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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 369 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 369 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 493, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)
J. of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Clinical Infectious Diseases
  [SJR: 4.742]   [H-I: 261]   [59 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1058-4838 - ISSN (Online) 1537-6591
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [369 journals]
  • Quantitative Versus Qualitative Use of Lyme Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent
    • Authors: Naktin J.
      Abstract: To the Editor—I read with great interest the recent article by Uhde et al in Clinical Infectious Diseases [1]. The front matter of the article appropriately states that “serologic assays that detect the antibody response to borrelial proteins are used extensively to aid in the diagnosis of Lyme disease,” with a reference to a review article [2].
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
  • Reply to Naktin
    • Authors: Uhde M; Ajamian M, Wormser GP, et al.
      Abstract: To the Editor—We thank Naktin for his letter [1] regarding our recently published study in Clinical Infectious Diseases [2] in which we examined the expression of acute phase response proteins in patients with various manifestations of Lyme disease. Naktin expressed concern over the extrapolation that was made regarding the level of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibody based on the optical density (OD) signal measured in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, this is considered a valid measure of the antibody response and has been used extensively in other research studies on Lyme disease [3–6]. To examine the relationship between anti-B. burgdorferi antibody titer and OD, we tested serum from 20 representative patients with Lyme disease. As can be seen in the accompanying Figure 1, there was a strong correlation between titer and OD (r = 0.953, P < .0001; Spearman correlation). Because of the 1:2 serial dilutions often used to determine antibody titer, OD values generally offer a more quantitative measure of antibody response when the detected signal is in the assay’s linear range. We agree with Naktin that it has not been established that knowledge of the magnitude of the humoral immunologic response to B. burgdorferi has clinical utility.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
  • Upper Aerodigestive Tract Necrosis Due to Intranasal
           Hydrocodone-Acetaminophen Abuse
    • Abstract: (See pages 1140-1 for the Answer to the Photo Quiz)
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
  • Upper Aerodigestive Tract Necrosis Due to Intranasal
           Hydrocodone-Acetaminophen Abuse
    • Authors: Mahmood M; Kasten MJ.
      Abstract: (See pages 1133 for the Photo Quiz)
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
  • In the Literature
    • PubDate: 2017-03-28
  • News
    • PubDate: 2017-03-14
  • Pertussis Antibody Transfer to Preterm Neonates After Second- Versus
           Third-Trimester Maternal Immunization
    • Authors: Eberhardt CS; Blanchard-Rohner G, Lemaître B, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractPreterm infants are most vulnerable to pertussis. Whether they might benefit from maternal immunization is unknown. Extending our previous results in term neonates, this observational study demonstrates that second- rather than third-trimester maternal vaccination results in higher birth anti–pertussis toxin titers in preterm neonates.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
  • Virological Outcomes of Second-line Protease Inhibitor–Based Treatment
           for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in a High-Prevalence Rural South
           African Setting: A Competing-Risks Prospective Cohort Analysis
    • Authors: Collier D; Iwuji C, Derache A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) based on ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (bPIs) represents the only available option after first-line failure for the majority of individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide. Maximizing their effectiveness is imperative.Methods.This cohort study was nested within the French National Agency for AIDS and Viral Hepatitis Research (ANRS) 12249 Treatment as Prevention (TasP) cluster-randomized trial in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We prospectively investigated risk factors for virological failure (VF) of bPI-based ART in the combined study arms. VF was defined by a plasma viral load >1000 copies/mL ≥6 months after initiating bPI-based ART. Cumulative incidence of VF was estimated and competing risk regression was used to derive the subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) of the associations between VF and patient clinical and demographic factors, taking into account death and loss to follow-up.Results.One hundred one participants contributed 178.7 person-years of follow-up. Sixty-five percent were female; the median age was 37.4 years. Second-line ART regimens were based on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir, combined with zidovudine or tenofovir plus lamivudine or emtricitabine. The incidence of VF on second-line ART was 12.9 per 100 person-years (n = 23), and prevalence of VF at censoring was 17.8%. Thirteen of these 23 (56.5%) virologic failures resuppressed after a median of 8.0 months (interquartile range, 2.8–16.8 months) in this setting where viral load monitoring was available. Tuberculosis treatment was associated with VF (SHR, 11.50 [95% confidence interval, 3.92–33.74]; P < .001).Conclusions.Second-line VF was frequent in this setting. Resuppression occurred in more than half of failures, highlighting the value of viral load monitoring of second-line ART. Tuberculosis was associated with VF; therefore, novel approaches to optimize the effectiveness of PI-based ART in high-tuberculosis-burden settings are needed.Clinical Trials Registration.NCT01509508.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
  • Posttreatment Reactions After Single-Dose Diethylcarbamazine or Ivermectin
           in Subjects With Loa loa Infection
    • Authors: Herrick JA; Legrand F, Gounoue R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Severe adverse reactions have been observed in individuals with Loa loa infection treated with either diethylcarbamazine (DEC), the drug of choice for loiasis, or ivermectin (IVM), which is used in mass drug administration programs for control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Africa. In this study, posttreatment clinical and immunologic reactions were compared following single-dose therapy with DEC or IVM to assess whether these reactions have the same underlying pathophysiology.Methods.Twelve patients with loiasis and microfilarial counts
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
  • Diffuse White Matter Signal Abnormalities on Magnetic Resonance Imaging
           Are Associated With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Escape in
           the Central Nervous System Among Patients With Neurological Symptoms
    • Authors: Kugathasan R; Collier DA, Haddow LJ, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can replicate independently in extravascular compartments such as the central nervous system, resulting in either cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) discordance (viral load [VL] in CSF 0.5 log10 copies HIV-1 RNA greater than plasma VL) or escape (detection of HIV VL >50 copies/mL in CSF in patients with suppressed plasma VL 7 years prior to LP, and 6 of 6 patients with resistance data had documented evidence of drug-resistant virus in plasma.Conclusions.Among patients presenting with diverse neurological problems, CSF discordance or escape was observed in 15%, with treatment-experienced patients dominating the escape group. DWMSAs in HIV-infected individuals presenting with neurological problems should raise suspicion of possible CSF discordance/escape.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
  • Eight Habits of Highly Effective Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs to
           Meet the Joint Commission Standards for Hospitals
    • Authors: Goff DA; Kullar R, Bauer KA, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIn an effort to decrease antimicrobial resistance and inappropriate antibiotic use, The Joint Commission (TJC) recently issued new antimicrobial stewardship standards, consisting of 8 elements of performance, applicable to hospitals effective January 1, 2017. These standards coincide with those recommended by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Society of Healthcare Epidemiology (SHEA) guidelines. Little guidance exists on the “how” from these guidance documents. We review the 8 standards and provide real-world experience from established antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) on how institutions can comply with these guidelines to reduce inappropriate antibiotic usage, decrease antimicrobial resistance, and optimize patient outcomes. TJC antimicrobial stewardship standards demonstrate actions being taken at the national level to make quality and patient safety a priority.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
  • Management of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infections in Adults: Analysis of
           Risk Factors Associated With Treatment Failure
    • Authors: Pelegrín I; Lora-Tamayo J, Gómez-Junyent J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Little is known regarding the optimal treatment of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infections in adults. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of treatment strategies and to identify factors that predict failure.Methods.Retrospective, observational study of patients aged ≥12 years with VP shunt infections (1980 -2014). Therapeutic approaches were classified under 4 headings: only antibiotics (OA), one-stage shunt replacement (OSSR), two-stage shunt replacement (TSSR), and shunt removal without replacement (SR). The primary endpoint was failure of the treatment strategy, defined as the absence of definite cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sterilization or related mortality. The parameters that predicted failure were analyzed using logistic regressionResults.Of 108 episodes (51% male, median age 50 years), 86 were analyzed. Intravenous antibiotics were administered for a median of 19 days. Eighty episodes were treated using strategies that combined antibiotic and surgical treatment (37 TSSR, 24 SR, 19 OSSR) and 6 with OA. Failure occurred in 30% of episodes, mostly due to lack of CSF sterilization in OSSR and OA groups. Twelve percent died of related causes and 10% presented superinfection of the CSF temporary drainage/externalized peritoneal catheter. TSSR was the most effective strategy when VP shunt replacement was attempted. The only independent risk factor that predicted failure was retention of the VP shunt, regardless of the strategy.Conclusions.This is the largest series of VP shunt infections in adults reported to date. VP shunt removal, particularly TSSR when the patient is shunt dependent, remains the optimal choice of treatment and does not increase morbidity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
  • Reply to Levi et al
    • Authors: Regan AK; Moore HC, de Klerk N, et al.
      Abstract: To the Editor—We write in response to the concerns expressed by Levi et al regarding potential selection bias in our recent cohort study, which identified a significant reduction in the risk of stillbirth following antenatal influenza vaccination. Because our cohort, as well as others, was based on birth records, pregnancies resulting in miscarriage were naturally excluded from our study. This exclusion would have resulted in a phenomenon known as “depletion of susceptibles.”
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
  • High Rates of Transmission of Drug-resistant HIV in Aruba Resulting in
           Reduced Susceptibility to the WHO Recommended First-line Regimen in Nearly
           Half of Newly Diagnosed HIV-infected Patients
    • Authors: Hofstra L; Sánchez Rivas E, Nijhuis M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.In Western countries emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance has tremendously decreased, and transmission of drug resistance has merely stabilized in recent years. However, in many endemic settings with limited resources rates of emerging and transmitted drug resistance are not regularly assessed.Methods.We performed a survey including all HIV-infected individuals who received resistance testing in 2010–2015 in Aruba, a highly endemic HIV area in the Caribbean. Transmitted HIV drug resistance was determined using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Transmission dynamics were investigated using phylogenetic analyses. In a subset, baseline samples were re-analyzed using next generation sequencing (NGS).Results.Baseline resistance testing was performed in 104 newly diagnosed untreated individuals (54% of all newly diagnosed individuals in 2010–2015): 86% were men, 39% were foreign-born, and 22% had AIDS at diagnosis. And 33% (95% CI: 24–42%) was infected with a drug-resistant HIV variant. The prevalence of resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) reached 45% (95% CI: 27–64%) in 2015, all based on the prevalence of mutation K103N. NGS did not demonstrate additional minority K103N-variants compared to routine resistance testing. K103N-harboring strains were introduced into the therapy-unexposed population via at least 6 independent transmissions epidemiologically linked to the surrounding countries. Virological failure of the WHO-recommended first-line NNRTI-based regimen was higher in the presence of K103N.Conclusions.The prevalence of resistant HIV in Aruba has increased to alarming levels, compromising the WHO-recommended first-line regimen. As adequate surveillance as advocated by the WHO is limited, the Caribbean region could face an unidentified rise of NNRTI-resistant HIV.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
  • Clinical Status of Adolescents with Perinatal HIV at Transfer to Adult
           Care in the UK/Ireland
    • Authors: Collins I; Foster C, Tostevin A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Increasing numbers of children infected perinatally with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are surviving to adolescence and transitioning to adult care, yet there are scarce data on their clinical status at transfer.Methods.We analyzed prospective cohort data from the UK/Ireland national Collaborative HIV Pediatric Study (CHIPS). Clinical status at last pediatric clinic visit prior to transfer was described. Factors associated with higher CD4 cell count and viral load (VL) suppression
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
  • Old Problems for New Providers: Managing the Postpediatric HIV Generation
    • Authors: Sohn AH; Hazra R.
      Abstract: HIVadolescentstransitiontreatmentresistance.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
  • Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Exhibits Dose-Response Protection Against
           Adverse Birth Outcomes Related to Malaria and Sexually Transmitted and
           Reproductive Tract Infections
    • Authors: Chico R; Chaponda E, Ariti C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.We conducted a prospective cohort study in Zambia among pregnant women who received intermittent preventive treatment using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP).Methods.We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) of adverse birth outcomes by IPTp-SP exposure, 0–1 dose (n = 126) vs ≥2 doses (n = 590) and ≥2 doses (n = 310) vs ≥3 doses (n = 280) in 7 categories of malaria infection and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections (STIs/RTIs).Results.We found no significant differences in baseline prevalence of infection across IPTp-SP exposure groups. However, among women given 2 doses compared to 0–1 dose, the odds of any adverse birth outcome were reduced 45% (OR, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36, 0.86) and 13% further with ≥3 doses (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27, 0.68). Two or more doses compared to 0–1 dose reduced preterm delivery by 58% (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27, 0.67) and 21% further with ≥3 doses (OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.13, 0.35). Women with malaria at enrollment who received ≥2 doses vs 0-1 had 76% lower odds of any adverse birth outcome (OR, 0.24; 95% 0.09, 0.66), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and/or Chlamydia trachomatis had 92% lower odds of any adverse birth outcome (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01, 0.64). Women with neither a malaria infection nor STIs/RTIs who received ≥2 doses had 73% fewer adverse birth outcomes (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.11, 0.68).Conclusions.IPTp-SP appears to protect against malaria, STIs/RTIs, and other unspecified causes of adverse birth outcome.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
  • Sofosbuvir Plus Ribavirin Without Interferon for Treatment of Acute
           Hepatitis C Virus Infection in HIV-1–Infected Individuals: SWIFT-C
    • Authors: Naggie S; Marks KM, Hughes M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Historically, acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was treated with shorter durations of interferon-containing therapies. In the era of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), it is unclear whether the efficacy of treatment achieved in chronic infection can be maintained with abbreviated courses of therapy during the acute phase.Methods.The sofosbuvir-containing regimens without interferon for treatment of acute HCV in HIV-1 infected individuals (SWIFT-C) is an open-label, 2-cohort clinical trial in which the first cohort assessed for the safety and efficacy of 12 weeks of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for the treatment of acute HCV infection in participants with chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. This is a preplanned analysis of the first cohort, which had a planned accrual of 17 participants.Results.Seventeen men (11 Hispanic, 6 white, median age 45 years) were enrolled. Most (88%) had HCV genotype-1 infection and few (24%) had the favorable IL28B CC genotype. Median baseline HCV RNA was 2 280 000 IU/mL (interquartile range, 272 000–4 230 000). Ten participants (59%) achieved the primary outcome of SVR12 (90% confidence interval, 36%–78%), failing to establish noninferiority. All treatment failures were due to viral relapse (41%). There were no premature treatment discontinuations. The only factor that differed between participants who achieved SVR vs those who relapsed was ribavirin concentration at the end of treatment.Conclusion.Sofosbuvir-ribavirin for 12 weeks for the treatment of acute HCV genotype-1 infection in HIV-1–infected persons results in a high relapse rate. Preliminary studies of DAA combination therapies suggest improved response rates, although the adequate duration of therapy remains unclear.Clinical Trials Registration.NCT02128217.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
  • Quinolone Ear Drops After Tympanostomy Tubes and the Risk of Eardrum
           Perforation: A Retrospective Cohort Study
    • Authors: Alrwisan A; Antonelli PJ, Winterstein AG.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.This study investigated whether quinolone ear drops, with or without corticosteroids, increase the risk of perforation requiring tympanoplasty following tympanostomy tube (TT) placement in children.Methods.This was a retrospective cohort study using Medicaid encounter and pharmacy billing data from 29 US states between 1999 and 2006. Children
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
  • Effectiveness of Long-term Doxycycline Treatment and Cognitive-Behavioral
           Therapy on Fatigue Severity in Patients with Q Fever Fatigue Syndrome
           (Qure Study): A Randomized Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Keijmel SP; Delsing CE, Bleijenberg G, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Approximately 20% of patients with acute Q fever will develop chronic fatigue, referred to as Q fever fatigue syndrome (QFS). The objective of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of either long-term treatment with doxycycline or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing fatigue severity in patients with QFS.Methods.Adult patients were included who met the QFS criteria according to the Dutch guideline: a new onset of severe fatigue lasting ≥6 months with significant disabilities, related to an acute Q fever infection, without other somatic or psychiatric comorbidity explaining the fatigue. Using block randomization, patients were randomized between oral study medication and CBT (2:1) for 24 weeks. Second, a double-blind randomization between doxycycline (200 mg/day, once daily) and placebo was performed in the medication group. Primary outcome was fatigue severity at end of treatment (EOT; week 26), assessed with the Checklist Individual Strength subscale Fatigue Severity.Results.Of 155 patients randomized, 154 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (doxycycline, 52; placebo, 52; CBT, 50). At EOT, fatigue severity was similar between doxycycline (40.8 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 37.3–44.3]) and placebo (37.8 [95% CI, 34.3–41.2]; difference, doxycycline vs placebo, −3.0 [97.5% CI, −8.7 to 2.6]; P = .45). Fatigue severity was significantly lower after CBT (31.6 [95% CI, 28.0–35.1]) than after placebo (difference, CBT vs placebo, 6.2 [97.5% CI, .5–11.9]; P = .03).Conclusions.CBT is effective in reducing fatigue severity in QFS patients. Long-term treatment with doxycycline does not reduce fatigue severity in QFS patients compared to placebo.Clinical Trials Registration.NCT01318356.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
  • Influenza Vaccination and Stillbirth Prevention in High-Income Countries:
           Is It Really That Effective?
    • Authors: Levi M; Ravaldi C, Pontello V, et al.
      Abstract: To the Editor—As a multidisciplinary group of professionals working in the fields of prevention, pharmacoepidemiology, and stillbirth research, we read with interest the article by Regan et al published in the March issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases [1]. The authors reported that the adjusted risk of stillbirth was 51% lower among women vaccinated against seasonal influenza compared with unvaccinated women. We believe that any effort aimed at clarifying the possible causes of stillbirth should be welcomed; nevertheless, we think that the estimated risk reduction might be exaggerated: the data seem rather too good to be true, and we suggest that they should be reanalyzed. A proper time-dependent Cox regression analysis was carried out, with vaccination status as the time-dependent exposure. This approach is important to avoid the maligned immortal time bias [2]. However, the underlying time variable of follow-up started at 20 weeks of pregnancy, with 38% of vaccinated women having received the vaccine prior to week 20. This may have introduced bias from depletion of susceptibles [3]. Indeed, some women who received the vaccine in the first half of pregnancy could have experienced a miscarriage after vaccination and before week 20. These women were inherently not included in the study cohort since they did not make it to week 20, whereas women who did not experience a miscarriage in the first part of the pregnancy, who may represent a lower-risk group, were included in the post-20 week study cohort (Figure 1). Indeed, miscarriage and stillbirth may share the same etiology [4], and having had previous losses has been shown to be an independent risk factor for stillbirth in subsequent pregnancies [5]. The hazard rate for vaccinated women compared with unvaccinated women could have been reduced by selection bias if some vaccinated women had a miscarriage before week 20 and were selected out of the study cohort; such a phenomenon may have overestimated the protective effect associated with the vaccination. Consequently, to avoid such potential form of selection bias, it would be worthwhile to restrict the analysis to women immunized after 20 weeks of pregnancy and compare their risk of pregnancy loss to that of unvaccinated women.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11
  • Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia:
           Conventional Antibiotics Won’t Cut It
    • Authors: Burnham JP; Kollef MH.
      Abstract: Staphylococcus aureuspreventionmonoclonal antibodyoutcome.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
  • Evaluation of the Clinical and Microbiological Response to Salmonella
           Paratyphi A Infection in the First Paratyphoid Human Challenge Model
    • Authors: Dobinson HC; Gibani MM, Jones C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.To expedite the evaluation of vaccines against paratyphoid fever, we aimed to develop the first human challenge model of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A infection.Methods.Two groups of 20 participants underwent oral challenge with S. Paratyphi A following sodium bicarbonate pretreatment at 1 of 2 dose levels (group 1: 1–5 × 103 colony-forming units [CFU] and group 2: 0.5–1 × 103 CFU). Participants were monitored in an outpatient setting with daily clinical review and collection of blood and stool cultures. Antibiotic treatment was started when prespecified diagnostic criteria were met (temperature ≥38°C for ≥12 hours and/or bacteremia) or at day 14 postchallenge.Results.The primary study objective was achieved following challenge with 1–5 × 103 CFU (group 1), which resulted in an attack rate of 12 of 20 (60%). Compared with typhoid challenge, paratyphoid was notable for high rates of subclinical bacteremia (at this dose, 11/20 [55%]). Despite limited symptoms, bacteremia persisted for up to 96 hours after antibiotic treatment (median duration of bacteremia, 53 hours [interquartile range, 24–85 hours]). Shedding of S. Paratyphi A in stool typically preceded onset of bacteremia.Conclusions.Challenge with S. Paratyphi A at a dose of 1–5 × 103 CFU was well tolerated and associated with an acceptable safety profile. The frequency and persistence of bacteremia in the absence of clinical symptoms was notable, and markedly different from that seen in previous typhoid challenge studies. We conclude that the paratyphoid challenge model is suitable for the assessment of vaccine efficacy using endpoints that include bacteremia and/or symptomatology.Clinical Trials Registration.NCT02100397.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
  • Low Efficacy of Antibiotics Against Staphylococcus aureus Airway
           Colonization in Ventilated Patients
    • Authors: Stulik L; Hudcova J, Craven DE, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Airway-colonization by Staphylococcus aureus predisposes to the development of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Despite extensive antibiotic treatment of intensive care unit patients, limited data are available on the efficacy of antibiotics on bacterial airway colonization and/or prevention of infections. Therefore, microbiologic responses to antibiotic treatment were evaluated in ventilated patients.Methods.Results of semiquantitative analyses of S. aureus burden in serial endotracheal-aspirate (ETA) samples and VAT/VAP diagnosis were correlated to antibiotic treatment. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of relevant antibiotics using serially collected isolates were evaluated.Results.Forty-eight mechanically ventilated patients who were S. aureus positive by ETA samples and treated with relevant antibiotics for at least 2 consecutive days were included in the study. Vancomycin failed to reduce methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) burden in the airways. Oxacillin was ineffective for MSSA colonization in approximately 30% of the patients, and responders were typically coadministered additional antibiotics. Despite antibiotic exposure, 15 of the 39 patients (approximately 38%) colonized only by S. aureus and treated with appropriate antibiotic for at least 2 days still progressed to VAP. Importantly, no change in antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus isolates was observed during treatment. Staphylococcus aureus colonization levels inversely correlated with the presence of normal respiratory flora.Conclusions.Antibiotic treatment is ineffective in reducing S. aureus colonization in the lower airways and preventing VAT or VAP. Staphylococcus aureus is in competition for colonization with the normal respiratory flora. To improve patient outcomes, alternatives to antibiotics are urgently needed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
  • Meningococcal Carriage Evaluation in Response to a Serogroup B
           Meningococcal Disease Outbreak and Mass Vaccination Campaign at a
           College—Rhode Island, 2015–2016
    • Authors: Soeters HM; Whaley M, Alexander-Scott N, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Serogroup B meningococcal disease caused 7 US university outbreaks during 2013–2016. Neisseria meningitidis can be transmitted via asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage. MenB-FHbp (factor H binding protein), a serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine, was used to control a college outbreak. We investigated MenB-FHbp impact on meningococcal carriage.Methods.Four cross-sectional surveys were conducted in conjunction with MenB-FHbp vaccination campaigns. Questionnaires and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from students. Specimens were evaluated using culture, slide agglutination, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), and whole genome sequencing. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were calculated using generalized estimating equations.Results.During each survey, 20%–24% of participants carried any meningococcal bacteria and 4% carried serogroup B by rt-PCR. The outbreak strain (ST-9069) was not detected during the initial survey; 1 student carried ST-9069 in the second and third surveys. No carriage reduction was observed over time or with more MenB-FHbp doses. In total, 615 students participated in multiple surveys: 71% remained noncarriers, 8% cleared carriage, 15% remained carriers, and 7% acquired carriage. Ten students acquired serogroup B carriage: 3 after 1 MenB-FHbp dose, 4 after 2 doses, and 3 after 3 doses. Smoking (aPR, 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–1.5) and male sex (aPR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1–1.5) were associated with increased meningococcal carriage.Conclusions.Carriage prevalence on campus remained stable, suggesting MenB-FHbp does not rapidly reduce meningococcal carriage or prevent serogroup B carriage acquisition. This reinforces the need for high vaccination coverage to protect vaccinated individuals and chemoprophylaxis for close contacts during outbreaks.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
  • Electronic Consultations (E-consults): Advancing Infectious Disease Care
           in a Large Veterans Affairs Healthcare System
    • Authors: Strymish J; Gupte G, Afable MK, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe impact of e-consults on total consultative services was evaluated. After implementing infectious diseases e-consults within an electronically integrated healthcare system, consultation volume increased. As compared with face-to-face consultations, e-consults were more often related to antimicrobial guidance and were requested by off-site providers. E-consults increased the breadth and volume of total consults.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03
  • Declare the Past, Diagnose the Present, Foretell the Future: Electronic
           Consultations in Infectious Disease Practice
    • Authors: McQuillen DP; Schmitt SK.
      Abstract: Electronic consultatione-consulttelemedicinetelehealthEHR (electronic health record).
      PubDate: 2017-02-03
  • Virus-driven Inflammation Is Associated With the Development of bNAbs in
           Spontaneous Controllers of HIV
    • Authors: Dugast A; Arnold K, Lofano G, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Understanding the mechanism(s) by which broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) emerge naturally following infection is crucial for the development of a protective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although previous studies have implicated high viremia and associated immune activation as potential drivers for the development of bNAbs, here we sought to unlink the effect of these 2 parameters by evaluating the key inflammatory predictors of bNAb development in HIV-infected individuals who spontaneously control HIV in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (“controllers”).Methods.The breadth of antibody-mediated neutralization against 11 tier 2 or 3 viruses was assessed in 163 clade B spontaneous controllers of HIV. Plasma levels of 17 cytokines were screened in the same set of subjects. The relationship of the inflammatory signature was assessed in the context of viral blips or viral RNA levels in peripheral blood or gastrointestinal biopsies from aviremic controllers (
      PubDate: 2017-02-03
  • Evaluation of Modified 2-Tiered Serodiagnostic Testing Algorithms for
           Early Lyme Disease
    • Authors: Branda JA; Strle K, Nigrovic LE, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.The conventional 2-tiered serologic testing protocol for Lyme disease (LD), an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G Western blots, performs well in late-stage LD but is insensitive in patients with erythema migrans (EM), the most common manifestation of the illness. Western blots are also complex, difficult to interpret, and relatively expensive. In an effort to improve test performance and simplify testing in early LD, we evaluated several modified 2-tiered testing (MTTT) protocols, which use 2 assays designed as first-tier tests sequentially, without the need of Western blots.Methods.The MTTT protocols included (1) a whole-cell sonicate (WCS) EIA followed by a C6 EIA; (2) a WCS EIA followed by a VlsE chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA); and (3) a variable major protein-like sequence, expressed (VlsE) CLIA followed by a C6 EIA. Sensitivity was determined using serum from 55 patients with erythema migrans; specificity was determined using serum from 50 patients with other illnesses and 1227 healthy subjects.Results.Sensitivity of the various MTTT protocols in patients with acute erythema migrans ranged from 36% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%–50%) to 54% (95% CI, 42%–67%), compared with 25% (95% CI, 16%–38%) using the conventional protocol (P = .003–0.3). Among control subjects, the 3 MTTT protocols were similarly specific (99.3%–99.5%) compared with conventional 2-tiered testing (99.5% specificity; P = .6–1.0).Conclusions.Although there were minor differences in sensitivity and specificity among MTTT protocols, each provides comparable or greater sensitivity in acute EM, and similar specificity compared with conventional 2-tiered testing, obviating the need for Western blots.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27
  • Effect of Daptomycin Dose on the Outcome of Vancomycin-Resistant,
           Daptomycin-Susceptible Enterococcus faecium Bacteremia
    • Authors: Chuang Y; Lin H, Chen P, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackground.Treatment options for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) bloodstream infection (BSI) are limited. Daptomycin, although not currently approved for this indication, is frequently used for the treatment of VRE-BSI. Its optimal dose still needs to be determined.Methods.We conducted a prospective, observational, cohort study during 2010–2015. We included patients who received a daptomycin dose of ≥6 mg/kg for the treatment of VRE-BSI caused by daptomycin-susceptible VRE. The primary endpoint was 14-day mortality, and multivariable logistic regression was performed for outcome analysis.Results.We included 112 patients treated with daptomycin for VRE-BSI and with evaluable clinical outcomes. The daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 4 mg/L in 78 (69.6%) and ≤2 mg/L in 34 (30.4%) isolates. The overall mortality was 40/112 (35.7%). The unadjusted mortality was 18/36 (50.0%) for a daptomycin dose of
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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