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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 409 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 409 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 366, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 601, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 117, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 214, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insect Systematics and Diversity     Hybrid Journal  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2050-6201
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [409 journals]
  • The shapes of virulence to come

    • Authors: Pandey A; Dawson D.
      Pages: 3 - 3
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoy037
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Genes that improved fitness also cost modern humans: evidence for genes
           with antagonistic effects on longevity and disease

    • Authors: Byars S; Voskarides K.
      Pages: 4 - 6
      Abstract: Austad and Hoffmann review the current state-of-the-art on what support there is for the theory of antagonistic pleiotropy and what implications this has for modern medicine regarding improving human health and longevity [1]. Although the authors focus on examples in both wild populations and laboratory conditions, the review states that there are no compelling examples in humans where the underlying genes or alleles that carry this tradeoff have been identified. This fails to acknowledge recent studies, mostly published the last two years, where excellent progress has been made in identifying such genes and below, we describe several examples.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz002
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Response to genes that improved fitness also cost modern humans: evidence
           for genes with antagonistic effects on longevity and disease

    • Authors: Austad S; Hoffman J.
      Pages: 7 - 8
      Abstract: Byars and Voskarides, responding to our review of empirical support for George Williams’ antagonistic pleiotropy (AP) theory of the evolution of aging [1], feel that we have ‘failed to acknowledge’ recent human studies supporting the theory. Indeed, we mentioned no human studies because we had intended our review to present only the strongest evidence supporting the theory which has been done almost entirely in laboratory model organisms. For this reason, while we mentioned a few studies from natural populations, we emphasized how such nonexperimental studies could be consistent with the AP mechanisms, but could not be cleanly attributed to it. Thus, we focused on experimental studies—those in which experimental manipulation of a single gene had clear antagonistic effects on fitness components in early versus late life as Williams predicted. Experimental studies establish cause-and-effect in a way that correlational studies such as those cited by Byars and Voskarides cannot.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz003
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Energy oversupply to tissues: a single mechanism possibly underlying
           multiple cancer risk factors

    • Authors: Wu D; Aktipis A, Pepper J.
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Background and objectivesSeveral major risk factors for cancer involve vascular oversupply of energy to affected tissues. These include obesity, diabetes and chronic inflammation. Here, we propose a potential mechanistic explanation for the association between energy oversupply and cancer risk, which we call the metabolic cancer suppression hypothesis: We hypothesize that oncogenesis is normally suppressed by organismal physiology that regulates and strictly limits normal energy supply to somatic cells, and that this protection is removed by abnormal oversupply of energy.MethodologyWe evaluate this hypothesis using a computational model of somatic cell evolution to simulate experimental manipulation of the vascular energy supply to a tissue. The model simulates the evolutionary dynamics of somatic cells during oncogenesis.ResultsIn our simulation experiment, we found that under plausible biological assumptions, elevated energy supply to a tissue led to the evolution of elevated energy uptake by somatic cells, leading to the rapid evolution of both defining traits of cancer cells: hyperproliferation, and tissue invasion.Conclusions and implicationsOur results support the hypothesis of metabolic cancer suppression, suggesting that vascular oversupply of energetic resources to somatic cells removes normal energetic limitations on cell proliferation, and that this accelerates cellular evolution toward cancer. Various predictions of this hypothesis are amenable to empirical testing, and have promising implications for translational research toward clinical cancer prevention.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz004
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Tandem repeat disorders

    • Authors: Ryan C.
      First page: 17
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz005
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • The origins of the great pandemic

    • Authors: Worobey M; Cox J, Gill D.
      Pages: 18 - 25
      Abstract: The timing and location of the first cases of the 1918 influenza pandemic are still controversial, a century after the pandemic became widely recognized. Here, we critically review competing hypotheses on the timing and geographical origin of this important outbreak and provide new historical insights into debates within military circles as to the nature of putative pre-1918 influenza activity. We also synthesize current knowledge about why the 1918 pandemic was so intense in young adults. Although it is still not clear precisely when and where the outbreak began and symptom-based reports are unlikely to reveal the answer, indirect methods including phylogenetics provide important clues, and we consider whether intense influenza activity as far back as 1915 in the USA may have been caused by viral strains closely related to the 1918 one.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz001
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Publisher’s Note: Phage treatment of an aortic graft infected with
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    • Authors: Chan B; Turner P, Kim S, et al.
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The corresponding author for this article is now deceased, and the corresponding author information has since been changed from Deepak Narayan to Paul E. Turner.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz006
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Sexual selection

    • Authors: Janicke T; Morrow E.
      First page: 36
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz007
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Evolutionary ecology meets the antibiotic crisisCan we control pathogen
           adaptation through sequential therapy'

    • Authors: Roemhild R; Schulenburg H.
      Pages: 37 - 45
      Abstract: The spread of antibiotic resistance is a global challenge that is fueled by evolution and ecological processes. Therefore, the design of new sustainable therapy should take account of these underlying processes—as proposed within the field of evolutionary medicine, yet usually not receiving the necessary attention from national and international health agencies. We here put the spotlight on a currently neglected treatment strategy: sequential therapy. Changes among antibiotics generate fluctuating selection conditions that are in general difficult to counter by any organism. We argue that sequential treatment designs can be specifically optimized by exploiting evolutionary trade-offs, for example collateral sensitivity and/or inducible physiological constraints, such as negative hysteresis, where pre-exposure to one antibiotic induces temporary hyper-sensitivity to another antibiotic. Our commentary provides an overview of sequential treatment strategies and outlines steps towards their further optimization.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz008
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • J.S. Torday, N.W. Blackstone, and V.K. Rehan, A Cell-Centered Alternative
           to Mainstream Evolutionary Medicine' Review of “Evidence-Based
           Evolutionary Medicine”

    • Authors: Jaeggi A.
      Pages: 46 - 47
      Abstract: BlackwellWiley, Hoboken, NJ, ISBN: 978-1-118-83831-0, 248 pp. $103.99 (e-book) or $129.95 (hardcover)
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz010
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Extended phenotype in evolutionary medicine

    • Authors: Valentino S; Greenspan N.
      Pages: 48 - 49
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz009
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Evolutionary origins of polycystic ovary syndrome: An environmental
           mismatch disorder

    • Authors: Charifson M; Trumble B.
      Pages: 50 - 63
      Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine disorder and has important evolutionary implications for female reproduction and health. PCOS presents an interesting paradox, as it results in significant anovulation and potential sub-fecundity in industrialized populations, yet it has a surprisingly high prevalence and has a high heritability. In this review, we discuss an overview of PCOS, current diagnostic criteria, associated hormonal pathways and a review of proposed evolutionary hypotheses for the disorder. With a multifactorial etiology that includes ovarian function, metabolism, insulin signaling and multiple genetic risk alleles, PCOS is a complex disorder. We propose that PCOS is a mismatch between previously neutral genetic variants that evolved in physically active subsistence settings that have the potential to become harmful in sedentary industrialized environments. Sedentary obesogenic environments did not exist in ancestral times and exacerbate many of these pathways, resulting in the high prevalence and severity of PCOS today. Overall, the negative impacts of PCOS on reproductive success would likely have been minimal during most of human evolution and unlikely to generate strong selection. Future research and preventative measures should focus on these gene-environment interactions as a form of evolutionary mismatch, particularly in populations that are disproportionately affected by obesity and metabolic disorders.Lay SummaryThe most severe form of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is likely a result of interactions between genetic predispositions for PCOS and modern obesogenic environments. PCOS would likely have been less severe ancestrally and the fitness reducing effects of PCOS seen today are likely a novel product of sedentary, urban environments.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz011
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • The risks of perpetuating an evolutionary arms race in drug discovery

    • Authors: Leighow S; Pritchard J.
      Pages: 64 - 65
      PubDate: Tue, 21 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz013
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Gene-drive-mediated extinction is thwarted by population structure and
           evolution of sib mating

    • Authors: Bull J; Remien C, Krone S.
      Pages: 66 - 81
      Abstract: Background and objectivesGenetic engineering combined with CRISPR technology has developed to the point that gene drives can, in theory, be engineered to cause extinction in countless species. Success of extinction programs now rests on the possibility of resistance evolution, which is largely unknown. Depending on the gene-drive technology, resistance may take many forms, from mutations in the nuclease target sequence (e.g. for CRISPR) to specific types of non-random population structures that limit the drive (that may block potentially any gene-drive technology).MethodologyWe develop mathematical models of various deviations from random mating to consider escapes from extinction-causing gene drives. A main emphasis here is sib mating in the face of recessive-lethal and Y-chromosome drives.ResultsSib mating easily evolves in response to both kinds of gene drives and maintains mean fitness above 0, with equilibrium fitness depending on the level of inbreeding depression. Environmental determination of sib mating (as might stem from population density crashes) can also maintain mean fitness above 0. A version of Maynard Smith’s haystack model shows that pre-existing population structure can enable drive-free subpopulations to be maintained against gene drives.Conclusions and implicationsTranslation of mean fitness into population size depends on ecological details, so understanding mean fitness evolution and dynamics is merely the first step in predicting extinction. Nonetheless, these results point to possible escapes from gene-drive-mediated extinctions that lie beyond the control of genome engineering.Lay summaryRecent gene drive technologies promise to suppress and even eradicate pests and disease vectors. Simple models of gene-drive evolution in structured populations show that extinction-causing gene drives can be thwarted both through the evolution of sib mating as well as from purely demographic processes that cluster drive-free individuals.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz014
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • The state of evolutionary medicine in undergraduate education

    • Authors: Grunspan D; Moeller K, Nesse R, et al.
      Pages: 82 - 92
      Abstract: Background and objectivesUndergraduate courses that include evolutionary medicine (EM) are increasingly available, but quantified data about such courses are lacking. In this article, we describe relevant course offerings by institution and department type, in conjunction with information on the backgrounds and experiences of associated instructors.MethodologyWe searched course catalogs from 196 American universities to find courses that include EM, and sent a survey to 101 EM instructors to ask about their backgrounds and teaching experiences.ResultsResearch-focused universities (R1) were much more likely to offer at least one course that covers evolutionary applications to health and disease than universities that granted only bachelor’s or master’s degrees. A survey course on EM was offered in 56% of 116 R1 universities, but only 2% of the 80 non-R1 universities we searched. Most EM instructors have backgrounds in anthropology or biology; each instructor’s area of expertise provides clues as to how continued growth of EM may occur differently by discipline.Conclusions and implicationsUndergraduates are most likely to learn about EM in research-intensive universities from an anthropological or biological perspective. Responses from anthropology and biology instructors, including whom they share course materials with, highlight that courses may differ depending on the discipline in which they are taught.LAY SUMMARYRecognition of evolution’s relevance to understanding health and disease is growing, but documentation of coverage in undergraduate education is lacking. This study explores where evolutionary medicine (EM) content is taught across 196 undergraduate institutions and how 53 instructors describe their experiences teaching EM.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz012
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Genome-wide association analysis uncovers variants for reproductive
           variation across dog breeds and links to domestication

    • Authors: Smith S; Phillips J, Johnson M, et al.
      Pages: 93 - 103
      Abstract: Background and objectivesThe diversity of eutherian reproductive strategies has led to variation in many traits, such as number of offspring, age of reproductive maturity and gestation length. While reproductive trait variation has been extensively investigated and is well established in mammals, the genetic loci contributing to this variation remain largely unknown. The domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris is a powerful model for studies of the genetics of inherited disease due to its unique history of domestication. To gain insight into the genetic basis of reproductive traits across domestic dog breeds, we collected phenotypic data for four traits, cesarean section rate, litter size, stillbirth rate and gestation length, from primary literature and breeders' handbooks.MethodologyBy matching our phenotypic data to genomic data from the Cornell Veterinary Biobank, we performed genome-wide association analyses for these four reproductive traits, using body mass and kinship among breeds as covariates.ResultsWe identified 12 genome-wide significant associations between these traits and genetic loci, including variants near CACNA2D3 with gestation length, MSRB3 and MSANTD1 with litter size, SMOC2 with cesarean section rate and UFM1 with stillbirth rate. A few of these loci, such as CACNA2D3 and MSRB3, have been previously implicated in human reproductive pathologies, whereas others have been associated with domestication-related traits, including brachycephaly (SMOC2) and coat curl (KRT71).Conclusions and implicationsWe hypothesize that the artificial selection that gave rise to dog breeds also influenced the observed variation in their reproductive traits. Overall, our work establishes the domestic dog as a system for studying the genetics of reproductive biology and disease.LAY SUMMARYThe genetic contributors to variation in mammalian reproductive traits remain largely unknown. We took advantage of the domestic dog, a powerful model system, to test for associations between genome-wide variants and four reproductive traits (cesarean section rate, litter size, stillbirth rate and gestation length) that vary extensively across breeds. We identified associations at a dozen loci, including ones previously associated with domestication-related traits, suggesting that selection on dog breeds also influenced their reproductive traits.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz015
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Obesity and climate adaptation

    • Authors: Salazar-Tortosa D; Fernández-Rhodes L.
      Pages: 104 - 105
      PubDate: Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz016
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • The role of parasite manipulation in vector-borne diseases

    • Authors: Spence Beaulieu M.
      Pages: 106 - 107
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz019
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Cancer treatment innovators discover Charles Darwin

    • Authors: Gatenby R; Whelan C.
      Pages: 108 - 110
      Abstract: With great fanfare, the Institute of Cancer Research announced formation of the ‘world’s first’ Darwinian Cancer Drug Programme within a new Centre for Cancer Discovery [1]. Supported by an initial investment of £75 million, the ICR plans to develop a ‘global center of expertise’ in cancer therapies that integrate evolutionary principles to improve outcomes. A particularly interesting area of investigation is their explicit goal to develop ‘anti-evolutionary’ drugs that seek to reduce the evolutionary speed of cancer cells as they adapt to treatment. This is a welcome and important addition to the growing number of cancer programs investigating the complex eco-evolutionary dynamics that govern drug resistance in clinical cancers.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz018
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Iron and fecundity among Tsimane’ women of Bolivia

    • Authors: Miller E; Khalil M.
      Pages: 111 - 120
      Abstract: Background and objectivesIron is critical for women’s reproduction, and iron-deficiency anemia is a global health problem for mothers. While public health programs have aimed to correct iron deficiency in reproductive-aged women with supplementation, a small group of studies have shown that too much iron also has negative effects on birth outcomes. We hypothesize that women’s iron levels evolved within a narrow optimum, and predict that hemoglobin (Hb) levels would be associated with women’s fecundity.MethodologyWe used the publicly available, longitudinal Tsimane’ Amazonian Panel Study to test the association between -Hb levels and hazard of having a next birth (a measure of fecundity) among 116 parous, reproductive-aged Tsimane’ women of Bolivia. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to model Hb level and other predictors against the event of next birth across the observation period, which began at each woman’s previous birth.ResultsThe higher the Hb level, the lower the hazard of a woman giving birth within the study observation period (hazard ratio=0.82, P = 0.03). However, there was no evidence that low Hb reduced women’s fecundity.Conclusions and implicationsThese results demonstrate that high Hb influences women’s fecundity. These results supports the growing body of literature showing that iron metabolism is critical for understanding the evolution of women’s reproduction. More work is needed to determine the evolved optimal range of iron levels for reproductive-aged women.Lay summaryLower chance of pregnancy among Tsimane’ women with high Hb levels, suggesting evolved optimal Hb levels in women.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz020
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Autism and psychosis as diametrical disorders of embodiment

    • Authors: Crespi B; Dinsdale N.
      Pages: 121 - 138
      Abstract: Humans have evolved an elaborate system of self-consciousness, self-identity, self-agency, and self-embodiment that is grounded in specific neurological structures including an expanded insula. Instantiation of the bodily self has been most-extensively studied via the ‘rubber hand illusion’, whereby parallel stimulation of a hidden true hand, and a viewed false hand, leads to the felt belief that the false hand is one’s own. Autism and schizophrenia have both long been regarded as conditions centrally involving altered development of the self, but they have yet to be compared directly with regard to the self and embodiment. Here, we synthesize the embodied cognition literature for these and related conditions, and describe evidence that these two sets of disorders exhibit opposite susceptibilities from typical individuals to the rubber hand illusion: reduced on the autism spectrum and increased in schizophrenia and other psychotic-affective conditions. Moreover, the opposite illusion effects are mediated by a consilient set of associated phenomena, including empathy, interoception, anorexia risk and phenotypes, and patterns of genetic correlation. Taken together, these findings: (i) support the diametric model of autism and psychotic-affective disorders, (ii) implicate the adaptive human system of self-embodiment, and its neural bases, in neurodevelopmental disorders, and suggest new therapies and (iii) experimentally ground Bayesian predictive coding models with regard to autism compared with psychosis.Lay summary: Humans have evolved a highly developed sense of self and perception of one’s own body. The ‘rubber hand illusion’ can be used to test individual variation in sense of self, relative to connection with others. We show that this illusion is reduced in autism spectrum disorders, and increased in psychotic and mood disorders. These findings have important implications for understanding and treatment of mental disorders.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz021
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Differences in mutational processes and intra-tumour heterogeneity between
           organsThe local selective filter hypothesis

    • Authors: Giraudeau M; Sepp T, Ujvari B, et al.
      Pages: 139 - 146
      Abstract: Extensive diversity (genetic, cytogenetic, epigenetic and phenotypic) exists within and between tumours, but reasons behind these variations, as well as their consistent hierarchical pattern between organs, are poorly understood at the moment. We argue that these phenomena are, at least partially, explainable by the evolutionary ecology of organs’ theory, in the same way that environmental adversity shapes mutation rates and level of polymorphism in organisms. Organs in organisms can be considered as specialized ecosystems that are, for ecological and evolutionary reasons, more or less efficient at suppressing tumours. When a malignancy does arise in an organ applying strong selection pressure on tumours, its constituent cells are expected to display a large range of possible surviving strategies, from hyper mutator phenotypes relying on bet-hedging to persist (high mutation rates and high diversity), to few poorly variable variants that become invisible to natural defences. In contrast, when tumour suppression is weaker, selective pressure favouring extreme surviving strategies is relaxed, and tumours are moderately variable as a result. We provide a comprehensive overview of this hypothesis.Lay summary: Different levels of mutations and intra-tumour heterogeneity have been observed between cancer types and organs. Anti-cancer defences are unequal between our organs. We propose that mostly aggressive neoplasms (i.e. higher mutational and ITH levels), succeed in emerging and developing in organs with strong defences.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz017
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Erectile dysfunction and the baculum

    • Authors: Smith T; Hechtel L.
      Pages: 147 - 148
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz023
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Comparative psychopharmacology of autism and psychotic-affective disorders
           suggests new targets for treatment

    • Authors: Crespi B.
      Pages: 149 - 168
      Abstract: The first treatments showing effectiveness for some psychiatric disorders, such as lithium for bipolar disorder and chlorpromazine for schizophrenia, were discovered by accident. Currently, psychiatric drug design is seen as a scientific enterprise, limited though it remains by the complexity of brain development and function. Relatively few novel and effective drugs have, however, been developed for many years. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how evolutionary biology can provide a useful framework for psychiatric drug development. The framework is based on a diametrical nature of autism, compared with psychotic-affective disorders (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression). This paradigm follows from two inferences: (i) risks and phenotypes of human psychiatric disorders derive from phenotypes that have evolved along the human lineage and (ii) biological variation is bidirectional (e.g. higher vs lower, faster vs slower, etc.), such that dysregulation of psychological traits varies in two opposite ways. In this context, the author review the evidence salient to the hypothesis that autism and psychotic-affective disorders represent diametrical disorders in terms of current, proposed and potential psychopharmacological treatments. Studies of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the PI3K pathway, the NMDA receptor, kynurenic acid metabolism, agmatine metabolism, levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and other treatments, demonstrate evidence of diametric effects in autism spectrum disorders and phenotypes compared with psychotic-affective disorders and phenotypes. These findings yield insights into treatment mechanisms and the development of new pharmacological therapies, as well as providing an explanation for the longstanding puzzle of antagonism between epilepsy and psychosis.Lay Summary: Consideration of autism and schizophrenia as caused by opposite alterations to brain development and function leads to novel suggestions for pharmacological treatments.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Aug 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz022
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Response to Jaeggi’s J.S. Torday, N.W. Blackstone and V.K. Rehan, a
           cell-centered alternative to mainstream evolutionary medicine'Review
           of ‘Evidence-Based Evolutionary Medicine’

    • Authors: Torday J; Blackstone N, Rehan V.
      Pages: 181 - 182
      Abstract: Evidence-Based Evolutionary Medicine by Torday, Blackstone and Rehan [1] is based on contemporary medicine being evidence-based, whereas Neo-Darwinism provides no causal experimental evidence for vertebrate physiologic evolution. The principle criticism of the book is that it does not reference the contents of the book. We chose a non-referenced narrative style instead of referencing our numerous publications in support of cellular-molecular physiologic evolution that this book is based on. Suffice it to say that all of the statements in the book are founded on experimental evidence.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz027
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
  • Human enhancementGenetic engineering and evolution

    • Authors: Almeida M; Diogo R.
      Pages: 183 - 189
      Abstract: Genetic engineering opens new possibilities for biomedical enhancement requiring ethical, societal and practical considerations to evaluate its implications for human biology, human evolution and our natural environment. In this Commentary, we consider human enhancement, and in particular, we explore genetic enhancement in an evolutionary context. In summarizing key open questions, we highlight the importance of acknowledging multiple effects (pleiotropy) and complex epigenetic interactions among genotype, phenotype and ecology, and the need to consider the unit of impact not only to the human body but also to human populations and their natural environment (systems biology). We also propose that a practicable distinction between ‘therapy’ and ‘enhancement’ may need to be drawn and effectively implemented in future regulations. Overall, we suggest that it is essential for ethical, philosophical and policy discussions on human enhancement to consider the empirical evidence provided by evolutionary biology, developmental biology and other disciplines.Lay Summary: This Commentary explores genetic enhancement in an evolutionary context. We highlight the multiple effects associated with germline heritable genetic intervention, the need to consider the unit of impact to human populations and their natural environment, and propose that a practicable distinction between ‘therapy’ and ‘enhancement’ is needed.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Sep 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/emph/eoz026
      Issue No: Vol. 2019, No. 1 (2019)
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