Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 411 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 411 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 217, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 385, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 214, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 618, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 231, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insect Systematics and Diversity     Hybrid Journal  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 285, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
ILAR Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.732
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1084-2020 - ISSN (Online) 1930-6180
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [411 journals]
  • Responsible Science and Research Animal Use
    • Authors: Turner P; Barbee R.
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on the topic of responsible science as it relates to animal research. We start with the concept of the scientist as a responsible citizen and then move through multiple phases of research including careful experimental planning, reporting, and incorporation of laboratory animal science. The work of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) or animal ethical/oversight body in reviewing both animal use and contributing to scientific excellence is explored. Additional topics include protection of animal handlers from multiple experimental hazards, use of agricultural animals and wildlife studies, regulatory ambiguities, and harmonization of animal research. Rounding out the issue is a discussion of how animal care and use programs can enhance animal welfare while mitigating regulatory burden, and our responsibility to clearly communicate the ethical use of animals in advancing biomedical research. A deeper understanding of these topics can assist scientists in simultaneously advancing their research and animal welfare.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilz020
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • The Scientist Citizen and the Citizen Scientist: Blurring the Lines
    • Authors: Warmbrod L; Trotochaud M, Connell N.
      Pages: 5 - 8
      Abstract: The scientific enterprise satisfies the innate human urge to understand the world; these efforts have led to both improvements and dangers to society. The storied history of relationships between scientists and citizens suggests that the lines between these 2 sectors of society are often blurred. Here we discuss these relationships on the context of animal welfare. We briefly outline the history of animal welfare in research, and the entry of citizens into the discussion, leading to the Animal Welfare Act of 1966. The commitment of scientists to society, in this context, is the act of whistleblowing in research. As medical and life sciences technologies continue to expand at breathtaking rates, the landscape that both scientists and citizens must navigate increases in complexity. We discuss the responsibility of both the scientist and the citizen, as members of the voting public, in the face of the challenges of the future.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Dec 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilz022
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Incorporating Laboratory Animal Science into Responsible Biomedical
           Research
    • Authors: Barbee R; Turner P.
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Biomedical research has made great strides in the past century leading to rapid advances in human life expectancy, all derived from improved understanding, prevention, and treatment of many diseases and conditions. Research involving laboratory animals has played a significant role in this medical progress. However, there continues to be controversy surrounding the use of animals in research, and animal models have been questioned regarding their relevance to human conditions. While research fraud and questionable research practices could potentially contribute to this problem, we argue that a relative ignorance of laboratory animal science has contributed to the “uncontrolled vivarium experiment” that runs parallel to the more controlled scientific experiment. Several variables are discussed, including husbandry, animal environment, social housing, and more, that can contribute to this uncontrolled experiment, and that can simultaneously decrease quality of life for rodent test subjects when ignored. An argument is put forward that laboratory animal veterinarians and scientists can and should play an important role in better controlling such variables. Similarly, the laboratory animal veterinarian and scientist should play an important role in responsible science by addressing complex interdisciplinary challenges.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilz017
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Reproducibility and Rigor in Animal-Based Research
    • Authors: Macleod M; Mohan S.
      Pages: 17 - 23
      Abstract: Increasing focus on issues of research reproducibility affords us the opportunity to review some of the key issues related in vivo research. First, we set out some key definitions, to guide the reader through the rest of the paper. Next we consider issues of epistemology, of how animal experiments lead to changes in our understanding of biomedicine and, potentially, to the development of new therapeutics. Here we consider the meaning of statistical significance; the importance of understanding whether findings have general truth; and the advances in knowledge which can result from ‘failed’ replication. Then, we consider weaknesses in the design, conduct and reporting of experiments, and review evidence for this from systematic reviews and from experimental studies addressing these issues. We consider the impact that these weaknesses have on the development of new treatments for human disease, and reflect on the response to these issues from the biomedical research community. Finally, we consider strategies for improvement including increased use of brief, pre-registered study protocols; pre-registration, open publication and open data; and the central importance of education in improving research performance.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilz015
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Laboratory Safety, Biosecurity, and Responsible Animal Use
    • Authors: McCormick-Ell J; Connell N.
      Pages: 24 - 33
      Abstract: Research with animals presents a wide array of hazards, some of which overlap those in the in vitro research laboratory. The challenge for environmental health and safety professionals when making their recommendations and performing the risk assessment is to balance worker safety with animal safety/welfare. The care and husbandry of animals require procedures and tasks that create aerosols and involve metabolized chemicals and a variety of physical hazards that must be assessed in addition to the research related risks, all while balancing the biosecurity of the facility and NIH animal care requirements. Detailed communication between health and safety, research, and animal care teams is essential to understand how to mitigate the risks that are present and if modifications need to be made as the experiments and processes progress and change over time. Additionally, the backgrounds and education levels of the persons involved in animal research and husbandry can be quite broad; the training programs created need to reflect this. Active learning and hands-on training are extremely beneficial for all staff involved in this field. Certain areas of research, such as infectious disease research in high- and maximum-containment (biosafety level 3 and 4) facilities, present challenges that are not seen in lower containment or chemical exposure experiments. This paper reviews potential hazards and mitigation strategies and discusses unique challenges for safety at all biosafety levels.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilz012
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Communicating About Animal Research with the Public
    • Authors: MacArthur Clark J; Clifford P, Jarrett W, et al.
      Pages: 34 - 42
      Abstract: Animals play a key role in biomedical research and other areas of scientific inquiry. But public opinion plays a key role in influencing how this area of science is regulated and funded. Nevertheless, scientists have historically been reticent to speak openly about their animal research or to open their animal facilities to the public in any way. Consequently, most of the available information has come from those opposed to animal research.This imbalance has led to suspicion and lagging public support for this work. To reverse this effect, efforts are now being made in many parts of the world to increase openness and transparency in this sector. The authors firmly believe that encouraging more institutions to join this movement, focused on better and greater communication, is essential to preserve the research community’s “permission” to perform justifiable studies involving animals.For the purposes of this article, we consider “the public” to include that cross-section of society who may be asked their views in opinion poll studies and who may vote in elections. It also includes other influential groups such as the media, scientists working in other disciplines, animal welfare groups, and politicians who may shape regulatory frameworks.Public opinion on this issue matters. The majority of funding for biomedical research comes, either directly or indirectly, from the public purse. In the case of pharmaceutical research, funding derives from selling medicines to consumers. We therefore all have a vested interest in this funding. Furthermore, legislation that covers the use of animals in research is permissive—it allows scientists to do things that might otherwise contravene animal welfare laws. But this permission is normally contingent on complying with strict protective measures designed to ensure the work stays within the ethical framework that public opinion has deemed appropriate.Open and transparent communication is the best way to promote public understanding. There is thus a responsibility on all those involved in animal research, whether scientists, animal care staff, physicians, veterinarians, members of ethics committees, or managers and leaders, to support and promote public awareness and trust in this work. Circumstantial evidence shows that, with such open dialogue, there is decreased targeting and harassment of individuals and job pride and satisfaction for all involved is improved.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilz007
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • The Role of IACUCs in Responsible Animal Research
    • Authors: Mohan S; Huneke R.
      Pages: 43 - 49
      Abstract: IACUCResearch animal welfareResponsible animal research
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilz016
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Everything You Need to Know About Satisfying IACUC Protocol Requirements
    • Authors: Mohan S; Foley P.
      Pages: 50 - 57
      Abstract: There have been recent efforts to reduce the administrative burden imposed on investigators. Although a complete and thorough review of proposed animal studies is an essential function of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), efforts to streamline and clarify this process may help investigators spend less time writing animal use protocols and responding to committee comments. The IACUC relies on well-written protocols for an efficient review process. A well-designed protocol form is also critical in guiding investigators through the process. However, it is ultimately the investigators’ responsibility to ensure that the information they provide answers all the IACUC’s questions with enough detail and quality for a fast and effective review. This article, aimed primarily for researchers but also IACUC administrators, provides an overview of the IACUC protocol review and approval process, the criteria that the IACUC uses for evaluations, and the type of information that should be included in the various sections of the protocol form. Some specific examples are also provided.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilz010
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Investigator Engagement: Somewhat Radical Considerations on Practices to
           Improve Animal Care Program Compliance
    • Authors: Hankenson F; Hallman T.
      Pages: 58 - 65
      Abstract: The authors discuss approaches to bolster investigator engagement, inviting investigators to be partners within the Animal Care Program. Regulatory burden in animal research endeavors continues to be reviewed and critiqued; therefore, this article intends to encourage Animal Care Programs to promote transparency and incorporation of unique educational training initiatives to tailor and focus compliance efforts across research programs. Borrowing from concepts of patient engagement, adherence, and enrollment efforts within the medical profession, it is likely that gains in trust, understanding, and communication between stakeholders within animal programs can be achieved without excessive efforts to alter existing approaches. Institutions will continue to be challenged to balance animal welfare expectations with promotion of research missions. This article provides a framework for somewhat radical ideas, including the use of collaborative orientations, assistance with self-evaluations, timely self-reporting, and meaningful and directed trainings, that are all aimed to resonate in contemporary animal care programs and foster investigator engagement in ongoing compliance efforts.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilz002
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Research with Agricultural Animals and Wildlife
    • Authors: Cox R; Nol P, Ellis C, et al.
      Pages: 66 - 73
      Abstract: In fiscal year 2016, agricultural animals such as swine, sheep, goats, and cattle represented 10% of the 820 812 animals used in USDA-regulated research. In addition to traditional agricultural animals, research studies using captive wildlife are becoming increasingly important as human and livestock populations encroach upon, and thus expand interactions with, wildlife populations on the landscape. Optimum healthcare of both livestock and captive wildlife in a research setting requires proper husbandry, management, and veterinary care. Regardless of animal species, proper care and management are essential for animal well-being, valid research data, and the health and safety of animal care personnel. Using wildlife in research presents unique challenges as there is generally limited peer-reviewed research on wildlife welfare, husbandry, and nutrition. Animals often become excited during handling or transport, and care must be taken to avoid injury. When severe injuries do occur, differences may exist in methods of euthanasia. Many wildlife species are evolutionarily programmed to conceal signs of illness, making assessment of their condition difficult; moreover, attending veterinarians are often not as experienced in the care of wildlife as they are in the care of traditional laboratory animals or livestock. These differences are further magnified in the context of wildlife field research. The concepts of replace, reduce, and refine are as valid in livestock and wildlife research as in biomedical research, and investigators should work closely with their Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees to ensure humane animal care. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee is centrally important in providing guidelines relative to ethical use of animal subjects for research and can serve as a valuable resource for research accountability.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilz006
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Disaster Planning and Research Continuity in Responsible Animal Research
    • Authors: Petervary N; Pullium J.
      Pages: 74 - 85
      Abstract: Disaster preparedness for research facilities can be a daunting task. The purpose of this review is to introduce basic preparedness concepts and terminology so that facilities may begin to develop customized plans for their specific needs. Regulatory requirements are reviewed and an overview of the Incident Command System, National Preparedness System Planning Frameworks, and fundamental terms is provided. Important concepts for successful planning are then explored. Good planning involves fostering a culture of preparedness, resilience, and understanding the interactions and partnerships with other groups that are essential for core functions and incident response. Methods to gain institutional support and set up an advisory committee are examined in detail. Next, the steps to develop and carry out a plan are outlined. Risk assessments using an all hazards approach and tools such as risk indices and risk matrices are explained, and tips to design and test plans, train personnel, and evaluate improvement are discussed. Finally, special challenges unique to animal research facilities are considered along with ways to address them. Examples and information are drawn from a wide variety of organizations both to underscore themes common to all preparedness plans and to introduce new concepts that may be adapted for use in research institutions.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ily023
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Animal Welfare Standards and International Collaborations
    • Authors: Bayne K; Turner P.
      Pages: 86 - 94
      Abstract: Globalization of the biomedical research enterprise is occurring at an accelerating pace. Increasingly, scientific collaborations and contracts cross national borders. Assurance that the caliber of animal research and animal welfare are consistent among countries and that such animal use is done in a humane and conscientious manner is of significant concern to the scientific community, the general public, and other stakeholders. Bridging these international collaborations is a clear scientific imperative for statistical validity of the data and reproducibility of results to ensure the animal use is both meaningful and impactful. One way to mitigate the potential confounding effects that the welfare of the animals may have on the research data is to harmonize animal care and use practices and procedures worldwide. By harmonizing the care and use of animals, using high standards that are internationally accepted, research animal welfare and high-quality science will be achieved.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ily024
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • The Role of the IACUC in the Absence of Regulatory Guidance
    • Authors: Leland S; Straeter P, Gnadt B.
      Pages: 95 - 104
      Abstract: Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) occasionally face regulatory requirements for which clear guidance may not be available. Either the regulating body has chosen not to provide such guidance or the guidance may be minimal or even ambiguous. Such guidance may be desirable when institutions have research needs, in which case IACUCs are left to their own interpretation to develop internal policies, procedures, and documents. Typically, this is approached by an IACUC working with partners in the laboratory animal community and may involve input from regulators who can provide context as well as parameters to consider. Over time, shared institutional experiences and documentation coalesce to create a general framework that provides a baseline for others to consider as templates for further policy elaboration or development. The strength of this approach relies on the ability to share freely, including having unobstructed access to such documents.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilz003
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2019)
       
 
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