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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 392 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 392 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.075, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 3.771, h-index: 262)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 285, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 584, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clean Energy     Open Access  
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.62, h-index: 53)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 59)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.199, h-index: 61)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.994, h-index: 107)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.327, h-index: 82)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.878, h-index: 80)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)

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Journal Cover Conservation Physiology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2051-1434
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [392 journals]
  • Influence of artificially induced light pollution on the hormone system of
           two common fish species, perch and roach, in a rural habitat

    • Authors: Brüning A; Kloas W, Preuer T, et al.
      Abstract: Almost all life on earth has adapted to natural cycles of light and dark by evolving circadian and circannual rhythms to synchronize behavioural and physiological processes with the environment. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is suspected to interfere with these rhythms. In this study we examined the influence of ALAN on nocturnal melatonin and sex steroid blood concentrations and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in the pituitary of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). In a rural experimental setting, fish were held in net cages in drainage channels experiencing either additional ALAN of ~15 lx at the water surface or natural light conditions at half-moon. No differences in melatonin concentrations between ALAN and natural conditions were detected. However, blood concentration of sex steroids (17β-estradiol; 11-ketotestosterone) as well as mRNA expression of gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone) was reduced in both fish species. We conclude that ALAN can disturb biological rhythms in fish in urban waters. However, impacts on melatonin rhythm might have been blurred by individual differences, sampling methods and moonlight. The effect of ALAN on biomarkers of reproduction suggests a photo-labile period around the onset of gonadogenesis, including the experimental period (August). Light pollution therefore has a great potential to influence crucial life history traits with unpredictable outcome for fish population dynamics.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • An ecophysiologically informed model of seed dispersal by orangutans:
           linking animal movement with gut passage across time and space

    • Authors: Tarszisz E; Tomlinson S, Harrison M, et al.
      Abstract: Fauna-mediated ecosystem service provision (e.g. seed dispersal) can be difficult to quantify and predict because it is underpinned by the shifting niches of multiple interacting organisms. Such interactions are especially complex in tropical ecosystems, including endangered peat forests of Central Borneo, a biodiversity hot spot and home to the critically endangered orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii). We combined studies of the digestive physiology of captive orangutans in Australia with detailed field studies of wild orangutans in the Natural Laboratory of Peat-Swamp Forest of Sabangau, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. By measuring the gut transit time (TT) of indigestible seed mimics (beads) in captivity and applying this as a temporal constraint to movement data of wild orangutans, we developed a mechanistic, time-explicit spatial model to project the seed dispersal patterns by these large-bodied, arboreal frugivores. We followed seven orangutans and established home range kernels using Time Local Convex Hull (T-LoCoH) modelling. This allowed us to model individual orangutan movements and to adjust these models according to gut transit times to estimate seed dispersal kernels. Female movements were conservative (core ranges of 55 and 52 ha in the wet and dry seasons, respectively) and revisitation rates to the same location of n = 4 in each 24-h block. Male movements were more unpredictable, yielding fragmented core ranges and revisitation rates to the same location of only 1.2 times each 24 h; males also demonstrated large disjunctions where they moved rapidly over long distances and were frequently lost from view. Seed dispersal kernels were nested predictably within the core ranges of females, but not males. We used the T-LoCoH approach to analyse movement ecology, which offered a powerful tool to predict the primary deposition of seeds by orangutans, thereby providing a reliable method for making a priori predictions of seed dispersal dynamics by other frugivores in novel ecosystems.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Crossing boundaries in conservation physiology

    • Authors: Tomlinson S; Rummer J, Hultine K, et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Biomonitors of atmospheric nitrogen deposition: potential uses and
           limitations

    • Authors: Díaz-Álvarez E; Lindig-Cisneros R, de la Barrera E.
      Abstract: Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is the third largest cause of global biodiversity loss, with rates that have more than doubled over the past century. This is especially threatening for tropical regions where the deposition may soon exceed 25 kg of N ha−1 year−1, well above the threshold for physiological damage of 12–20 kg of N ha−1 year−1, depending on plant species and nitrogenous compound. It is thus urgent to monitor these regions where the most diverse biotas occur. However, most studies have been conducted in Europe, the USA and recently in China. This review presents the case for the potential use of biological organisms to monitor nitrogen deposition, with emphasis on tropical plants. We first present an overview of atmospheric chemistry and the nitrogen metabolism of potential biomonitors, followed by a framework for monitoring nitrogen deposition based on the simultaneous use of various functional groups. In particular, the tissue nitrogen content responds to the rate of deposition, especially for mosses, whose nitrogen content increases by 1‰ per kilogram of N ha−1 year−1. The isotopic signature, δ15N, is a useful indicator of the nitrogen source, as the slightly negative values (e.g. 5‰) of plants from natural environments can become very negative (−11.2‰) in sites with agricultural and husbandry activities, but very positive (13.3‰) in urban environments with high vehicular activity. Mosses are good biomonitors for wet deposition and atmospheric epiphytes for dry deposition. In turn, the nitrogen saturation of ecosystems can be monitored with trees whose isotopic values increase with saturation. Although given ecophysiological limitations of different organisms, particular studies should be conducted in each area of interest to determine the most suitable biomonitors. Overall, biomonitors can provide an integrative approach for characterizing nitrogen deposition in regions where the deployment of automated instruments or passive monitoring is not feasible or can be complementary.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Defence mechanisms: the role of physiology in current and future
           environmental protection paradigms

    • Authors: Glover C.
      Abstract: Ecological risk assessments principally rely on simplified metrics of organismal sensitivity that do not consider mechanism or biological traits. As such, they are unable to adequately extrapolate from standard laboratory tests to real-world settings, and largely fail to account for the diversity of organisms and environmental variables that occur in natural environments. However, an understanding of how stressors influence organism health can compensate for these limitations. Mechanistic knowledge can be used to account for species differences in basal biological function and variability in environmental factors, including spatial and temporal changes in the chemical, physical and biological milieu. Consequently, physiological understanding of biological function, and how this is altered by stressor exposure, can facilitate proactive, predictive risk assessment. In this perspective article, existing frameworks that utilize physiological knowledge (e.g. biotic ligand models, adverse outcomes pathways and mechanistic effect models), are outlined, and specific examples of how mechanistic understanding has been used to predict risk are highlighted. Future research approaches and data needs for extending the incorporation of physiological information into ecological risk assessments are discussed. Although the review focuses on chemical toxicants in aquatic systems, physical and biological stressors and terrestrial environments are also briefly considered.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Impact of motorboats on fish embryos depends on engine type

    • Authors: Jain-Schlaepfer S; Fakan E, Rummer J, et al.
      Abstract: Human generated noise is changing the natural underwater soundscapes worldwide. The most pervasive sources of underwater anthropogenic noise are motorboats, which have been found to negatively affect several aspects of fish biology. However, few studies have examined the effects of noise on early life stages, especially the embryonic stage, despite embryo health being critical to larval survival and recruitment. Here, we used a novel setup to monitor heart rates of embryos from the staghorn damselfish (Amblyglyphidodon curacao) in shallow reef conditions, allowing us to examine the effects of in situ boat noise in context with real-world exposure. We found that the heart rate of embryos increased in the presence of boat noise, which can be associated with the stress response. Additionally, we found 2-stroke outboard-powered boats had more than twice the effect on embryo heart rates than did 4-stroke powered boats, showing an increase in mean individual heart rate of 1.9% and 4.6%, respectively. To our knowledge this is the first evidence suggesting boat noise elicits a stress response in fish embryo and highlights the need to explore the ecological ramifications of boat noise stress during the embryo stage. Also, knowing the response of marine organisms caused by the sound emissions of particular engine types provides an important tool for reef managers to mitigate noise pollution.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Elevated temperatures are associated with stress in rooftop-nesting Common
           Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) chicks

    • Authors: Newberry G; Swanson D.
      Abstract: Grasslands and riparian forests in southeastern South Dakota have been greatly reduced since historical times, primarily due to conversion to row-crop agriculture. Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) nesting habitat includes grasslands, open woodlands and urban rooftops, but nesting sites in southeastern South Dakota are confined to rooftops, as natural nesting habitat is limited. Nighthawks nesting on exposed rooftop habitats may encounter thermal conditions that increase operative temperatures relative to vegetated land cover types. Mean humidity has increased and mean wind speed and cloud cover have decreased during the nighthawk breeding season from 1948 to 2016 in southeastern South Dakota. These changes might contribute to increasing operative temperatures at exposed rooftop nest sites and this could influence chick condition. We studied nest micro-climate and the plasma stress response for 24 rooftop-nesting nighthawk chicks from 17 nests during 2015 and 2016. High humidity prior to blood collection reduced both baseline and stress-induced plasma corticosterone (CORT). In contrast, high maximum temperatures during the day before sampling increased stress-induced CORT. The magnitude of the chick stress response was significantly negatively related to maximum wind speed for the week prior to CORT measurement. Other weather and micro-climate variables were not significant effectors of CORT metrics. Most chicks had low baseline CORT and were able to mount a stress response, but a subset of chicks (n = 4) showed elevated baseline CORT and a negative association between the magnitude of stress response and ambient temperature. For this subset, mean ambient temperature for the day before sampling was significantly higher (2.3°C) than for chicks with typical baseline CORT levels. These data suggest that regional climate change trends could affect the ability of nighthawk chicks to mount a stress response, which, in turn, might influence the susceptibility of nighthawk chicks to climate change in the Northern Prairie region.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The future is female. Is that a problem for sea turtle conservation'

    • Authors: Komoroske L.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A novel method for the measurement of glucocorticoids in dermal secretions
           of amphibians

    • Authors: Santymire R; Manjerovic M, Sacerdote-Velat A.
      Abstract: Amphibians have been declining in both diversity and abundance due in large part to habitat degradation and the prevalence of emerging diseases. Although stressors can suppress the immune system, affecting an individual’s health and susceptibility to pathogens, established methods for directly collecting stress hormones are not suitable for rapid field use or for use on threatened and endangered species. To overcome these challenges, we are developing an innovative method to collect and measure amphibian glucocorticoid secretions using non-invasive dermal swabs. We tested this methodology using multiple terrestrial, semi-aquatic and fully aquatic species. We swabbed the dorsal side of each animal six times and then induced a stressor of either hand-restraint, ACTH injection, or saline as a control. We then repeated swab collection immediately after the stressor and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min intervals. Cortisol enzyme immunoassay detected changes in cortisol post-stressor. We also tested this methodology in the field and were successfully able to detect glucocorticoids from multiple species at varying life stages. When using in the field, capture technique should be considered since it may impact stress levels in certain species. Upon further testing, this novel method may be used to greatly increase our understanding of amphibian health especially as disease and environmental changes continue to impact fragile populations.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Artificial light at night causes an unexpected increase in oxalate in
           developing male songbirds

    • Authors: Raap T; Pinxten R, Eens M.
      Abstract: Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a widespread and increasing environmental pollutant with known negative impacts on animal physiology and development. Physiological effects could occur through sleep disruption and deprivation, but this is difficult to quantify, especially in small developing birds. Sleep loss can potentially be quantified by using oxalate, a biomarker for sleep debt in adult humans and rats. We examined the effect of ALAN on oxalate in free-living developing great tits (Parus major) as effects during early-life could have long-lasting and irreversible consequences. Nestlings’ physiology was quantified at baseline (= 13 days after hatching) and again after two nights of continued darkness (control) or exposure to ALAN (treatment). We found that ALAN increased oxalate levels but only in male nestlings, rather than decreasing it as was found in sleep-deprived humans and rats. Our results using developing birds differ strongly from those obtained with adult mammals. However, we used ALAN to reduce sleep while in rats forced movement was used. Finally, we used free-living opposed to laboratory animals. Whether oxalate is a reliable marker of sleep loss in developing great tits remains to be examined. Potentially the increase of oxalate in male nestlings was unrelated to sleep debt. Nonetheless, our results substantiate physiological effects of ALAN in developing animals and may provide a foundation for future work with free-living animals.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Biochemistry and hematology parameters of the San Cristóbal Galápagos
           tortoise (Chelonoidis chathamensis)

    • Authors: Lewbart G; Griffioen J, Savo A, et al.
      Abstract: As part of a planned introduction of captive Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis chathamensis) to the San Cristóbal highland farms, our veterinary team performed thorough physical examinations and health assessments of 32 tortoises. Blood samples were collected for packed cell volume (PCV), total solids (TS), white blood cell count (WBC) differential, estimated WBC and a biochemistry panel including lactate. In some cases not all of the values were obtainable but most of the tortoises have full complements of results. Despite a small number of minor abnormalities this was a healthy group of mixed age and sex tortoises that had been maintained with appropriate husbandry. This work establishes part of a scientific and technical database to provide qualitative and quantitative information when establishing sustainable development strategies aimed at the conservation of Galapagos tortoises.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Blood analytes of oceanic-juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta
           caretta) from Azorean waters: reference intervals, size-relevant
           correlations and comparisons to neritic loggerheads from western Atlantic
           coastal waters

    • Authors: Stacy N; Bjorndal K, Perrault J, et al.
      Abstract: Blood analyte reference intervals are scarce for immature life stages of the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). The objectives of this study were to (1) document reference intervals of packed cell volume (PCV) and 20 plasma chemistry analytes from wild oceanic-juvenile stage loggerhead turtles from Azorean waters, (2) investigate correlations with body size (minimum straight carapace length: SCLmin) and (3) compare plasma chemistry data to those from older, larger neritic juveniles (<80 cm SCLmin) and adult loggerheads (≥80 cm SCLmin) that have recruited to the West Atlantic in waters around Cape Canaveral, Florida. Twenty-eight Azorean loggerhead turtles with SCLmin of 17.6–60.0 cm (mean 34.9 ± 12.1 cm) were captured, sampled and immediately released. Reference intervals are reported. There were several biologically relevant correlations of blood analytes with SCLmin: positive correlations of PCV, proteins and triglycerides with SCLmin indicated somatic growth, increasing diving activity and/or diet; negative correlations of tissue enzymes with SCLmin suggested faster growth at smaller turtle size, while negative correlations of electrolytes with SCLmin indicated differences in diet, environmental conditions and/or osmoregulation unique to the geographic location. Comparisons of loggerhead turtles from the Azores (i.e. oceanic) and Cape Canaveral (i.e. neritic) identified significant differences regarding diet, somatic growth, and/or environment: in Azorean turtles, albumin, triglycerides and bilirubin increased with SCLmin, while alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and sodium decreased. In larger neritic Cape Canaveral turtles, aspartate aminotransferase increased with SCLmin, while the albumin:globulin ratio, phosphorus and cholesterol decreased. These differences suggest unique physiological disparities between life stage development and migration, reflecting biological and habitat differences between the two populations. This information presents biologically important data that is applicable to stranded individual turtles and to the population level, a tool for the development of conservation strategies, and a baseline for future temporal and spatial investigations of the Azorean loggerhead sea turtle population.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Not just fat: investigating the proteome of cetacean blubber tissue

    • Authors: Kershaw J; Botting C, Brownlow A, et al.
      Abstract: Mammalian adipose tissue is increasingly being recognized as an endocrine organ involved in the regulation of a number of metabolic processes and pathways. It responds to signals from different hormone systems and the central nervous system, and expresses a variety of protein factors with important paracrine and endocrine functions. This study presents a first step towards the systematic analysis of the protein content of cetacean adipose tissue, the blubber, in order to investigate the kinds of proteins present and their relative abundance. Full depth blubber subsamples were collected from dead-stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) (n = 21). Three total protein extraction methods were trialled, and the highest total protein yields with the lowest extraction variability were achieved using a RIPA cell lysis and extraction buffer based protocol. Extracted proteins were separated using 1D Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and identified using nanoflow Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization in tandem with Mass Spectrometry (nLC-ESI–MS/MS). A range of proteins were identified (n = 295) and classed into eight functional groups, the most abundant of which were involved in cell function and metabolism (45%), immune response and inflammation (15%) and lipid metabolism (11%). These proteins likely originate both from the various cell types within the blubber tissue itself, and from the circulation. They therefore have the potential to capture information on the cellular and physiological stresses experienced by individuals at the time of sampling. The importance of this proteomic approach is two-fold: Firstly, it could help to assign novel functions to marine mammal blubber in keeping with current understanding of the multi-functional role of adipose tissue in other mammals. Secondly, it could lead to the development of a suite of biomarkers to better monitor the physiological state and health of live individuals though remote blubber biopsy sampling.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Life’s not a cinch for a stressed finch, or is it'

    • Authors: Jain-Schlaepfer S.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Can concentrations of steroid hormones in brown bear hair reveal age
           class'

    • Authors: Cattet M; Stenhouse G, Boulanger J, et al.
      Abstract: Although combining genetic and endocrine data from non-invasively collected hair samples has potential to improve the conservation of threatened mammals, few studies have evaluated this opportunity. In this study, we determined if steroid hormone (testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and cortisol) concentration profiles in 169 hair samples collected from free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) could be used to accurately discriminate between immature and adult bears within each sex. Because hair samples were acquired opportunistically, we also needed to establish if interactions between hormones and several non-hormone factors (ordinal day, year, contact method, study area) were associated with age class. For each sex, we first compared a suite of candidate models by Akaike Information Criteria model selection, using different adult-age thresholds (3, 4 and 5 years), to determine the most supported adult age. Because hair hormone levels better reflect the endocrine state at an earlier time, possibly during the previous year, then at the time of sampling, we re-analysed the data, excluding the records for bears at the adult-age threshold, to establish if classification accuracy improved. For both sexes, candidate models were most supported based on a 3-year-old adult-age threshold. Classification accuracy did not improve with the 3-year-old bear data excluded. Male age class was predicted with a high degree of accuracy (88.4%) based on the concomitant concentrations of all four hormones. Female age class was predicted with less accuracy (77.1%) based only on testosterone and cortisol. Accuracy was reduced for females, primarily because we had poor success in correctly classifying immature bears (60%) whereas classification success for adult females was similar to that for males (84.5%). Given the small and unbalanced sample used in this study, our findings should be viewed as preliminary, but they should also provide a basis for more comprehensive future studies.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Conservation choice on the rare endangered plants Glehnia littoralis

    • Authors: Pan Y; Chu J, Yang H.
      Abstract: The coastal herbs Glehnia littoralis have been domesticated as traditional medicines for many centuries. The domestication may have caused changes or declines of cultivated G. littoralis (CGL) relative to wild G. littoralis (WGL). By comparing fruit properties of CGL and WGL, we tested the hypothesis that domesticated G. littoralis have suffered major declines, and human cultivation cannot be sufficient to conserve this species. We collected fruits of CGL and WGL in the Shandong peninsula, China, and compared their buoyancy in seawater, germination potential after seawater immersion, and thousand-grain weights. Float rates of the WGL and CGL fruits were 95.6 (mean) ± 2.6% (standard deviation) and 30.0 ± 7.1%, respectively. The germination potential of CGL was significantly reduced, although the thousand-grain weights of CGL (21.85 ± 0.17 g) were higher than those of the WGL fruits (14.73 ± 0.21 g). These results suggest that the CGL have experienced significant declines relative to the WGL, presumably due to the loss of seawater inundation, selection and dispersal. These declines disfavour the persistence of CGL, and human domestication and cultivation are believed to be insufficient for conserving G. littoralis. Sand coasts where WGL still persists should be designated timely as nature reserves to conserve this species.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Being stressed outside the park—conservation of African elephants
           (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia

    • Authors: Hunninck L; Ringstad I, Jackson C, et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Elevated seawater temperature, not pCO2, negatively affects post-spawning
           adult mussels (Mytilus edulis) under food limitation

    • Authors: Clements J; Hicks C, Tremblay R, et al.
      Abstract: Pre-spawning blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) appear sensitive to elevated temperature and robust to elevated pCO2; however, the effects of these stressors soon after investing energy into spawning remain unknown. Furthermore, while studies suggest that elevated pCO2 affects the byssal attachment strength of Mytilus trossulus from southern latitudes, pCO2 and temperature impacts on the byssus strength of other species at higher latitudes remain undocumented. In a 90 day laboratory experiment, we exposed post-spawning adult blue mussels (M. edulis) from Atlantic Canada to three pCO2 levels (pCO2 ~625, 1295 and 2440 μatm) at two different temperatures (16°C and 22°C) and assessed energetic reserves on Day 90, byssal attachment strength on Days 30 and 60, and condition index and mortality on Days 30, 60 and 90. Results indicated that glycogen content was negatively affected under elevated temperature, but protein, lipid, and overall energy content were unaffected. Reduced glycogen content under elevated temperature was associated with reduced condition index, reduced byssal thread attachment strength, and increased mortality; elevated pCO2 had no effects. Overall, these results suggest that the glycogen reserves of post-spawning adult M. edulis are sensitive to elevated temperature, and can result in reduced health and byssal attachment strength, leading to increased mortality. These results are similar to those reported for pre-spawning mussels and suggest that post-spawning blue mussels are tolerant to elevated pCO2 and sensitive to elevated temperature. In contrast to previous studies, however, elevated pCO2 did not affect byssus strength, suggesting that negative effects of elevated pCO2 on byssus strength are not universal.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Monitoring ovarian cycles, pregnancy and post-partum in captive marsh deer
           (Blastocerus dichotomus) by measuring fecal steroids

    • Authors: Polegato B; Zanetti E, Duarte J.
      Abstract: The marsh deer is an endangered species from the marshlands of central South America. This study aimed to characterize certain aspects of the reproductive physiology of marsh deer hinds, including the duration and fecal progestins profile of the estrous cycle, pregnancy and post-partum periods, and evaluate the effect of cloprostenol administration on this species. The experimental group consisted of six females and one fertile male marsh deer. During monitoring of the estrous cycle, the fresh fecal samples were collected daily and, during pregnancy, they were collected twice weekly. The hormonal profile obtained from daily fecal samples indicated that the mean duration of the estrous cycle was 21.3 ± 1.3 days (6.4 days inter-luteal phase and 14.8 days luteal phase; n = 16 estrous cycles). The mean concentration of fecal progestins in the inter-luteal phase was 834 ± 311 ng g−1, in the luteal phase was 3979 ± 1611 ng g−1, value between them was 1457 ng g−1. No significant difference in fecal estrogen concentrations was determined during the estrous cycle. The corpora luteum was not responsive to cloprostenol until Day 6 of the estrous cycle, the period previously described as the inter-luteal phase. Half the females became pregnant following treatment with cloprostenol and two others were fertilized in their natural estrous cycle. Four females delivered fawns, and the mean duration of pregnancy was 253 ± 4 days. Fecal progestin concentrations were similar to those of the estrous cycle during the first 11 weeks of pregnancy and increased significantly ( > 15250 ng g−1) thereafter, providing a presumptive diagnosis guideline. Within 60 days of post-partum analyses, 75% of the deer exhibited behavioural estrus and/or ovarian activity. This study generated a broader understanding of the marsh deer species concerning the production of consistent data related to its reproduction. This knowledge can be used to assist the reproductive management of this species and, consequently, to promote its conservation.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Physiological plasticity in a successful invader: rapid acclimation to
           cold occurs only in cool-climate populations of cane toads (Rhinella
           marina)

    • Authors: McCann S; Kosmala G, Greenlees M, et al.
      Abstract: Physiological plasticity may facilitate invasion of novel habitats; but is such plasticity present in all populations of the invader or is it elicited only by specific climatic challenges' In cold-climate areas of Australia, invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) can rapidly acclimate to cool conditions. To investigate whether this physiological plasticity is found in all invasive cane toads or is only seen in cool climates, we measured the acclimation ability of toads from across Australia and the island of Hawai’i. We collected toads from the field and placed them at either 12 or 24°C for 12 h before measuring their righting response as a proxy for critical thermal minimum (CTmin). Toads from the coolest Australian region (New South Wales) demonstrated plasticity (as previously reported), with exposure to 12°C (vs. 24°C) decreasing CTmin by 2°C. In toads from other Australian populations, CTmins were unaffected by our thermal treatments. Hawai’ian toads from a cool, wet site also rapidly acclimated to cool conditions, whereas those from warmer and drier Hawai’ian sites did not. Thermal plasticity has diverged among populations of invasive cane toads, with rapid acclimation manifested only in two cool-climate populations from widely separated sites. Predictions about the potential range of invasive species thus must consider the possibility of geographic (intraspecific) heterogeneity in thermal plasticity; data from other parts of the species’ range may fail to predict levels of plasticity elicited by thermal challenges.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Urbanization, environment and pharmaceuticals: advancing comparative
           physiology, pharmacology and toxicology

    • Authors: Brooks B.
      Abstract: Pharmaceuticals are routinely reported in the environment, which indicates an increasingly urban water cycle and highlights a global megatrend. Physicochemical properties and intrinsic biological activity of medicines routinely differ from conventional organic contaminants; thus, diverging applicability domains often challenge environmental chemistry and toxicology computational tools and biological assays originally developed to address historical chemical stressors. Because pharmacology and toxicology information is more readily available for these contaminants of emerging concern than other chemicals in the environment, and many drug targets are conserved across species, leveraging mammalian drug discovery, safety testing and clinical pharmacology information appears useful to define environmental risks and to design less hazardous industrial chemicals. Research is needed to advance biological read across, which promises to reduce uncertainties during chemical assessment aimed at protecting public health and the environment. Whereas such comparative information has been critical to advance an understanding of pharmaceutical hazards and risks in urban ecosystems, studies of medicines with fish and other ecotoxicological models are reciprocally benefiting basic and translational efforts, advancing comparative mechanistic toxicology, and providing robust comparative bridges for integrating conservation and toxicology.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Impact of gas emboli and hyperbaric treatment on respiratory function of
           loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta)

    • Authors: Portugues C; Crespo-Picazo J, García-Párraga D, et al.
      Abstract: Fisheries interactions are the most serious threats for sea turtle populations. Despite the existence of some rescue centres providing post-traumatic care and rehabilitation, adequate treatment is hampered by the lack of understanding of the problems incurred while turtles remain entrapped in fishing gears. Recently it was shown that bycaught loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) could experience formation of gas emboli (GE) and develop decompression sickness (DCS) after trawl and gillnet interaction. This condition could be reversed by hyperbaric O2 treatment (HBOT). The goal of this study was to assess how GE alters respiratory function in bycaught turtles before recompression therapy and measure the improvement after this treatment. Specifically, we assessed the effect of DCS on breath duration, expiratory and inspiratory flow and tidal volume (VT), and the effectiveness of HBOT to improve these parameters. HBOT significantly increased respiratory flows by 32–45% while VT increased by 33–35% immediately after HBOT. Repeated lung function testing indicated a temporal increase in both respiratory flow and VT for all bycaught turtles, but the changes were smaller than those seen immediately following HBOT. The current study suggests that respiratory function is significantly compromised in bycaught turtles with GE and that HBOT effectively restores lung function. Lung function testing may provide a novel means to help diagnose the presence of GE, be used to assess treatment efficacy, and contribute to sea turtle conservation efforts.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Dietary changes during weaning shape the gut microbiota of red pandas
           (Ailurus fulgens)

    • Authors: Williams C; Dill-McFarland K, Sparks D, et al.
      Abstract: Mammalian herbivores have developed numerous adaptations to utilize their plant-based diets including a modified gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and symbiosis with a GIT microbiota that plays a major role in digestion and the maintenance of host health. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a herbivorous carnivore that lacks the specialized GIT common to other herbivores but still relies on microorganisms for survival on its almost entirely bamboo diet. The GIT microbiota is of further importance in young red pandas, as high cub mortality is problematic and has been attributed to failure to meet nutritional requirements. To gain insight into the establishment of the GIT microbiota of red pandas, we examined microbial communities in two individuals following dietary changes associated with weaning using next-generation 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing of faecal samples. Across all four stages (pre-weaning, during weaning, post-weaning and adult), the GIT microbial community displayed low diversity and was dominated by bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes with lesser contributions from the Proteobacteria. A core community was found consistently across all weaning stages and included species within the taxa Escherichia-Shigella, Streptococcus, Clostridium and an unclassified Clostridiaceae. Analysis of the overall community composition and structure showed that although the GIT microbiota is established early in red pandas, dietary changes during weaning further shape the community and are correlated with the presence of new bacterial species. This work is the first analysis of the GIT microbiota for red panda cubs during weaning and provides a framework for understanding how diet and host microbiota impact the development of these threatened animals.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Metabolic rates of embryos and alevin from a cold-adapted salmonid differ
           with temperature, population and family of origin: implications for coping
           with climate change

    • Authors: Cook C; Burness G, Wilson C, et al.
      Abstract: Early developmental stages of cold-adapted ectotherms such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) are at higher risk of mortality with increasing water temperatures. To determine the amount of variation present in early life, which may allow for potential adaptation to increasing temperature, we examined the routine metabolic rates (RMR) of wild-origin brook trout embryos and alevins reared at normal (5°C) and elevated (9°C) temperatures. The experiment was structured to examine variation in RMR within and among several levels of biological organization (family, population and ancestral type (native vs. mixed ancestry)). As expected, family and temperature variables were most important for predicting RMR and body mass, although population-level differences also existed when family was excluded for more detailed analysis. Additionally, body mass strongly influenced RMR at all life stages except for eyed embryos. When family identity was removed from the analysis, population became the most significant variable. Variation in RMR and mass within and among populations may indicate existing adaptive potential within and among brook trout populations to respond to predicted warming under climate change scenarios.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Reproductive gene expression in a coral reef fish exposed to increasing
           temperature across generations

    • Authors: Veilleux H; Donelson J, Munday P, et al.
      Abstract: Reproduction in marine fish is generally tightly linked with water temperature. Consequently, when adults are exposed to projected future ocean temperatures, reproductive output of many species declines precipitously. Recent research has shown that in the common reef fish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, step-wise exposure to higher temperatures over two generations (parents: +1.5°C, offspring: +3.0°C) can improve reproductive output in the F2 generation compared to F2 fish that have experienced the same high temperatures over two generations (F1 parents: +3.0°C, F2 offspring: +3.0°C). To investigate how a step-wise increase in temperature between generations improved reproductive capacity, we tested the expression of well-known teleost reproductive genes in the brain and gonads of F2 fish using quantitative reverse transcription PCR and compared it among control (+0.0°C for two generations), developmental (+3.0°C in second generation only), step (+1.5°C in first generation and +3.0°C in second generation), and transgenerational (+3.0°C for two generations) treatments. We found that levels of gonadotropin receptor gene expression (Fshr and Lhcgr) in the testes were reduced in developmental and transgenerational temperature treatments, but were similar to control levels in the step treatment. This suggests Fshr and Lhcgr may be involved in regulating male reproductive capacity in A. polyacanthus. In addition, lower Fshb expression in the brain of females in all temperature treatments compared to control, suggests that Fshb expression, which is involved in vitellogenesis, is sensitive to high temperatures. Our results help elucidate key genes that facilitate successful reproduction in reef fishes when they experience a gradual increase in temperature across generations consistent with the trajectory of climate change.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
 
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