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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 273, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 547, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Cerebral Cortex
  [SJR: 4.827]   [H-I: 192]   [43 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1047-3211 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2199
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Barrel Cortical Neuron Integrates Triple Associated Signals for Their
           Memory Through Receiving Epigenetic-Mediated New Synapse Innervations
    • Authors: Feng J; Lu W, Wang D, et al.
      Abstract: Associative learning is common way for information acquisition. Associative memory is essential to logical reasoning and associative thinking. The storages of multiple associated signals in individual neurons facilitate their integration, expand memory volume, and strengthen cognition ability. Associative memory cells that encode multiple signals have been reported, however, the mechanisms underlying their recruitment and working principle remain to be addressed. We have examined the recruitment of associative memory cells that integrate and store triple sensory signals as well as the potential mechanism of their recruitment. Paired mouse whisker, olfaction, and tail stimulations lead to odorant-induced motion and tail-induced whisker motion. In mice of expressing this cross-modal response, their barrel cortical neurons become to encode odor and tail signals alongside whisker signal. These barrel cortical neurons receive new synapse innervations from piriform and S1-tail cortical neurons. The emergence of cross-modal responses as well as the recruitments of new synapse innervations and associative memory cells in the barrel cortex need miRNA-324 and miRNA-133a, which downregulate Ttbk1 and Tet3. The co-activations of sensory cortices recruit their mutual synapse innervations and associative memory cells that integrate and store multiple associated signals through epigenetic-mediated process.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
  • Shared and Disorder-Specific Neurocomputational Mechanisms of
           Decision-Making in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive
    • Authors: Carlisi C; Norman L, Murphy C, et al.
      Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often share phenotypes of repetitive behaviors, possibly underpinned by abnormal decision-making. To compare neural correlates underlying decision-making between these disorders, brain activation of boys with ASD (N = 24), OCD (N = 20) and typically developing controls (N = 20) during gambling was compared, and computational modeling compared performance. Patients were unimpaired on number of risky decisions, but modeling showed that both patient groups had lower choice consistency and relied less on reinforcement learning compared to controls. ASD individuals had disorder-specific choice perseverance abnormalities compared to OCD individuals. Neurofunctionally, ASD and OCD boys shared dorsolateral/inferior frontal underactivation compared to controls during decision-making. During outcome anticipation, patients shared underactivation compared to controls in lateral inferior/orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum. During reward receipt, ASD boys had disorder-specific enhanced activation in inferior frontal/insular regions relative to OCD boys and controls. Results showed that ASD and OCD individuals shared decision-making strategies that differed from controls to achieve comparable performance to controls. Patients showed shared abnormalities in lateral-(orbito)fronto-striatal reward circuitry, but ASD boys had disorder-specific lateral inferior frontal/insular overactivation, suggesting that shared and disorder-specific mechanisms underpin decision-making in these disorders. Findings provide evidence for shared neurobiological substrates that could serve as possible future biomarkers.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
  • A Modulatory Effect of Brief Passive Exposure to Non-linguistic Sounds on
           Intrinsic Functional Connectivity: Relevance to Cognitive Performance
    • Authors: Koyama M; Ortiz-Mantilla S, Roesler C, et al.
      Abstract: A growing literature on resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) has explored the impact of preceding sensory experience on intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC). However, it remains largely unknown how passive exposure to irrelevant auditory stimuli, which is a constant in everyday life, reconfigures iFC. Here, we directly compared pre- and post-exposure R-fMRI scans to examine: 1) modulatory effects of brief passive exposure to repeating non-linguistic sounds on subsequent iFC, and 2) associations between iFC modulations and cognitive abilities. We used an exploratory regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach that indexes local iFC, and performed a linear mixed-effects modeling analysis. A modulatory effect (increase) in ReHo was observed in the right superior parietal lobule (R.SPL) within the parietal attention network. Post hoc seed-based correlation analyses provided further evidence for increased parietal iFC (e.g., R.SPL with the right inferior parietal lobule). Notably, less iFC modulation was associated with better cognitive performance (e.g., word reading). These results suggest that: 1) the parietal attention network dynamically reconfigures its iFC in response to passive (thus irrelevant) non-linguistic sounds, but also 2) minimization of iFC modulation in the same network characterizes better cognitive performance. Our findings may open up new avenues for investigating cognitive disorders that involve impaired sensory processing.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
  • Knockout Mice for Dyslexia Susceptibility Gene Homologs KIAA0319 and
           KIAA0319L have Unaffected Neuronal Migration but Display Abnormal Auditory
    • Authors: Guidi L; Mattley J, Martinez-Garay I, et al.
      Abstract: Developmental dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects reading ability caused by genetic and non-genetic factors. Amongst the susceptibility genes identified to date, KIAA0319 is a prime candidate. RNA-interference experiments in rats suggested its involvement in cortical migration but we could not confirm these findings in Kiaa0319-mutant mice. Given its homologous gene Kiaa0319L (AU040320) has also been proposed to play a role in neuronal migration, we interrogated whether absence of AU040320 alone or together with KIAA0319 affects migration in the developing brain. Analyses of AU040320 and double Kiaa0319;AU040320 knockouts (dKO) revealed no evidence for impaired cortical lamination, neuronal migration, neurogenesis or other anatomical abnormalities. However, dKO mice displayed an auditory deficit in a behavioral gap-in-noise detection task. In addition, recordings of click-evoked auditory brainstem responses revealed suprathreshold deficits in wave III amplitude in AU040320-KO mice, and more general deficits in dKOs. These findings suggest that absence of AU040320 disrupts firing and/or synchrony of activity in the auditory brainstem, while loss of both proteins might affect both peripheral and central auditory function. Overall, these results stand against the proposed role of KIAA0319 and AU040320 in neuronal migration and outline their relationship with deficits in the auditory system.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
  • Segregated Excitatory–Inhibitory Recurrent Subnetworks in Layer 5 of
           the Rat Frontal Cortex
    • Authors: Morishima M; Kobayashi K, Kato S, et al.
      Abstract: A prominent feature of neocortical pyramidal cells (PCs) is their numerous projections to diverse brain areas. In layer 5 (L5) of the rat frontal cortex, there are 2 major subtypes of PCs that differ in their long-range axonal projections, corticopontine (CPn) cells and crossed corticostriatal (CCS) cells. The outputs of these L5 PCs can be regulated by feedback inhibition from neighboring cortical GABAergic cells. Two major subtypes of GABAergic cells are parvalbumin (PV)-positive and somatostatin (SOM)-positive cells. PV cells have a fast-spiking (FS) firing pattern, while SOM cells have a low threshold spike (LTS) and regular spiking. In this study, we found that the 2 PC subtypes in L5 selectively make recurrent connections with LTS cells. The connection patterns correlated with the morphological and physiological diversity of LTS cells. LTS cells with high input resistance (Ri) exhibited more compact dendrites and more rebound spikes than LTS cells with low Ri, which had vertically elongated dendrites. LTS subgroups differently inhibited the PC subtypes, although FS cells made nonselective connections with both projection subtypes. These results demonstrate a novel recurrent network of inhibitory and projection-specific excitatory neurons within the neocortex.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
  • Fractionating the Neurocognitive Mechanisms Underlying Working Memory:
           Independent Effects of Dopamine and Parkinson’s Disease
    • Authors: Fallon S; Mattiesing R, Muhammed K, et al.
      Abstract: Deficits in working memory (WM) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are often considered to be secondary to dopaminergic depletion. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms by which dopamine causes these deficits remain highly contested, and PD is now also known to be associated with nondopaminergic pathology. Here, we examined how PD and dopaminergic medication modulate three components of WM: maintenance over time, updating contents with new information and making memories distracter-resistant. Compared with controls, patients were disproportionately impaired when retaining information for longer durations. By applying a probabilistic model, we were able to reveal that the source of this error was selectively due to precision of memory representations degrading over time. By contrast, replenishing dopamine levels in PD improved executive control over both the ability to ignore and update, but did not affect maintenance of information across time. This was due to a decrease in guess responses, consistent with the view that dopamine serves to prevent WM representations being corrupted by irrelevant information, but has no impact on information decay. Cumulatively, these results reveal a dissociation in the neural mechanisms underlying poor WM: whereas dopamine reduces interference, nondopaminergic systems in PD appear to modulate processes that prevent information decaying more quickly over time.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13
  • Optogenetic Modulation of a Minor Fraction of Parvalbumin-Positive
           Interneurons Specifically Affects Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Spontaneous
           and Sensory-Evoked Activity in Mouse Somatosensory Cortex in Vivo
    • Authors: Yang J; Prouvot P, Reyes-Puerta V, et al.
      Abstract: Parvalbumin (PV) positive interneurons exert strong effects on the neocortical excitatory network, but it remains unclear how they impact the spatiotemporal dynamics of sensory processing in the somatosensory cortex. Here, we characterized the effects of optogenetic inhibition and activation of PV interneurons on spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in mouse barrel cortex in vivo. Inhibiting PV interneurons led to a broad-spectrum power increase both in spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity. Whisker-evoked responses were significantly increased within 20 ms after stimulus onset during inhibition of PV interneurons, demonstrating high temporal precision of PV-shaped inhibition. Multiunit activity was strongly enhanced in neighboring cortical columns, but not at the site of transduction, supporting a central and highly specific role of PV interneurons in lateral inhibition. Inversely, activating PV interneurons drastically decreased spontaneous and whisker-evoked activity in the principal column and exerted strong lateral inhibition. Histological assessment of transduced cells combined with quantitative modeling of light distribution and spike sorting revealed that only a minor fraction (~10%) of the local PV population comprising no more than a few hundred neurons is optogenetically modulated, mediating the observed prominent and widespread effects on neocortical processing.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13
  • Dysregulation of Cortical Neuron DNA Methylation Profile in Autism
           Spectrum Disorder
    • Authors: Nardone S; Sams D, Zito A, et al.
      Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome whose etiology includes genetic and environmental components. Since epigenetic marks are sensitive to environmental insult, they may be involved in the development of ASD. Initial brain studies have suggested a dysregulation of epigenetic marks in ASD. However, due to cellular heterogeneity in the brain, these studies have not determined if there is a true change in the neuronal epigenetic signature. Here, we report a genome-wide methylation study on fluorescence-activated cell sorting-sorted neuronal nuclei from the frontal cortex of 16 male ASD and 15 male control subjects. Using the 450 K BeadArray, we identified 58 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that included loci associated to GABAergic system genes, particularly ABAT and GABBR1, and brain-specific MicroRNAs. Selected DMRs were validated by targeted Next Generation Bisulfite Sequencing. Weighted gene correlation network analysis detected 3 co-methylation modules which are significantly correlated to ASD that were enriched for genomic regions underlying neuronal, GABAergic, and immune system genes. Finally, we determined an overlap of the 58 ASD-related DMRs with neurodevelopment associated DMRs. This investigation identifies alterations in the DNA methylation pattern in ASD cortical neurons, providing further evidence that epigenetic alterations in disorder-relevant tissues may be involved in the biology of ASD.
      PubDate: 2017-09-28
  • Pyramidal Cell Subtypes and Their Synaptic Connections in Layer 5 of Rat
           Frontal Cortex
    • Authors: Kawaguchi Y.
      Abstract: The frontal cortical areas make a coordinated response that generates appropriate behavior commands, using individual local circuits with corticostriatal and corticocortical connections in longer time scales than sensory areas. In secondary motor cortex (M2), situated between the prefrontal and primary motor areas, major subtypes of layer 5 corticostriatal cells are crossed-corticostriatal (CCS) cells innervating both sides of striatum, and corticopontine (CPn) cells projecting to the ipsilateral striatum and pontine nuclei. CCS cells innervate CPn cells unidirectionally: the former are therefore hierarchically higher than the latter among L5 corticostriatal cells. CCS cells project directly to both frontal and nonfrontal areas. On the other hand, CPn cells innervate the thalamus and layer 1a of frontal areas, where thalamic fibers relaying basal ganglia outputs are distributed. Thus, CCS cells can make activities of frontal areas in concert with those of nonfrontal area using corticocortical loops, whereas CPn cells are more involved in closed corticostriatal loops than CCS cells. Since reciprocal connections between CPn cells with facilitatory synapses may be related to persistent activity, CPn cells play a key role of longer time constant processes in corticostriatal as well as in corticocortical loops between the frontal areas.
      PubDate: 2017-09-28
  • Visual Cortex Limits Pop-Out in the Superior Colliculus of Awake Mice
    • Authors: Ahmadlou M; Tafreshiha A, Heimel J.
      Abstract: We detect objects more readily if they differ from their surroundings in motion, color, or texture. This increased saliency is thought to be related to increased responses in the visual cortex. The superior colliculus is another brain area involved in vision and especially in directing gaze and attention. In this study, we show that differences in texture orientation also increase responses in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus that receive retinal and cortical input. We found that gratings evoke more neural response when surrounded by orthogonal gratings than when surrounded by parallel gratings, particularly in the awake mouse. This pop-out is not originating from the visual cortex, and silencing visual cortex increased the relative difference in response. A model shows that this can result from retinotopically matched excitation from visual cortex to the superior colliculus. We suggest that the perceptual saliency of a stimulus differing from its surround in a low-level feature like grating orientation could depend on visual processing in the superior colliculus.
      PubDate: 2017-09-28
  • Optogenetic Activation of the Sensorimotor Cortex Reveals “Local
           Inhibitory and Global Excitatory” Inputs to the Basal Ganglia
    • Authors: Ozaki M; Sano H, Sato S, et al.
      Abstract: To understand how information from different cortical areas is integrated and processed through the cortico-basal ganglia pathways, we used optogenetics to systematically stimulate the sensorimotor cortex and examined basal ganglia activity. We utilized Thy1-ChR2-YFP transgenic mice, in which channelrhodopsin 2 is robustly expressed in layer V pyramidal neurons. We applied light spots to the sensorimotor cortex in a grid pattern and examined neuronal responses in the globus pallidus (GP) and entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), which are the relay and output nuclei of the basal ganglia, respectively. Light stimulation typically induced a triphasic response composed of early excitation, inhibition, and late excitation in GP/EPN neurons. Other response patterns lacking 1 or 2 of the components were also observed. The distribution of the cortical sites whose stimulation induced a triphasic response was confined, whereas stimulation of the large surrounding areas induced early and late excitation without inhibition. Our results suggest that cortical inputs to the GP/EPN are organized in a “local inhibitory and global excitatory” manner. Such organization seems to be the neuronal basis for information processing through the cortico-basal ganglia pathways, that is, releasing and terminating necessary information at an appropriate timing, while simultaneously suppressing other unnecessary information.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
  • The Tbr2 Molecular Network Controls Cortical Neuronal Differentiation
           Through Complementary Genetic and Epigenetic Pathways
    • Authors: Sessa A; Ciabatti E, Drechsel D, et al.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22
  • Neural Progenitor Cells in Cerebral Cortex of Epilepsy Patients do not
           Originate from Astrocytes Expressing GLAST
    • Authors: Chen M; Puschmann T, Wilhelmsson U, et al.
      Abstract: Adult neurogenesis in human brain is known to occur in the hippocampus, the subventricular zone, and the striatum. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) were reported in the cortex of epilepsy patients; however, their identity is not known. Since astrocytes were proposed as the source of neural progenitors in both healthy and diseased brain, we tested the hypothesis that NPCs in the epileptic cortex originate from reactive, alternatively, de-differentiated astrocytes that express glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST). We assessed the capacity to form neurospheres and the differentiation potential of cells dissociated from fresh cortical tissue from patients who underwent surgical treatment for pharmacologically intractable epilepsy. Neurospheres were generated from 57% of cases (8/14). Upon differentiation, the neurosphere cells gave rise to neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Sorting of dissociated cells showed that only cells negative for GLAST formed neurospheres. In conclusion, we show that cells with neural stem cell properties are present in brain cortex of epilepsy patients, and that these cells are not GLAST-positive astrocytes.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
  • Heritability of the Effective Connectivity in the Resting-State Default
           Mode Network
    • Authors: Xu J; Yin X, Ge H, et al.
      Abstract: The default mode network (DMN) is thought to reflect endogenous neural activity, which is considered as one of the most intriguing phenomena in cognitive neuroscience. Previous studies have found that key regions within the DMN are highly interconnected. Here, we characterized the genetic influences on causal or directed information flow within the DMN during the resting state. In this study, we recruited 46 pairs of twins and collected fMRI imaging data using a 3.0 T scanner. Dynamic causal modeling was conducted for each participant, and a structural equation model was used to calculate the heritability of DMN in terms of its effective connectivity. Model comparison favored a full-connected model. Structural equal modeling was used to estimate the additive genetics (A), common environment (C) and unique environment (E) contributions to variance for the DMN effective connectivity. The ACE model was preferred in the comparison of structural equation models. Heritability of DMN effective connectivity was 0.54, suggesting that the genetic made a greater contribution to the effective connectivity within DMN. Establishing the heritability of default-mode effective connectivity endorses the use of resting-state networks as endophenotypes or intermediate phenotypes in the search for the genetic basis of psychiatric or neurological illnesses.
      PubDate: 2016-12-02
  • Migration Pathways of Thalamic Neurons and Development of Thalamocortical
           Connections in Humans Revealed by Diffusion MR Tractography
    • Authors: Wilkinson M; Kane T, Wang R, et al.
      Abstract: The thalamus plays an important role in signal relays in the brain, with thalamocortical (TC) neuronal pathways linked to various sensory/cognitive functions. In this study, we aimed to see fetal and postnatal development of the thalamus including neuronal migration to the thalamus and the emergence/maturation of the TC pathways. Pathways from/to the thalami of human postmortem fetuses and in vivo subjects ranging from newborns to adults with no neurological histories were studied using high angular resolution diffusion MR imaging (HARDI) tractography. Pathways likely linked to neuronal migration from the ventricular zone and ganglionic eminence (GE) to the thalami were both successfully detected. Between the ventricular zone and thalami, more tractography pathways were found in anterior compared with posterior regions, which was well in agreement with postnatal observations that the anterior TC segment had more tract count and volume than the posterior segment. Three different pathways likely linked to neuronal migration from the GE to the thalami were detected. No hemispheric asymmetry of the TC pathways was quantitatively observed during development. These results suggest that HARDI tractography is useful to identify multiple differential neuronal migration pathways in human brains, and regional differences in brain development in fetal ages persisted in postnatal development.
      PubDate: 2016-12-02
  • Trajectory of Parvalbumin Cell Impairment and Loss of Cortical Inhibition
           in Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Authors: Hsieh T; Lee H, Hameed M, et al.
      Abstract: Many neuropsychiatric symptoms that follow traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mood disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) are attributable to compromised cortical inhibition. However, the temporal trajectory of cortical inhibition loss and its underlying mechanisms are not known. Using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) and immunohistochemistry, we tracked functional and cellular changes of cortical inhibitory network elements after fluid-percussion injury (FPI) in rats. ppTMS revealed a progressive loss of cortical inhibition as early as 2 weeks after FPI. This profile paralleled the increasing levels of cortical oxidative stress, which was accompanied by a gradual loss of parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in perilesional cortex. Preceding the PV loss, we identified a degradation of the perineuronal net (PNN)—a specialized extracellular structure enwrapping cortical PV-positive (PV+) inhibitory interneurons which binds the PV+ cell maintenance factor, Otx2. The trajectory of these impairments underlies the reduced inhibitory tone, which can contribute to posttraumatic neurological conditions, such as PTE. Taken together, our results highlight the use of ppTMS as a biomarker to track the course of cortical inhibitory dysfunction post-TBI. Moreover, the neuroprotective role of PNNs on PV+ cell function suggests antioxidant treatment or Otx2 enhancement as a promising prophylaxis for post-TBI symptoms.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
  • Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity Induced by an Enriched Environment
           Reverses Cognitive Deficits in Scribble Deficient Mouse
    • Authors: Hilal M; Moreau M, Racca C, et al.
      Abstract: Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is well known to play a critical role during prenatal brain development; whether it plays specific roles at postnatal stages remains rather unknown. Here, we investigated the role of a key PCP-associated gene scrib in CA1 hippocampal structure and function at postnatal stages. We found that Scrib is required for learning and memory consolidation in the Morris water maze as well as synaptic maturation and NMDAR-dependent bidirectional plasticity. Furthermore, we unveiled a direct molecular interaction between Scrib and PP1/PP2A phosphatases whose levels were decreased in postsynaptic density of conditional knock-out mice. Remarkably, exposure to enriched environment (EE) preserved memory formation in CaMK-Scrib−/− mice by recovering synaptic plasticity and maturation. Thus, Scrib is required for synaptic function involved in memory formation and EE has beneficiary therapeutic effects. Our results demonstrate a distinct new role for a PCP-associated protein, beyond embryonic development, in cognitive functions during adulthood.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22
  • Distinct Cerebellar Contributions to Cognitive-Perceptual Dynamics During
           Natural Viewing
    • Authors: Nguyen V; Sonkusare S, Stadler J, et al.
      Abstract: The crucial role of the cerebellum in motor learning and coordination is very well known. Considerable interest has recently shifted toward its contribution to nonmotor tasks, such as working memory, emotion, and language. However, the cognitive role and functional subdivisions of the cerebellum, particularly in dynamic, ecologically realistic contexts, are not yet established. By analyzing functional neuroimaging data acquired while participants viewed a short dramatic movie, we found that posterior and inferior cerebellar regions are reliably engaged in dynamic perceptual and affective processes with no explicit motor component. These cerebellar regions show significant relevance to visual salience and unexpected turning points of the movie. Our results demonstrate that distinct functional subdivisions of the cerebellum are robustly engaged in real-life cognitive processes, playing specific roles through a dynamic interaction with higher order regions in the cerebral cortex.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22
  • Sequential Firing Codes for Time in Rodent Medial Prefrontal Cortex
    • Authors: Tiganj Z; Jung M, Kim J, et al.
      Abstract: A subset of hippocampal neurons, known as “time cells” fire sequentially for circumscribed periods of time within a delay interval. We investigated whether medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) also contains time cells and whether their qualitative properties differ from those in the hippocampus and striatum. We studied the firing correlates of neurons in the rodent mPFC during a temporal discrimination task. On each trial, the animals waited for a few seconds in the stem of a T-maze. A subpopulation of units fired in a sequence consistently across trials for a circumscribed period during the delay interval. These sequentially activated time cells showed temporal accuracy that decreased as time passed as measured by both the width of their firing fields and the number of cells that fired at a particular part of the interval. The firing dynamics of the time cells was significantly better explained with the elapse of time than with the animals’ position and velocity. The findings observed here in the mPFC are consistent with those previously reported in the hippocampus and striatum, suggesting that the sequentially activated time cells are not specific to these areas, but are part of a common representational motif across regions.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22
  • The DNA Methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) Controls the Shape and Dynamics of
           Migrating POA-Derived Interneurons Fated for the Murine Cerebral Cortex
    • Authors: Pensold D; Symmank J, Hahn A, et al.
      Abstract: The proliferative niches in the subpallium generate a rich cellular variety fated for diverse telencephalic regions. The embryonic preoptic area (POA) represents one of these domains giving rise to the pool of cortical GABAergic interneurons and glial cells, in addition to striatal and residual POA cells. The migration from sites of origin within the subpallium to the distant targets like the cerebral cortex, accomplished by the adoption and maintenance of a particular migratory morphology, is a critical step during interneuron development. To identify factors orchestrating this process, we performed single-cell transcriptome analysis and detected Dnmt1 expression in murine migratory GABAergic POA-derived cells. Deletion of Dnmt1 in postmitotic immature cells of the POA caused defective migration and severely diminished adult cortical interneuron numbers. We found that DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) preserves the migratory shape in part through negative regulation of Pak6, which stimulates neuritogenesis at postmigratory stages. Our data underline the importance of DNMT1 for the migration of POA-derived cells including cortical interneurons.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22
  • Influences of Brain Size, Sex, and Sex Chromosome Complement on the
           Architecture of Human Cortical Folding
    • Authors: Fish A; Cachia A, Fischer C, et al.
      Abstract: Gyrification is a fundamental property of the human cortex that is increasingly studied by basic and clinical neuroscience. However, it remains unclear if and how the global architecture of cortical folding varies with 3 interwoven sources of anatomical variation: brain size, sex, and sex chromosome dosage (SCD). Here, for 375 individuals spanning 7 karyotype groups (XX, XY, XXX, XYY, XXY, XXYY, XXXXY), we use structural neuroimaging to measure a global sulcation index (SI, total sulcal/cortical hull area) and both determinants of sulcal area: total sulcal length and mean sulcal depth. We detail large and patterned effects of sex and SCD across all folding metrics, but show that these effects are in fact largely consistent with the normative scaling of cortical folding in health: larger human brains have disproportionately high SI due to a relative expansion of sulcal area versus hull area, which arises because disproportionate sulcal lengthening overcomes a lack of proportionate sulcal deepening. Accounting for these normative allometries reveals 1) brain size-independent sulcal lengthening in males versus females, and 2) insensitivity of overall folding architecture to SCD. Our methodology and findings provide a novel context for future studies of human cortical folding in health and disease.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
  • Impact of Demographic and Obstetric Factors on Infant Brain Volumes: A
           Population Neuroscience Study
    • Authors: Knickmeyer R; Xia K, Lu Z, et al.
      Abstract: Individual differences in neuroanatomy are associated with intellectual ability and psychiatric risk. Factors responsible for this variability remain poorly understood. We tested whether 17 major demographic and obstetric variables were associated with individual differences in brain volumes in 756 neonates assessed with MRI. Gestational age at MRI, sex, gestational age at birth, and birthweight were the most significant predictors, explaining 31% to 59% of variance. Unexpectedly, earlier born babies had larger brains than later born babies after adjusting for other predictors. Our results suggest earlier born children experience accelerated brain growth, either as a consequence of the richer sensory environment they experience outside the womb or in response to other factors associated with delivery. In the full sample, maternal and paternal education, maternal ethnicity, maternal smoking, and maternal psychiatric history showed marginal associations with brain volumes, whereas maternal age, paternal age, paternal ethnicity, paternal psychiatric history, and income did not. Effects of parental education and maternal ethnicity are partially mediated by differences in birthweight. Remaining effects may reflect differences in genetic variation or cultural capital. In particular late initiation of prenatal care could negatively impact brain development. Findings could inform public health policy aimed at optimizing child development.
      PubDate: 2016-10-26
  • What Does “Being an Expert” Mean to the Brain' Functional
           Specificity and Connectivity in Expertise
    • Authors: Jeon H; Friederici A.
      Abstract: To what extent is varying cognitive expertise reflected in the brain's functional specificity and connectivity' We addressed this question by examining expertise in mathematics based on the fact that mathematical skills are one of the most critical cognitive abilities known to be a good predictor of academic achievement. We investigated processing of hierarchical structures, which is a fundamental process for building complex cognitive architecture. Experts and nonexperts in mathematics participated in processing hierarchical structures using algebraic expressions. Results showed that a modulating effect depending on expertise was observed specifically in nonexperts in the left inferior frontal gyrus around pars triangularis and frontal sulcus, the left intraparietal sulcus, and the right inferior parietal lobule. This expertise-dependent pattern of activation led to a crucial dissociation within the left prefrontal cortex. More interestingly, task-related functional networks were also modulated differently in the frontoparietal network for relatively good performance and in the frontostriatal network for poor performance. The present study indicates that a high level of expertise is evident in a small number of specific brain regions, whereas a low level of expertise is reflected by broadly distributed brain areas, along with divergent functional connectivity between experts and nonexperts.
      PubDate: 2016-10-25
  • Deactivation of Association Cortices Disrupted the Congruence of Visual
           and Auditory Receptive Fields in Superior Colliculus Neurons
    • Authors: Xu J; Bi T, Keniston L, et al.
      Abstract: Physiological and behavioral studies in cats show that corticotectal inputs play a critical role in the information-processing capabilities of neurons in the deeper layers of the superior colliculus (SC). Among them, the sensory inputs from functionally related associational cortices are especially critical for SC multisensory integration. However, the underlying mechanism supporting this influence is still unclear. Here, results demonstrate that deactivation of relevant cortices can both dislocate SC visual and auditory spatial receptive fields (RFs) and decrease their overall size, resulting in reduced alignment. Further analysis demonstrated that this RF separation is significantly correlated with the decrement of neurons’ multisensory enhancement and is most pronounced in low stimulus intensity conditions. In addition, cortical deactivation could influence the degree of stimulus effectiveness, thereby illustrating the means by which higher order cortices may modify the multisensory activity of SC.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24
  • Differential Adulthood Onset mGlu 5 Signaling Saves Prefrontal Function in
           the Fragile X Mouse
    • Authors: Martin H; Lassalle O, Manzoni O.
      Abstract: The final maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) continues into early adulthood and is delayed compared with other forebrain structures. However, how these late onset changes in the PFC relate to neurodevelopment disorders is poorly understood. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a prevalent neurogenetic disorder linked to deficits in PFC function. mGlu5 is an important molecular hub in the etiology of FXS. Thus we have examined changes in mGlu5 function in the PFC in a mouse model of FXS (Fmr1 knockout) during early adulthood and subsequent maturity. An unusual endophenotype was identified; during early adulthood (2-month-old) Fmr1 knockout mice show a severe deficit in mGlu5 dependent eCB synaptic plasticity; however, in 1-year-old this deficit self rectifies. This adulthood onset correction in mGlu5 function is linked to an engagement of TRPV1 receptors in 1-year-old mice. In 2-month-old Fmr1 knockout mice, mGlu5 mediated synaptic plasticity could be recovered with eCB system targeted drugs, but also by direct enhancement of mGlu5 function with a positive allosteric modulator. These results point to further refinements to the role of mGlu5 in FXS. Furthermore our findings suggest when studying neurodevelopmental disorders with a significant PFC phenotype consideration of late onset changes may be important.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24
  • Extinction and Latent Inhibition Involve a Similar Form of Inhibitory
           Learning that is Stored in and Retrieved from the Infralimbic Cortex
    • Authors: Lingawi N; Westbrook R, Laurent V.
      Abstract: Extinction and latent inhibition each refer to a reduction in conditioned responding: the former occurs when pairings of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) are followed by repeated presentations of the CS alone; the latter occurs when CS alone presentations precede its pairings with the US. The present experiments used fear conditioning to test the hypothesis that both phenomena involve a similar form of inhibitory learning that recruits common neuronal substrates. We found that the initial inhibitory memory established by extinction is reactivated in the infralimbic (IL) cortex during additional extinction. Remarkably, this reactivation also occurs when the initial inhibitory memory had been established by latent inhibition. In both cases, the inhibitory memory was strengthened by pharmacological stimulation of the IL. Moreover, NMDA receptor blockade in the IL disrupted the weakening in conditioned responding produced by either latent inhibition or extinction. These findings, therefore, indicate that latent inhibition and extinction produce a similar inhibitory memory that is retrieved from the IL. They also demonstrate that the IL plays a wide role in fear regulation by promoting the retrieval of inhibitory memories generated by CS alone presentations either before or after this CS has been rendered dangerous.
      PubDate: 2016-10-20
  • MACF1 Controls Migration and Positioning of Cortical GABAergic
           Interneurons in Mice
    • Authors: Ka M; Moffat J, Kim W.
      Abstract: GABAergic interneurons develop in the ganglionic eminence in the ventral telencephalon and tangentially migrate into the cortical plate during development. However, key molecules controlling interneuron migration remain poorly identified. Here, we show that microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) regulates GABAergic interneuron migration and positioning in the developing mouse brain. To investigate the role of MACF1 in developing interneurons, we conditionally deleted the MACF1 gene in mouse interneuron progenitors and their progeny using Dlx5/6-Cre-IRES-EGFP and Nkx2.1-Cre drivers. We found that MACF1 deletion results in a marked reduction and defective positioning of interneurons in the mouse cerebral cortex and hippocampus, suggesting abnormal interneuron migration. Indeed, the speed and mode of interneuron migration were abnormal in the MACF1-mutant brain, compared with controls. Additionally, MACF1-deleted interneurons showed a significant reduction in the length of their leading processes and dendrites in the mouse brain. Finally, loss of MACF1 decreased microtubule stability in cortical interneurons. Our findings suggest that MACF1 plays a critical role in cortical interneuron migration and positioning in the developing mouse brain.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18
  • Humor Appreciation Involves Parametric and Synchronized Activity in the
           Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus
    • Authors: Iidaka T.
      Abstract: Humor perception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human societies. In theories of humor perception, three factors, non-seriousness, social context, and incongruity, have been implicated in humor. In another theory, however, elaboration and reinterpretation of contexts are considered to play a role in eliciting humor. Although the neural correlates of humor appreciation have been investigated using neuroimaging methods, only a few studies have conducted such experiments under natural conditions. In the present study, two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, using a comedy movie as a stimulus, were conducted to investigate the neural correlates of humor under natural conditions. The subjects’ brain activity was measured while watching and enjoying a movie. In experiment 1, a parametric analysis showed that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and hippocampus/amygdala had a positive relationship with the subjective rating of funniness. In experiment 2, intersubject correlation was analyzed to investigate synchronized activity across all participants. Signal synchronization that paralleled increased funniness ratings was observed in the MPFC and hippocampus. Thus, it appears that both parametric and synchronized activity in the MPFC and hippocampus are important during humor appreciation. The present study has revealed the brain regions that are predominantly involved in humor sensation under natural condition.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18
  • Shared Genetic Factors Influence Head Motion During MRI and Body Mass
    • Authors: Hodgson K; Poldrack R, Curran J, et al.
      Abstract: Head movements are typically viewed as a nuisance to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis, and are particularly problematic for resting state fMRI. However, there is growing evidence that head motion is a behavioral trait with neural and genetic underpinnings. Using data from a large randomly ascertained extended pedigree sample of Mexican Americans (n = 689), we modeled the genetic structure of head motion during resting state fMRI and its relation to 48 other demographic and behavioral phenotypes. A replication analysis was performed using data from the Human Connectome Project, which uses an extended twin design (n = 864). In both samples, head motion was significantly heritable (h2 = 0.313 and 0.427, respectively), and phenotypically correlated with numerous traits. The most strongly replicated relationship was between head motion and body mass index, which showed evidence of shared genetic influences in both data sets. These results highlight the need to view head motion in fMRI as a complex neurobehavioral trait correlated with a number of other demographic and behavioral phenotypes. Given this, when examining individual differences in functional connectivity, the confounding of head motion with other traits of interest needs to be taken into consideration alongside the critical important of addressing head motion artifacts.
      PubDate: 2016-10-15
  • Highly Dynamic Spatiotemporal Organization of Low-Frequency Activities
           During Behavioral States in the Mouse Cerebral Cortex
    • Authors: Fernandez L; Comte J, Le Merre P, et al.
      Abstract: Although low-frequency (LF < 10 Hz) activities have been considered as a hallmark of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, several studies have recently reported LF activities in the membrane potential of cortical neurons from different areas in awake mice. However, little is known about the spatiotemporal organization of LF activities across cortical areas during wakefulness and to what extent it differs during NREM sleep. We have thus investigated the dynamics of LF activities across cortical areas in awake and sleeping mice using chronic simultaneous local field potential recordings. We found that LF activities had higher amplitude in somatosensory and motor areas during quiet wakefulness and decreased in most areas during active wakefulness, resulting in a global state change that was overall correlated with motor activity. However, we also observed transient desynchronization of cortical states between areas, indicating a more local state regulation. During NREM sleep, LF activities had higher amplitude in all areas but slow-wave activity was only poorly correlated across cortical areas. Despite a maximal amplitude during NREM sleep, the coherence of LF activities between areas that are not directly connected dropped from wakefulness to NREM sleep, potentially reflecting a breakdown of long-range cortical integration associated with loss of consciousness.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14
  • The Lateral Habenula as a Relay of Cortical Information to Process Working
    • Authors: Mathis V; Barbelivien A, Majchrzak M, et al.
      Abstract: Working memory is a cognitive ability allowing the temporary storage of information to solve problems or adjust behavior. While working memory is known to mainly depend on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), very few is known about how cortical information are relayed subcortically. By its connectivity, the lateral habenula (lHb) might act as a subcortical relay for cortical information. Indeed, the lHb receives inputs from several mPFC subregions, and recent findings suggest a role for the lHb in online processing of spatial information, a fundamental aspect of working memory. In rats, in a delayed non-matching to position paradigm, using focal microinjections of the GABAA agonist muscimol we showed that inactivation of the lHb (16 ng in 0.2 µL per side), as well as disconnection between the prelimbic region of the mPFC (mPFC/PrL, 32 ng in 0.4 µL in one hemisphere) and the lHb (16 ng in 0.2 µL in the lHb in the contralateral hemisphere) impaired working memory. The deficits were unlikely to result from motivational or motor deficits as muscimol did not affect reward collection or cue responding latencies, and did not increase the number of omissions. These results show for the first time the implication of the lHb in mPFC-dependent memory processes, likely as a relay of mPFC/PrL information. They also open new perspectives in the understanding of the top-down processing of high-level cognitive functions.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13
  • Intrinsic Brain Hub Connectivity Underlies Individual Differences in
           Spatial Working Memory
    • Authors: Liu J; Xia M, Dai Z, et al.
      Abstract: Spatial working memory (SWM) is an important component of working memory and plays an essential role in driving high-level cognitive abilities. Recent studies have demonstrated that individual SWM is associated with global brain communication. However, whether specific network nodal connectivity, such as brain hub connectivity, is involved in individual SWM performances remains largely unknown. Here, we collected resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) data from a large group of 130 young healthy participants and evaluated their SWM performances. A voxel-wise whole-brain network analysis approach was employed to study the relationship between the nodal functional connectivity strength (FCS) and the SWM behavioral scores and to further estimate the participation of brain hubs in individual SWM. We showed significant associations between nodal FCS and SWM performance primarily in the default mode, visual, dorsal attention, and fronto-parietal systems. Moreover, over 41% of these nodal regions were identified as brain network hubs, and these hubs’ FCS values contributed to 57% of the variance of the individual SWM performances that all SWM-related regions could explain. Collectively, our findings highlight the cognitive significance of the brain network hubs in SWM, which furthers our understanding of how intrinsic brain network architectures underlie individual differences in SWM processing.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13
  • Enduring Loss of Serotonergic Control of Orbitofrontal Cortex Function
           Following Contingent and Noncontingent Cocaine Exposure
    • Authors: Wright A; Zapata A, Baumann M, et al.
      Abstract: Clinical descriptions of cocaine addiction include compulsive drug seeking and maladaptive decision-making despite substantial aversive consequences. Research suggests that this may result from altered orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function and its participation in outcome-based behavior. Clinical and animal studies also implicate serotonin in the regulation of OFC function in addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we test the hypothesis that exposure to cocaine, through self-administration (CSA) or yoked-administration (CYA), alters the regulation of OFC function by 5-HT. Using whole-cell electrophysiology in brain slices from naïve rats we find that 5-HT1A receptors generate hyperpolarizing outward currents in layer-V OFC pyramidal neurons, and that 5-HT2A receptors increase glutamate release onto these cells. Following extended withdrawal from CSA or CYA, this 5-HT regulation of OFC activity is largely lost. In-situ hybridization of 5-HT receptor transcripts reveals that 5-HT1A receptor mRNA is unaffected and 5-HT2A receptor mRNA is significantly elevated after CSA or CYA. These results demonstrate that 5-HT control of OFC neurons is disrupted for extended periods following cocaine exposure. We hypothesize that this dysregulation of 5-HT signaling leads to enduring disruptions of OFC network activity that this is involved in impaired decision-making associated with cocaine addiction.
      PubDate: 2016-10-12
  • Neocortical Development in Brain of Young Children—A Stereological
    • Authors: Kjær M; Fabricius K, Sigaard R, et al.
      Abstract: The early postnatal development of neuron and glia numbers is poorly documented in human brain. Therefore we estimated using design-based stereological methods the regional volumes of neocortex and the numbers of neocortical neurons and glial cells for 10 children (4 girls and 6 boys), ranging from neonate to 3 years of age. The 10 infants had a mean of 20.7 × 109 neocortical neurons (range 18.0–24.8 × 109) estimated with a coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.11; this range is similar to adult neuron numbers. The glia populations were 10.5 × 109 oligodendrocytes (range 5.0–16.0 × 109; CV = 0.40); 5.3 × 109 astrocytes (range 2.7–8.3 × 109, CV = 0.39); and 0.32 × 109 microglia (range 0.15–0.43 × 109, CV = 0.31). Thus, the estimated mean composite number of neocortical neuron and glial cells was 36.8 × 109 (range 26.8–48.3 × 109, CV = 0.21), of which approximately one-half were glial cells. There was a significant linear increase in oligodendrocyte and astrocyte numbers during the first 3 years of life, but no change in the total number of neurons. This is in line with our expectation that the total number of neocortical neurons is already determined in mid-fetal life.
      PubDate: 2016-10-12
  • Functional Dynamics of Dorsal and Ventral Reading Networks in Bilinguals
    • Authors: Oliver M; Carreiras M, Paz-Alonso P.
      Abstract: In today's world, bilingualism is increasingly common. However, it is still unclear how left-lateralized dorsal and ventral reading networks are tuned to reading in proficient second-language learners. Here, we investigated differences in functional regional activation and connectivity as a function of L1 and L2 reading, L2 orthographic depth, and task demands. Thirty-seven late bilinguals with the same L1 and either an opaque or transparent L2 performed perceptual and semantic reading tasks in L1 and L2 during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. Results revealed stronger regional recruitment for L2 versus L1 reading and stronger connectivity within the dorsal stream during L1 versus L2 reading. Differences in orthographic depth were associated with a segregated profile of left ventral occipitotemporal (vOT) coactivation with dorsal regions for the transparent L2 group and with ventral regions for the opaque L2 group. Finally, semantic versus perceptual demands modulated left vOT engagement, supporting the interactive account of the contribution of vOT to reading, and were associated with stronger coactivation within the ventral network. Our findings support a division of labor between ventral and dorsal reading networks, elucidating the critical role of the language used to read, L2 orthographic depth, and task demands on the functional dynamics of bilingual reading.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06
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Heriot-Watt University
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