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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 314, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 588, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2050-6201
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • Cooperation between cancer cells

    • Authors: Archetti M.
      Pages: 1 - 1
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy003
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Linking autoimmunity to the origin of the adaptive immune system

    • Authors: Bayersdorf R; Fruscalzo A, Catania F.
      Pages: 2 - 12
      Abstract: In jawed vertebrates, the adaptive immune system (AIS) cooperates with the innate immune system (IIS) to protect hosts from infections. Although targeting non-self-components, the AIS also generates self-reactive antibodies which, when inadequately counter-selected, can give rise to autoimmune diseases (ADs). ADs are on the rise in western countries. Why haven’t ADs been eliminated during the evolution of a ∼500 million-year old system' And why have they become more frequent in recent decades' Self-recognition is an attribute of the phylogenetically more ancient IIS and empirical data compellingly show that some self-reactive antibodies, which are classifiable as elements of the IIS rather then the AIS, may protect from (rather than cause) ADs. Here, we propose that the IIS’s self-recognition system originally fathered the AIS and, as a consequence of this relationship, its activity is dampened in hygienic environments. Rather than a mere breakdown or failure of the mechanisms of self-tolerance, ADs might thus arise from architectural constraints.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy001
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • A roadmap for ‘core concepts’ in evolutionary medicine

    • Authors: Nunn C.
      Pages: 24 - 25
      Abstract: Evolutionary perspectives are vital to tackling a wide range of health challenges in today’s world, including emerging infectious diseases, the evolution of antimicrobial resistance, increasing prevalence of autoimmune diseases, the obesity epidemic, threats to food safety, neurodegenerative disease, cancer and more. To address this scope of diseases, evolutionary medicine is highly interdisciplinary, drawing on perspectives and approaches in ecology, evolution, biological anthropology, and global health (which itself is very interdisciplinary). Some evolutionary medicine research programs focus on understanding why humans are vulnerable to disease, whereas others aim to apply evolutionary approaches to more effectively prevent or treat disease.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eox026
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • The importance of Evolutionary Medicine in developing countriesA case for
           Pakistan's medical schools

    • Authors: Enam S; Hashmi S.
      Pages: 26 - 33
      Abstract: Evolutionary Medicine (EM) is a fundamental science exploring why our bodies are plagued with disease and hindered by limitations. EM views the body as an assortment of benefits, mistakes, and compromises molded over millennia. It highlights the role of evolution in numerous diseases encountered in community and family medicine clinics of developing countries. It enables us to ask informed questions and develop novel responses to global health problems. An understanding of the field is thus crucial for budding doctors, but its study is currently limited to a handful of medical schools in high-income countries. For the developing world, Pakistan's medical schools may be excellent starting posts as the country is beset with communicable and non-communicable diseases that are shaped by evolution. Remarkably, Pakistani medical students are open to studying and incorporating EM into their training. Understanding the principles of EM could empower them to tackle growing health problems in the country. Additionally, some difficulties that western medical schools face in integrating EM into their curriculum may not be a hindrance in Pakistan. We propose solutions for the remaining challenges, including obstinate religious sentiments. Herein, we make the case that incorporating EM is particularly important in developing countries such as Pakistan and that it is achievable in its medical student body.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy004
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Why monkeys do not get multiple sclerosis (spontaneously)An evolutionary

    • Authors: Bove R.
      Pages: 43 - 59
      Abstract: The goal of this review is to apply an evolutionary lens to understanding the origins of multiple sclerosis (MS), integrating three broad observations. First, only humans are known to develop MS spontaneously. Second, humans have evolved large brains, with characteristically large amounts of metabolically costly myelin. This myelin is generated over long periods of neurologic development—and peak MS onset coincides with the end of myelination. Third, over the past century there has been a disproportionate increase in the rate of MS in young women of childbearing age, paralleling increasing westernization and urbanization, indicating sexually specific susceptibility in response to changing exposures. From these three observations about MS, a life history approach leads us to hypothesize that MS arises in humans from disruption of the normal homeostatic mechanisms of myelin production and maintenance, during our uniquely long myelination period. This review will highlight under-explored areas of homeostasis in brain development, that are likely to shed new light on the origins of MS and to raise further questions about the interactions between our ancestral genes and modern environments.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy002
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Phage treatment of an aortic graft infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    • Authors: Chan B; Turner P, Kim S, et al.
      Pages: 60 - 66
      Abstract: Management of prosthetic vascular graft infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be a significant challenge to clinicians. These infections often do not resolve with antibiotic therapy alone due to antibiotic resistance/tolerance by bacteria, poor ability of antibiotics to permeate/reduce biofilms and/or other factors. Bacteriophage OMKO1 binding to efflux pump proteins in P. aeruginosa was consistent with an evolutionary trade-off: wildtype bacteria were killed by phage whereas evolution of phage-resistance led to increased antibiotic sensitivity. However, phage clinical-use has not been demonstrated. Here, we present a case report detailing therapeutic application of phage OMKO1 to treat a chronic P. aeruginosa infection of an aortic Dacron graft with associated aorto-cutaneous fistula. Following a single application of phage OMKO1 and ceftazidime, the infection appeared to resolve with no signs of recurrence.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy005
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Evolutionary perspectives on cesarean section

    • Authors: Rosenberg K; Trevathan W.
      Pages: 67 - 81
      Abstract: Cesarean section (surgical removal of a neonate through the maternal abdominal and uterine walls) can be a life-saving medical intervention for both mothers and their newborns when vaginal delivery through the birth canal is impossible or dangerous. In recent years however, the rates of cesarean sections have increased in many countries far beyond the level of 10–15% recommended as optimal by the World Health Organization. These ‘excess’ cesarean sections carry a number of risks to both mothers and infants including complication from surgery for the mother and respiratory and immunological problems later in life for the infants. We argue that an evolutionary perspective on human childbirth suggests that many of these ‘unnecessary’ cesarean sections could be avoided if we considered the emotionally supportive social context in which childbirth has taken place for hundreds of thousands or perhaps even millions of years of human evolution. The insight that human childbirth is usually a cooperative, even social event in which women are attended by familiar, supportive family and friends suggests that the harsh clinical environment in which women often give birth in the developed world is not the best setting for dealing with the strong emotional forces that usually accompany labor and delivery. We argue that providing a secure, supportive environment for laboring mothers can reduce the rate of ‘unnecessary’ surgical deliveries.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy006
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Lost in translationThe 3'-UTR of IGF1R as an ancient long noncoding RNA

    • Authors: Mainieri A; Haig D.
      Pages: 82 - 91
      Abstract: Background and objectivesThe insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system is a major arena of intragenomic conflict over embryonic growth between imprinted genes of maternal and paternal origin and the IGF type 1 receptor (IGF1R) promotes proliferation of many human cancers. The 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the mouse Igf1r mRNA is targeted by miR-675-3p derived from the imprinted H19 long noncoding RNA. We undertook a comparative sequence analysis of vertebrate IGF1R 3'-UTRs to determine the evolutionary history of miR-675 target sequences and to identify conserved features that are likely to be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of IGF1R translation.MethodologySequences of IGF1R 3'-UTRs were obtained from public databases and analyzed using publicly available algorithms.ResultsA very long 3'-UTR is a conserved feature of vertebrate IGF1R mRNAs. We found that some ancient microRNAs, such as let-7 and mir-182, have predicted binding sites that are conserved between cartilaginous fish and mammals. One very conserved region is targeted by multiple, maternally expressed imprinted microRNAs that appear to have evolved more recently than the targeted sequences.Conclusions and implicationsThe conserved structures we identify in the IGF1R 3'-UTR are strong candidates for regulating cell proliferation during development and carcinogenesis. These conserved structures are now targeted by multiple imprinted microRNAs. These observations emphasize the central importance of IGF signaling pathways in the mediation of intragenomic conflicts over embryonic growth and identify possible targets for therapeutic interventions in cancer.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy008
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Unstable employment and health in middle age in the longitudinal 1970
           British Birth Cohort Study

    • Authors: Waynforth D.
      Pages: 92 - 99
      Abstract: Background and objectivesJobs for life have become increasingly rare in industrialized economies, and have been replaced by shorter-term employment contracts and freelancing. This labour market change is likely to be accompanied by physiological changes in individuals who have experienced little job stability. Evolved responses to increased environmental instability or stochasticity include increased fat deposition and fight-or-flight responses, such as glucose mobilization and increased blood pressure. These responses may have evolved by natural selection as beneficial to individuals in the short-term, but are damaging in the longer term.MethodologyThis study tested whether job losses experienced between ages 30 and 42 are associated with increased body weight, hypertension and diabetes diagnosis in the 1970 British Birth Cohort, which consists of all registered births in a one-week period in April 1970.ResultsEach job loss experienced increased the odds of developing diabetes by 1.39 times (CI 1.08–1.80), and of hypertension by 1.28 times (CI 1.07–1.53). Another economic variable, higher personal debt, was associated with all three of these health outcomes: every £100 000 of debt roughly doubled the odds of gaining at least 5 kg between ages 30 and 42. Conclusions and implicationsThese associations between job loss and health-risk factors suggest that our changing economy results in increases in the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. At a broader level, they are consistent with evolutionary understandings of environmental stochasticity, and are a reminder that economic policy is also health policy.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy009
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • An evolutionary perspective on night terrors

    • Authors: Boyden S; Pott M, Starks P.
      Pages: 100 - 105
      Abstract: Night terrors, also known as sleep terrors, are an early childhood parasomnia characterized by screams or cries, behavioral manifestations of extreme fear, difficulty waking and inconsolability upon awakening. The mechanism causing night terrors is unknown, and a consistently successful treatment has yet to be documented. Here, we argue that cultural practices have moved us away from an ultimate solution: cosleeping. Cosleeping is the norm for closely related primates and for humans in non-Western cultures. In recent years, however, cosleeping has been discouraged by the Western medical community. From an evolutionary perspective, cosleeping provides health and safety benefits for developing children. We discuss night terrors, and immediate and long-term health features, with respect to cosleeping, room-sharing and solitary sleeping. We suggest that cosleeping with children (≥1-year-old) may prevent night terrors and that, under certain circumstances, cosleeping with infants (≤11-months-old) is preferable to room-sharing, and both are preferable to solitary sleeping.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy010
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Cancer cell transmission via the placenta

    • Authors: Greaves M; Hughes W.
      Pages: 106 - 115
      Abstract: Cancer cells have a parasitic propensity in the primary host but their capacity to transit between individuals is severely restrained by two factors: a lack of a route for viable cell transfer and immune recognition in allogeneic, secondary recipients. Several examples of transmissible animal cancers are now recognised. In humans, the only natural route for transmission is via the haemochorial placenta which is permissive for cell traffic. There are three special examples of this occurring in utero: maternal to foetus, intraplacental twin to twin leukaemias and choriocarcinoma-extra-embryonic cells to mother. We discuss the rare circumstances under which such transmission occurs.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy011
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Increasing variability of body mass and health correlates in Swiss
           conscripts, a possible role of relaxed natural selection'

    • Authors: Staub K; Henneberg M, Galassi F, et al.
      Pages: 116 - 126
      Abstract: Background and objectivesThe body mass index (BMI) is an established anthropometric index for the development of obesity-related conditions. However, little is known about the distribution of BMI within a population, especially about this distribution’s temporal change. Here, we analysed changes in the distribution of height, weight and BMI over the past 140 years based on data of Swiss conscripts and tested for correlations between anthropometric data and standard blood parameters.MethodsHeight and weight were measured in 59 504 young Swiss males aged 18–19 years during conscription in 1875–79, 1932–36, 1994 and 2010–12. For 65% of conscripts in 2010–12, results of standard blood analysis were available. We calculated descriptive statistics of the distribution of height, weight and BMI over the four time periods and tested for associations between BMI and metabolic parameters.ResultsAverage and median body height, body weight and BMI increased over time. Height did no longer increase between 1994 and 2010–12, while weight and BMI still increased over these two decades. Variability ranges of weight and BMI increased over time, while variation of body height remained constant. Elevated levels of metabolic and inflammatory blood parameters were found at both ends of BMI distribution.Conclusions and implicationsBoth overweight and underweight subgroups showed similar changes in inflammation parameters, pointing toward related metabolic deficiencies in both conditions. In addition to environmental influences, our results indicate a potential role of relaxed natural selection on genes affecting metabolism and body composition.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy012
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • The impact of within-host ecology on the fitness of a drug-resistant

    • Authors: Huijben S; Chan B, Nelson W, et al.
      Pages: 127 - 137
      Abstract: Background and objectives: The rate of evolution of drug resistance depends on the fitness of resistant pathogens. The fitness of resistant pathogens is reduced by competition with sensitive pathogens in untreated hosts and so enhanced by competitive release in drug-treated hosts. We set out to estimate the magnitude of those effects on a variety of fitness measures, hypothesizing that competitive suppression and competitive release would have larger impacts when resistance was rarer to begin with. Methodology: We infected mice with varying densities of drug-resistant Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites in a fixed density of drug-sensitive parasites and followed infection dynamics using strain-specific quantitative PCR. Results: Competition with susceptible parasites reduced the absolute fitness of resistant parasites by 50–100%. Drug treatment increased the absolute fitness from 2- to >10 000-fold. The ecological context and choice of fitness measure was responsible for the wide variation in those estimates. Initial population growth rates poorly predicted parasite abundance and transmission probabilities. Conclusions and implications: (i) The sensitivity of estimates of pathogen fitness to ecological context and choice of fitness measure make it difficult to derive field-relevant estimates of the fitness costs and benefits of resistance from experimental settings. (ii) Competitive suppression can be a key force preventing resistance from emerging when it is rare, as it is when it first arises. (iii) Drug treatment profoundly affects the fitness of resistance. Resistance evolution could be slowed by developing drug use policies that consider in-host competition.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy016
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Do sexually transmitted infections exacerbate negative premenstrual
           symptoms' Insights from digital health

    • Authors: Alvergne A; Vlajic Wheeler M, Högqvist Tabor V.
      Pages: 138 - 150
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackground and objectivesThe underlying reasons why some women experience debilitating premenstrual symptoms and others do not are largely unknown. Here, we test the evolutionary ecological hypothesis that some negative premenstrual symptoms may be exacerbated by the presence of chronic sexually transmitted infections (STIs).Methodology34 511 women were recruited through a digital period-tracker app. Participants were asked: (i) Have you ever been diagnosed with a STI' (ii) If yes, when was it, and were you given treatment' Those data were combined with longitudinal cycle data on menstrual bleeding patterns, the experience of pain and emotions and hormonal contraceptive use.Results865 women had at least two complete menstrual cycle data and were eligible for analysis. Before diagnosis, the presence of an infection predicts a ca. 2-fold increase in the odds of reporting both headache, cramps and sadness during the late luteal phase and sensitive emotions during the wider luteal phase. After diagnosis, the odds of reporting negative symptoms pre-menstrually remain unchanged among STI negative individuals, but the odds of reporting sensitive emotions decrease among STI positive individuals receiving a treatment. No relationships between STIs, pain and emotions are observed among hormonal contraceptive users.Conclusions and implicationsThe results support the idea that a negative premenstrual experience might be aggravated by the presence of undiagnosed STIs, a leading cause of infertility worldwide. Caution is warranted in extrapolating the results as the data are self-reported, inflammatory levels are unknown and the tracker is biased towards recording negative premenstrual symptoms among Western individuals.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy018
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Evolutionary medicineWhy does prevalence of myopia significantly

    • Authors: Long E.
      Pages: 151 - 152
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy017
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Life history trade-offs and the partitioning of maternal
           investmentImplications for health of mothers and offspring

    • Authors: Wells J.
      Pages: 153 - 166
      Abstract: ABSTRACTLay Summary: This review sets out the hypothesis that life history trade-offs in the maternal generation favour the emergence of similar trade-offs in the offspring generation, mediated by the partitioning of maternal investment between pregnancy and lactation, and that these trade-offs help explain widely reported associations between growth trajectories and NCD risk.Growth patterns in early life predict the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), but adaptive explanations remain controversial. It is widely assumed that NCDs occur either because of physiological adjustments to early constraints, or because early ecological cues fail to predict adult environmental conditions (mismatch). I present an inter-generational perspective on developmental plasticity, based on the over-arching hypothesis that a key axis of variability in maternal metabolism derives from life history trade-offs, which influence how individual mothers partition nutritional investment in their offspring between pregnancy and lactation. I review evidence for three resulting predictions: (i) Allocating relatively more energy to growth during development promotes the capacity to invest in offspring during pregnancy. Relevant mechanisms include greater fat-free mass and metabolic turnover, and a larger physical space for fetal growth. (ii) Allocating less energy to growth during development constrains fetal growth of the offspring, but mothers may compensate by a tendency to attain higher adiposity around puberty, ecological conditions permitting, which promotes nutritional investment during lactation. (iii) Since the partitioning of maternal investment between pregnancy and lactation impacts the allocation of energy to ‘maintenance’ as well as growth, it is expected to shape offspring NCD risk as well as adult size and body composition. Overall, this framework predicts that life history trade-offs in the maternal generation favour the emergence of similar trade-offs in the offspring generation, mediated by the partitioning of maternal investment between pregnancy and lactation, and that these trade-offs help explain widely reported associations between growth trajectories and NCD risk.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy014
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Maternal investment, maturational rate of the offspring and mechanical
           competence of the adult female skeleton

    • Authors: Macintosh A; Wells J, Stock J.
      Pages: 167 - 179
      Abstract: ABSTRACTLay summaryGirls with a slower life history trajectory build a larger body with larger and mechanically stronger bones. Thus, variation in the emergence of slower versus faster life history trajectories during development can have consequences for bone mechanical competence, and hence fracture risk in adulthood. Background and objectivesVariation in life history trajectory, specifically relative investment in growth versus reproduction, has been associated with chronic disease risk among women, but whether this scenario extends to skeletal health and fracture risk is unknown. This study investigates the association of life history traits (proxies for maternal investment and maturational rate) with female bone outcomes in adulthood.MethodologyBody size variables, regional muscle and fat areas, and cross-sectional bone size and strength outcomes were obtained from 107 pre-menopausal women encompassing a wide range of physical activity levels. Developmental parameters (birth weight, age at menarche) were obtained from questionnaires.ResultsHigh birth weight was significantly associated with a proportionately larger body and larger, mechanically stronger bones, independently of physical activity level. It was also positively but non-significantly associated with age at menarche. Later menarche was significantly associated with larger and mechanically stronger bones and substantially less absolute and relative regional subcutaneous fat. Age at menarche exhibited stronger relationships with adult adiposity than did physical activity.Conclusions and implicationsBoth larger birth weight and later menarche contribute to a slower life history trajectory, which is associated with greater body size, leanness and bone mechanical competence in early adulthood. In contrast, earlier sexual maturity prioritized energy allocation in adiposity over body size and skeletal strength. Thus, the level of maternal investment and the woman’s own life history trajectory shape investment in skeletal properties, with implications for fracture risk later in life.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy015
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Deformational plagiocephalyThe case for an evolutionary mismatch

    • Authors: Renz-Polster H; De Bock F.
      Pages: 180 - 185
      Abstract: Lay Summary: In industrialized societies some babies develop flattening of the back part of their head. It is thought that this comes from sleeping supine, which has been shown to be the safest option for babies. However, this explanation cannot be correct from an evolutionary standpoint: why should safe sleep come at the cost of a misshaped head'Babies in industrialized societies are generally healthy. The medical problems they may be afflicted with are usually well understood. Deformational plagiocephaly presents a notable exception. In many industrialized countries, one in six babies shows posterior flattening of the skull—a feature noteworthy from an evolutionary perspective as the well rounded cranium is part of the ‘Kindchenschema’ evolved to secure care for the infant. It is commonly held that the deformation of the posterior cranium occurs as a consequence of the supine sleep position, now advocated as the safest sleep position for babies by medical experts. This explanation, however, does not fare well in the light of evolutionary theory: why should safe sleep come at the cost of a social handicap' Here, we present an alternative hypothesis that is grounded on evolutionary mismatch theory and exemplifies how evolutionary reasoning can help clarify medical conditions relevant to today’s public health.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy019
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Blind fishAn eye opener

    • Authors: Ojha A; Watve M.
      Pages: 186 - 189
      Abstract: Lay Summary: Different species of vertebrates have conditions similar to human obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Increasing number of studies are now revealing that the causes and interrelationships between these states are substantially different in different species. Comparative physiology may turn out to be an eye opener for evolutionary theories of diabetes. Obesity induced insulin resistance is believed to be central to type 2 diabetes. Recent work on Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus, has revealed a hyperglycemic phenotype similar to human type 2 diabetes but here insulin resistance is the cause of obesity rather than an effect. Instead of developing diabetic complications, the hyperglycemic fish lead a healthy and long life. In addition to fish, insulin resistance in hibernating bears, dolphins, horses, bonnet macaques and chimpanzees demonstrate that the relationship between diet, obesity, insulin sensitivity and diabetes is widely different in different species. Evolutionary hypotheses about type 2 diabetes should explain these differences.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy020
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Evolutionary mismatch

    • Authors: Manus M.
      Pages: 190 - 191
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy023
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • The continual threat of influenza virus infections at the human–animal
           interfaceWhat is new from a one health perspective'

    • Authors: Bailey E; Choi J, Fieldhouse J, et al.
      Pages: 192 - 198
      Abstract: This year, in 2018, we mark 100 years since the 1918 influenza pandemic. In the last 100 years, we have expanded our knowledge of public health and increased our ability to detect and prevent influenza; however, we still face challenges resulting from these continually evolving viruses. Today, it is clear that influenza viruses have multiple animal reservoirs (domestic and wild), making infection prevention in humans especially difficult to achieve. With this report, we summarize new knowledge regarding influenza A, B, C and D viruses and their control. We also introduce how a multi-disciplinary One Health approach is necessary to mitigate these threats.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy013
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • The 1918 influenza pandemic: Ecological, historical, and evolutionary

    • Authors: Nunn C.
      Pages: 199 - 200
      Abstract: One hundred years ago, a pandemic of unprecedented size and scope afflicted the human population. This pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origin. Over the course of 1918–1919, this virus infected approximately one-third of the nearly 2 billion people living on Earth at the time, resulting in at least 50 million deaths. The pandemic caused massive economic disruptions, severely strained many of the public health infrastructures that were designed to contain disease, and spread to the farthest and most isolated corners of the globe, often with especially deadly consequences in remote areas. The disease caused by this virus had several unusual characteristics that remain incompletely understood, including high mortality in previously healthy, young adults (i.e., 20–40 years of age). Questions also remain about the geographic origin of the pandemic, and the underlying drivers that led to emergence from avian hosts. The 1918 influenza pandemic remains one of the most feared epidemics in world history, and a rallying cry for more effective preparedness for future outbreaks of influenza and other viruses. It is well worth reflecting on this pandemic, including with an evolutionary lens.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy021
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Status of evolutionary medicine within the field of nutrition and
           dieteticsA survey of professionals and students

    • Authors: Basile A; Schwartz D, Rigdon J, et al.
      Pages: 201 - 210
      Abstract: Lay SummaryThrough an online survey of nutrition and dietetic professionals and students, we learned there is interest to incorporate evolutionary medicine into the nutrition and dietetics field and education programs.Background and objectivesEvolutionary medicine is an emerging field that examines the evolutionary significance of modern disease to develop new preventative strategies or treatments. While many areas of interest in evolutionary medicine and public health involve diet, we currently lack an understanding of whether nutrition and dietetics professionals and students appreciate the potential of evolutionary medicine.MethodologyCross-sectional online survey to measure the level of appreciation, applicability and knowledge of evolutionary medicine among nutrition and dietetics professionals and students. We then examined the relationships between support of evolutionary medicine and (i) professionals and students, (ii) US region, (iii) religious belief and (iv) existing evolutionary knowledge.ResultsA total of 2039 people participated: students (n = 893) and professionals (n = 1146). The majority of the participants agree they are knowledgeable on the theory of evolution (59%), an understanding of evolution can aid the nutrition and dietetics field (58%), an evolutionary perspective would be beneficial in dietetics education (51%) and it is equally important to understand both the evolutionary and direct causes of disease (71%). Significant differences in responses between professionals and students suggest students are currently learning more about evolution and are also more supportive of using an evolutionary perspective. Whereas differences in responses by US region were minimal, differences by religious belief and prior evolutionary knowledge were significant; however, all responses were either neutral or supportive at varying strengths.Conclusion and implicationsThere is interest among professionals and students to incorporate evolutionary medicine into the nutrition and dietetics field and education programs.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy022
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Pre-eclampsiaUnderstanding clinical complexity

    • Authors: Buschman A; Rep A.
      Pages: 211 - 212
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy028
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Autism, evolution, and the inadequacy of ‘spectrum’

    • Authors: Greenspan N.
      Pages: 213 - 216
      Abstract: Lay Summary: Individuals diagnosed with autism display variation in many traits, such as interest and ability in social interaction or resistance to change. Referring to this variation as a ‘spectrum’, defined as a range of values along an axis, understates the extent of such variation and can foster incorrect inferences.In psychiatry, the currently accepted term for a developmental disability characterized by variably impaired social and communicative skills, repetitive behaviors, and restricted interests is “autism spectrum disorder.” “Spectrum,” typically refers to values of a variable distributed along a single dimension, incorrectly suggesting people with autism can be simply ranked as more or less ‘autistic.’ In fact, there are multiple traits that pertain to autism and that can vary somewhat independently, in part due to the evolutionary mechanisms that give rise to risk alleles. Therefore, a new and more accurate clinical descriptor should be adopted. I propose: autism-related disorders (ARD).
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy025
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Pre-eclampsia and maternal–fetal conflict

    • Authors: Varas Enriquez P; McKerracher L, Elliot M.
      Pages: 217 - 218
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy029
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • The influenza of 1918Evolutionary perspectives in a historical context

    • Authors: Humphreys M.
      Pages: 219 - 229
      Abstract: The 1918 influenza pandemic was the deadliest in known human history. It spread globally to the most isolated of human communities, causing clinical disease in a third of the world’s population, and infecting nearly every human alive at the time. Determination of mortality numbers is complicated by weak contemporary surveillance in the developing world, but recent estimates put the death toll at 50 million or even higher. This outbreak is of great interest to modern day epidemiologists, virologists, global health researchers and evolutionary biologists. They ask: Where did it come from' And if it happened once, could it happen again' Understanding how such a virulent epidemic emerged and spread offers hope for prevention and strategies of response. This review uses historical methodology and evolutionary perspectives to revisit the 1918 outbreak. Using the American military experience as a case study, it investigates the emergence of virulence in 1918 by focusing on key susceptibility factors that favored both the influenza virus and the subsequent pneumococcal invasion that took so many lives. This article explores the history of the epidemic and contemporary measures against it, surveys modern research on the virus, and considers what aspects of 1918 human and animal ecology most contributed to the emergence of this pandemic.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy024
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
  • Variation among populations in the immune protein composition of
           mother’s milk reflects subsistence pattern

    • Authors: Klein L; Huang J, Quinn E, et al.
      Pages: 230 - 245
      Abstract: Lay SummaryAdaptive immune proteins in mothers’ milk are more variable than innate immune proteins across populations and subsistence strategies. These results suggest that the immune defenses in milk are shaped by a mother’s environment throughout her life.Background and objectivesMother’s milk contains immune proteins that play critical roles in protecting the infant from infection and priming the infant’s developing immune system during early life. The composition of these molecules in milk, particularly the acquired immune proteins, is thought to reflect a mother’s immunological exposures throughout her life. In this study, we examine the composition of innate and acquired immune proteins in milk across seven populations with diverse disease and cultural ecologies.MethodologyMilk samples (n = 164) were collected in Argentina, Bolivia, Nepal, Namibia, Philippines, Poland and the USA. Populations were classified as having one of four subsistence patterns: urban-industrialism, rural-shop, horticulturalist-forager or agro-pastoralism. Milk innate (lactalbumin, lactoferrin and lysozyme) and acquired (Secretory IgA, IgG and IgM) protein concentrations were determined using triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry.ResultsBoth innate and acquired immune protein composition in milk varied among populations, though the acquired immune protein composition of milk differed more among populations. Populations living in closer geographic proximity or having similar subsistence strategies (e.g. agro-pastoralists from Nepal and Namibia) had more similar milk immune protein compositions. Agro-pastoralists had different milk innate immune protein composition from horticulturalist-foragers and urban-industrialists. Acquired immune protein composition differed among all subsistence strategies except horticulturist-foragers and rural-shop.Conclusions and implicationsOur results reveal fundamental variation in milk composition that has not been previously explored in human milk research. Further study is needed to understand what specific aspects of the local environment influence milk composition and the effects this variation may have on infant health outcomes.
      PubDate: Sat, 13 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy031
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
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