Publisher: Oxford University Press (Total: 369 journals)
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2052-0034
Published by Oxford University Press [369 journals]
- Chinese Abstracts – Volume 5 Issue 1 *
- Re-appraisal and consideration of minimally invasive surgery in colorectal
Authors: Abu Gazala M; Wexner SD.
Abstract: Throughout history, surgeons have been on a quest to refine the surgical treatment options for their patients and to minimize operative trauma. During the last three decades, there have been tremendous advances in the field of minimally invasive colorectal surgery, with an explosion of different technologies and approaches offered to treat well-known diseases. Laparoscopic surgery has been shown to be equal or superior to open surgery. The boundaries of laparoscopy have been pushed further, in the form of single-incision laparoscopy, natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery and robotics. This paper critically reviews the pathway of development of minimally invasive surgery, and appraises the different minimally invasive colorectal surgical approaches available to date.
- Current status of intestinal and multivisceral transplantation
Authors: Bharadwaj S; Tandon P, Gohel TD, et al.
Abstract: Clinical-nutritional autonomy is the ultimate goal of patients with intestinal failure (IF). Traditionally, patients with IF have been relegated to lifelong parenteral nutrition (PN) once surgical and medical rehabilitation attempts at intestinal adaptation have failed. Over the past two decades, however, outcome improvements in intestinal transplantation have added another dimension to the therapeutic armamentarium in the field of gut rehabilitation. This has become possible through relentless efforts in the standardization of surgical techniques, advancements in immunosuppressive therapies and induction protocols and improvement in postoperative patient care. Four types of intestinal transplants include isolated small bowel transplant, liver-small bowel transplant, multivisceral transplant and modified multivisceral transplant. Current guidelines restrict intestinal transplantation to patients who have had significant complications from PN including liver failure and repeated infections. From an experimental stage to the currently established therapeutic modality for patients with advanced IF, outcome improvements have also been possible due to the introduction of tacrolimus in the early 1990s. Studies have shown that intestinal transplant is cost-effective within 1–3 years of graft survival compared with PN. Improved survival and quality of life as well as resumption of an oral diet should enable intestinal transplantation to be an important option for patients with IF in addition to continued rehabilitation. Future research should focus on detecting biomarkers of early rejection, enhanced immunosuppression protocols, improved postoperative care and early referral to transplant centers.
- Irritable bowel syndrome and diet
Authors: Portincasa P; Bonfrate L, de Bari O, et al.
Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases. The impact of IBS on the general population is large due to its high prevalence, suboptimal medical treatments and significant economic burden. The pathophysiology of IBS is complex and treatments are often symptom-specific. The most common therapeutic approaches for IBS include education and reassurance, lifestyles (especially nutrition-based interventions), peripherally acting medications (which typically target motility), centrally acting medications (which target visceral hypersensitivity and pain) and psychological interventions (which aim to reduce the effects of stress or symptom-specific anxiety). A beneficial dietary approach might include the following measures: a diet low in fermentable oligo-,di- and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs), limitation or exclusion of gas-producing foods and/or lactose and gluten and fiber supplementation in selected cases. New therapeutic agents, namely nutraceutics, are also an interesting option in the management of IBS patients. This paper will focus on available dietary interventions for IBS and will review the evidence for nutrition-based therapies.
- Esophageal food impaction during cultural holidays and national athletic
Authors: Shuja A; Winston DM, Rahman A, et al.
Abstract: Background: Although intrinsic risk factors contributing to esophageal food impaction are well established, whether social behavior affects its occurrence has not yet been examined.Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the gastroenterology endoscopy procedural documentation software for the period of 2001–2012 to identify all patients who presented to our emergency department for esophageal foreign-body removal at the time of national athletic events and holidays associated with dietary indiscretions.Results: We found that adults undergoing emergent esophagogastroduodenoscopy during periods celebrating cultural holidays and national athletic events were more likely to experience esophageal food impaction compared with those undergoing emergent endoscopy during periods not associated with these events (36.8% vs 3.6%; P
- Postoperative excessive gain in visceral adipose tissue as well as body
mass index are associated with adverse outcomes of an ileal pouch
Authors: Liu G; Wu X, Li Y, et al.
Abstract: Background: There are no published studies on the impact of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) change on outcomes of restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). The aim of this historic cohort study was to evaluate the impact of excessive VAT gain on the outcomes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with IPAA.Methods: We evaluated all eligible patients with at least two sequential CT scans after pouch construction from our prospectively maintained Pouchitis Registry between 2002 and 2014. The visceral fat area (VFA) was measured on CT images. The study group comprised patients with a significant VAT gain (> 15%), and the control group was those without. The adverse outcomes of the pouch were defined as the new development of chronic pouch inflammation (chronic pouchitis, chronic cuffitis or Crohn’s disease of the pouch), anastomotic sinus and the combination of above (the composite adverse outcome) or pouch failure, after the inception CT.Results: Of 1564 patients in the Registry, 59 (3.8%) with at least 2 CT scans after pouch surgery were included. Twenty-nine patients (49.2%) were in the study group, and 30 (50.8%) were in the control group. The median duration from the inception to the latest CT was 552 (range: 31–2598) days for the entire cohort. We compared the frequency of new chronic pouch inflammation (13.8% vs 3.3%, P = 0.195), new pouch sinus (10.3% vs 0%, P = 0.112), composite adverse pouch outcome (24.1% vs 3.3%, P = 0.026) or pouch failure (10.3% vs 6.7%, P = 0.671) between the two groups. Kaplan-Meier plot for time-to-pouch failure between the pouch patients with or without excessive body mass index (BMI) gain (> 10%) showed statistical difference (P = 0.011). Limited stepwise multivariate analysis showed that excessive VAT gain (odds ratio = 12.608, 95% confidence interval: 1.190–133.538, P = 0.035) was an independent risk factor for the adverse pouch comes.Conclusions: In this cohort of ileal pouch patients, excessive VAT gain as well as gain in BMI after pouch construction was found to be associated with poor long-term outcomes.
- Serum albumin predicts survival in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma
Authors: Waghray A; Sobotka A, Marrero C, et al.
Abstract: Background and aims: Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is a devastating malignancy with incidence varying by geography and other risk factors. Rapid progression of disease and delays in diagnosis restrict the number of patients eligible for curative therapy. The objective of this study was to determine prognostic factors of overall survival in all patients presenting with hilar cholangiocarcinoma.Methods: All adult patients with histologically confirmed hilar cholangiocarcinoma from 2003 to 2013 were evaluated for predictors of survival using demographic factors, laboratory data, symptoms and radiological characteristics at presentation.Results: A total of 116 patients were identified to have pathological diagnosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and were included in the analysis. Patients with a serum albumin level >3.0 g/dL (P
- Recurrence and survival rates of inflammatory bowel disease-associated
colorectal cancer following postoperative chemotherapy: a comparative
Authors: Dugum M; Lin J, Lopez R, et al.
Abstract: Background and Aim: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Studies have shown tumorigenetic and histomorphological differences between IBD-associated CRC and non-IBD CRC, suggesting differences in tumor behavior and response to treatment. We aimed to compare tumor recurrence and survival rates following postoperative chemotherapy in CRC patients with and without IBD.Methods: Search of the Cleveland Clinic’s CRC database revealed 65 patients who had IBD-associated CRC and received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy between 1994 and 2010. Twenty-one patients were excluded due to incomplete clinical data. Propensity score-matching based on age, surgery intent, CRC site, tumor grade, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage and T stage was used to match IBD and non-IBD patients (1:4). Competing risk and Cox regression models were used to analyze differences in disease-free survival and overall survival, respectively.Results: Forty-four patients with IBD-associated CRC were matched to 176 patients with non-IBD CRC. Among IBD patients, 29 (66%) had ulcerative colitis, 14 (32%) had Crohn’s disease, and one (2%) had indeterminate colitis. Mean IBD diagnosis age was 28.1 ± 14.5 years, and mean IBD duration at time of CRC treatment was 21.5 ± 12.6 years. Ten (23%) IBD patients had tumor recurrence compared with 34 (19%) non-IBD patients (P = .074). There was no significant difference in disease-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.35–1.05; P = 0.074) or overall survival (HR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.54–1.4; P = 0.58) between IBD and non-IBD patients.Conclusion: Patients with IBD-associated CRC have comparable rates of tumor recurrence and survival following postoperative chemotherapy as CRC patients without IBD. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and guide therapeutic decisions.
- Nationwide trends of hospital admissions for acute cholecystitis in the
Authors: Wadhwa V; Jobanputra Y, Garg S, et al.
Abstract: Background and aims: Acute cholecystitis is a fairly common inpatient diagnosis among the gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to use a national database of US hospitals to evaluate the incidence and costs of hospital admissions associated with acute cholecystitis.Method: We analyzed the National Inpatient Sample Database (NIS) for all patients in which acute cholecystitis (ICD-9 codes: 574.00, 574.01, 574.30, 574.31, 574.60, 574.61 or 575.0) was the principal discharge diagnosis from 1997 to 2012. The NIS is the largest all-payer inpatient database in the United States and contains data from approximately 8 million hospital stays each year. The statistical significance of the difference in the number of hospital discharges, lengths of stay and associated hospital costs over the study period was determined by using the Chi-square test for trends.Results: In 1997, there were 149 661 hospital admissions with a principal discharge diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, which increased to 215 995 in 2012 ( P
- Gastric transposition as a valid surgical option for esophageal
replacement in pediatric patients: experience from three Italian medical
Authors: Angotti R; Molinaro F, Noviello C, et al.
Abstract: Background: Esophageal replacement in children is an option that is confined to very few situations including long-gap esophageal atresia and esophageal strictures unresponsive to other therapies (peptic or caustic ingestion). The purpose of our work was to describe the experience of gastric transposition in three Italian centers.Methods: This is a retrospective study. The data were extrapolated from a prospective database. We included all patients who had undergone gastric transposition in the last 15 years.Results: In the 15-year period, eight infants and children (3 males and 5 females) underwent gastric transposition for esophageal replacement. Six patients had long-gap esophageal atresia, and two had caustic esophageal stenosis. There were no deaths in the series. Three patients had an early postoperative complication: two had a self-limited salivary fistula at three weeks, and one (a patient with jejunostomy) had a jejunal perforation treated surgically. One late complication, anastomotic stricture, was recorded that required two endoscopic dilatations. The median follow-up was 60 months (range: 18–144 months). At final clinical follow-up, six patients had no eating problems, and two patients had some difficulties with eating (jejunostomy in situ), but they underwent logopedic therapy with improved outcomes. All patients had an increase in body weight and height postoperatively.Conclusion: Our small study reports the clinical experience of three Italian centers in which gastric transposition was performed with excellent results, both in terms of surgical technique (simplicity, reproducibility, complication rate) and clinical follow-up (good oral feeding of young patients, normal social life and regular growth curves).
- The effect of disc-shaped gastric resection of anastomosis site on
reducing postoperative dysphagia and stricture after esophagogastric
anastomosis in patients with esophageal cancer
Authors: Mahmodlou R; Shateri K, Homayooni F, et al.
Abstract: Background: Esophagectomy remains the most reliable technique for managing esophageal cancer, but anastomotic complications including postoperative leak, ischemia and stricture negatively affect outcomes of this specific surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel method of esophagogastric anastomosis for reducing postoperative dysphagia and stricture formation.Methods: Eighty patients who were scheduled for esophagectomy due to esophageal cancer were randomly assigned into two groups: intervention and control (40 each). In the control group, the esophagogastric anastomosis was performed with a linear gastric incision, whilst in the intervention group a new method of disc-shaped gastric resection for anastomosis was applied. Postoperative outcomes were compared between the two groups.Results: The incidence of postoperative dysphagia and anastomotic stricture was significantly lower in the disc-shaped resection group (dysphagia 45% vs 75%, P = 0.02; stricture 12.5% vs 32.5%, P = 0.03), whilst the length of stay in an intensive care unit (ICU), anastomotic leakage and other complications were not significantly different between the two groups (all P > 0.05).Conclusion: Anastomotic complications can be reduced by improving surgical techniques. The decreased incidence of postoperative dysphagia and anastomotic stricture in our study may be partly due to providing the proper diameter for the site of anastomosis when using the disc-shaped gastric resection method. Hence, this new method can improve the clinical outcomes of patients who undergo esophagectomy with esophagogastric anastomosis.
- Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: report of three cases and review of imaging
Authors: Ansari-Gilani K; Modaresi Esfeh J.
Abstract: Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts (CHFCs) are rare cystic lesions which are most commonly asymptomatic. They can be clinically important as they may, on rare occasions, undergo malignant transformation or cause mass effect if significantly enlarged. Three cases of CHFCs are presented in this article and their imaging features are reviewed.
- Liver metastasis from hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the esophagus mimicking
Authors: Kashani A; Ellis JC, Kahn M, et al.
Abstract: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma, histologically mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is a distinct entity known as hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC). Reported cases of HAC arising from the esophagus are extremely rare. Due to common liver metastasis and elevated AFP levels in patients with esophageal HAC, differentiation of HAC with liver metastasis from HCC could be challenging. We describe a case of esophageal HAC that presented with a liver mass showing hepatoid features and elevated serum AFP levels. Initial presentation was suspicious for HCC. Upon further diagnostic work-up, the patient was diagnosed with esophageal HAC with liver metastasis. The distinction between these two entities is particularly important because HAC is more aggressive, and its therapeutic options are very limited.
- Diagnosis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas using
endoscopic ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy
Authors: Kashani A; Kahn M, Jamil LH.
Abstract: Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the pancreas is a particularly rare entity. Diagnosis of this tumor is tentatively made after ruling out metastatic SCC from another primary site and adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the pancreas. Here we discuss the case of a 76-year-old woman who was found to have a solitary pancreatic lesion and multiple hepatic lesions. Results of computed tomography-guided biopsy of the liver lesions were consistent with a metastatic carcinoma displaying squamous differentiation; therefore, an endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB) of the pancreatic mass was performed. Meticulous histopathological examination of the pancreatic specimen at multiple levels revealed moderately well-differentiated SCC with no glandular component. An extensive metastatic work-up did not reveal an extra-pancreatic origin for this SCC; hence, a diagnosis of primary SCC of the pancreas was established. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the diagnosis of a primary SCC of the pancreas using EUS-guided CNB. We believe that CNB has a diagnostic yield equivalent to that of fine-needle aspiration for recognizing pancreatic adenocarcinoma; however, when cytological examinations reveal atypical squamous epithelial cells suggestive of malignancy, CNB may provide a better tissue specimen, from which to determine the presence of a glandular component. Such an assessment will differentiate pancreatic SCC from ASC.