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Showing 1 - 200 of 372 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 579, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)

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Journal Cover Journal of Applied Poultry Research
  [SJR: 0.563]   [H-I: 43]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1056-6171 - ISSN (Online) 1537-0437
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [372 journals]
  • Effects of star anise ( Illicium verum Hook.f.), essential oil, and
           leavings on growth performance, serum, and liver antioxidant status of
           broiler chickens
    • Authors: Ding X; Yang C, Yang Z.
      Pages: 459 - 466
      Abstract: An experiment using 384 one-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers that were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 8 replicates in a completely randomized design was conducted to assess the effects of star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), essential oil, and leavings on growth performance and antioxidant status of broiler chickens. The treatments were corn-soybean meal based diets supplemented with 5 g/kg star anise, 0.2 g/kg essential oil, and 5 g/kg leavings of the diets for 42 days. All broilers had similar feed conversions over the entire experimental period. However, broilers supplemented with star anise and its essential oil had higher (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI than those of the control and leavings. Supplementation of star anise and its essential oil increased (P < 0.05) activities of super dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase but decreased (P < 0.05) content of malondialdehyde in the serum of broilers at 21 d and 42 d of age. And it also increased (P < 0.05) activities of super dismutase and catalase but decreased (P < 0.05) concentrations of malondialdehyde in the liver of broilers at the same periods. Dietary supplementation of star anise and its essential oil improved growth performance and serum and liver antioxidant status. The efficacy is best at 5 g/kg star anise or 0.2 g/kg essential oil in the diet.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx014
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effects of toasting, inclusion levels and different enzyme
           supplementations of faba beans on growth performance of broiler chickens
    • Authors: Ivarsson E; Wall H.
      Pages: 467 - 475
      Abstract: Faba beans (Vicia faba) are an alternative protein source that likely can be used to a higher extent in broiler diets. White-flowered faba beans contain antinutritional substances (ANS) such as non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), trypsin inhibitors, and lectins, which might limit its inclusion level. Lectins and trypsin inhibitors are heat labile and previous studies have shown that steam-pelleting and enzyme treatment improves the nutritional value of faba beans. However, alternative to pelleting would facilitate for farmers to add faba beans on-farm. Currently, there are machines available for toasting faba beans on-farm, which might be used for broiler mash diets. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of inclusion level (0, 10, 20 and 30%), toasting (140°C 5.5 min) and different enzymes (xylanase + phytase vs. xylanase, phytase, amylase, protease) of faba bean diets on growth performance and organ parameters in broilers. To test this, 2 experiments 34 and 35 days, using a total of 480 chickens were performed. Feed intake, body weight (BW) and feed conversion ratio were registered weekly, in addition, organ and carcass weights were registered at slaughter. The results showed that inclusion of 20% faba beans is possible in a pelleted diet with maintained broiler growth performance. When 20% was included in a mash diet, feed intake and BW decreased compared to chickens fed pelleted diets, irrespectively of pre-toasting of the beans. It can be concluded that toasting cannot replace pelleting. Supplementation of protease and amylase in addition to xylanase and phytase did not improve the nutritional value of faba beans.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx016
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • Comparison of commercial and locally developed layers’ performance and
           egg size prediction using regression tree method
    • Authors: Okoro V; Ravhuhali K, Mapholi T, et al.
      Pages: 476 - 484
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to compare the hen-day egg production (HDEP) (%), egg size (ES) (g), feed intake (FI) (g), bodyweight (BWT) (kg), body weight gain (BWTG) (g), feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed utilization (FU), and mortality of imported and local commercial egg layers from one to 20 wk of lay, as well as to predict their egg sizes. Two-thousand-six-hundred Hy-line Silver Brown commercial layers (imported) and 2,470 Boschveld indigenous commercial layers (local) were reared from d old to 44 wk of age and fed the same diet throughout. ANOVA was used to test their effects due to the strains, and the CHAID algorithm of regression tree method was used to predict the ES. The local strain came into lay first at wk 20, while the imported came into lay at 21 wk of age. The imported layers performed better in ES, FI, HDEP, BWTG, and FCR (P < 0.05) throughout the laying period, while the local layers were better (P < 0.05) in BWT with higher mortality than the imported. Also, the imported layers performed better in FU (P < 0.05) at wk 4, 8, and 24. Among the imported, the highest ES (58.116 g) was obtained from chickens with HDEP of 13.266 < HDEP < 20.35 and FI of 137.95 < FI< 138.176, while in the local layers, the highest ES (54.802 g) was obtained from chickens with HDEP of 37.876 < HDEP < 47.802.
      PubDate: 2017-07-23
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx018
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • The effect of bone choice on quantification of mineralization in broiler
           chickens up to 6 weeks of age
    • Authors: Scholey D; Burton E.
      Pages: 485 - 490
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to assess the most appropriate bone type for measuring bone mineralization in male broiler chicks up to 42 d. A total of 72 male broilers were raised in 0.64 m2 pens on a litter floor. The study design included 2 dietary treatments (Control and Low) containing differing levels of total phosphorus (7.8 and 4.4 g/kg for Control and Low diets respectively) and calcium (22.7 and 13.1 g/kg for Control and Low diets respectively) with each fed to 6 replicate pens of 6 birds. Each wk, 6 birds per diet were euthanized and leg bones removed to measure ash percentage. Foot, toe, tibia, and femur ash were compared using the mean of both legs from each bird, via t-tests to separate Control and Low diets. At the end of wk 1, diets could not be separated using any of the bone ash measures. From wk 2 to wk 5, both tibia and foot ash differentiated between the Control and Low diets, and tibia continued to show significant differences between the diets into wk 6. Femur ash did not show any dietary differences until wk 3, but then showed significant differences between the diets until wk 6. Toe ash only differentiated between diets at wk 2, and variation both within and between birds was high, particularly with younger birds. These results suggest that bird age has implications when choosing a bone for assessing possible differences in dietary phosphorus and calcium uptake. Femur ash may be more appropriate for showing differences in broilers aged 6 wk and older. Foot ash provides a comparable alternative to tibia ash in birds aged 2 to 5 wk of age, providing a labor- and time-saving alternative.
      PubDate: 2017-07-29
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx020
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • Combination of quaternary ammonia and glutaraldehyde as a disinfectant
           against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses
    • Authors: Figueroa A; Hauck R, Saldias-Rodriguez J, et al.
      Pages: 491 - 497
      Abstract: Infectious bursal disease is a highly infectious immunosuppressive disease of chickens endemic in many poultry-producing areas around the world. The non-enveloped virus that causes the disease, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), is highly stable and resistant to inactivation by common disinfectants. Avian influenza viruses (AIV), on the other hand, are highly vulnerable to most disinfectants due to their phospholipid envelope, but still pose a major threat to the poultry industry, as the outbreaks in 2015 in the United States have shown. Several studies have evaluated the efficacy of disinfectants against both IBDV and AIV but failed to take into consideration factors that would affect the disinfectant efficacy once used in the field, such as organic material. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a commercial combination of quaternary ammonia and glutaraldehyde as a disinfectant against IBDV and AIV in the presence of organic material commonly found in the commercial poultry industry: fecal matter alone, feathers/dust mixed with feces, and bedding material mixed with feces. After a 10-minute disinfectant contact time, each surface was swabbed and virus isolation attempted in embryonated specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken eggs. The non-enveloped very virulent (vv) IBDV was reisolated from spiked feces and shavings treated with the disinfectant. This was confirmed by RT-PCR detection of the virus. In contrast, no viral isolate or RT-PCR product was obtained from the samples collected from spiked feathers/dust treated with the disinfectant. Finally, no low pathogenic (LP) AI was re-isolated from the samples treated with the disinfectant indicating that, under laboratory conditions, the combination of quaternary ammonia and glutaraldehyde was partially and completely effective in the inactivation of vvIBDV and LPAI, respectively. Not only the viral envelope, but also the presence of organic matter plays an important role in the viral resistance to disinfectants.
      PubDate: 2017-07-29
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx021
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • Chromatographic analysis of lypophilic compounds in eggs from organically
           fed hens
    • Authors: Bunea A; Copaciu F, Paşcalău S, et al.
      Pages: 498 - 508
      Abstract: Egg yolks represent a common foodstuff in the human diet and are an important source of nutrients including lipids and carotenoids. The aim of this study was to compare the carotenoid, fatty acid and vitamin E contents of the yolk of eggs from nine hen breeds (Barred Plymouth Rock, Speckled Italian, Black Italian, Red Italian, Rhode Island, Silver Laced Wyandotte, Gold Araucana, Partridge Brahma and Yellow Cochin) raised in barns in an enclosed house. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the fatty acid analyses, and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (RP-HPLC-PDA) for carotenoids and vitamin E quantification. The major carotenoids identified were lutein and zeaxanthin, which together represented more than 93% of the total carotenoids, followed by β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene.The results indicated that the total carotenoid content of the eggs ranged from 16.84–87.31 μg/g egg yolk (average value 49 μg/g egg yolk). The most representative fatty acids found were palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid. Significant differences in the proportions of α-linolenic acid were observed among the samples. The α-tocopherol content was directly correlated with the total carotenoid content. The results show that the chemical composition of egg yolk varies greatly among hen breeds.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx022
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • Free-range and organic farming: Eggshell contamination by mesophilic
           bacteria and unusual pathogens
    • Authors: Pesavento G; Calonico C, Runfola M, et al.
      Pages: 509 - 517
      Abstract: The high incidence of foodborne illnesses caused by the consumption of eggs in industrialized countries is the main reason we decided to determine the microbial load on the surface of eggshells from free-range and organic farming. The objective was to compare which was better for ensuring the least possible health risk to the consumers, focusing on consumption of raw eggs by immune-compromised people. Bacteria come from the intestine of the animal or subsequent contamination. When eggs are cracked, bacteria from the shell reach the yolk and the albumen, and grow during manipulation and preservation, causing foodborne diseases in consumers. Microorganisms such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter, Enterobacteriaceae (including E. coli serotype O157: H7), Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, and mesophilic aerobic bacteria, were examined. The presence of bacteria on eggshells depends on hygienic conditions of the farming and packaging industries. Hygienic measures, such as strict cleaning and disinfection of surfaces in contact with eggs in packaging industries, would be a protective factor to minimize the contamination of eggshells. The total absence of pathogens demonstrates the relevance for human consumption of eggs coming from both free-range and organic farms, though YOPI (young, old, pregnant, or immune-compromised) people preferably should cook eggs in which bacteria contaminating the outer surface are killed.
      PubDate: 2017-07-29
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx023
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • Alternative bedding materials and litter depth impact litter moisture and
           footpad dermatitis
    • Authors: Shepherd E; Fairchild B, Ritz C.
      Pages: 518 - 528
      Abstract: A function of bedding material in poultry houses is to absorb and release moisture. New bedding is commonly placed at inadequate depths in houses. Pine shavings are the industry standard for bedding material in the majority of the United States, but can be hard to obtain or costly. Alternative materials were tested for moisture absorption and retention. Peat moss and chopped wheat straw were found to absorb nearly 8× and 7× their own weight in moisture, respectively. Peat moss was then used in a broiler study and compared to fresh and used pine shavings for 6 weeks. Body weight was lower at d 7 for the used litter and peat moss treatment compared to fresh shavings with no differences at d 42. No differences in ammonia generation or litter pH were observed. Litter moisture was higher for peat moss through d 14. Paws were better in the fresh shaving and peat moss pens than used shaving pens at both d 21 and 42. Next, different depths of used and fresh shavings on footpad dermatitis (FPD) were examined. Trials 1 and 2 compared 2.5, 7.6, and 12.7 cm of fresh shavings or used litter, respectively. In Trial 1, 2.5 cm had higher litter moisture than 7.6 and 12.7 cm at d 21, 28, and 35 (P < 0.05). The 12.7 cm had better paw scores than 2.5 cm at d 21 and 35 (P < 0.05). In Trial 2, 12.7 cm had lower litter moisture than 2.5 cm at d 28, 35, and 42 (P < 0.05). The paws in 12.7 cm were better than those in 2.5 cm at d 35 and 42 (P < 0.05). There was little difference in paw quality and litter moisture between 7.6 and 12.7 cm litter depth in both trials. Peat moss may be an acceptable alternative bedding material and should be evaluated on a commercial scale in areas where it can be obtained economically. These findings suggest that broiler houses should have at least 7.6 cm of litter to control litter moisture levels and reduce FPD.
      PubDate: 2017-07-29
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx024
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effect of cereal type and Xylanase supplementation on nutrient retention
           and growth performance of broilers
    • Authors: Tang D; Liu X, Shi X, et al.
      Pages: 529 - 535
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of cereal (corn, wheat, barley and sorghum) and supplemental enzyme (a mono-component xylanase) in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement. A 2-phase feeding program (0 to 21 and 21 to 42 d) was used and 4 iso-caloric, iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated containing corn, wheat, barley, or sorghum as the sole cereal. Diets based on each cereal were fed without or with supplemental xylanase (16,000 BXU/kg) to 8 replicate pens of 10 chicks (5 male : 5 female, Cobb 500) each. Growth performance was recorded at 21 or 42 d posthatch. Excreta was quantitatively collected from 18 to 21 and 38 to 41 d for the measurement of the total tract retention of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and apparent metabolizable energy (AME). Ileal digestible energy (IDE) was measured at the end of the study (42 d posthatch) using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. For the overall 42 d period, birds fed barley-based diets had lower feed intake (P < 0.05), lower body weight (P < 0.05) and converted feed into gain less efficiently (P < 0.05) compared with the diets based on corn, wheat or sorghum. Xylanase supplementation improved weight gain in diets based on corn, wheat, and sorghum with the exception of barley-based diets (cereal × xylanase interaction, P < 0.05). Xylanase improved the overall feed conversion ratio (1.885 vs. 1.939; P < 0.05) with the effect being independent of the cereal type. The N retention of barley-based diets was lower (P < 0.05) compared with the other cereals, while xylanase improved N retention (P < 0.05) regardless of the cereal type. NDF digestibility differed (P < 0.05) across cereal (barley > wheat > corn > sorghum) and was improved (P < 0.05) by xylanase supplementation. A significant cereal × xylanase interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for energy measurements, where xylanase improved IDE of the corn-based diet, and AME of corn- and wheat-based diets. Results of the current study demonstrate potential of xylanase in improving nutrient retention and growth performance of broilers fed diets based on variety of cereal grains.
      PubDate: 2017-07-29
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx026
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • Energy content of select dietary supplemental lipids for broilers,
           turkeys, and laying hens 1
    • Authors: Murugesan G; Kerr B, Persia M.
      Pages: 536 - 547
      Abstract: Energy is an expensive component of poultry diets with lipids providing a concentrated energy source to meet these needs. Three separate experiments with broilers (15 d of age), turkeys (15 d of age) and laying hens (60 wk of age) were conducted to determine the AMEn content of 10 lipids with varying fatty acid and free fatty acid concentrations and to compare these values to predicted values based on previously published equations. A corn-soybean meal (broilers and turkeys) or corn-soybean meal-distillers dried grains with solubles (layers) control diet was formulated with test diets created by mixing the control diet with 0, 3, 6, or 9% (broilers and turkeys) or 0, 2, 4, and 6% (laying hens) lipid. Experimental diets were fed over a 5-d acclimation period followed by a 48 h total excretion collection period with AMEn of the diets calculated based upon the GE, nitrogen, and titanium dioxide in the feed and excreta samples. The pen-mean AMEn of each diet was regressed on percentage lipid inclusion level using linear regression with the slope of the line representing the AMEn of each lipid source. As expected, the AMEn values varied widely among lipid sources and species, with broilers having a greater AME compared to turkeys and layers. In general, saturated fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, and C18:0) were negatively correlated to AMEn while unsaturated fatty acids (namely C18:2) were positively correlated to AMEn. Consequently, the unsaturated: saturated ratio, the polyunsaturated fatty acids: saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids ratio, and iodine value tended to be positively related to AMEn. Compared to broilers and turkeys that were able to efficiently utilize energy from corn oil (purified and crude DDGS corn oil) relative to soybean oil, laying hen AMEn values for corn oils were reduced in comparison to soybean oil. These data indicate that energy values of lipid differ widely due to source and appear to differ relative to a particular species.
      PubDate: 2017-07-29
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx027
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • Compatibility of dimmers and alternative technology lamps for commercial
           broiler houses
    • Authors: Morrissey S; Benson E, Alphin R, et al.
      Pages: 548 - 557
      Abstract: The use of artificial lighting has become an integral component of the commercial broiler industry, as chickens possess visual acuity superior to that of humans. A variety of new light emitting diode (LED) lamps have become available specifically for use in poultry houses to reduce energy costs, causing many broiler growers to consider implementing LED technology. Lamp dimmers help maximize bird performance by reducing light intensity and often have multiple settings (profiles) used to accommodate different lamps. Because of the investment required to replace lamps in a broiler house, growers have requested information to assist in selecting an appropriate lamp-profile combination. This study evaluated the impact of 8 different commercial dimmers with 21 profiles total on the performance of 15 different LED lamps, one incandescent (INC), and one cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL). Approximately 350 lamp-profile combinations were individually tested for multiple criteria as the lamps were dimmed. A scoring metric was developed that considered linearity, re-fire, luminous output, and efficacy. Dimmer and profile selection impacted lamp luminous output and efficiencies. No one lamp worked effectively with all dimmers and profiles, and no one dimmer or profile worked effectively with all lamps. There were statistically significant differences in scores based on technology, lamp, dimmer, and profile, suggesting that a multifaceted approach is necessary when evaluating the performance of lamps, dimmers, and profiles. A publically available selection tool website allows access to the combination scores. Growers can use this website to make informed decisions, promoting energy savings and agricultural sustainability.
      PubDate: 2017-07-29
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx029
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effects of glycine and glutamine supplementation to reduced crude protein
           diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of male broilers
           during a 41-day production period 1
    • Authors: Kriseldi R; Tillman P, Jiang Z, et al.
      Pages: 558 - 572
      Abstract: Glycine has been reported to be conditionally essential for broilers fed reduced crude protein diets during the starter period. Research evaluating dietary Gly responses subsequent to the starter period is sparse. This experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of feeding reduced crude protein diets supplemented with Gly and/or L-Gln (nitrogen source) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers during a 41-day production period. Eight dietary treatments were utilized with the negative control diets formulated to contain approximately 2.4 and 0.29% points lower crude protein and total Gly + Ser concentrations, respectively, than the positive control diets. The 6 other diets were formulated to contain intermediate concentrations of total Gly + Ser and/or crude protein (nitrogen) by adding Gly and/or L-Gln, respectively, to the negative control diets. Glycine appeared to have more pronounced effects than nitrogen contribution on feed conversion ratio and body weight gain of broilers during starter and grower periods, whereas Gln improved feed conversion of broilers in the finisher period. Total breast meat weight and yield of broilers provided diets with the additions of Gly and L-Gln were higher than those receiving diets with only Gly or L-Gln supplementation. The positive outcomes on growth performance and carcass characteristics suggested that providing adequate total Gly + Ser and nitrogen concentrations in diet formulation may be necessary for broilers when dietary CP content was reduced approximately by 2.4% points during a 6-week production period.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx030
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effect of Bacillus subtilis (DSM 17299) on performance, digestibility,
           intestine morphology, and pH in broiler chickens
    • Authors: Reis M; Fassani E, Júnior A, et al.
      Pages: 573 - 583
      Abstract: This study investigated the effect of supplementation of a Bacillus subtilis strain DSM 17299 on broilers, including evaluation of performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and content pH. The treatments also were evaluated for economic value based on performance and dietary costs. Performance was improved for probiotic treated birds for wk one through 5 post hatch, and economic evaluation at wk 6 demonstrated that the addition of the probiotic reduced production costs. Total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and apparent metabolizable energy were improved in probiotic supplemented broiler chickens. Addition of the probiotic increased the pH of the intestinal content. The relative weight and relative length of the duodenum decreased by probiotic supplementation. Overall, B. subtilis DSM 17299 resulted in an improvement in performance and a decrease in production costs when fed to broiler chickens. The increases in nutrient digestibility of birds fed the B. subtilis DSM 17299 correlate well with the increased performance noted over the same growing periods.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx032
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effects of supplementation of probiotics and prebiotics on growth
           performance, nutrient digestibility, organ weight, fecal microbiota, blood
           profile, and excreta noxious gas emissions in broilers
    • Authors: Yun W; Lee D, Choi Y, et al.
      Pages: 584 - 592
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of probiotics and prebiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, relative organ weight, fecal microbiota, blood profile, and excreta noxious gas emissions in broilers. A total of 714 one-day-old mixed sex ROSS 308 broilers with the initial BW = 40 ± 0.69 g was used in a 4-week trial. All birds were raised in wire cages. Birds were randomly allotted to 7 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 17 broilers per pen. Dietary treatments included: 1) T1 (control), 2) T2 [T1 + 0.2% probiotics (Bacillus sp. 1 × 109CFU, Lactobacillus sp. 1 × 108CFU, Aspergillus niger. 1 × 107CFU)], 3) T3 (T1 + 1% chicory fiber), 4) T4 (T1 + 1% rice bran), 5) T5 (T1+ 0.2% probiotics + 1% chicory fiber), 6) T6 (T1 + 0.2% probiotics + 1% rice bran), and 7) T7 (T1 + 0.2% probiotics + 1% chicory fiber + 1% rice bran). During d 1 to 14, broilers fed the T5, T6, and T7 diets had greater body weight gain (BWG) compared with the T1 diet (P < 0.05). Moreover, probiotics-included treatments resulted in higher BWG compared with the probiotics-free diets (P < 0.05). Broilers fed the T7 diet increased more in BWG compared with those fed the T1 diet, whereas feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased more in the T7 diet than the T1 diet overall (P < 0.05). Dry matter (DM) digestibility increased more in the T5, T6, and T7 diets compared with the T1 diet (P < 0.05). Broilers fed probiotics-based diets had more improved DM digestibility compared with those fed probiotics-free diets (P < 0.05). Excreta Lactobacillus counts increased more in the T7 diet compared with the T1 diet (P < 0.05). Broilers fed with probiotics diets had higher excreta Lactobacillus counts compared with those fed the probiotics-free diets (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation with 0.2% probiotics and 1% dietary fiber as prebiotics could improve the growth performance, DM digestibility, and excreta Lactobacillus counts in broilers raised in wire cages.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx033
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • Practical assessment and management of foot pad dermatitis in commercial
           broiler chickens: A Field Study
    • Authors: Hunter J; Anders S, Crowe T, et al.
      Pages: 593 - 604
      Abstract: Foot pad dermatitis (FPD) is a welfare concern in broiler chickens characterized by ulcerated lesions on the pad of the foot, which results from prolonged contact of foot pads with wet litter. During Canadian prairie winters, barn moisture levels tend to increase due to reduced ventilation as a means of conserving heat and minimizing costs. However, there are no published benchmarks regarding the prevalence of foot pad dermatitis in broilers reared in western Canadian provinces such as Alberta, Canada. As such the objectives of the current study were to evaluate practical means of assessing FPD in Alberta broilers as well as on-farm management practices which correlate with higher prevalence of foot pad dermatitis. A management-practices survey and 3 foot pad assessment methods were used to benchmark foot pad dermatitis in 32 broiler flocks throughout the province of Alberta. Four flocks per farm were sampled from a total of 8 commercial broiler farms. Per flock, 200 birds were assessed on-farm, 3 processor-line scores were taken at the processing plant, and 600 foot pad samples were assessed post-processing. The prevalence of foot pad dermatitis by assessment method was benchmarked on a per-flock basis at 28.65% on-farm, 26.17% on the processing line (processor-line), and 31.83% for samples taken off the processing line (processor-sampled). On-farm and processor-sampled assessment results were highly correlated (r = 0.90) compared with processor-line and on-farm (r = 0.77) and processor-line and processor-sampled results (r = 0.72; P < 0.001). Specifically, processor-line assessments were not found to be reliable when repeated (P > 0.10). On farm, wheat straw was used by the majority of Alberta's producers (62.5%) and was associated with a higher prevalence of foot pad dermatitis per flock (40.6%). In contrast, pine shavings was associated with lower FPD prevalence (6.4%; P < 0.001), but was used by only 21.9% of producers in Alberta. Primary results from this field study support the use of on-farm FPD assessments rather than processor-line-based assessments, and a shift away from wheat straw as a broiler litter substrate.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx019
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
  • Issues and consequences of using nutrition to modulate the avian immune
    • Authors: Kogut M.
      Pages: 605 - 612
      Abstract: Combatting antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a high priority for both public health and agriculture in the United States and globally. Antibiotic use in animals and humans is considered a major risk factor in the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animals, humans, and the environment. A worldwide emphasis on research into the development of new alternatives to antibiotics is ongoing. Alternatives to antibiotics are broadly defined as any substance that can be substituted for therapeutic drugs, which are increasingly becoming ineffective against pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites. One promising approach involves host-directed immunomodulatory therapies, whereby natural mechanisms in the host are exploited to enhance therapeutic benefit. The objective is to initiate or enhance protective antimicrobial immunity while limiting inflammation-induced tissue injury. The interaction between poultry nutrition, nutrients, and dietary factors and the bird's immune response has long been known. However, the interplay between nutritional processes and the immune system is incompletely understood. Specifically, precise cellular and molecular immune responses invoked by feed components and the role of the gut barrier and microbiota on the interaction between the immune system and nutrition remains to be fully elucidated. Further, this review will point out some of the areas that have been either neglected when studying the effects of nutrition and nutrients on immune function (the effect of the gut microbiome) or the non-intentional effects of over-feeding various nutrients on the avian immune response (feed-induced inflammation and meta-inflammation).
      PubDate: 2017-07-29
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx028
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 4 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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