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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 286, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 517, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Journal of Applied Poultry Research
  [SJR: 0.563]   [H-I: 43]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1056-6171 - ISSN (Online) 1537-0437
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Foot ash can replace tibia ash as a quantification method for bone
           mineralization in broilers at 21 and 42 days of age
    • Authors: Malloy MN; Stephens AG, Freeman ME, et al.
      First page: 175
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Prior research indicated that foot ash determinations were as robust as tibia bone ash determinations in reflecting the degree of bone mineralization in chicks at 14 d of age. In the current research, the relative effectiveness of the 2 procedures was evaluated in 21- and 42-day-old broilers while also evaluating a new dietary phytase supplement. In experiment 1, broilers were fed until 21 d of age a negative control diet with 0.24% available phosphorus, a positive control diet with 0.48% available phosphorus, or the negative control diet supplemented with 300, 500, 1,000, or 2,500 phytase units/kg diet. In experiment 2, broilers were fed until 42 d of age negative control diets having 0.275, 0.250, and 0.225 percent available dietary phosphorus in the starter, grower, and finisher periods, respectively, positive control diets having 0.475, 0.450, and 0.425 percent available dietary phosphorus in the starter, grower, and finisher periods, respectively, or the negative control diets supplemented with 500, 1,000, or 2,500 phytase units/kg diet. At 21 and 42 d of age, broilers fed diets supplemented with the 2 highest doses of phytase had foot and tibia ash values equal to those fed the positive control diet and higher than those fed the negative control diet. At 42 d of age, feed conversion and total breast meat yield values for the broilers fed the highest dose of phytase were superior to the values of the birds fed the positive control diet or the diet containing the lowest dose of phytase. The results indicate that adding levels of this new dietary phytase beyond what is necessary for normal bone mineralization enhances feed conversion and that dried foot and tibia bone ash determinations are both reliable in detecting differences in bone mineralization in 21- and 42-day-old broilers.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw060
  • Effects of egg weight on the egg quality, chick quality, and broiler
           performance at the later stages of production (week 60) in broiler
    • Authors: Iqbal J; Mukhtar N, Rehman Z, et al.
      First page: 183
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of broiler breeder egg weight on egg quality, chick quality, and broiler performance using Hubbard Classic broiler breeder flock. Hatching eggs from a commercial broiler breeder flock (Hubbard classic strain) were obtained at the age of 60 wk and divided into 3 egg-weight categories, namely small, medium, and large. For this purpose, 930 eggs having weights 63.09 ± 0.21, 68.85 ± 0.23, and 74.81 ± 0.11g were divided into 3 egg categories labeled small, medium, and large respectively. We further divided these eggs into 2 categories, eggs for quality parameters and eggs for incubation and posthatch performance parameters. Eggs from the small egg category had greater proportion of the shell weight and more shell strength. Egg weight did not significantly affect the albumen and yolk weight percentage. Egg weight affected the shape index and specific gravity for which lower values were observed for large eggs. Egg weight positively affected the chick weight, chick yield, and chick length (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) of both male and female chicks. Results of the body weight gain showed that effect of egg weight on the posthatch performance of chick diminishes with the age of broilers. Egg weight significantly affected the body weight gain of male and female chicks up to 3 wk of age. Egg weights did not significantly affect the feed intake and mortality of broiler. Different egg-weight categories significantly affected the feed conversion ratio of female chicks at wk 2 and 3 of age and did not affect the feed conversion of male and female chicks at the end of wk 5. In conclusion, egg weight positively affected the chick characteristics (e.g., chick weight, chick length) and did not affect the final live body weight, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, and mortality in broilers.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw061
  • The effects of strain and incremental improvements in feed form on d 28 to
           42 male broiler performance
    • Authors: Sellers RB; Tillman PB, Moritz JS, et al.
      First page: 192
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Feeding high-quality pellets to modern commercial broilers may maximize genetic potential; however, this typically requires an increased cost to produce feed. Therefore, it is important to determine if incremental improvements in feed form (FF) can increase performance of modern broiler strains. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding modest improvements in feed form (50, 60, 70, or 80% intact pellets; IP) to 2 commercial broiler strains (fast-growing or high-yield) on d 28 to 42 growth performance and processing variables. A common diet was manufactured to contain 80% IP, of which a portion was ground to create a total of 4 FF treatments varying in IP to ground pellet ratios: 50:50; 60:40; 70:30; and 80:20. Fast-growing (FG) birds demonstrated improvements in body weight (BW), BW gain (BWG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) when compared to high-yield (HY) birds. For the main effect of FF, feeding 80 vs. 50% IP reduced d 28 to 42 FCR. Also, feeding birds 80% IP vs. all other FF treatments improved d 28 to 42 BWG and d 42 BW. A Strain × FF interaction established that FG broilers fed 50, 60, and 70% IP diets had higher d 43 total breast yield than HY birds fed the same FF treatments; however, both strains demonstrated similar total breast yield when 80% IP were fed, which suggests that FG broilers are less sensitive and HY broilers are more sensitive to increasing FF. These data suggest a distinct benefit for feeding improved FF from d 28 to 42 to modern broilers.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw062
  • Effect of dietary Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on growth performance and
           immune function of broilers
    • Authors: Liu YL; Yin RQ, Liang SS, et al.
      First page: 200
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div><span style="font-style:italic;">Lycium barbarum</span> polysaccharide (LBP) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine possessing many properties such as anti-oxidant and immunomodulation. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of LBP in broilers. A total of 240 newly hatched broilers were randomly allotted into 4 treatments with 6 replicates. Diets in 3 treatment groups were supplemented with 2, 4, and 8 g/kg LBP, respectively, based on the control diet. Lymphocytes isolated from broiler blood were used to detect immunoregulation function of LBP in vitro. Results in vivo showed that average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in the 4 g/kg LBP group were decreased significantly (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05). Dietary 4 g/kg LBP significantly increased immune organ indexes of broilers at 21 d (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05). Moreover, levels of serum total protein, globulin, albumin, and lysozyme of broilers were higher in the 8 g/kg LBP group (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05). CD4<sup>+</sup>/CD8<sup>+</sup> ratio in blood T cells was higher in the 4 g/kg LBP group (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05). Results in vitro suggested that 100 and 1,600 μg/mL LBP supplementation significantly promoted blood B and T lymphocyte proliferation of broilers, respectively (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05). TNF-α mRNA abundance was observably decreased in the lower LBP concentration groups (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05). In conclusion, LBP may possess the clinical efficacy for growth promotion and immunomodulation and could be used as an alternative for nutritive additive in broilers.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw063
  • Effect of supplemental zinc source and corn particle size on 40-day
           broiler performance
    • Authors: Foltz KL; Glover BG, Moritz JS.
      First page: 209
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Zinc (Zn) supplementation source and particle size of feed ingredients are two factors that can affect poultry performance and should be considered for proper feeding of poultry. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of Zn supplementation source and corn particle size on broiler performance, breast yield, and tibia Zn concentration. Treatments were arranged in a 5 × 2 factorial randomized complete block design with the main effects Zn treatment and corn particle size (550 micron vs. 1,050 micron). Zinc treatments included a basal diet (no added Zn), 80 mg/kg Zn sulfate, and 3 diets with 40 mg/kg Zn sulfate + 40 mg/kg of either Zn-glycine amino acid (AA) chelate (Zn-gly), Zn-AA complex (Zn-AA), or Zn bis(-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio)butanoic acid (Zn-HMTBA). A total of 8 replications per treatment were fed to 23 broilers per pen from d one to 40. A Zn treatment x corn particle size interaction was observed for ending bird weight (EBW; <span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) demonstrating that feeding small particle corn produced larger broilers except when supplemental Zn was not included. Broilers fed small particle corn or diets supplemented with Zn consumed the most feed (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05); however, FCR was decreased (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) by 1.9 points for broilers fed large particle corn diets. Tibia Zn concentration was higher (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.0001) for Zn supplemented diets, but no other treatment effects were observed. In conclusion, Zn supplement source had little effect on broiler performance; however, Zn supplementation per se optimized performance.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw064
  • Effect of mixing and sampling method on pelleted feed nutrient analysis
           and diet formulation validation
    • Authors: Reese DA; Foltz KL, Moritz JS.
      First page: 219
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Samples of pelleted feed may be taken during manufacturing and analyzed for nutrient content in order to estimate if nutrients are in accordance with diet formulation. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of mix time, sample location, sample number, and sample blending technique on analyzed nutrients. Ingredients were mixed in a single screw vertical mixer for 30 s or 10 minutes. Samples were taken post extrusion from the pellet die as hot pellets or post cooling and conveyance as finished feed. Two or 10 samples were collected at equally spaced time intervals and pooled. Subsamples were obtained by blending pooled samples by hand or using a sample splitting device. Proximate and supplemental amino acid analysis was determined on each blended subsample and standardized for moisture content. Crude fat and free supplemental DL-methionine were affected by mix time (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05). The 10-minute mix time produced crude fat and free supplemental DL-methionine that had lower and higher values, respectively, compared to the 30-second mix time and agreed more with the calculated nutrient profile and diet formulation. Free supplemental DL-methionine was also affected by sampling location (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05). Samples obtained at the pellet die were higher and agreed more with diet formulation compared to finished feed samples. Analysis of free supplemental DL-methionine from samples obtained at the pellet die may best indicate pelleted diet homogeneity and validate the diet formulation.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw065
  • Tonic immobility, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and organ weights in
           slow-growing chickens
    • Authors: Mutibvu TT; Chimonyo MM, Halimani TE.
      First page: 226
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Effects of sex and strain of bird on factors influencing welfare in chickens were investigated in 288 21-week-old Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK), Ovambo (OV), and Naked Neck (NN) chickens. The birds were allocated to 4 paddocks of <span style="font-style:italic;">Chloris gayana</span> and a house subdivided into 4 pens. There were 12 males per strain and 12 females per strain in each paddock. Similarly, 12 males per strain and the same number of females were placed in each pen in the house. Twelve birds, 4 each of NN, OV, and PK, were randomly selected per paddock and per pen, and tonic immobility (TI) was determined. Ambient temperature and humidity were recorded and fitted into a PROC MIXED model as random effects, with strain and sex as main effects. On the last d of the trial, blood samples were collected from 9 (3 of each strain) randomly selected birds per paddock, via brachial venepuncture, using 5 mL syringes and 22 gauge needles. At slaughter, the liver and spleen were recovered and weighed immediately. Organ weights were expressed relative to body weight (BW) of each bird. Sex of bird influenced (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) BW, spleen, and relative liver weights and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio. Strain did not influence (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> > 0.05) TI but affected (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) all other parameters. Rearing system (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) influenced all parameters. Strain × sex interactions were significant (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) on all organ weights. Males appeared more stressed than females. The free-range system could minimize stress in birds though mechanisms should be devised to prevent attacks by predators. Perhaps future research could be designed to study similar parameters over a longer observation period using younger slow-growing chickens.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw066
  • Effect of fan induced photoperiod on live performance and yield of male
           broiler chickens
    • Authors: Purswell JL; Olanrewaju HA.
      First page: 236
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Increasing broiler house size and ventilation capacity has resulted in increased light ingress through ventilation system components. Light ingress may alter the effective photoperiod for broiler chickens and create local increases in light intensity. This study examined live performance and processing yields in male broilers reared to 63 d of age exposed to either a constant light intensity of 2.5 lx for 18L:6D or a variable light intensity to mimic light ingress through tunnel fans. Body weight, body weight gain, and mortality were not different between treatments. Feed conversion ratio and feed consumption were significantly increased for the variable light treatment, with a difference of 0.06 g feed:g gain (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> = 0.01) and 228 g/bird (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> = 0.02), respectively. The data herein illustrate the need to mitigate light ingress through ventilation system components to improve live performance in broilers.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw067
  • Anise oil dosage and its effect on growth performance and jejunal lesions
           during a Clostridium perfringens challenge in battery trials, and growth
           performance in a floor pen trial 1 , 2
    • Authors: Charal JW; Bidner TD, Southern LL, et al.
      First page: 240
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Anise oil (AO) is a phytochemical with antibiotic properties and it reduces the growth of <span style="font-style:italic;">Clostridium perfringens</span> in vitro, which is the main causal agent of necrotic enteritis. A series of battery experiments was conducted to determine an AO dosage to feed to broilers and its effect during 2 <span style="font-style:italic;">C. perfringens</span> challenges, and a floor pen experiment to determine its effect in performance. Anise oil linearly reduced (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) ADFI and ADG, but feeding broilers 500 to 2,000 mg/kg of AO resulted in similar performance with positive control (PC) fed broilers. Broilers were challenged on d 10 (Experiment 2) or on d 10 and 13 (Experiment 3). Broilers fed AO had lower (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) ADFI and ADG compared with broilers fed PC from zero to 18 d (Experiment 2). Growth performance of broilers fed AO was not affected (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> > 0.05) during Experiment 3. In both challenges, the jejunum of broilers fed AO had fewer and milder (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) lesions compared with broilers fed PC or negative control (NC) diets. In a floor pen trial, 1,000 mg/kg of AO was fed to broilers from zero to 42 days. Broilers fed AO or PC had similar (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> > 0.10) growth performance for the entire trial. Broilers fed PC or AO had greater ADG (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) and tended (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> = 0.07) to be heavier than broilers fed NC at the end of the trial. Breast yield percentage was similar (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> > 0.10) among broilers fed any of the dietary treatments. Residues of AO were not present at detectable levels in breast meat.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-11
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw068
  • Nutritive value of dry citrus pulp and its effect on performance in geese
           from 35 to 70 days of age
    • Authors: Wang CC; Gao GL, Huang JX, et al.
      First page: 253
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>The study was conducted to determine the chemical composition nutritive value of dried citrus pulp (DCP) and its effect as a feed supplement on the performance of geese. The results of Experiment 1 showed that the DM, GE, CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, calcium, and total phosphorous of DCP were 90.75%, 3.60 Mcal/kg, 6.17, 3.51, 15.69, 23.37, 21.49, 3.60, and 0.13%, respectively. The content of methionine, lysine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, phenylalanine, arginine, histidine, glycine, proline, serine, cystine, alanine, glutamate, tyrosine and aspartate, and tryptophan was 0.02, 0.22, 0.24, 0.33, 0.18, 0.20, 0.22, 0.19, 0.10, 0.25, 0.51, 0.21, 0.02, 0.28, 0.54, 0.15, 0.46, and 0.05%, respectively. In Experiment 2, the digestibility of energy and amino acids of DCP were analyzed using an emptying followed by force-feeding method. The AME of DCP was 2.05 Mcal/kg, and the true total tract digestible methionine, lysine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, phenylalanine, arginine, histidine, glycine, proline, serine, cystine, alanine, glutamate, tyrosine and aspartate, and tryptophan contained in DCP by geese were 0.01, 0.10, 0.12, 0.19, 0.09, 0.12, 0.14, 0.13, 0.06, 0.14%, 0.42, 0.13, 0.01, 0.15, 0.31, 0.08, 0.28, and 0.03%, respectively. In Experiment 3, 210 35-day-old male Sichuan white geese were randomly allocated to 5 treatments, and each treatment group was fed one of 5 experimental diets containing 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16% DCP until 70 d of age. Geese that were fed diets containing 4% DCP exhibited greater ADG compared to the other 4 groups. Geese fed diets supplemented with 16% DCP had increased ADFI (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) and a higher FCR (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) than those fed the diet containing zero to 12% DCP. Moreover, inclusion of DCP in the diet did not affect the yields of breast meat, leg meat, subcutaneous fat and skin, and abdominal fat across the 5 treatment groups. In conclusion, DCP appears to be a potential feedstuff for geese, and DCP can be included in diets below 12% without negative effects on growth performance and carcass yield in geese.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-01-28
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw069
  • Response of broiler chicks to non-steam- or steam-pelleted diets
           containing raw, full-fat soybean meal
    • Authors: Erdaw MM; Bhuiyan MM, Iji PA.
      First page: 260
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of steam pelleting of diets containing graded levels of raw, full-fat soybean meal (RSBM) on the chemical properties and feeding values of the diets. Samples of diets with steam- or non-steam-pelleted as well as the mash containing varying levels of RSBM were subjected to detailed chemical analysis. As a result of this study, trypsin inhibitor (TI) concentrations in the diets ranged between 4,153 and 10,484 TIU/g. Amino acid concentrations were higher in the non-steam-pelleted and mash diets than the steam-pelleted diets. A 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (RSBM: zero, 10, 20 or 30%, equivalent to zero, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg of diet, respectively, and non-steam- or steam-pelleted diets) was used while feeding broiler chicks (zero to 14 d of age). Each treatment was replicated 6 times with 8 birds per replicate. As a result of this study, there was no difference (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> > 0.05) in mortality of birds among the groups. Feed intake (FI) (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) and body weight gain (BWG) <span style="font-style:italic;">(P</span> < 0.001) decreased with increasing levels of RSBM. Birds fed on steam-pelleted diets gained less (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.001) weight than birds on the non-steam-pelleted diets, but the FI was not significantly (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> > 0.05) different. The FCR was negatively affected (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) by increasing levels of RSBM. There was no interaction effect between RSBM and pelleting method on the FI, BWG, or FCR of birds. The weight of the pancreas (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.001) and duodenum (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.01) increased with a rise in the level of RSBM in diets. Non-steam pelleting increased (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) the pancreatic protein content, whereas the activity of chymotrypsin was reduced (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.01) when the RSBM level was increased. Birds fed with RSBM-free diets had thicker muscle, longer villi, wider villus surface area, and higher villus to crypt depth ratios than birds on the other diets, but these differences were not significant. It can be concluded that steam pelleting of diets containing RSBM is inadequate to reduce the adverse impact of TI on chicks.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-01-28
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw070
  • Phytase dose effects in practically formulated diets that vary in
           ingredient composition on feed manufacturing and broiler performance
    • Authors: Boney JW; Moritz JS.
      First page: 273
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Considering approaches to efficiently produce broiler chickens, an experiment was conducted to describe the manufacturing and feeding effects of a corn, soybean meal, and wheat based diet with varying levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and commercial phytase. Treatments were arranged in a 3 × 2 factorial randomized complete block design varying in phytase (zero, 1,000, and 6,000 FTU/kg) and DDGS inclusion (zero or 5%). Phytase inclusion decreased dietary non-phytate phosphorous (nPP) and total Calcium (Ca) in formulation by 0.12 and 0.1%, respectively. Diets were steam conditioned at 82°C for 10 s, extruded through a 4.7 × 38 mm pellet die, and fed as crumbles (starter and grower) or pellets (finisher). Ten replicate pens of straight-run Hubbard × Cobb 500 chicks consumed one of 6 dietary treatments for 38 days. Phytase improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) in the starter period (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> = 0.05), but benefits were not apparent in the grower or finisher periods. Phytase and formulation main effects interacted to affect overall FCR (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> = 0.05), demonstrating a 0.05 decrease in FCR when birds were fed a diet containing a super-dose of phytase and without DDGS relative to diets containing a super-dose of phytase and DDGS. The DDGS likely provided reduced nutrient availability relative to their nutrient values used for diet formulation or provided non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) at a level that decreased bird performance. Based on tibia ash measures, performance improvement associated with the super-dose of phytase was likely associated with reducing phytate phosphorus gastrointestinal irritation rather than meeting bird phosphorus requirement.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw071
  • Colonization of mature laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis by oral or
           intracloacal inoculation
    • Authors: Adhikari PP; Cosby DE, Cox NA, et al.
      First page: 286
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Evidence of <span style="font-style:italic;">Salmonella</span> Enteritidis (SE) in internal organs of White Leghorns once they are inoculated via the oral (OR) or intracloacal (IC) route has not been consistently demonstrated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate OR or IC inoculation route of a nalidixic acid (Nal) resistant SE (SE<sup>NAR</sup>) on the SE colonization of ceca and the invasion of internal organs in mature White Leghorns. Five experiments were conducted, and hens were inoculated with 10<sup>8</sup> colony-forming units (cfu) of SE<sup>NAR</sup>. Hens were euthanized at 7 and 14 d post inoculation (dpi), and the ceca, spleen, liver with gall bladder (L/GB), and ovaries were collected for bacteriological analyses. The recovery of SE<sup>NAR</sup> in ceca was 100% at 7 dpi. Recovery from the ovaries was lower than the other organs for both routes of inoculation. The SE recovery of L/GB, spleen, and ovaries at 7 dpi was not different between the two routes. By 14 dpi, all organs approached negative, and the recovery rate was similar between OR and IC. Fecal shedding was 100% positive at 3 dpi and reduced to almost 0% by 14 dpi. Mature hens were colonized by SE<sup>NAR</sup> with either OR or IC inoculation when using a larger volume and a higher cfu/mL (0.1 mL OR in experiment 1 vs. 1.0 mL OR and IC in the rest). SE<sup>NAR</sup> showed some translocation into other organs, to a greater extent with IC. The colonization did not persist either in ceca or the internal organs at 14 dpi.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-01-28
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw072
  • The effects of antibiotic, probiotic, organic acid, vitamin C, and
           Echinacea purpurea extract on performance, carcass characteristics, blood
           chemistry, microbiota, and immunity of broiler chickens
    • Authors: Nosrati MM; Javandel FF, Camacho LM, et al.
      First page: 295
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>The present context investigated the comparative study on the supplementation of antibiotic, probiotic, organic acid, vitamin C, and herbal extract after vaccination into drinking water and their effects on performance, carcass quality, blood biochemical parameters, immune system, and intestinal flora in broiler chicks for 42 days. A total of 420 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned into 7 treatments with 3 replicates (pens) per treatment and 20 male chicks for each replicate (pen). The experimental treatments consisted of drinking water (control, without additive); drinking water + antibiotic sulfamet; drinking water + C-Vet-50; drinking water + antibiotic sulfamet + C-Vet-50; drinking water + probiotic Primalac; drinking water + butyric acid; and drinking water + extract of <span style="font-style:italic;">Echinacea purpurea</span> Moench (coneflower). There were no differences observed among the treatments for feed intake, but during the whole experimental period, the highest body weight gain was found in the chicks fed with drinking water + antibiotic sulfamet + 50 cc vitamin C (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05). There were no differences (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> > 0.05) observed among the treatments for feed conversion ratio (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> > 0.05). Moreover, there were no differences reported among treatments for carcass characteristics at the end of the experiment. Among the treatments, drinking water + 50 cc vitamin C, and drinking water + extract of <span style="font-style:italic;">E. purpurea</span> reduced (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins. Drinking water + 50 cc vitamin C, drinking water + Primalac, and drinking water + extract of <span style="font-style:italic;">E. purpurea</span> increased (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) the lymphocytes count and decreased the heterophils count and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. The highest <span style="font-style:italic;">Escherichia coli</span> count and lowest <span style="font-style:italic;">Lactobacillus</span> count in ileal content of the broilers were observed in the control group (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05). The additives used in this study may be incorporated in the drinking water of broiler chickens as growth promoters and for improved performance. A further, wider supplementation study is required to understand the performance, immune system, variation in the intestinal microbial counts, and any other possible alteration in the intestinal biota of the broilers.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-01-28
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw073
  • Mussel shells as an environment enrichment and calcium source for
           floor-housed laying hens 1
    • Authors: Alm MM; Tauson RR, Wall HH.
      First page: 159
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Feather pecking is still a behavioral problem in laying hen flocks, resulting in impaired welfare and economic losses. Environment enrichment, e.g., providing access to litter, to increase foraging behavior in laying hens has been shown to decrease feather pecking. This study investigated the effect of spreading crushed mussel shells (particle size 10 to 20 mm) in the litter area as an environment enrichment and source of calcium for layers receiving a commercial feed and for layers given a feed with 40% less calcium. These treatments were compared with a control involving hens given the commercial feed, but no mussel shells in the litter. The study included 900 Dekalb White layers housed in a single-tier floor system during a production cycle (20 to 72 wk of age). The mussel shells were consumed to a lower extent than predicted, resulting in calcium deficiency in hens fed the low-calcium diet. This in turn was evident as increased degree of keel bone deviations and lower eggshell breaking strength. Daily addition of crushed mussel shells to the litter for laying hens on a balanced or calcium-deficient diets did not generate any positive effects on bird feather cover, eggshell quality, production performance, or fearfulness. Hence, with the particle size of mussel shells used in this study, there was no indication of improved welfare due to environment enrichment.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-10-12
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw056
  • Effect of inert fillers with changing energy-protein ratio on growth
           performance and energy digestibility in broilers
    • Authors: Liu JD; Fowler JJ.
      First page: 168
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using sand or diatomaceous earth (DIAE) as an inert filler while changing the energy-to-protein ratio in broilers, and therefore to evaluate if doing either will confound the results in energy enzyme efficacy studies by reducing the difference observed between the standard and low energy control diets. The dietary treatments consisted of one control treatment (3,050 ME kcal/kg, 220 CP g/kg) and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangements with 2 energy-to-protein levels (2,850 ME kcal/kg, 205 CP g/kg or 2,850 ME kcal/kg, 220 CP g/kg) and 2 inert fillers (sand or DIAE), each with 9 replicates. Each replicate pen included 5 straight-run broilers fed for a period of 21 d with weekly pen BW and feed intake measured. Ileal contents were collected on d 21 for ileal digestible energy (IDE), with 0.2% titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. According to the main effect for inert filler, BW was significantly lower (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05) in treatments with reduced energy on d 21. Compared with the control group, no differences were observed among the reduced energy treatments for FCR and productivity index. Both IDE and ileal energy digestibility coefficient (IEDC) were decreased in the treatments formulated with reduced energy. Among reduced energy treatments, diets containing sand had significantly higher IDE and IEDC than the ones with DIAE. This study confirms that reduced dietary energy negatively influences broiler performance. Adding sand as the inert filler had an independently beneficial effect, and therefore DIAE may be a more appropriate source of inert filler to replace fat in a diet with a disrupted energy-to-protein ratio, which is the typical methodology in energy enzyme efficacy studies.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-11-11
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfw057
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