Publisher: Oxford University Press (Total: 369 journals)
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2041-2851
Published by Oxford University Press [369 journals]
- Impact of phosphorus on rhizosphere organic anions of wheat at different
growth stages under field conditions
Authors: Wang Y; Krogstad T, Clarke N, et al.
Abstract: AbstractPhosphorus (P) is one of the main limiting factors for crop productivity while rhizosphere organic anions have been hypothesized to play an important role in P acquisition. Sampling in a long-term field experiment was carried out in order to understand the impact of long-term differences in P fertilization on secretion of organic anions under field conditions. Rhizosphere organic anions were extracted and analyzed every week from three leaves stage to completed flowering stage of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown on plots that have received 0 (P0) or 48 (P48) kg P ha−1 year−1 since 1966. The study showed that it is possible to extract and quantify rhizosphere organic anions from field plots. In P48 plots, root P concentrations decreased around 40 % at the early stages (before heading), compared with the first sampling, and then increased slightly, while plants grown in P0 plots showed the opposite trend. Malate was the main organic anion secreted throughout all the wheat growth stages. Rhizosphere citrate and malate showed negative and positive correlations (P
- Antioxidant responses under salinity and drought in three closely related
wild monocots with different ecological optima
Authors: Al Hassan M; Chaura J, Donat-Torres MP, et al.
Abstract: AbstractSome deleterious effects of drought, soil salinity and other abiotic stresses are mediated by the generation of oxidative stress through an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage cellular membranes, proteins and DNA. In response to increased ROS, plants activate an array of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defences. We have correlated the activation of these responses with the contrasting tolerance to salinity and drought of three species of the genus Juncus, viz. J. maritimus, J. acutus (both halophytes) and J. articulatus (salt-sensitive). Both stresses were given for 8 weeks to 6-week-old seedlings in a controlled environment chamber. Each stress inhibited growth and degraded photosynthetic pigments in the three species with the most pronounced effects being in J. articulatus. Salt and water stress also generated oxidative stress in all three taxa with J. articulatus being the most affected in terms of accumulation of malondialdehyde (a reliable oxidative stress marker). The apparent lower oxidative stress in halophytic J. maritimus and J. acutus compared with salt-sensitive J. articulatus is explained by a more efficient activation of antioxidant systems since salt or water deficiency induced a stronger accumulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds and flavonoids in J. maritimus and J. acutus than in J. articulatus. Qualitative and quantitative differences in antioxidant enzymes were also detected when comparing the three species and the two stress treatments. Accordingly, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities increased in the two halophytes under both stresses, but only in response to drought in J. articulatus. In contrast, ascorbate peroxidase activity varied between and within species according to treatment. These results show the relative importance of different antioxidant responses for stress tolerance in species with distinct ecological requirements. The salt-sensitive J. articulatus, contrary to the tolerant taxa, did not activate enzymatic antioxidant responses to salinity-induced oxidative stress.