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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 294, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 578, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Number of Followers: 10  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2050-6201
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • Cooperation between cancer cells

    • Authors: Archetti M.
      Pages: 1 - 1
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy003
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Linking autoimmunity to the origin of the adaptive immune system

    • Authors: Bayersdorf R; Fruscalzo A, Catania F.
      Pages: 2 - 12
      Abstract: In jawed vertebrates, the adaptive immune system (AIS) cooperates with the innate immune system (IIS) to protect hosts from infections. Although targeting non-self-components, the AIS also generates self-reactive antibodies which, when inadequately counter-selected, can give rise to autoimmune diseases (ADs). ADs are on the rise in western countries. Why haven’t ADs been eliminated during the evolution of a ∼500 million-year old system' And why have they become more frequent in recent decades' Self-recognition is an attribute of the phylogenetically more ancient IIS and empirical data compellingly show that some self-reactive antibodies, which are classifiable as elements of the IIS rather then the AIS, may protect from (rather than cause) ADs. Here, we propose that the IIS’s self-recognition system originally fathered the AIS and, as a consequence of this relationship, its activity is dampened in hygienic environments. Rather than a mere breakdown or failure of the mechanisms of self-tolerance, ADs might thus arise from architectural constraints.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy001
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • A roadmap for ‘core concepts’ in evolutionary medicine

    • Authors: Nunn C.
      Pages: 24 - 25
      Abstract: Evolutionary perspectives are vital to tackling a wide range of health challenges in today’s world, including emerging infectious diseases, the evolution of antimicrobial resistance, increasing prevalence of autoimmune diseases, the obesity epidemic, threats to food safety, neurodegenerative disease, cancer and more. To address this scope of diseases, evolutionary medicine is highly interdisciplinary, drawing on perspectives and approaches in ecology, evolution, biological anthropology, and global health (which itself is very interdisciplinary). Some evolutionary medicine research programs focus on understanding why humans are vulnerable to disease, whereas others aim to apply evolutionary approaches to more effectively prevent or treat disease.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eox026
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • The importance of Evolutionary Medicine in developing countriesA case for
           Pakistan's medical schools

    • Authors: Enam S; Hashmi S.
      Pages: 26 - 33
      Abstract: Evolutionary Medicine (EM) is a fundamental science exploring why our bodies are plagued with disease and hindered by limitations. EM views the body as an assortment of benefits, mistakes, and compromises molded over millennia. It highlights the role of evolution in numerous diseases encountered in community and family medicine clinics of developing countries. It enables us to ask informed questions and develop novel responses to global health problems. An understanding of the field is thus crucial for budding doctors, but its study is currently limited to a handful of medical schools in high-income countries. For the developing world, Pakistan's medical schools may be excellent starting posts as the country is beset with communicable and non-communicable diseases that are shaped by evolution. Remarkably, Pakistani medical students are open to studying and incorporating EM into their training. Understanding the principles of EM could empower them to tackle growing health problems in the country. Additionally, some difficulties that western medical schools face in integrating EM into their curriculum may not be a hindrance in Pakistan. We propose solutions for the remaining challenges, including obstinate religious sentiments. Herein, we make the case that incorporating EM is particularly important in developing countries such as Pakistan and that it is achievable in its medical student body.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy004
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Why monkeys do not get multiple sclerosis (spontaneously)An evolutionary
           approach

    • Authors: Bove R.
      Pages: 43 - 59
      Abstract: The goal of this review is to apply an evolutionary lens to understanding the origins of multiple sclerosis (MS), integrating three broad observations. First, only humans are known to develop MS spontaneously. Second, humans have evolved large brains, with characteristically large amounts of metabolically costly myelin. This myelin is generated over long periods of neurologic development—and peak MS onset coincides with the end of myelination. Third, over the past century there has been a disproportionate increase in the rate of MS in young women of childbearing age, paralleling increasing westernization and urbanization, indicating sexually specific susceptibility in response to changing exposures. From these three observations about MS, a life history approach leads us to hypothesize that MS arises in humans from disruption of the normal homeostatic mechanisms of myelin production and maintenance, during our uniquely long myelination period. This review will highlight under-explored areas of homeostasis in brain development, that are likely to shed new light on the origins of MS and to raise further questions about the interactions between our ancestral genes and modern environments.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy002
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Phage treatment of an aortic graft infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    • Authors: Chan B; Turner P, Kim S, et al.
      Pages: 60 - 66
      Abstract: Management of prosthetic vascular graft infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be a significant challenge to clinicians. These infections often do not resolve with antibiotic therapy alone due to antibiotic resistance/tolerance by bacteria, poor ability of antibiotics to permeate/reduce biofilms and/or other factors. Bacteriophage OMKO1 binding to efflux pump proteins in P. aeruginosa was consistent with an evolutionary trade-off: wildtype bacteria were killed by phage whereas evolution of phage-resistance led to increased antibiotic sensitivity. However, phage clinical-use has not been demonstrated. Here, we present a case report detailing therapeutic application of phage OMKO1 to treat a chronic P. aeruginosa infection of an aortic Dacron graft with associated aorto-cutaneous fistula. Following a single application of phage OMKO1 and ceftazidime, the infection appeared to resolve with no signs of recurrence.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy005
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Evolutionary perspectives on cesarean section

    • Authors: Rosenberg K; Trevathan W.
      Pages: 67 - 81
      Abstract: Cesarean section (surgical removal of a neonate through the maternal abdominal and uterine walls) can be a life-saving medical intervention for both mothers and their newborns when vaginal delivery through the birth canal is impossible or dangerous. In recent years however, the rates of cesarean sections have increased in many countries far beyond the level of 10–15% recommended as optimal by the World Health Organization. These ‘excess’ cesarean sections carry a number of risks to both mothers and infants including complication from surgery for the mother and respiratory and immunological problems later in life for the infants. We argue that an evolutionary perspective on human childbirth suggests that many of these ‘unnecessary’ cesarean sections could be avoided if we considered the emotionally supportive social context in which childbirth has taken place for hundreds of thousands or perhaps even millions of years of human evolution. The insight that human childbirth is usually a cooperative, even social event in which women are attended by familiar, supportive family and friends suggests that the harsh clinical environment in which women often give birth in the developed world is not the best setting for dealing with the strong emotional forces that usually accompany labor and delivery. We argue that providing a secure, supportive environment for laboring mothers can reduce the rate of ‘unnecessary’ surgical deliveries.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy006
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Lost in translationThe 3'-UTR of IGF1R as an ancient long noncoding RNA

    • Authors: Mainieri A; Haig D.
      Pages: 82 - 91
      Abstract: Background and objectivesThe insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system is a major arena of intragenomic conflict over embryonic growth between imprinted genes of maternal and paternal origin and the IGF type 1 receptor (IGF1R) promotes proliferation of many human cancers. The 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the mouse Igf1r mRNA is targeted by miR-675-3p derived from the imprinted H19 long noncoding RNA. We undertook a comparative sequence analysis of vertebrate IGF1R 3'-UTRs to determine the evolutionary history of miR-675 target sequences and to identify conserved features that are likely to be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of IGF1R translation.MethodologySequences of IGF1R 3'-UTRs were obtained from public databases and analyzed using publicly available algorithms.ResultsA very long 3'-UTR is a conserved feature of vertebrate IGF1R mRNAs. We found that some ancient microRNAs, such as let-7 and mir-182, have predicted binding sites that are conserved between cartilaginous fish and mammals. One very conserved region is targeted by multiple, maternally expressed imprinted microRNAs that appear to have evolved more recently than the targeted sequences.Conclusions and implicationsThe conserved structures we identify in the IGF1R 3'-UTR are strong candidates for regulating cell proliferation during development and carcinogenesis. These conserved structures are now targeted by multiple imprinted microRNAs. These observations emphasize the central importance of IGF signaling pathways in the mediation of intragenomic conflicts over embryonic growth and identify possible targets for therapeutic interventions in cancer.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy008
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Unstable employment and health in middle age in the longitudinal 1970
           British Birth Cohort Study

    • Authors: Waynforth D.
      Pages: 92 - 99
      Abstract: Background and objectivesJobs for life have become increasingly rare in industrialized economies, and have been replaced by shorter-term employment contracts and freelancing. This labour market change is likely to be accompanied by physiological changes in individuals who have experienced little job stability. Evolved responses to increased environmental instability or stochasticity include increased fat deposition and fight-or-flight responses, such as glucose mobilization and increased blood pressure. These responses may have evolved by natural selection as beneficial to individuals in the short-term, but are damaging in the longer term.MethodologyThis study tested whether job losses experienced between ages 30 and 42 are associated with increased body weight, hypertension and diabetes diagnosis in the 1970 British Birth Cohort, which consists of all registered births in a one-week period in April 1970.ResultsEach job loss experienced increased the odds of developing diabetes by 1.39 times (CI 1.08–1.80), and of hypertension by 1.28 times (CI 1.07–1.53). Another economic variable, higher personal debt, was associated with all three of these health outcomes: every £100 000 of debt roughly doubled the odds of gaining at least 5 kg between ages 30 and 42. Conclusions and implicationsThese associations between job loss and health-risk factors suggest that our changing economy results in increases in the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. At a broader level, they are consistent with evolutionary understandings of environmental stochasticity, and are a reminder that economic policy is also health policy.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy009
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • An evolutionary perspective on night terrors

    • Authors: Boyden S; Pott M, Starks P.
      Pages: 100 - 105
      Abstract: Night terrors, also known as sleep terrors, are an early childhood parasomnia characterized by screams or cries, behavioral manifestations of extreme fear, difficulty waking and inconsolability upon awakening. The mechanism causing night terrors is unknown, and a consistently successful treatment has yet to be documented. Here, we argue that cultural practices have moved us away from an ultimate solution: cosleeping. Cosleeping is the norm for closely related primates and for humans in non-Western cultures. In recent years, however, cosleeping has been discouraged by the Western medical community. From an evolutionary perspective, cosleeping provides health and safety benefits for developing children. We discuss night terrors, and immediate and long-term health features, with respect to cosleeping, room-sharing and solitary sleeping. We suggest that cosleeping with children (≥1-year-old) may prevent night terrors and that, under certain circumstances, cosleeping with infants (≤11-months-old) is preferable to room-sharing, and both are preferable to solitary sleeping.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy010
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Cancer cell transmission via the placenta

    • Authors: Greaves M; Hughes W.
      Pages: 106 - 115
      Abstract: Cancer cells have a parasitic propensity in the primary host but their capacity to transit between individuals is severely restrained by two factors: a lack of a route for viable cell transfer and immune recognition in allogeneic, secondary recipients. Several examples of transmissible animal cancers are now recognised. In humans, the only natural route for transmission is via the haemochorial placenta which is permissive for cell traffic. There are three special examples of this occurring in utero: maternal to foetus, intraplacental twin to twin leukaemias and choriocarcinoma-extra-embryonic cells to mother. We discuss the rare circumstances under which such transmission occurs.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy011
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Increasing variability of body mass and health correlates in Swiss
           conscripts, a possible role of relaxed natural selection'

    • Authors: Staub K; Henneberg M, Galassi F, et al.
      Pages: 116 - 126
      Abstract: Background and objectivesThe body mass index (BMI) is an established anthropometric index for the development of obesity-related conditions. However, little is known about the distribution of BMI within a population, especially about this distribution’s temporal change. Here, we analysed changes in the distribution of height, weight and BMI over the past 140 years based on data of Swiss conscripts and tested for correlations between anthropometric data and standard blood parameters.MethodsHeight and weight were measured in 59 504 young Swiss males aged 18–19 years during conscription in 1875–79, 1932–36, 1994 and 2010–12. For 65% of conscripts in 2010–12, results of standard blood analysis were available. We calculated descriptive statistics of the distribution of height, weight and BMI over the four time periods and tested for associations between BMI and metabolic parameters.ResultsAverage and median body height, body weight and BMI increased over time. Height did no longer increase between 1994 and 2010–12, while weight and BMI still increased over these two decades. Variability ranges of weight and BMI increased over time, while variation of body height remained constant. Elevated levels of metabolic and inflammatory blood parameters were found at both ends of BMI distribution.Conclusions and implicationsBoth overweight and underweight subgroups showed similar changes in inflammation parameters, pointing toward related metabolic deficiencies in both conditions. In addition to environmental influences, our results indicate a potential role of relaxed natural selection on genes affecting metabolism and body composition.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy012
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Core principles of evolutionary medicineA Delphi study

    • Authors: Grunspan D; Nesse R, Barnes M, et al.
      Pages: 13 - 23
      Abstract: Background and objectivesEvolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education.MethodologyThe Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle.ResultsFourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine.Conclusions and implicationsThis set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eox025
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • An evolutionary account of vigilance in grief

    • Authors: White C; Fessler D.
      Pages: 34 - 42
      Abstract: Grief is characterized by a number of cardinal cognitive symptoms, including preoccupation with thoughts of the deceased and vigilance toward indications that the deceased is in the environment. Compared with emotional symptoms, little attention has been paid to the ultimate function of vigilance in grief. Drawing on signal-detection theory, we propose that the ultimate function of vigilance is to facilitate the reunification (where possible) with a viable relationship partner following separation. Preoccupation with thoughts about the missing person creates the cognitive conditions necessary to maintain a low baseline threshold for the detection of the agent—any information associated with the agent is highly salient, and attention is correspondingly readily deployed toward such cues. These patterns are adaptive in cases of an absent but living partner, but maladaptive in cases of the death of a partner. That they occur in the latter likely reflects the intersection of error-management considerations and the kludge-like configuration of the mind. We discuss results from two previous studies designed to test predictions concerning input conditions and individual differences based on this account, and consider the implications of these findings for mainstream bereavement theories and practices.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eox018
      Issue No: Vol. 2018, No. 1 (2017)
       
 
 
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