Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 412 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 412 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 220, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 232, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 402, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 623, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insect Systematics and Diversity     Hybrid Journal  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 297, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Journal Prestige (SJR): 5.051
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 81  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1058-4838 - ISSN (Online) 1537-6591
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [412 journals]
  • Methodological Considerations for Cost of Illness Studies of Enteric Fever
    • Authors: Mejia N; Ramani E, Pallas S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThis article presents a selection of practical issues, questions, and tradeoffs in methodological choices to consider when conducting a cost of illness (COI) study on enteric fever in low- to lower-middle-income countries. The experiences presented are based on 2 large-scale COI studies embedded within the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project II (SEAP II), in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan; and the Severe Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa (SETA) Program in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, and Madagascar. Issues presented include study design choices such as controlling for background patient morbidity and healthcare costs, time points for follow-up, data collection methods for sensitive income and spending information, estimating enteric fever–specific health facility cost information, and analytic approaches in combining patient and health facility costs. The article highlights the potential tradeoffs in time, budget, and precision of results to assist those commissioning, conducting, and interpreting enteric fever COI studies.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa481
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Gavi Support for Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines: Moving From Global
           Investments to Country Introduction
    • Authors: Soble A; Patel Z, Sosler S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractNine years elapsed between Gavi’s investment decision to support typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) in 2008 and Gavi support becoming available for countries to introduce TCV. The protracted path toward Gavi support for TCV highlights the challenges of vaccine development for lower-income countries and the importance of Gavi engagement as early as possible in product development processes to support the alignment of manufacturing, global policy, and program implementation. Early engagement would provide inputs to inform strategic vaccine investment decisions that transition more efficiently toward country implementation. Several countries have been approved for Gavi support to introduce TCV in 2019–2020. The paucity of generalizable typhoid epidemiological data in early introducing countries has reinforced the need for continued evidence generation regarding typhoid epidemiology and TCV impact. This has led to the development of guidance and tools to support country decision making for TCV introduction based on enhanced understanding of local typhoid burden and risk.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa342
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Decision Making and Implementation of the First Public Sector Introduction
           of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine—Navi Mumbai, India, 2018
    • Authors: Date K; Shimpi R, Luby S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundTyphoid fever prevention and control efforts are critical in an era of rising antimicrobial resistance among typhoid pathogens. India remains one of the highest typhoid disease burden countries, although a highly efficacious typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV), prequalified by the World Health Organization in 2017, has been available since 2013. In 2018, the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) introduced TCV into its immunization program, targeting children aged 9 months to 14 years in 11 of 22 areas (Phase 1 campaign). We describe the decision making, implementation, and delivery costing to inform TCV use in other settings.MethodsWe collected information on the decision making and campaign implementation in addition to administrative coverage from NMMC and partners. We then used a microcosting approach from the local government (NMMC) perspective, using a new Microsoft Excel–based tool to estimate the financial and economic vaccination campaign costs.ResultsThe planning and implementation of the campaign were led by NMMC with support from multiple partners. A fixed-post campaign was conducted during weekends and public holidays in July–August 2018 which achieved an administrative vaccination coverage of 71% (ranging from 46% in high-income to 92% in low-income areas). Not including vaccine and vaccination supplies, the average financial cost and economic cost per dose of TCV delivery were $0.45 and $1.42, respectively.ConclusionThe first public sector TCV campaign was successfully implemented by NMMC, with high administrative coverage in slums and low-income areas. Delivery cost estimates provide important inputs to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and affordability of TCV vaccination through public sector preventive campaigns.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa597
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Antimicrobial Resistance in Typhoidal Salmonella: Around the World in 3
           Days
    • Authors: Saha S; Sajib M, Garrett D, et al.
      Abstract: With the increasing antibacterial resistance in typhoidal Salmonella and the dearth of novel antimicrobials on the horizon, we risk losing our primary defense against widespread morbidity and mortality from enteric fever. During 26–28 March 2019, researchers from around the world came together in Hanoi, Vietnam, and shared some of their latest findings on antimicrobial resistance. From the 258 abstracts presented at the conference, at least 50 discussed phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal Salmonella, covering data of at least 24 different countries, spanning 5 continents. Here, we summarize the key findings, focusing on our global journey ahead.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa366
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Overview of the Nontyphoidal and Paratyphoidal Salmonella Vaccine
           Pipeline: Current Status and Future Prospects
    • Authors: Baliban S; Lu Y, Malley R.
      Abstract: AbstractNontyphoidal Salmonella and Salmonella Paratyphi are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. To date, no vaccine has been licensed against these organisms. The development of effective vaccines remains an urgent priority. In this review, the rationale for and current status of various vaccine candidates against S. Paratyphi and nontyphoidal Salmonella are presented, with a focus on the research findings from the 2019 International Conference on Typhoid and Other Invasive Salmonelloses. Additionally, other vaccine candidates that are currently undergoing clinical development are highlighted. Future approaches, which may include antigens that are genetically conserved across Salmonella and confer broad, non–serotype-specific protection, are also discussed.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa514
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Tenacious Endemic Typhoid Fever in Samoa
    • Authors: Sikorski M; Desai S, Tupua S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundTyphoid fever has been endemic on the island nation of Samoa (2016 population, 195 979) since the 1960s and has persisted through 2019, despite economic development and improvements in water supply and sanitation.MethodsSalmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from the 2 hospitals with blood culture capability and matched patient demographic and clinical data from January 2008 through December 2019 were analyzed. Denominators to calculate incidence by island, region, and district came from 2011 and 2016 censuses and from 2017–2019 projections from Samoa’s Bureau of Statistics. Data were analyzed to describe typhoid case burden and incidence from 2008 to 2019 by time, place, and person.ResultsIn sum, 53–193 blood culture-confirmed typhoid cases occurred annually from 2008 to 2019, without apparent seasonality. Typhoid incidence was low among children age < 48 months (17.6–27.8/105), rose progressively in ages 5–9 years (54.0/105), 10–19 years (60.7–63.4/105), and 20–34 years (61.0–79.3/105), and then tapered off; 93.6% of cases occurred among Samoans < 50 years of age. Most typhoid cases and the highest incidence occurred in Northwest Upolu, but Apia Urban Area (served by treated water supplies) also exhibited moderate incidence. The proportion of cases from short-cycle versus long-cycle transmission is unknown. Samoan S. Typhi are pansusceptible to traditional first-line antibiotics. Nevertheless, enhanced surveillance in 2019 detected 4 (2.9%) deaths among 140 cases.ConclusionsTyphoid has been endemic in Samoa in the period 2008–2019. Interventions, including mass vaccination with a Vi-conjugate vaccine coadministered with measles vaccine are planned.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa314
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Intestinal Perforations Associated With a High Mortality and Frequent
           Complications During an Epidemic of Multidrug-resistant Typhoid Fever in
           Blantyre, Malawi
    • Authors: Olgemoeller F; Waluza J, Zeka D, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundTyphoid fever remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in low-income settings. Its most feared complication is intestinal perforation. However, due to the paucity of diagnostic facilities in typhoid-endemic settings, including microbiology, histopathology, and radiology, the etiology of intestinal perforation is frequently assumed but rarely confirmed. This poses a challenge for accurately estimating burden of disease.MethodsWe recruited a prospective cohort of patients with confirmed intestinal perforation in 2016 and performed enhanced microbiological investigations (blood and tissue culture, plus tissue polymerase chain reaction [PCR] for Salmonella Typhi). In addition, we used a Poisson generalized linear model to estimate excess perforations attributed to the typhoid epidemic, using temporal trends in S. Typhi bloodstream infection and perforated abdominal viscus at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital from 2008–2017.ResultsWe recruited 23 patients with intraoperative findings consistent with intestinal perforation. 50% (11/22) of patients recruited were culture or PCR positive for S. Typhi. Case fatality rate from typhoid-associated intestinal perforation was substantial at 18% (2/11). Our statistical model estimates that culture-confirmed cases of typhoid fever lead to an excess of 0.046 perforations per clinical typhoid fever case (95% CI, .03–.06). We therefore estimate that typhoid fever accounts for 43% of all bowel perforation during the period of enhanced surveillance.ConclusionsThe morbidity and mortality associated with typhoid abdominal perforations are high. By placing clinical outcome data from a cohort in the context of longitudinal surgical registers and bacteremia data, we describe a valuable approach to adjusting estimates of the burden of typhoid fever.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa405
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Early Insights From Clinical Trials of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine
    • Authors: Neuzil K; Basnyat B, Clemens J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractClinical trials of typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) are ongoing in 4 countries. Early data confirm safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of typhoid conjugate vaccine, and early efficacy results are promising. These data support World Health Organization recommendations and planned country introductions. Forthcoming trial data will continue to inform programmatic use of typhoid conjugate vaccine.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa370
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Environmental Surveillance as a Tool for Identifying High-risk Settings
           for Typhoid Transmission
    • Authors: Andrews J; Yu A, Saha S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractEnteric fever remains a major cause of morbidity in developing countries with poor sanitation conditions that enable fecal contamination of water distribution systems. Historical evidence has shown that contamination of water systems used for household consumption or agriculture are key transmission routes for Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A. The World Health Organization now recommends that typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCV) be used in settings with high typhoid incidence; consequently, governments face a challenge regarding how to prioritize typhoid against other emerging diseases. A key issue is the lack of typhoid burden data in many low- and middle-income countries where TCV could be deployed. Here we present an argument for utilizing environmental sampling for the surveillance of enteric fever organisms to provide data on community-level typhoid risk. Such an approach could complement traditional blood culture-based surveillance or even replace it in settings where population-based clinical surveillance is not feasible. We review historical studies characterizing the transmission of enteric fever organisms through sewage and water, discuss recent advances in the molecular detection of typhoidal Salmonella in the environment, and outline challenges and knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to establish environmental sampling as a tool for generating actionable data that can inform public health responses to enteric fever.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa513
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Assessing the Feasibility of Typhoid Elimination
    • Authors: Stanaway J; Atuhebwe P, Luby S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIn 1993, the International Task Force on Disease Eradication classified the political will for typhoid eradication as “none.” Here we revisit the Task Force’s assessment in light of developments in typhoid vaccines and increasing antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Typhi that have served to increase interest in typhoid elimination. Considering the requisite biological and technical factors for elimination, effective interventions exist for typhoid, and humans are the organism’s only known reservoir. Improvements in water supply, sanitation, hygiene, and food safety are critical for robust long-term typhoid control, and the recent Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization recommendation and World Health Organization prequalification should make typhoid conjugate vaccine more accessible and affordable in low-income countries, which will allow the vaccine to offer a critical bridge to quickly reduce burden. While these developments are encouraging, all current typhoid diagnostics are inadequate, having either poor performance characteristics, limited scalability, or both. No clear solution exists, and this should be viewed as a critical challenge to any elimination effort. Moreover, asymptomatic carriers and limited data and surveillance remain major challenges, and countries considering elimination campaigns will need to develop strategies to identify high-risk populations and to monitor progress over time. Finally, policymakers must be realistic in planning, learn from the planning failures of previous elimination and eradication efforts, and expect unforeseeable shocks and setbacks. In the end, if we assume neither unanticipated breakthroughs in typhoid control nor any chaotic shocks, history suggests that we should expect typhoid elimination to take decades.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa585
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Review on the Recent Advances on Typhoid Vaccine Development and
           Challenges Ahead
    • Authors: Syed K; Saluja T, Cho H, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractControl of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (S. typhi), the agent of typhoid fever, continues to be a challenge in many low- and middle-income countries. The major transmission route of S. typhi is fecal-oral, through contaminated food and water; thus, the ultimate measures for typhoid fever prevention and control include the provision of safe water, improved sanitation, and hygiene. Considering the increasing evidence of the global burden of typhoid, particularly among young children, and the long-term horizon for sustained, effective water and sanitation improvements in low-income settings, a growing consensus is to emphasize preventive vaccination. This review provides an overview of the licensed typhoid vaccines and vaccine candidates under development, and the challenges ahead for introduction.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa504
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Research on Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease and Developments
           Towards Better Understanding of Epidemiology, Management, and Control
           Strategies
    • Authors: Kariuki S; Owusu-Dabo E.
      Abstract: AbstractDuring the 11th International Conference on Typhoid and Other Invasive Salmonelloses held in Hanoi, Vietnam, a number of papers were presented on the burden of disease, epidemiology, genomics, management, and control strategies for invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease, which is increasingly becoming an important public health threat in low- and middle-income countries, but especially in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). Although there were minor variations in characteristics of iNTS in different settings (urban vs rural, country to country), it was observed that iNTS has gained greater recognition as a major disease entity in children younger than 5 years. Renewed efforts towards greater understanding of the burden of illness, detection and diagnostic strategies, and management and control of the disease in communities in sSA through the introduction of vaccines will be important.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa315
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines and Enteric Fever Control: Where to Next'
    • Authors: Steele A; Carey M, Kumar S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAfter the unprecedented success and acceleration of the global agenda towards typhoid fever control with a strong World Health Organization recommendation and the approval of funding from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi), for the use of a new typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV), we should turn our minds to the challenges that remain ahead. Despite the evidence showing the safety and clinical efficacy of TCV in endemic populations in developing countries, we should remain vigilant and explore hurdles for the full public health impact of TCV, including vaccine supply for the potential global demand, immunization strategies to optimize the effectiveness and long-term protection provided by the vaccines, potential use of TCV in outbreak settings, and scenarios for addressing chronic carriers. Finally, challenges face endemic countries with poor surveillance systems concerning awareness of the need for TCV and the extent of the issue across their populations, and how to target immunization strategies appropriately.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa343
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Global Action for Local Impact: The 11th International Conference on
           Typhoid and Other Invasive Salmonelloses
    • Authors: Duff N; Steele A, Garrett D.
      Abstract: AbstractTyphoid and other invasive salmonelloses continue to cause an estimated 14.8 million cases and > 200 000 deaths annually, largely affecting children in low- and middle-income countries. However, recent strides in global policy have paved the way for accelerated progress with prevention and control efforts. To translate these recent advancements at the global level into real impact in communities at the local level, the Coalition against Typhoid, based at the Sabin Vaccine Institute, convened the 11th International Conference on Typhoid and Other Invasive Salmonelloses in Hanoi, Vietnam, in March 2019. Here, we review the significant topics and research discussed at the conference, including diagnostics, environmental surveillance, drug resistance, burden of disease, and vaccines, as well as additional prevention and control interventions.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa236
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • The Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP), Severe Typhoid
           Fever Surveillance in Africa (SETA), Surveillance of Enteric Fever in
           India (SEFI), and Strategic Typhoid Alliance Across Africa and Asia
           (STRATAA) Population-based Enteric Fever Studies: A Review of
           Methodological Similarities and Differences
    • Authors: Carey M; MacWright W, Im J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBuilding on previous multicountry surveillance studies of typhoid and others salmonelloses such as the Diseases of the Most Impoverished program and the Typhoid Surveillance in Africa Project, several ongoing blood culture surveillance studies are generating important data about incidence, severity, transmission, and clinical features of invasive Salmonella infections in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. These studies are also characterizing drug resistance patterns in their respective study sites. Each study answers a different set of research questions and employs slightly different methodologies, and the geographies under surveillance differ in size, population density, physician practices, access to healthcare facilities, and access to microbiologically safe water and improved sanitation. These differences in part reflect the heterogeneity of the epidemiology of invasive salmonellosis globally, and thus enable generation of data that are useful to policymakers in decision-making for the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs). Moreover, each study is evaluating the large-scale deployment of TCVs, and may ultimately be used to assess post-introduction vaccine impact. The data generated by these studies will also be used to refine global disease burden estimates. It is important to ensure that lessons learned from these studies not only inform vaccination policy, but also are incorporated into sustainable, low-cost, integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance systems.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa367
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • The Current Status of Enteric Fever Diagnostics and Implications for
           Disease Control
    • Authors: Baker S; Blohmke C, Maes M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractEnteric (typhoid) fever remains a problem in low- and middle-income countries that lack the infrastructure to maintain sanitation and where inadequate diagnostic methods have restricted our ability to identify and control the disease more effectively. As we move into a period of potential disease elimination through the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV), we again need to reconsider the role of typhoid diagnostics in how they can aid in facilitating disease control. Recent technological advances, including serology, transcriptomics, and metabolomics, have provided new insights into how we can detect signatures of invasive Salmonella organisms interacting with the host during infection. Many of these new techniques exhibit potential that could be further explored with the aim of creating a new enteric fever diagnostic to work in conjunction with TCV. We need a sustained effort within the enteric fever field to accelerate, validate, and ultimately introduce 1 (or more) of these methods to facilitate the disease control initiative. The window of opportunity is still open, but we need to recognize the need for communication with other research areas and commercial organizations to assist in the progression of these diagnostic approaches. The elimination of enteric fever is now becoming a real possibility, but new diagnostics need to be part of the equation and factored into future calculations for disease control.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa503
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Rapid Detection Methods for Bacterial Pathogens in Ambient Waters at the
           Point of Sample Collection: A Brief Review
    • Authors: Li J; Zhu Y, Wu X, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe world is currently facing a serious health burden of waterborne diseases, including diarrhea, gastrointestinal diseases, and systemic illnesses. The control of these infectious diseases ultimately depends on the access to safe drinking water, properly managed sanitation, and hygiene practices. Therefore, ultrasensitive, rapid, and specific monitoring platforms for bacterial pathogens in ambient waters at the point of sample collection are urgently needed. We conducted a literature review on state-of-the-art research of rapid in-field aquatic bacteria detection methods, including cell-based methods, nucleic acid amplification detection methods, and biosensors. The detection performance, the advantages, and the disadvantages of the technologies are critically discussed. We envision that promising monitoring approaches should be automated, real-time, and target-multiplexed, thus allowing comprehensive evaluation of exposure risks attributable to waterborne pathogens and even emerging microbial contaminants such as antibiotic resistance genes, which leads to better protection of public health.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa498
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Risk-based Vaccines and the Need for Risk-based Subnational Vaccination
           Strategies for Introduction
    • Authors: Muhib F; Pecenka C, Marfin A.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundMost vaccines in the Expanded Program on Immunization are universal childhood vaccines (eg, measles and rotavirus vaccines). Other vaccines such as typhoid conjugate (TCV) and Japanese encephalitis vaccines are risk based and only used in countries where populations are at risk of these diseases. However, strategies to introduce risk-based vaccines are becoming complex due to increasing intracountry variability in disease incidence. There is a need to assess whether subnational vaccine strategies are appropriate.Criteria, challenges, and benefitsSubnational strategies consider intracountry heterogeneous risk and prioritize vaccination only in those areas that are at risk; there is no intent to introduce the vaccine nationally. The following variables should be considered to determine appropriateness of subnational strategies: disease burden, outbreak potential, treatment availability and costs, cost-effectiveness, and availability of other preventive interventions. We propose criteria for each variable and use a hypothetical country considering TCV introduction to show how criteria are applied to determine if a subnational strategy is appropriate. Challenges include granularity of disease-burden data, political challenges of vaccinating only a portion of a population, and potentially higher costs of introduction. Benefits include targeted reduction of disease burden, increased equity for marginalized populations, and progress on development goals.ConclusionsIn the absence of perfect information at the national level, adopting a subnational vaccine strategy can provide country decision makers with an alternative to national vaccine introduction. Given the changing nature of communicable disease burden, subnational vaccination may be a tool to effectively avert mortality and morbidity while maximizing the use of available health and financial resources.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa483
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Surveillance for Invasive Salmonella Disease in Bamako, Mali, From 2002 to
           2018
    • Authors: Still W; Tapia M, Tennant S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundSalmonella enterica bloodstream infections are an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, including in Mali. We report 17 years of surveillance for nontyphoidal and typhoidal S. enterica infections among inpatients and outpatients at l’Hôpital Gabriel Touré, the main source of pediatric tertiary care in Bamako, Mali.MethodsBetween June 2002 and December 2018, a blood culture was collected from 54 748 children aged ≤15 years with fever and/or suspected invasive bacterial infection who provided consent (38 152 inpatients, 16 596 outpatients). Bacterial pathogens were identified using standard microbiological techniques and serovars of S. enterica were determined by PCR and/or agglutination with antisera.ResultsNontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) was identified in 671 enrolled inpatients (1.8% of all enrolled inpatients, 13.8% of enrolled inpatients with a positive culture). S. Enteritidis, the most common NTS serovar, accounted for 38.5% of all NTS isolates (n = 258), followed by S. Typhimurium (31.7%, n = 213). The median (SD) age of children with a culture positive for NTS was 1.8 (3) years. Overall case fatality was 20.9%. An additional 138 inpatients (0.4%) had a positive culture for typhoidal Salmonella. NTS was identified in 11 outpatients (0.07%), while typhoidal Salmonella was found in 49 outpatients (0.3%). The annual incidence of invasive NTS disease decreased over the study period, but case fatality remained high.ConclusionsAlthough incidence decreased, NTS remained a major cause of invasive bacterial infection and mortality among hospitalized children in Bamako, while typhoidal Salmonella was uncommon. Because 87% of NTS belonged to only 4 serovars, a multivalent vaccine may be an effective strategy to reduce the burden and mortality of invasive NTS.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa482
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
  • Review of Methods Suitable for Environmental Surveillance of Salmonella
           Typhi and Paratyphi
    • Authors: Matrajt G; Lillis L, Meschke J.
      Abstract: AbstractTyphoid fever is an enteric disease caused by the pathogens Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi. Clinical surveillance networks are lacking in many affected areas, thus presenting a need to understand transmission and population prevalence. Environmental surveillance (ES) has been suggested as a potentially effective method in the absence of (or in supplement to) clinical surveillance. This review summarizes methods identified in the literature for sampling and detection of typhoidal Salmonella from environmental samples including drinking water, wastewater, irrigation water, and surface waters. Methods described use a trap or grab sampling approach combined with various selective culture and molecular methods. The level to which the performance of identified methods is characterized for ES in the literature is variable, thus arguing for the optimization and standardization of ES techniques.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa487
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. Supplement_2 (2020)
       
 
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