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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 392 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 392 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.075, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 3.771, h-index: 262)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 163, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 583, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clean Energy     Open Access  
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.62, h-index: 53)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access  
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 59)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.199, h-index: 61)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.994, h-index: 107)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.327, h-index: 82)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.878, h-index: 80)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)

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Journal Cover ICSID Review
  [12 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0258-3690 - ISSN (Online) 2049-1999
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [392 journals]
  • Diag Human SE v Czech Republic-Ministry of Health 1 A Broad Interpretation
           of the ‘Arbitration Exception’ of the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act
    • Authors: Fellas J; Petrovas P.
      First page: 259
      Abstract: In a previous case comment,44 we discussed the decision of the District of Columbia (District Court or lower Court), which had dismissed sua sponte the petition of Diag Human (Diag) for the enforcement of a foreign arbitral award for lack of subject matter jurisdiction, finding that the Czech Republic had not waived its immunity under the FSIA.55 On 31 May 2016, the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (Court or Circuit Court) reversed the decision of the US District Court, finding that the Czech Republic had, in fact, waived immunity. This case comment considers the Circuit Court’s decision. It proceeds in four stages. First, it briefly outlines the 1976 United States Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA). Second, it discusses the ‘arbitration exception’ to immunity under the FSIA. Third, it discusses the Circuit Court’s decision in Diag. Finally, it considers the significance of the Circuit Court’s decision in Diag.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.1093/icsidreview/six003
  • Adel A Hamadi Al Tamimi v Sultanate of Oman 1 Attributing to Sovereigns
           the Conduct of State-Owned Enterprises: Towards Circumvention of the
           Accountability of States under International Investment Law  
    • Authors: de Stefano C.
      First page: 267
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1093/icsidreview/siw039
  • Burlington Resources, Inc v Republic of Ecuador: Enforcing Economic
           Stability Guarantees through an Umbrella Mechanism: ‘Caveat Upstream
           Petroleum Investor’? 1
    • Authors: Supapa R.
      First page: 275
      Abstract: The enactment of Law 42 on Windfall Profit Taxation by Ecuador has drawn academic attention to whether, and to what extent, international investment treaties can effectively protect upstream petroleum contracts from the host State’s political interference. However, little attention has been paid to the interaction between economic stability guarantees and the umbrella clause, which was examined extensively by the Tribunal in Burlington Resources, Inc v Republic of Ecuador. This critical issue deserves more attention since it can guide the investors on how to secure their contractual rights against political risk in the context of upstream petroleum investment. This note analyses the interplay between an economic stability guarantee and the umbrella clause in the Burlington decision and assesses whether they can provide sufficient protection for the specific characteristics of upstream contracts.
      PubDate: 2017-04-29
      DOI: 10.1093/icsidreview/six005
  • The History of Fair and Equitable Treatment before the Second World War
    • Authors: Blandford AC.
      First page: 287
      Abstract: This article traces the history of the concept of fair and equitable treatment (FET) in international law before the Second World War. Based on extensive historical research, it concludes that FET developed in two basic stages prior to its codification in post-war treaties. In the first stage, early arbitration treaties required tribunals to base their decisions on what were then called ‘the general principles of justice and equity.’ In the second stage, Elihu Root and his colleagues derived a minimum standard for the treatment of aliens from these general principles of justice and equity. The United States thus referred to the minimum standard as ‘just and equitable treatment’ (or the equivalent ‘fair and equitable treatment') for many years before the Second World War—long before ‘the minimum standard’ became the dominant term used to refer to the international standard for the treatment of aliens. In short, the original meaning of FET was (what is known today as) the minimum standard.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.1093/icsidreview/six002
  • Does the Chorzów Factory Standard Apply in Investment Arbitration? A
           Contextual Reappraisal  
    • Authors: Goodman RM; Parkhomenko Y.
      First page: 304
      Abstract: Foreign investors seeking to recover heightened damages, especially in the context of expropriation, invariably invoke Chorzów Factory to support their argument that compensation must be calculated not at the time of a wrongful act, but at the time of the award to reflect the possible rise of the value of the affected property. This article analyzes the historical context and underlying reasoning of the Chorzów Factory's standard of damages to demonstrate that this standard cannot be automatically applied in investment arbitration for several reasons. First, Chorzów Factory stated that the rights and interests of an individual and those of a State are always in a different plane, and thus the damage suffered by an individual is never identical in kind compared to the damage suffered by a State from the same wrongful act. This suggests that the scope of recoverable damages depends on whether an alleged breach concerns the injury to a sovereign State or the injury to an investor invoking the international responsibility of a State on its own account. Second, Chorzów Factory's pronouncement about the calculation of damages at the time of indemnification was limited to the protection of complex international security and economic interests safeguarded by the Geneva Convention on Upper Silesia after the contested partition of Upper Silesia; those interests were of a different order of magnitude than the interests underlying investment protection treaties. Finally, contrary to common misconceptions, Chorzów Factory was not a paradigm case of “unlawful” expropriation under customary international law or an investment protection treaty. The case involved the seizure of property that could not have been taken even against compensation. It is based on the distinction between different levels of illegality that Chorzów Factory also distinguished between different measures of damages, limiting its heightened standard of compensation in that case to the serious breach of the international obligations of essential importance for the maintenance of international peace and security.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1093/icsidreview/siw040
  • The EU TTIP Investment Court Proposal and the WTO Dispute Settlement
           System: Comparing Apples and Oranges?  
    • Authors: Kho SS; Yanovich A, Casey BR, et al.
      First page: 326
      Abstract: In the Fall of 2015 and following an open consultation process, the European Union proposed important changes to the standard investor-state arbitration regime in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)—a multilateral investment and trade agreement between the European Union and the United States. Through these changes, the EU seeks to significantly reform investor-state dispute resolution (ISDS) given what it characterizes as “widespread public concern” that the current ad hoc arbitration model lacks arbitral neutrality, transparency, and consistency and predictability in arbitral awards. The key element of the EU's proposed reforms is the creation of an Investment Court System (ICS) that is institutionally modeled after the WTO dispute resolution system. Similar to the WTO dispute resolution system, the ICS would have a First Instance Tribunal and an Appeals Tribunal dedicated to resolving international investment disputes staffed by permanent “judges” chosen by the EU and the US. However, the EU's significant departure from traditional investor-state arbitration has raised many questions as to the suitability of importing WTO dispute resolution features into ISDS and, in particular, whether or not the proposed ICS would in fact serve the EU's goals of ISDS reforming through increased arbitral neutrality, transparency, and consistency and predictability in arbitral awards. Although both the WTO and ISDS regimes deal with matters of international economic law, there are key differences in each regime that should be considered. These differences include the characteristics of the disputing parties, the remedies available, and the underlying objectives of the dispute resolution systems. The authors conclude that these differences are so significant that certain institutional features tailored for the WTO simply do not translate into ISDS. As a result, these differences are likely to hinder the EU's efforts to reform ISDS through the ICS.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.1093/icsidreview/siw037
  • Investor Diligence in Investment Arbitration: Sources and Arguments
    • Authors: Viñuales JE.
      First page: 346
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1093/icsidreview/siw041
  • Finality under the Washington and New York Conventions: Another Swing of
           the Pendulum?  
    • Authors: Reisenfeld KB; Robbins JM.
      First page: 371
      Abstract: Finality of awards is often cited as one of the chief virtues of arbitration. The ICSID annulment procedure, requiring substantial deference to an arbitration tribunal's judgments, was designed in part with this objective in mind. Yet commentators have identified relatively recent historical periods during which ICSID annulment committees have demonstrated more of an inclination to annul awards than comparable domestic courts being asked to review and enforce non-ICSID investor-state awards under the New York Convention. More recent decisions by ICSID annulment committees and domestic courts in popular arbitral jurisdictions, however, suggest that the trend may be reversing again, with domestic courts undertaking more searching review of an arbitration tribunal's substantive analyses while ICSID committees have exhibited deference even in cases where the committees have concluded the arbitration tribunals had erred. As a result, parties with a choice of ICSID or non-ICSID fora and a preference for finality over the opportunity for further judicial review may once again conclude that ICSID is a preferable venue.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1093/icsidreview/six008
  • Compensation for Unlawful Expropriation: Targeting the Illegality  
    • Authors: Khachvani D.
      First page: 385
      Abstract: Most investment treaties prohibit expropriation, except where certain criteria of legality are met. One of such criteria almost invariably is to provide compensation for expropriation. The obligation to pay for a taking is a primary duty created by the relevant non-expropriation provision and, thus, must be distinguished from the secondary duty to provide compensation for unlawful expropriation as a modality of reparation. Once this distinction is drawn, the following becomes clear: (i) a failure to comply with the obligation to provide compensation for a taking is a violation of the primary obligation created by the applicable treaty; (ii) the treaty standard of compensation, as a primary obligation, may not derogate from the secondary duty of full reparation; and, thus, (iii) the principle of full reparation applies even where the expropriation is wrongful solely for the lack of compensation. This latter proposition does not mean, however, that the application of the principle of full reparation will yield the same result irrespective of the manner in which the expropriation is tainted by illegality. Rather, the law of State responsibility, properly interpreted, envisages the possibility of targeting the remedial response at the nature of the unlawfulness of the expropriation in each given case.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1093/icsidreview/siw034
  • The New Brazilian BIT on Cooperation and Facilitation of Investments: A
           New Approach in Times of Change  
    • Authors: Muniz JP; Duggal KN, Peretti LS.
      First page: 404
      Abstract: Brazil has been a protagonist in the international investment protection system, albeit as a counterexample. When it comes to discussing the effectiveness of investment treaties in order to promote foreign direct investment, Brazil has been looked upon as ‘Exhibit A’ for those who argue that bilateral investment treaties (BITs) are neither required nor effective for boosting foreign investment. This is because Brazil, as the world’s ninth-largest economy, has remained a major investment destination despite not participating in the international investment regime. However, after more than 16 years of inactivity in the realm of international investment agreements, Brazil entered into a new phase in 2015 when it signed new BITs with Angola, Chile, Colombia, Malawi, Mexico and Mozambique. Further, in 2015, Brazil also made public the Cooperation and Facilitation Investment Agreement, which provides the template for Brazil’s Model BIT. In 2016, Brazil signed an Economic and Trade Expansion Agreement with Peru that, in addition to providing for international trade regulations, reproduces the investment rules laid out in the Model BIT. The Brazilian experience with investment agreements stands in sharp contrast to that of other countries, particularly relating to dispute resolution. At a time when most countries were promoting investment agreements, Brazil refused to participate in the regime. Currently, at a moment when many countries are critical of, and sceptical about, investment agreements, Brazil appears to have a heightened interest in actively participating in the regime.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1093/icsidreview/six007
  • Conflict of Investment-Related Provisions under Regional Trade Agreements
           between Korea and China – Navigating the ‘Noodle Bowl’  
    • Authors: Kang S.
      First page: 418
      Abstract: South Korea has signed at least three agreements with China covering investment, and it is currently negotiating two agreements covering investment. However, it is apparent that both South Korea and China did not envisage the situation of overlaps and conflicts of the treaties covering investment. International law currently provides for methods of resolving such conflicts including Articles 30 and 59 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, and the UN International Law Commission provided a helpful study on this issue. However, it is not 100% clear whether the treaties at issue cover the ‘same subject matter’ and the existing international rules may effectively resolve the conflicts. In this regard, Korea, China and Japan will need to draft a conflict clause in the China–Japan–Korea FTA that the investment chapter of one of the three prevails over the prior agreements covering the investment prior to the entry into force of that agreement. In addition, the role of the China–Japan–Korea Trilateral Cooperation Secretariat will be an appropriate forum to deal with this issue. Then, based on the conflict clause of the China-Japan-Korea FTA, the subsequent agreements such as the RCEP may have a helpful reference point.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.1093/icsidreview/six006
  • An Overview of Provisional Measures in ICSID Proceedings  
    • Authors: Sinclair AC; Repousis OG.
      First page: 431
      Abstract: This article provides an overview of provisional measures in International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) proceedings. In a time of mounting concerns over the efficiency and efficacy of investor–State arbitration, the need for provisional measures to be an effective tool grows all the more important. ICSID tribunals are, according to the Convention and ICSID Arbitration Rules, vested with the power to recommend binding provisional measures, provided that such measures are ‘provisional’ in character and are appropriate in nature, extent and duration to the risks impacting upon the rights to be preserved. ICSID tribunals have in practice helped clarify, and at times expand, their power to recommend provisional measures. This article reviews the framework for the recommendation of provisional measures under the Convention and provides an overview of ICSID arbitral practice in this important aspect of investor–State dispute settlement.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.1093/icsidreview/six004
  • The Non-Precluded Measure Type Clause in International Investment
           Agreements: Significances, Challenges, and Reactions  
    • Authors: Wang W.
      First page: 447
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      DOI: 10.1093/icsidreview/six001
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