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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 296, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 564, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Clinical Infectious Diseases
  [SJR: 4.742]   [H-I: 261]   [63 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1058-4838 - ISSN (Online) 1537-6591
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • In the Literature
    • PubDate: Sat, 06 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • News
    • PubDate: Sat, 06 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Cunning Foe
    • Abstract: (See pages 156—7 for the Answer to the Photo Quiz.)
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Cunning Foe
    • Authors: Phadke V; Bumb S, Reshamwala P, et al.
      Abstract: (See pages 154–5 for the Photo Quiz.)
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Critical Importance of Sampling Fraction to Inferences of
           Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission
    • Authors: Lee R; Howden B.
      Abstract: To the Editor—In the study by Manson et al [1], whole-genome sequencing was performed on 223 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Tiruvallur and Madurai districts of India. They subsequently examined local strain diversity and mutations associated with phenotypic drug resistance in these regions. In this important study, the authors show that lists of published resistance mutations (including [2–4]) have lower positive predictive values for phenotypic resistance in this context; lineages 1 and 3 predominate in India [1], but these published mutations were largely identified using strains from different M. tuberculosis lineages. This highlights a key obstacle to the implementation of genomics for resistance prediction in India and potentially other endemic regions with diverse lineages of M. tuberculosis. By extension, this study emphasizes the critical need to collect strains and categorize the mutations circulating in these regions to better inform such predictions.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Reply to Lee and Howden
    • Authors: Manson A; Abeel T, Galagan J, et al.
      Abstract: To the Editor—We thank Dr Lee and Prof Howden for their letter and for giving us an opportunity to better articulate our interpretation of findings, especially with respect to transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among patients within 2 southern Indian districts. Based on analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences between 223 M. tuberculosis strains from 196 patients within the Thiruvallur and Madurai districts of Tamil Nadu, we report recent intradistrict, but no recent interdistrict, transmission of strains among patients. In drawing these conclusions, we limited our interpretation to the data available to us, which showed that the closest SNP distance between M. tuberculosis isolated from patients in different districts was 85 SNPs, which is substantially higher than the very small numbers of SNPs (as few as 0) observed when comparing isolates from patients treated in the same district and treatment center.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • In- and Out-of-hospital Mortality Associated with Seasonal and Pandemic
           Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in South Africa, 2009–2013
    • Authors: Cohen C; Walaza S, Treurnicht F, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundEstimates of influenza- and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated mortality burden are important to guide policy for control. Data are limited on the contribution of out-of-hospital deaths to this mortality.MethodsWe modeled excess mortality attributable to influenza and RSV infection by applying regression models to weekly deaths from national vital statistics from 2009 through 2013, using influenza and RSV laboratory surveillance data as covariates. We fitted separate models for in- and out-of-hospital deaths.ResultsThere were 509791 average annual deaths in South Africa, of which 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 43%–45%) occurred out-of-hospital. Seasonal influenza and RSV all-cause mortality rates were 23.0 (95% CI 11.0–30.6) and 13.2 (95% CI 6.4–33.8) per 100000 population annually (2.3% [95%CI 2.3%–2.4%] and 1.3% [95% CI 1.2%–1.4%] of all deaths respectively). The peak mortality rate was in individuals aged ≥75 years (386.0; 95% CI 176.5–466.3) for influenza and in infants (143.4; 95% CI 0–194.8) for RSV. Overall, 63% (95% CI 62%–-65%) of seasonal influenza and 48% (95% CI 47%–49%) of RSV-associated deaths occurred out-of-hospital. Among children aged <5 years, RSV-associated deaths were more likely to occur in-hospital, whereas influenza-associated deaths were more likely to occur out-of-hospital. The mortality rate was 6.7 (95% CI 6.4–33.8) in the first influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 wave in 2009 and 20.9 (95% CI 6.4–33.8) in the second wave in 2011, with 30% (95% CI 29%–32%) of A(H1N1)pdm09-associated deaths in 2009 occurring out-of-hospital.DiscussionMore than 45% of seasonal influenza- and RSV-associated deaths occur out-of-hospital in South Africa. These data suggest that hospital-based studies may substantially underestimate mortality burden.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Call for Action: Invasive Fungal Infections Associated With Ibrutinib and
           Other Small Molecule Kinase Inhibitors Targeting Immune Signaling Pathways
    • Authors: Chamilos G; Lionakis M, Kontoyiannis D.
      Abstract: AbstractOpportunistic infections caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii, Cryptococcus neoformans, and ubiquitous airborne filamentous fungi have been recently reported in patients with hematological cancers historically considered at low risk for invasive fungal infections (IFIs), after receipt of the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib. The spectrum and severity of IFIs often observed in these patients implies the presence of a complex immunodeficiency that may not be solely attributed to mere inhibition of Bruton tyrosine kinase. In view of the surge in development of small molecule kinase inhibitors for treatment of malignant and autoimmune diseases, it is possible that there would be an emergence of IFIs associated with the effects of these molecules on the immune system. Preclinical assessment of the immunosuppressive effects of kinase inhibitors and human studies aimed at improving patient risk stratification for development of IFIs could lead to prevention, earlier diagnosis, and better outcomes in affected patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Effect of Female Sex on Hepatitis C Incidence Among People Who Inject
           Drugs: Results From the International Multicohort InC3 Collaborative
    • Authors: Esmaeili A; Mirzazadeh A, Morris M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe objective of this study was to assess differences in hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence by sex in people who inject drugs (PWID), using a large international multicohort set of pooled biological and behavioral data from prospective observational studies of incident human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HCV infections in high-risk cohorts (the InC3 Collaborative).MethodsHCV infection date was estimated based on a hierarchy of successive serological (anti-HCV), virological (HCV RNA), and clinical (symptoms and/or liver function tests) data. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to calculate the crude and adjusted female to male (F:M) hazard ratio (HR) for HCV incidence using biological sex as the main exposure.ResultsA total of 1868 PWID were observed over 3994 person-years of observation (PYO). Unadjusted F:M HR was 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–1.65) and remained significant after adjusting for behavioral and demographic risk factors (1.39 [95% CI, 1.12–1.72]). Although syringe and equipment sharing were associated with the highest HCV incidence rate in women (41.62 and 36.83 PYO, respectively), we found no sex differences attributed to these risk factors.ConclusionsOur findings indicate that women who inject drugs may be at greater risk of HCV acquisition than men, independent of demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Multiple factors, including biological (hormonal), social network, and differential access to prevention services, may contribute to increased HCV susceptibility in women who inject drugs.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Machine Learning for Healthcare: On the Verge of a Major Shift in
           Healthcare Epidemiology
    • Authors: Wiens J; Shenoy E.
      Abstract: AbstractThe increasing availability of electronic health data presents a major opportunity in healthcare for both discovery and practical applications to improve healthcare. However, for healthcare epidemiologists to best use these data, computational techniques that can handle large complex datasets are required. Machine learning (ML), the study of tools and methods for identifying patterns in data, can help. The appropriate application of ML to these data promises to transform patient risk stratification broadly in the field of medicine and especially in infectious diseases. This, in turn, could lead to targeted interventions that reduce the spread of healthcare-associated pathogens. In this review, we begin with an introduction to the basics of ML. We then move on to discuss how ML can transform healthcare epidemiology, providing examples of successful applications. Finally, we present special considerations for those healthcare epidemiologists who want to use and apply ML.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Disability Among Ebola Survivors and Their Close Contacts in Sierra Leone:
           A Retrospective Case-Controlled Cohort Study
    • Authors: Jagadesh S; Sevalie S, Fatoma R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractEbola survivors (21/27 [77.8%]) suffered more disability than their close contacts (6/54 [11.1%]) (adjusted odds ratio, 23.5 [95% confidence interval, 6.5–85.7]; P < .001) when measured by the Washington Group Disability Extended Questionnaire. Major limitations in vision, mobility, cognition, and affect were observed in survivors 1 year following the 2014–2016 Ebola outbreak, highlighting the need for long-term rehabilitation.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Relationship Between Viremia and Specific Organ Damage in Ebola Patients:
           A Cohort Study
    • Authors: Lanini S; Portella G, Vairo F, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundPathogenesis of Ebola virus disease remains poorly understood. We used concomitant determination of routine laboratory biomarkers and Ebola viremia to explore the potential role of viral replication in specific organ damage.MethodsWe recruited patients with detectable Ebola viremia admitted to the EMERGENCY Organizzazione Non Governativa Organizzazione Non Lucrativa di Utilità Sociale (ONG ONLUS) Ebola Treatment Center in Sierra Leone. Repeated measure of Ebola viremia, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), bilirubin, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), activated prothrombin time (aPTT), international normalized ratio (INR), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were recorded. Patients were followed up from admission until death or discharge.ResultsOne hundred patients (49 survivors and 51 nonsurvivors) were included in the analysis. Unadjusted analysis to compare survivors and nonsurvivors provided evidence that all biomarkers were significantly above the normal range and that the extent of these abnormalities was generally higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors. Multivariable mixed-effects models provided strong evidence for a biological gradient (suggestive of a direct role in organ damage) between the viremia levels and either ALT, AST, CPK LDH, aPTT, and INR. In contrast, no direct linear association was found between viremia and either creatinine, BUN, or bilirubin.ConclusionsThis study provides evidence to support that Ebola virus may have a direct role in muscular damage and imbalance of the coagulation system. We did not find strong evidence suggestive of a direct role of Ebola virus in kidney damage. The role of the virus in liver damage remains unclear, but our evidence suggests that acute severe liver injury is not a typical feature of Ebola virus disease.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Improvement in Diagnosis of Histoplasma Meningitis by Combined Testing for
           Histoplasma Antigen and Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M
           Anti-Histoplasma Antibody in Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • Authors: Bloch K; Myint T, Raymond-Guillen L, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundCentral nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis is a life-threatening condition and represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Isolation of Histoplasma capsulatum from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or brain tissue is diagnostic; however, culture is insensitive and slow growth may result in significant treatment delay. We performed a retrospective multicenter study to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a new anti-Histoplasma antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of IgG and IgM antibody in the CSF for diagnosis of CNS histoplasmosis, the primary objective of the study. The secondary objective was to determine the effect of improvements in the Histoplasma galactomannan antigen detection EIA on the diagnosis of Histoplasma meningitis.MethodsResidual CSF specimens from patients with Histoplasma meningitis and controls were tested for Histoplasma antigen and anti-Histoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody using assays developed at MiraVista Diagnostics.ResultsA total of 50 cases and 157 controls were evaluated. Fifty percent of patients with CNS histoplasmosis were immunocompromised, 14% had other medical conditions, and 36% were healthy. Histoplasma antigen was detected in CSF in 78% of cases and the specificity was 97%. Anti-Histoplasma IgG or IgM antibody was detected in 82% of cases and the specificity was 93%. The sensitivity of detection of antibody by currently available serologic testing including immunodiffusion and complement fixation was 51% and the specificity was 96%. Testing for both CSF antigen and antibody by EIA was the most sensitive approach, detecting 98% of cases.ConclusionsTesting CSF for anti-Histoplasma IgG and IgM antibody complements antigen detection and improves the sensitivity for diagnosis of Histoplasma meningitis.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Outcome of Infective Endocarditis due
           to Abiotrophia Species and Granulicatella Species: Report of 76 Cases,
    • Authors: Téllez A; Ambrosioni J, Llopis J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundInfective endocarditis (IE) caused by Abiotrophia (ABI) and Granulicatella (GRA) species is poorly studied. This work aims to describe and compare the main features of ABI and GRA IE.MethodsWe performed a retrospective study of 12 IE institutional cases of GRA or ABI and of 64 cases published in the literature (overall, 38 ABI and 38 GRA IE cases).ResultsABI/GRA IE represented 1.51% of IE cases in our institution between 2000 and 2015, compared to 0.88% of HACEK (Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella)–related IE and 16.62% of Viridans group streptococci (VGS) IE. Institutional ABI/GRA IE case characteristics were comparable to that of VGS, but periannular complications were more frequent (P = .008). Congenital heart disease was reported in 4 (10.5%) ABI and in 11 (28.9%) GRA cases (P = .04). Mitral valve was more frequently involved in ABI than in GRA (P < .001). Patient sex, prosthetic IE, aortic involvement, penicillin susceptibility, and surgical treatment were comparable between the genera. New-onset heart failure was the most frequent complication without genera differences (P = .21). Five (13.2%) ABI patients and 2 (5.3%) GRA patients died (P = .23). Factors associated with higher mortality were age (P = .02) and new-onset heart failure (P = .02). The genus (GRA vs ABI) was not associated with higher mortality (P = .23).ConclusionsGRA/ABI IE was more prevalent than HACEK IE and approximately one-tenth as prevalent as VGS; periannular complications were more frequent. GRA and ABI genera IE presented similar clinical features and outcomes. Overall mortality was low, and related to age and development of heart failure.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Higher Mortality Despite Early Antiretroviral Therapy in Human
           Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)–Coinfected Patients
           With High HBV Replication
    • Authors: Kouamé G; Boyd A, Moh R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundIn human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients, hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection increases the risk of disease progression. Tenofovir plus emtricitabine/lamivudine (TDF/XTC)–based antiretroviral therapy (ART), which suppresses HIV and HBV replication, has the potential for decreasing this risk. Here, we analyze the association between HBV replication, early ART, and mortality in West African adults.MethodsThe Temprano randomized controlled trial assessed the benefits of immediately initiating vs deferring ART in HIV-infected adults with high CD4 counts. After trial completion, participants continued follow-up in a posttrial phase. We analyzed the association between HBV status, immediate ART, and mortality over the entire trial and posttrial follow-up using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression.ResultsA total of 2052 HIV-infected adults (median baseline CD4 count, 464 cells/μL) were followed for 9394 person-years. At baseline, 1862 (91%) were HIV monoinfected and 190 (9%) HIV/HBV coinfected. Of the latter, 135 (71%) had plasma HBV DNA <2000 IU/mL and 55 (29%) HBV DNA ≥2000 IU/mL. The 60-month probability of death was 11.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4%–24.5%) in coinfected patients with HBV DNA ≥2000 IU/mL; 4.4% (95% CI, 1.9%–10.4%) in coinfected patients with HBV DNA <2000 IU/mL; and 4.2% (95% CI, 3.3%–5.4%) in HIV-monoinfected patients. Adjusting for ART strategy (immediate vs deferred), the hazard ratio of death was 2.74 (95% CI, 1.26–5.97) in coinfected patients with HBV DNA ≥2000 IU/mL and 0.90 (95% CI, .36–2.24) in coinfected patients with HBV DNA <2000 IU/mL compared to HIV-monoinfected patients. There was no interaction between ART strategy and HBV status for mortality.ConclusionsAfrican HIV/HBV-coinfected adults with high HBV replication remain at heightened risk of mortality in the early ART era. Further studies are needed to assess interventions combined with early ART to decrease mortality in this population.Clinical Trials RegistrationNCT00495651
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Novel Human Pegivirus, HPgV-2 (HHpgV-1), Is Tightly Associated With
           Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection and HCV/Human Immunodeficiency Virus
           Type 1 Coinfection
    • Authors: Wang H; Wan Z, Xu R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundHuman pegivirus type 2 (HPgV-2) is a novel blood-borne human pegivirus that mainly infects hepatitis C virus (HCV)–infected subjects. We have investigated the prevalence of HPgV-2 in China, its association with HCV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and the impact on HCV viral load and liver damage.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted with both blood donors and HCV- and HIV-1–infected patients in Guangzhou, China. All subjects were screened for anti-HPgV-2 and HPgV-2 RNA. Demographic and clinical information were obtained from electronic medical records.ResultsWe tested 8198 serum or plasma samples. Only 0.15% (6/4017) of healthy blood donors were positive for anti-HPgV-2 and negative for HPgV-2 RNA. No HPgV-2 viremia was detected in hepatitis B virus– or HIV-1–monoinfected individuals. The relatively high frequency of HPgV-2 infection was observed in 1.23% (30/2440) and 0.29% (7/2440) of HCV-infected persons by serological assay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Furthermore, anti-HPgV-2 and HPgV-2 RNA were detected in 8.91% (18/202) and 3.47% (7/202), respectively, of HCV/HIV-1–coinfected subjects. HPgV-2 persistent infection was documented in about 30% of anti-HPgV-2–positive individuals. In addition, HPgV-2 infection may not affect HCV-related liver injury and HCV viral load.ConclusionsOur results indicate the rarity of HPgV-2 infection in the general population and tight association with HCV, in particular with HCV/HIV-1 coinfection. HPgV-2 appears not to worsen HCV-related liver damage. Our study provides new findings about the association of HPgV-2 and HCV/HIV-1 and the impact of HPgV-2 infection on HCV replication and pathogenesis.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Urinary Lipoarabinomannan Detection and Disseminated Nontuberculous
           Mycobacterial Disease
    • Authors: Gupta-Wright A; Kerkhoff A, Meintjes G, et al.
      Abstract: To the Editor—We read with interest Nel and colleagues’ article, “Does disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial disease cause false-positive Determine TB-LAM lateral flow assay results' A retrospective review” [1]. The authors present an important finding relevant to clinicians who manage patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although we agree that disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease needs to be considered in patients with positive Determine TB-LAM lateral flow assay (LF-LAM) results, we urge that the implications for clinical practice be considered in the context of what is known about the relative incidence of tuberculosis and NTM disease in high HIV burden settings. Disseminated NTM disease is almost exclusively observed in patients with extreme immunosuppression (median CD4 count consistently <50 cells/μL, often <10 cells/μL) [2], has always been uncommon in HIV-infected patients in Africa, and has become more rare in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART).
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Reply to Gupta-Wright et al
    • Authors: Nel J; Ive P, Lippincott C.
      Abstract: We thank Gupta-Wright et al for their insightful comments on our article and enthusiastically echo many of their points [1, 2]. Indeed, we share their concern regarding the difficulty of ruling out tuberculosis coinfection among patients with confirmed disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection who have a positive Determine TB-LAM lateral flow assay (LF-LAM) result. For that reason, in our high-burden tuberculosis setting, it is our policy to always err on the side of initially treating such patients for both infections while continuing to search for definitive evidence of tuberculosis coinfection.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Innate, T-, and B-Cell Responses in Acute Human Zika Patients
    • Authors: Lai L; Rouphael N, Xu Y, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThere is an urgent need for studies of viral persistence and immunity during human Zika infections to inform planning and conduct of vaccine clinical trials.MethodsIn 5 returned US travelers with acute symptomatic Zika infection, clinical features, viral RNA levels, and immune responses were characterized.ResultsTwo pregnant, flavivirus-experienced patients had viral RNA persist in plasma for >44 and >26 days. Three days after symptom onset, transient increases in proinflammatory monocytes began followed at 5 days by transient decreases in myeloid dendritic cells. Anti-Zika virus immunoglobulin M was detected at day 7 after symptom onset, persisted beyond 103 days, and remained equivocal through day 172. Zika virus–specific plasmablasts and neutralizing antibodies developed quickly; dengue virus–specific plasmablasts and neutralizing antibodies at high titers developed only in flavivirus-experienced patients. Zika virus– and dengue virus–specific memory B cells developed in both flavivirus-naive and -experienced patients. CD4+ T cells were moderately activated and produced antiviral cytokines after stimulation with Zika virus C, prM, E, and NS5 peptides in 4/4 patients. In contrast, CD8+ T cells were massively activated, but virus-specific cells that produced cytokines were present in only 2/4 patients assessed.ConclusionsAcute infections with Zika virus modulated antigen-presenting cell populations early. Flavivirus-experienced patients quickly recalled cross-reactive MBCs to secrete antibodies. Dengue virus–naive patients made little dengue-specific antibody but developed MBCs that cross-reacted against dengue virus. Zika virus–specific functional CD4+ T cells were readily detected, but few CD8+ T cells specific for the tested peptides were found.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Rates of and Risk Factors for Adverse Drug Events in Outpatient Parenteral
           Antimicrobial Therapy
    • Authors: Keller S; Williams D, Gavgani M, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundTo better monitor patients on outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT), we need an improved understanding of risk factors for and timing of OPAT-associated adverse drug events (ADEs).MethodsWe analyzed a prospective cohort of patients on OPAT discharged from 2 academic medical centers. Patients underwent chart abstraction and a telephone survey. Multivariable analyses estimated adjusted incident rate ratios (aIRR) between clinical and demographic risk factors and clinician-determined clinically significant ADEs. Descriptive data were used to present patient-reported ADEs.ResultsOf 339 patients enrolled in the study, 18.0% experienced an ADE (N = 65), of which 49 were significant (14.5%, 2.24/1000 home-OPAT days). Patients with longer courses of therapy had lower rates of ADEs compared with patients treated for 0–13 days (14–27 days: aIRR, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20–0.99; at least 28 days: aIRR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.056–0.21). Risk factors for ADEs included female gender and receipt of daptomycin or vancomycin, while treatment for uncomplicated bacteremia and empiric treatment were associated with lower rates of ADEs.ConclusionsOPAT-related ADEs were common and often occurred within 2 weeks of hospital discharge. Patients on OPAT should be monitored more closely for ADEs, including clinical assessment and laboratory monitoring, especially within the first weeks after hospital discharge and particularly among women and patients who receive vancomycin.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effect of Maternally Derived Anti-protein and Anticapsular IgG Antibodies
           on the Rate of Acquisition of Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Pneumococcus in
    • Authors: Ojal J; Goldblatt D, Tigoi C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundIn developing countries, introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has not eliminated circulation of vaccine serotypes. Vaccinating pregnant mothers to increase antibody concentrations in their newborn infants may reduce the acquisition of pneumococcal carriage and subsequent risk of disease. We explored the efficacy of passive immunity, attributable to anti-protein and anticapsular pneumococcal antibodies, against acquisition of carriage.MethodsWe examined the rate of nasopharyngeal acquisition of pneumococci in the first 90 days of life associated with varying anticapsular and anti-protein antibody concentrations in infant cord/maternal venous blood in Kilifi, Kenya. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to estimate continuous functions relating acquisition of nasopharyngeal carriage to the concentration of maternally derived antibody.ResultsCord blood or maternal venous samples were collected from 976 mother-infant pairs. Pneumococci were acquired 561 times during 33,905 person-days of follow-up. Increasing concentrations of anti-protein antibodies were associated with either a reduction (PhtD1, PspAFam2, Spr0096, StkP) or, paradoxically, an increase (CbpA, LytC, PcpA, PiaA, PspAFam1, RrgBT4) in acquisition rate. We observed a nonsignificant reduction in the incidence of homologous carriage acquisition with high concentrations of maternally derived anticapsular antibodies to 5 serotypes (6A, 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F).ConclusionThe protective efficacy of several anti-protein antibodies supports the strategy of maternal vaccination to protect young infants from carriage and invasive disease. We were not able to demonstrate that passive anticapsular antibodies were protective against carriage acquisition at naturally occurring concentrations though it remains possible they may do so at the higher concentrations elicited by vaccination.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • DPP4, the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Receptor, is
           Upregulated in Lungs of Smokers and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    • Authors: Seys L; Widagdo W, Verhamme F, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes pneumonia with a relatively high case fatality rate in humans. Smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have been reported to be more susceptible to MERS-CoV infection. Here, we determined the expression of MERS-CoV receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), in lung tissues of smokers without airflow limitation and COPD patients in comparison to nonsmoking individuals (never-smokers).MethodsDPP4 expression was measured in lung tissue of lung resection specimens of never-smokers, smokers without airflow limitation, COPD GOLD stage II patients and in lung explants of end-stage COPD patients. Both control subjects and COPD patients were well phenotyped and age-matched. The mRNA expression was determined using qRT-PCR and protein expression was quantified using immunohistochemistry.ResultsIn smokers and subjects with COPD, both DPP4 mRNA and protein expression were significantly higher compared to never-smokers. Additionally, we found that both DPP4 mRNA and protein expression were inversely correlated with lung function and diffusing capacity parameters.ConclusionsWe provide evidence that DPP4 is upregulated in the lungs of smokers and COPD patients, which could partially explain why these individuals are more susceptible to MERS-CoV infection. These data also highlight a possible role of DPP4 in COPD pathogenesis.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Healthcare Improvement Intervention Combining Nucleic Acid Microarray
           Testing With Direct Physician Response for Management of Staphylococcus
           aureus Bacteremia
    • Authors: Eby J; Richey M, Platts-Mills J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundNucleic acid microarray (NAM) testing for detection of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) and S. aureus resistance gene determinants can reduce time to targeted antibiotic administration. Evidence-based management of SAB includes bedside infectious diseases (ID) consultation. As a healthcare improvement initiative at our institution, with the goal of improving management and outcomes for subjects with SAB, we implemented NAM with a process for responding to positive NAM results by directly triggered, mandatory ID consultation.MethodsPreintervention, SAB was identified by traditional culture and results passively directed to antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) pharmacists. Postintervention, SAB in adult inpatients was identified by Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture test, results paged directly to ID fellow physicians, and consultation initiated immediately. In the new process, ASP assisted with management after the initial consultation. A single-center, retrospective, pre-/postintervention analysis was performed.ResultsOne hundred six preintervention and 120 postintervention subjects were assessed. Time to ID consultation after notification of a positive blood culture decreased 26.0 hours (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.1 to 7.1 hours, P < .001) postintervention compared with preintervention. Time to initiation of targeted antibiotic decreased by a mean of 21.2 hours (95% CI, 31.4 to 11.0 hours, P < .001) and time to targeted antibiotics for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus decreased by a mean of 40.7 hours (95% CI, 58.0 to 23.5 hours, P < .001). The intervention was associated with lower in-hospital (13.2% to 5.8%, P = .047) and 30-day (17.9% to 8.3%, P = .025) mortality.ConclusionsCompared with an ASP-directed response to traditionally detected SAB, an efficient physician response to NAM was associated with improved care and outcomes for SAB.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cost Drivers of a Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and
           Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia Phase 3 Clinical Trial
    • Authors: Stergiopoulos S; Calvert S, Brown C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundStudies indicate that the prevalence of multidrug-resistant infections, including hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP), has been rising. There are many challenges associated with these disease conditions and the ability to develop new treatments. Additionally, HABP/VABP clinical trials are very costly to conduct given their complex protocol designs and the difficulty in recruiting and retaining patients.MethodsWith input from clinicians, representatives from industry, and the US Food and Drug Administration, we conducted a study to (1) evaluate the drivers of HABP/VABP phase 3 direct and indirect clinical trial costs; (2) to identify opportunities to lower these costs; and (3) to compare (1) and (2) to endocrine and oncology clinical trials. Benchmark data were gathered from proprietary and commercial databases and used to create a model that calculates the fully loaded (direct and indirect) cost of typical phase 3 HABP/VABP endocrine and oncology clinical trials.ResultsResults indicate that the cost per patient for a 200-site, 1000-patient phase 3 HABP/VABP study is $89600 per patient. The cost of screen failures and screen failure rates are the main cost drivers.ConclusionsResults indicate that biopharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies should consider strategies to improve screening and recruitment to decrease HABP/VABP clinical trial costs.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Mumps Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated University-Affiliated Setting Before
           and After a Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination Campaign—Iowa, July
           2015–May 2016
    • Authors: Shah M; Quinlisk P, Weigel A, et al.
      Abstract: BackgroundIn response to a mumps outbreak at the University of Iowa and surrounding community, university, state, and local health officials implemented a vaccination campaign targeting students <25 years of age with an additional dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. More than 4700 vaccine campaign doses were administered; 97% were documented third doses. We describe the epidemiology of the outbreak before and after the campaign, focusing on cases in university students.MethodsMumps cases were identified from reportable disease databases and university health system records. Detailed information on student cases was obtained from interviews, medical chart abstractions, university and state vaccination records, and state public health laboratory results. Pre- and postcampaign incidence among students, university faculty/staff, and community members <25 vs ≥25 years old were compared using Fisher exact test. Multivariable regression modeling was performed to identify variables associated with a positive mumps polymerase chain reaction test.ResultsOf 453 cases in the county, 301 (66%) occurred in university students. Student cases were primarily undergraduates (90%) and highly vaccinated (86% had 2 MMR doses, and 12% had 3 MMR doses). Fewer cases occurred in students after the campaign (75 [25%]) than before (226 [75%]). Cases in the target group (students <25 years of age) declined 9% postcampaign (P=.01). A positive mumps polymerase chain reaction test was associated with the presence of parotitis and early sample collection, and inversely associated with recent receipt of MMR vaccine.ConclusionsFollowing a large additional dose MMR vaccination campaign, fewer mumps cases occurred overall and in the target population.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection in a Child With Encephalitis Complicated
           by Obstructive Hydrocephalus
    • Authors: Mak G; Kwan M, Mok C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractA 2-year-old boy with highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection with minimal respiratory symptoms developed encephalitis complicated by obstructive hydrocephalus. Viral RNA was detectable in cerebrospinal fluid. The virus belonged to H5N1 clade and had acquired the mammalian adaptation mutation PB2 Q591K.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Early Antibiotic Use After Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Increases Risk
           of Treatment Failure
    • Authors: Allegretti J; Kao D, Sitko J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAntibiotic use within the first 8 weeks after fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may disrupt microbial engraftment and limit FMT effectiveness. We aimed to assess the burden of antibiotic use within 8 weeks of FMT and its impact on FMT efficacy.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Propionibacterium avidum: A Virulent Pathogen Causing Hip Periprosthetic
           Joint Infection
    • Authors: Achermann Y; Liu J, Zbinden R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundPropionibacteria are important members of the human skin microbiota, but are also opportunistic pathogens associated with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). While the role of Propionibacterium acnes in PJI has been widely described, insight into the capacity of Propionibacterium avidum to cause PJI is limited.MethodsAn unusual cluster of 4 hip PJIs caused by P. avidum in one orthopedic center in 2015 prompted us to retrospectively identify and analyze clinical data related to previous P. avidum PJI cases (1997–2015). We also characterized the hemolytic and biofilm-producing capacity of our 4 clinical P. avidum strains isolated in 2015, and investigated their phylogenetic relationships by whole-genome sequencing.ResultsWe retrospectively identified 13 P. avidum PJIs, with the majority being hip-related infections (n = 11). Preoperative synovial fluid cultures were P. avidum positive in 63.6% of cases. Six of 12 patients (50%) with available case histories were treated with an exchange of the prosthesis. In all but 1 of the 6 patients treated with debridement-retention of the prosthesis, treatment failed, thus requiring a 2-stage revision. The isolated P. avidum strains showed a more pronounced hemolytic activity, but a similar biofilm-forming ability when compared to P. acnes. Whole-genome sequencing identified 2 phylogenetic clusters highly related to P. avidum PJI strains isolated in Sweden.ConclusionsWe describe the largest series of P. avidum PJI predominantly located in the hip. Phylogenetic similarity of our P. avidum strains to PJI strains isolated elsewhere suggests that these invasive lineages may be common.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
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