Publisher: Oxford University Press (Total: 369 journals)
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ISSN (Print) 2047-217X
Published by Oxford University Press [369 journals]
- De novo transcriptome assemblies of four xylem sap-feeding insects
Authors: Tassone EE; Cowden CC, Castle SJ.
Abstract: AbstractBackground: Spittle bugs and sharpshooters are well-known xylem sap-feeding insects and vectors of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Wells), a causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines and other crop diseases. Specialized feeding on nutrient-deficient xylem sap is relatively rare among insect herbivores, and only limited genomic and transcriptomic information has been generated for xylem-sap feeders. To develop a more comprehensive understanding of biochemical adaptations and symbiotic relationships that support survival on a nutritionally austere dietary source, transcriptome assemblies for three sharpshooter species and one spittlebug species were produced.Findings: Trinity-based de novo transcriptome assemblies were generated for all four xylem-sap feeders using raw sequencing data originating from whole-insect preps. Total transcripts for each species ranged from 91 384 for Cuerna arida to 106 998 for Homalodisca liturata with transcript totals for Graphocephala atropunctata and the spittlebug Clastoptera arizonana falling in between. The percentage of transcripts comprising complete open reading frames ranged from 60% for H. liturata to 82% for C. arizonana. Bench-marking universal single-copy orthologs analyses for each dataset indicated quality assemblies and a high degree of completeness for all four species.Conclusions: These four transcriptomes represent a significant expansion of data for insect herbivores that feed exclusively on xylem sap, a nutritionally deficient dietary source relative to other plant tissues and fluids. Comparison of transcriptome data with insect herbivores that utilize other dietary sources may illuminate fundamental differences in the biochemistry of dietary specialization.
- Genome sequencing of the winged midge, Parochlus steinenii , from the
Authors: Kim S; Oh M, Jung W, et al.
Abstract: AbstractBackground: In the Antarctic, only two species of Chironomidae occur naturally—the wingless midge, Belgica antarctica, and the winged midge, Parochlus steinenii. B. antarctica is an extremophile with unusual adaptations. The larvae of B. antarctica are desiccation- and freeze-tolerant and the adults are wingless. Recently, the compact genome of B. antarctica was reported and it is the first Antarctic eukaryote to be sequenced. Although P. steinenii occurs naturally in the Antarctic with B. antarctica, the larvae of P. steinenii are cold-tolerant but not freeze-tolerant and the adults are winged. Differences in adaptations in the Antarctic midges are interesting in terms of evolutionary processes within an extreme environment. Herein, we provide the genome of another Antarctic midge to help elucidate the evolution of these species.Results: The draft genome of P. steinenii had a total size of 138 Mbp, comprising 9513 contigs with an N50 contig size of 34,110 bp, and a GC content of 32.2%. Overall, 13,468 genes were predicted using the MAKER annotation pipeline, and gene ontology classified 10,801 (80.2%) predicted genes to a function. Compared with the assembled genome architecture of B. antarctica, that of P. steinenii was approximately 50 Mbp longer with 6.2-fold more repeat sequences, whereas gene regions were as similarly compact as in B. antarctica.Conclusions: We present an annotated draft genome of the Antarctic midge, P. steinenii. The genomes of P. steinenii and B. antarctica will aid in the elucidation of evolution in harsh environments and provide new resources for functional genomic analyses of the order Diptera.