Publisher: Oxford University Press (Total: 369 journals)
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1340-2838 - ISSN (Online) 1756-1663
Published by Oxford University Press [369 journals]
- Molecular cytogenetic characterization of chromosome site-specific
repetitive sequences in the Arctic lamprey ( Lethenteron camtschaticum ,
Authors: Ishijima J; Uno Y, Nunome M, et al.
Abstract: AbstractAll extant lamprey karyotypes are characterized by almost all dot-shaped microchromosomes. To understand the molecular basis of chromosome structure in lampreys, we performed chromosome C-banding and silver staining and chromosome mapping of the 18S–28S and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and telomeric TTAGGG repeats in the Arctic lamprey (Lethenteron camtschaticum). In addition, we cloned chromosome site-specific repetitive DNA sequences and characterized them by nucleotide sequencing, chromosome in situ hybridization, and filter hybridization. Three types of repetitive sequences were detected; a 200-bp AT-rich repetitive sequence, LCA-EcoRIa that co-localized with the 18S–28S rRNA gene clusters of 3 chromosomal pairs; a 364-bp AT-rich LCA-EcoRIb sequence that showed homology to the EcoRI sequence family from the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), which contains short repeats as centromeric motifs; and a GC-rich 702-bp LCA-ApaI sequence that was distributed on nearly all chromosomes and showed significant homology with the integrase-coding region of a Ty3/Gypsy family long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon. All three repetitive sequences are highly conserved within the Petromyzontidae or within Petromyzontidae and Mordaciidae. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of these site-specific repeats showed that they may be correlated with programed genome rearrangement (LCA-EcoRIa), centromere structure and function (LCA-EcoRIb), and site-specific amplification of LTR retroelements through homogenization between non-homologous chromosomes (LCA-ApaI).
- Genome analysis of Hibiscus syriacus provides insights of polyploidization
and indeterminate flowering in woody plants
Authors: Kim Y; Kim S, Koo N, et al.
Abstract: AbstractHibiscus syriacus (L.) (rose of Sharon) is one of the most widespread garden shrubs in the world. We report a draft of the H. syriacus genome comprised of a 1.75 Gb assembly that covers 92% of the genome with only 1.7% (33 Mb) gap sequences. Predicted gene modeling detected 87,603 genes, mostly supported by deep RNA sequencing data. To define gene family distribution among relatives of H. syriacus, orthologous gene sets containing 164,660 genes in 21,472 clusters were identified by OrthoMCL analysis of five plant species, including H. syriacus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Gossypium raimondii, Theobroma cacao and Amborella trichopoda. We inferred their evolutionary relationships based on divergence times among Malvaceae plant genes and found that gene families involved in flowering regulation and disease resistance were more highly divergent and expanded in H. syriacus than in its close relatives, G. raimondii (DD) and T. cacao. Clustered gene families and gene collinearity analysis revealed that two recent rounds of whole-genome duplication were followed by diploidization of the H. syriacus genome after speciation. Copy number variation and phylogenetic divergence indicates that WGDs and subsequent diploidization led to unequal duplication and deletion of flowering-related genes in H. syriacus and may affect its unique floral morphology.
- Draft genome sequence of bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia ), a vegetable
and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions
Authors: Urasaki N; Takagi H, Natsume S, et al.
Abstract: AbstractBitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is an important vegetable and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions globally. In this study, the draft genome sequence of a monoecious bitter gourd inbred line, OHB3-1, was analyzed. Through Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly, scaffolds of 285.5 Mb in length were generated, corresponding to ∼84% of the estimated genome size of bitter gourd (339 Mb). In this draft genome sequence, 45,859 protein-coding gene loci were identified, and transposable elements accounted for 15.3% of the whole genome. According to synteny mapping and phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes, bitter gourd was more related to watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) than to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) or melon (C. melo). Using RAD-seq analysis, 1507 marker loci were genotyped in an F2 progeny of two bitter gourd lines, resulting in an improved linkage map, comprising 11 linkage groups. By anchoring RAD tag markers, 255 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map. Comparative analysis of genome sequences and predicted genes determined that putative trypsin-inhibitor and ribosome-inactivating genes were distinctive in the bitter gourd genome. These genes could characterize the bitter gourd as a medicinal plant.
- Whole-genome expression analysis of mammalian-wide interspersed repeat
elements in human cell lines
Authors: Carnevali D; Conti A, Pellegrini M, et al.
Abstract: AbstractWith more than 500,000 copies, mammalian-wide interspersed repeats (MIRs), a sub-group of SINEs, represent ∼2.5% of the human genome and one of the most numerous family of potential targets for the RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcription machinery. Since MIR elements ceased to amplify ∼130 myr ago, previous studies primarily focused on their genomic impact, while the issue of their expression has not been extensively addressed. We applied a dedicated bioinformatic pipeline to ENCODE RNA-Seq datasets of seven human cell lines and, for the first time, we were able to define the Pol III-driven MIR transcriptome at single-locus resolution. While the majority of Pol III-transcribed MIR elements are cell-specific, we discovered a small set of ubiquitously transcribed MIRs mapping within Pol II-transcribed genes in antisense orientation that could influence the expression of the overlapping gene. We also identified novel Pol III-transcribed ncRNAs, deriving from transcription of annotated MIR fragments flanked by unique MIR-unrelated sequences, and confirmed the role of Pol III-specific internal promoter elements in MIR transcription. Besides demonstrating widespread transcription at these retrotranspositionally inactive elements in human cells, the ability to profile MIR expression at single-locus resolution will facilitate their study in different cell types and states including pathological alterations.
- Exploiting the great potential of Sequence Capture data by a new tool,
Authors: Ruggieri V; Anzar I, Paytuvi A, et al.
Abstract: AbstractThe recent development of Sequence Capture methodology represents a powerful strategy for enhancing data generation to assess genetic variation of targeted genomic regions. Here, we present SUPER-CAP, a bioinformatics web tool aimed at handling Sequence Capture data, fine calculating the allele frequency of variations and building genotype-specific sequence of captured genes. The dataset used to develop this in silico strategy consists of 378 loci and related regulative regions in a collection of 44 tomato landraces. About 14,000 high-quality variants were identified. The high depth (>40×) of coverage and adopting the correct filtering criteria allowed identification of about 4,000 rare variants and 10 genes with a different copy number variation. We also show that the tool is capable to reconstruct genotype-specific sequences for each genotype by using the detected variants. This allows evaluating the combined effect of multiple variants in the same protein. The architecture and functionality of SUPER-CAP makes the software appropriate for a broad set of analyses including SNP discovery and mining. Its functionality, together with the capability to process large data sets and efficient detection of sequence variation, makes SUPER-CAP a valuable bioinformatics tool for genomics and breeding purposes.
- Unveiling DNA structural features of promoters associated with various
types of TSSs in prokaryotic transcriptomes and their role in gene
Authors: Kumar A; Bansal M.
Abstract: AbstractNext-generation sequencing studies have revealed that a variety of transcripts are present in the prokaryotic transcriptome and a significant fraction of them are functional, being involved in various regulatory activities apart from coding for proteins. Identification of promoters associated with different transcripts is necessary for characterization of the transcriptome. Promoter regions have been shown to have unique structural features as compared with their flanking region, in organisms covering all domains of life. Here we report an in silico analysis of DNA sequence dependent structural properties like stability, bendability and curvature in the promoter region of six different prokaryotic transcriptomes. Using these structural features, we predicted promoters associated with different categories of transcripts (mRNA, internal, antisense and non-coding), which constitute the transcriptome. Promoter annotation using structural features is fairly accurate and reliable with about 50% of the primary promoters being characterized by all three structural properties while at least one property identifies 95%. We also studied the relative differences of these structural features in terms of gene expression and found that the features, viz. lower stability, lesser bendability and higher curvature are more prominent in the promoter regions which are associated with high gene expression as compared with low expression genes. Hence, promoters, which are associated with higher gene expression, get annotated well using DNA structural features as compared with those, which are linked to lower gene expression.
- Quantum changes in Helicobacter pylori gene expression accompany
Authors: Chua E; Wise MJ, Khosravi Y, et al.
Abstract: AbstractHelicobacter pylori is a highly successful gastric pathogen. High genomic plasticity allows its adaptation to changing host environments. Complete genomes of H. pylori clinical isolate UM032 and its mice-adapted serial derivatives 298 and 299, generated using both PacBio RS and Illumina MiSeq sequencing technologies, were compared to identify novel elements responsible for host-adaptation. The acquisition of a jhp0562-like allele, which encodes for a galactosyltransferase, was identified in the mice-adapted strains. Our analysis implies a new β-1,4-galactosyltransferase role for this enzyme, essential for Ley antigen expression. Intragenomic recombination between babA and babB genes was also observed. Further, we expanded on the list of candidate genes whose expression patterns have been mediated by upstream homopolymer-length alterations to facilitate host adaption. Importantly, greater than four-fold reduction of mRNA levels was demonstrated in five genes. Among the down-regulated genes, three encode for outer membrane proteins, including BabA, BabB and HopD. As expected, a substantial reduction in BabA protein abundance was detected in mice-adapted strains 298 and 299 via Western analysis. Our results suggest that the expression of Ley antigen and reduced outer membrane protein expressions may facilitate H. pylori colonisation of mouse gastric epithelium.
- A genomic view of food-related and probiotic Enterococcus strains
Authors: Bonacina J; Suárez N, Hormigo R, et al.
Abstract: AbstractThe study of enterococcal genomes has grown considerably in recent years. While special attention is paid to comparative genomic analysis among clinical relevant isolates, in this study we performed an exhaustive comparative analysis of enterococcal genomes of food origin and/or with potential to be used as probiotics. Beyond common genetic features, we especially aimed to identify those that are specific to enterococcal strains isolated from a certain food-related source as well as features present in a species-specific manner. Thus, the genome sequences of 25 Enterococcus strains, from 7 different species, were examined and compared. Their phylogenetic relationship was reconstructed based on orthologous proteins and whole genomes. Likewise, markers associated with a successful colonization (bacteriocin genes and genomic islands) and genome plasticity (phages and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) were investigated for lifestyle specific genetic features. At the same time, a search for antibiotic resistance genes was carried out, since they are of big concern in the food industry. Finally, it was possible to locate 1617 FIGfam families as a core proteome universally present among the genera and to determine that most of the accessory genes code for hypothetical proteins, providing reasonable hints to support their functional characterization.
- Draft genome sequence of Cicer reticulatum L., the wild progenitor of
chickpea provides a resource for agronomic trait improvement
Authors: Gupta S; Nawaz K, Parween S, et al.
Abstract: AbstractCicer reticulatum L. is the wild progenitor of the fourth most important legume crop chickpea (C. arietinum L.). We assembled short-read sequences into 416 Mb draft genome of C. reticulatum and anchored 78% (327 Mb) of this assembly to eight linkage groups. Genome annotation predicted 25,680 protein-coding genes covering more than 90% of predicted gene space. The genome assembly shared a substantial synteny and conservation of gene orders with the genome of the model legume Medicago truncatula. Resistance gene homologs of wild and domesticated chickpeas showed high sequence homology and conserved synteny. Comparison of gene sequences and nucleotide diversity using 66 wild and domesticated chickpea accessions suggested that the desi type chickpea was genetically closer to the wild species than the kabuli type. Comparative analyses predicted gene flow between the wild and the cultivated species during domestication. Molecular diversity and population genetic structure determination using 15,096 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed an admixed domestication pattern among cultivated (desi and kabuli) and wild chickpea accessions belonging to three population groups reflecting significant influence of parentage or geographical origin for their cultivar-specific population classification. The assembly and the polymorphic sequence resources presented here would facilitate the study of chickpea domestication and targeted use of wild Cicer germplasms for agronomic trait improvement in chickpea.