjustment of anti-predator behavior to prevailing risks of predation. Susceptibility to predation was estimated as log transformed abundance of the observed number of prey items obtained from prey remains collected around nests minus log transformed expected number of prey according to point counts of breeding birds. FID increased from 10 to 46 m with increasing susceptibility of prey species to predation by the goshawk and from 12 to 15 m with increasing susceptibility of prey species to predation by the sparrowhawk. These findings suggest that prey adjust their distribution and anti-predator behavior to the risk of predation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-27
  • Does social context affect boldness in juveniles'
    • Authors: Loftus S; Borcherding J.
      Abstract: Differences in boldness are common between populations or between related species and are discussed as part of individual coping style, personality, or behavioral syndrome. Boldness has been found to be dependent on experience, social, and environmental contexts. The major aim of the present study was to establish an experimental environment that would allow analyzing the risk-taking behavior of 2 competing invasive goby species. Neogobius melanostomus was more active in the absence of a predator Sander lucioperca than N. fluviatilis and clearly spent more time “swimming” and “feeding” than N. fluviatilis. In addition, N. melanostomus was always faster than N. fluviatilis both when leaving the shelter and reaching offered food. Based on the different behaviors recorded, species-specific boldness scores were established using a principal component analysis. Although there was no overall difference in boldness scores between the 2 species, both competitive conditions and the effect of the predator played significant roles as factors influencing boldness. Neogobius melanostomus was more affected by the presence/absence of the predator than the social circumstances. Neogobius fluviatilis, on the other hand, was more active and bolder in competitive situations. However, when alone, N. fluviatilis was rather inactive and displayed altogether shy behavior, independent of the presence/absence of the predator. Thus, the study confirms the prediction that there are differences in behavior and behavioral plasticity, and therein predator-avoidance strategies, between ecologically similar species of goby living in sympatry. We argue that these differences may be related to differential habitat use of both invasive species that presently dominate the fish community in the Lower Rhine.
      PubDate: 2016-12-27
  • Inter- and intra-population variability of the protein content of femoral
           gland secretions from a lacertid lizard
    • Authors: Mangiacotti M; Fumagalli M, Scali S, et al.
      Abstract: Femoral glands of male lizards produce waxy secretions that are involved in inter- and intraspecific chemical communication. The main components of these secretions are proteins and lipids, the latter having been extensively studied and already associated to male quality. On the opposite, the composition and role of proteins are nearly unknown, the only available information coming from few studies on iguanids. These studies got the conclusion that proteins might have a communicative function, notably they could signal individual identity. A generalization of these findings requires the extension of protein analysis to other lizard families, and the primary detection of some patterns of individual variability. Using the common wall lizard Podarcis muralis as a model species, the protein fraction of the femoral pore secretions was investigated to provide the first characterization of this component in a lacertid lizard and to explore its source of variability, as a first step to support the hypothesized communicative role. Samples of proteins from femoral secretions were collected from 6 Italian populations and subjected to 1-dimensional electrophoresis. The binary vector of the band presence/absence was used to define the individual profiles. Protein fraction is found to have a structured pattern, with both an individual and a population component. Although the former supports the potential communicative role of proteins, the latter offers a double interpretation, phylogenetic or environmental, even though the phylogenetic effect seems more likely given the climatic resemblance of the considered sites. Further studies are necessary to shed light on both these issues.
      PubDate: 2016-12-26
  • Loss of largest and oldest individuals of the Montpellier snake correlates
           with recent warming in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula
    • Authors: López-Calderón C; Feriche M, Alaminos E, et al.
      Abstract: The effects of climate change on organisms are now being extensively studied in many different taxa. However, the variation in body size, usually shrinkage in response to increasing temperature, has received little attention regarding to reptiles. During past periods of global warming, many organisms shrank in size, and current evidence and experiments manipulating temperature have shown a biomass decrease in some organisms with increasing temperatures. Here we test whether the body size of the Montpellier snake Malpolon monspessulanus from the southeastern Iberian Peninsula is changing and correlated with the increasing temperature in this region during a 39-year period (1976–2014). We measured the snout–vent length (SVL) of vouchers in scientific collections to check for trends in adult body size at the population level in relation with temperature, while controlling for the age of the individuals (estimated by skeletochronology, n =141). Given the great ontogenetic variation in body size of the study species, we categorized age in 3 classes: “young adults” (under 5 years old), “intermediate adults” (from 5 to 7 years old), and “old adults” (from 8 to 14 years old). By means of linear mixed models, we found a negative relationship between SVL of “old adults” and average annual temperature in the region during the lifetime of each individual. Our results indicate that largest and oldest individuals of the Montpellier Snake, that is, males because of strong sexual size dimorphism in this species, disappeared from the study population, and suggest that it occurred in response to rising environmental temperature.
      PubDate: 2016-12-25
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Heriot-Watt University
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