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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 510, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Cerebral Cortex
  [SJR: 4.827]   [H-I: 192]   [39 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1047-3211 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2199
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Transient Cell-intrinsic Activity Regulates the Migration and Laminar
           Positioning of Cortical Projection Neurons
    • Authors: Hurni N; Kolodziejczak M, Tomasello U, et al.
      First page: 3052
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Neocortical microcircuits are built during development and require the coordinated assembly of excitatory glutamatergic projection neurons (PNs) into functional networks. Neuronal migration is an essential step in this process. In addition to cell-intrinsic mechanisms, external cues including neurotransmitters regulate cortical neuron migration, suggesting that early activity could influence this process. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of cell-intrinsic activity in migrating PNs in vivo using a designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD) chemogenetic approach. In utero electroporation was used to specifically express the human M3 muscarinic cholinergic Gq-coupled receptor (hM3Dq) in PNs and calcium activity, migratory dynamics, gene expression, and laminar positioning of PNs were assessed following embryonic DREADD activation. We found that transient embryonic DREADD activation induced premature branching and transcriptional changes in migrating PNs leading to a persistent laminar mispositioning of superficial layer PNs into deep cortical layers without affecting expression of layer-specific molecular identity markers. In addition, live imaging approaches indicated that embryonic DREADD activation increased calcium transients in migrating PNs and altered their migratory dynamics by increasing their pausing time. Taken together, these results support the idea that increased cell-intrinsic activity during migration acts as a stop signal for migrating cortical PNs.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhx059
  • Vocal Tract Images Reveal Neural Representations of Sensorimotor
           Transformation During Speech Imitation
    • Authors: Carey D; Miquel ME, Evans BG, et al.
      First page: 3064
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Imitating speech necessitates the transformation from sensory targets to vocal tract motor output, yet little is known about the representational basis of this process in the human brain. Here, we address this question by using real-time MR imaging (rtMRI) of the vocal tract and functional MRI (fMRI) of the brain in a speech imitation paradigm. Participants trained on imitating a native vowel and a similar nonnative vowel that required lip rounding. Later, participants imitated these vowels and an untrained vowel pair during separate fMRI and rtMRI runs. Univariate fMRI analyses revealed that regions including left inferior frontal gyrus were more active during sensorimotor transformation (ST) and production of nonnative vowels, compared with native vowels; further, ST for nonnative vowels activated somatomotor cortex bilaterally, compared with ST of native vowels. Using test representational similarity analysis (RSA) models constructed from participants’ vocal tract images and from stimulus formant distances, we found that RSA searchlight analyses of fMRI data showed either type of model could be represented in somatomotor, temporal, cerebellar, and hippocampal neural activation patterns during ST. We thus provide the first evidence of widespread and robust cortical and subcortical neural representation of vocal tract and/or formant parameters, during prearticulatory ST.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhx056
  • Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Socio-Economic
           Status on Neonatal Brain Development are Modulated by Genetic Risk
    • Authors: Qiu A; Shen M, Buss C, et al.
      First page: 3080
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>This study included 168 and 85 mother–infant dyads from Asian and United States of America cohorts to examine whether a genomic profile risk score for major depressive disorder (GPRS<sub>MDD</sub>) moderates the association between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms (or socio-economic status, SES) and fetal neurodevelopment, and to identify candidate biological processes underlying such association. Both cohorts showed a significant interaction between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and infant GPRS<sub>MDD</sub> on the right amygdala volume. The Asian cohort also showed such interaction on the right hippocampal volume and shape, thickness of the orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Likewise, a significant interaction between SES and infant GPRS<sub>MDD</sub> was on the right amygdala and hippocampal volumes and shapes. After controlling for each other, the interaction effect of antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and GPRS<sub>MDD</sub> was mainly shown on the right amygdala, while the interaction effect of SES and GPRS<sub>MDD</sub> was mainly shown on the right hippocampus. Bioinformatic analyses suggested neurotransmitter/neurotrophic signaling, SNAp REceptor complex, and glutamate receptor activity as common biological processes underlying the influence of antenatal maternal depressive symptoms on fetal cortico-limbic development. These findings suggest gene–environment interdependence in the fetal development of brain regions implicated in cognitive–emotional function. Candidate biological mechanisms involve a range of brain region-specific signaling pathways that converge on common processes of synaptic development.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhx065
    • Authors: Ribak CE.
      First page: 3093
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhx091
  • Persistence of Amygdala–Hippocampal Connectivity and Multi-Voxel
           Correlation Structures During Awake Rest After Fear Learning Predicts
           Long-Term Expression of Fear
    • Authors: Hermans EJ; Kanen JW, Tambini A, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>After encoding, memories undergo a process of consolidation that determines long-term retention. For conditioned fear, animal models postulate that consolidation involves reactivations of neuronal assemblies supporting fear learning during postlearning “offline” periods. However, no human studies to date have investigated such processes, particularly in relation to long-term expression of fear. We tested 24 participants using functional MRI on 2 consecutive days in a fear conditioning paradigm involving 1 habituation block, 2 acquisition blocks, and 2 extinction blocks on day 1, and 2 re-extinction blocks on day 2. Conditioning blocks were preceded and followed by 4.5-min rest blocks. Strength of spontaneous recovery of fear on day 2 served as a measure of long-term expression of fear. Amygdala connectivity primarily with hippocampus increased progressively during postacquisition and postextinction rest on day 1. Intraregional multi-voxel correlation structures within amygdala and hippocampus sampled during a block of differential fear conditioning furthermore persisted after fear learning. Critically, both these main findings were stronger in participants who exhibited spontaneous recovery 24 h later. Our findings indicate that neural circuits activated during fear conditioning exhibit persistent postlearning activity that may be functionally relevant in promoting consolidation of the fear memory.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-30
  • Contour Integration over Time: Psychophysical and fMRI Evidence
    • Authors: Kuai S; Li W, Yu C, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>The brain integrates discrete but collinear stimuli to perceive global contours. Previous contour integration (CI) studies mainly focus on integration over space, and CI is attributed to either V1 long-range connections or contour processing in high-visual areas that top-down modulate V1 responses. Here, we show that CI also occurs over time in a design that minimizes the roles of V1 long-range interactions. We use tilted contours embedded in random orientation noise and moving horizontally behind a fixed vertical slit. Individual contour elements traveling up/down within the slit would be encoded over time by parallel, rather than aligned, V1 neurons. However, we find robust contour detection even when the slit permits only one viewable contour element. Similar to CI over space, CI over time also obeys the rule of collinearity. fMRI evidence shows that while CI over space engages visual areas as early as V1, CI over time mainly engages higher dorsal and ventral visual areas involved in shape processing, as well as posterior parietal regions involved in visual memory that can represent the orientation of temporally integrated contours. These results suggest at least partially dissociable mechanisms for implementing the Gestalt rule of continuity in CI over space and time.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-30
  • Frequency-Selective Attention in Auditory Scenes Recruits Frequency
           Representations Throughout Human Superior Temporal Cortex
    • Authors: Riecke L; Peters JC, Valente G, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>A sound of interest may be tracked amid other salient sounds by focusing attention on its characteristic features including its frequency. Functional magnetic resonance imaging findings have indicated that frequency representations in human primary auditory cortex (AC) contribute to this feat. However, attentional modulations were examined at relatively low spatial and spectral resolutions, and frequency-selective contributions outside the primary AC could not be established. To address these issues, we compared blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) responses in the superior temporal cortex of human listeners while they identified single frequencies versus listened selectively for various frequencies within a multifrequency scene. Using best-frequency mapping, we observed that the detailed spatial layout of attention-induced BOLD response enhancements in primary AC follows the tonotopy of stimulus-driven frequency representations—analogous to the “spotlight” of attention enhancing visuospatial representations in retinotopic visual cortex. Moreover, using an algorithm trained to discriminate stimulus-driven frequency representations, we could successfully decode the focus of frequency-selective attention from listeners' BOLD response patterns in nonprimary AC. Our results indicate that the human brain facilitates selective listening to a frequency of interest in a scene by reinforcing the fine-grained activity pattern throughout the entire superior temporal cortex that would be evoked if that frequency was present alone.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-26
  • Opposing Effects of Maternal Hypo- and Hyperthyroidism on the Stability of
           Thalamocortical Synapses in the Visual Cortex of Adult Offspring
    • Authors: Strobl MJ; Freeman D, Patel J, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Insufficient or excessive thyroid hormone (TH) levels during fetal development can cause long-term neurological and cognitive problems. Studies in animal models of perinatal hypo- and hyperthyroidism suggest that these problems may be a consequence of the formation of maladaptive circuitry in the cerebral cortex, which can persist into adulthood. Here we used mouse models of maternal hypo- and hyperthyroidism to investigate the long-term effects of altering thyroxine (T4) levels during pregnancy (corresponding to embryonic days 6.5–18.5) on thalamocortical (TC) axon dynamics in adult offspring. Because perinatal hypothyroidism has been linked to visual processing deficits in humans, we performed chronic two-photon imaging of TC axons and boutons in primary visual cortex (V1). We found that a decrease or increase in maternal serum T4 levels was associated with atypical steady-state dynamics of TC axons and boutons in V1 of adult offspring. Hypothyroid offspring exhibited axonal branch and bouton dynamics indicative of an abnormal increase in TC connectivity, whereas changes in hyperthyroid offspring were indicative of an abnormal decrease in TC connectivity. Collectively, our data suggest that alterations to prenatal T4 levels can cause long-term synaptic instability in TC circuits, which could impair early stages of visual processing.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-26
  • Reconfiguration of Intrinsic Functional Coupling Patterns Following
           Circumscribed Network Lesions
    • Authors: Eldaief MC; McMains S, Hutchison R, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Communication between cortical regions is necessary for optimal cognitive processing. Functional relationships between cortical regions can be inferred through measurements of temporal synchrony in spontaneous activity patterns. These relationships can be further elaborated by surveying effects of cortical lesions upon inter-regional connectivity. Lesions to cortical hubs and heteromodal association regions are expected to induce distributed connectivity changes and higher-order cognitive deficits, yet their functional consequences remain relatively unexplored. Here, we used resting-state fMRI to investigate intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) and graph theoretical metrics in 12 patients with circumscribed lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) portion of the Default Network (DN), and compared these metrics with those observed in healthy matched comparison participants and a sample of 1139 healthy individuals. Despite significant mPFC destruction, patients did <span style="font-style:italic;">not</span> demonstrate weakened intrinsic FC among undamaged DN nodes. Instead, network-specific changes were manifested as weaker negative correlations between the DN and attentional and somatomotor networks. These findings conflict with the DN being a homogenous system functionally anchored at mPFC. Rather, they implicate a role for mPFC in mediating cross-network functional interactions. More broadly, our data suggest that lesions to association cortical hubs might induce clinical deficits by disrupting communication between interacting large-scale systems.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
  • Repeated Structural Imaging Reveals Nonlinear Progression of
           Experience-Dependent Volume Changes in Human Motor Cortex
    • Authors: Wenger E; Kühn S, Verrel J, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Evidence for experience-dependent structural brain change in adult humans is accumulating. However, its time course is not well understood, as intervention studies typically consist of only 2 imaging sessions (before vs. after training). We acquired up to 18 structural magnetic resonance images over a 7-week period while 15 right-handed participants practiced left-hand writing and drawing. After 4 weeks, we observed increases in gray matter of both left and right primary motor cortices relative to a control group; 3 weeks later, these differences were no longer reliable. Time-series analyses revealed that gray matter in the primary motor cortices expanded during the first 4 weeks and then partially renormalized, in particular in the right hemisphere, despite continued practice and increasing task proficiency. Similar patterns of expansion followed by partial renormalization are also found in synaptogenesis, cortical map plasticity, and maturation, and may qualify as a general principle of structural plasticity. Research on human brain plasticity needs to encompass more than 2 measurement occasions to capture expansion and potential renormalization processes over time.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
  • Dual Cortical Plasticity After Spinal Cord Injury
    • Authors: Humanes-Valera D; Foffani G, Alonso-Calviño E, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>During cortical development, plasticity reflects the dynamic equilibrium between increasing and decreasing functional connectivity subserved by synaptic sprouting and pruning. After adult cortical deafferentation, plasticity seems to be dominated by increased functional connectivity, leading to the classical expansive reorganization from the intact to the deafferented cortex. In contrast, here we show a striking “<span style="font-style:italic;">decrease</span>” in the fast cortical responses to high-intensity forepaw stimulation 1–3 months after complete thoracic spinal cord transection, as evident in both local field potentials and intracellular in vivo recordings. Importantly, this decrease in fast cortical responses co-exists with an “<span style="font-style:italic;">increase</span>” in cortical activation over slower post-stimulus timescales, as measured by an increased forepaw-to-hindpaw propagation of stimulus-triggered cortical up-states, as well as by the enhanced slow sustained depolarization evoked by high-frequency forepaw stimuli in the deafferented hindpaw cortex. This coincidence of diminished fast cortical responses and enhanced slow cortical activation offers a dual perspective of adult cortical plasticity after spinal cord injury.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
  • The Dorsoventral Patterning of Human Forebrain Follows an
           Activation/Transformation Model
    • Authors: Chi L; Fan B, Feng D, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>The anteroposterior patterning of the central nervous system follows an activation/transformation model, which proposes that a prospective telencephalic fate will be activated by default during the neural induction stage, while this anterior fate could be transformed posteriorly according to caudalization morphogens. Although both extrinsic signals and intrinsic transcription factors have been implicated in dorsoventral (DV) specification of vertebrate telencephalon, the DV patterning model remains elusive. This is especially true in human considering its evolutionary trait and uniqueness of gene regulatory networks during neural induction. Here, we point to a model that human forebrain DV patterning also follows an activation/transformation paradigm. Human neuroectoderm (NE) will activate a forebrain dorsal fate automatically and this default anterior dorsal fate does not depend on Wnts activation or Pax6 expression. Forced expression of Pax6 in human NE hinders its ventralization even under sonic hedgehog (Shh) treatment, suggesting that the ventral fate is repressed by dorsal genes. Genetic manipulation of Nkx2.1, a key gene for forebrain ventral progenitors, shows that Nkx2.1 is neither necessary nor sufficient for Shh-driven ventralization. We thus propose that Shh represses dorsal genes of human NE and subsequently transforms the primitively activated dorsal fate ventrally in a repression release manner.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
  • The Role of Working Memory in the Probabilistic Inference of Future
           Sensory Events
    • Authors: Cashdollar N; Ruhnau P, Weisz N, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>The ability to represent the emerging regularity of sensory information from the external environment has been thought to allow one to probabilistically infer future sensory occurrences and thus optimize behavior. However, the underlying neural implementation of this process is still not comprehensively understood. Through a convergence of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence, we establish that the probabilistic inference of future events is critically linked to people's ability to maintain the recent past in working memory. Magnetoencephalography recordings demonstrated that when visual stimuli occurring over an extended time series had a greater statistical regularity, individuals with higher working-memory capacity (WMC) displayed enhanced slow-wave neural oscillations in the θ frequency band (4-8 Hz.) prior to, but not during stimulus appearance. This prestimulus neural activity was specifically linked to contexts where information could be anticipated and influenced the preferential sensory processing for this visual information after its appearance. A separate behavioral study demonstrated that this process intrinsically emerges during continuous perception and underpins a realistic advantage for efficient behavioral responses. In this way, WMC optimizes the anticipation of higher level semantic concepts expected to occur in the near future.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
  • Stress Degrades Prefrontal Cortex Neuronal Coding of Goal-Directed
    • Authors: Devilbiss DM; Spencer RC, Berridge CW.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Stress, pervasive in modern society, impairs prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent cognitive processes, an action implicated in multiple psychopathologies and estimated to contribute to nearly half of all work place accidents. However, the neurophysiological bases for stress-related impairment of PFC-dependent function remain poorly understood. The current studies examined the effects of stress on PFC neural coding during a working memory task in rats. Stress suppressed responses of medial PFC (mPFC) neurons strongly tuned to a diversity of task events, including delay and outcome (reward, error). Stress-related impairment of task-related neuronal activity included multidimensional coding by PFC neurons, an action that significantly predicted cognitive impairment. Importantly, the effects of stress on PFC neuronal signaling were highly conditional on tuning strength: stress increased task-related activity in the larger population of PFC neurons weakly tuned to task events. Combined, stress elicits a profound collapse of task representations across the broader population of PFC neurons.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
  • Cortical Thickness of Functionally Defined Visual Areas in Schizophrenia
           and Bipolar Disorder
    • Authors: Reavis EA; Lee J, Wynn JK, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Patients with schizophrenia show specific abnormalities in visual perception, and patients with bipolar disorder may have related perceptual deficits. During tasks that highlight perceptual dysfunction, patients with schizophrenia show abnormal activity in visual brain areas, including the lateral occipital complex (LOC) and early retinotopic cortex. It is unclear whether the anatomical structure of those visual areas is atypical in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In members of those two patient groups and healthy controls, we localized LOC and early retinotopic cortex individually for each participant using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), then measured the thickness of those regions of interest using structural MRI scans. In both regions, patients with schizophrenia had the thinnest cortex, controls had the thickest cortex, and bipolar patients had intermediate cortical thickness. A control region, motor cortex, did not show this pattern of group differences. The thickness of each visual region of interest was significantly correlated with performance on a visual object masking task, but only in schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest an anatomical substrate for visual processing abnormalities that have been found with both neural and behavioral measures in schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
  • Sex Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Human Brain
           Predominantly Reflect Differences in Sex Hormone Exposure
    • Authors: van Hemmen JJ; Saris IJ, Cohen-Kettenis PT, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of a 46,XY karyotype, offer the unique opportunity to study isolated effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on human neural sexual differentiation. In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate white matter (WM) microstructure in 46,XY women with CAIS (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 20), 46,XY comparison men (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 30), and 46,XX comparison women (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 30). Widespread sex differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), with higher FA in comparison men than in comparison women, were observed. Women with CAIS showed female-typical FA throughout extended WM regions, predominantly due to female-typical radial diffusivity. These findings indicate a predominant role of sex hormones in the sexual differentiation of WM microstructure, although sex chromosome genes and/or masculinizing androgen effects not mediated by the androgen receptor might also play a role.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-25
  • Connectivity Reveals Sources of Predictive Coding Signals in Early Visual
           Cortex During Processing of Visual Optic Flow
    • Authors: Schindler A; Bartels A.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Superimposed on the visual feed-forward pathway, feedback connections convey higher level information to cortical areas lower in the hierarchy. A prominent framework for these connections is the theory of predictive coding where high-level areas send stimulus interpretations to lower level areas that compare them with sensory input. Along these lines, a growing body of neuroimaging studies shows that predictable stimuli lead to reduced blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses compared with matched nonpredictable counterparts, especially in early visual cortex (EVC) including areas V1–V3. The sources of these modulatory feedback signals are largely unknown. Here, we re-examined the robust finding of relative BOLD suppression in EVC evident during processing of coherent compared with random motion. Using functional connectivity analysis, we show an optic flow-dependent increase of functional connectivity between BOLD suppressed EVC and a network of visual motion areas including MST, V3A, V6, the cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv), and precuneus (Pc). Connectivity decreased between EVC and 2 areas known to encode heading direction: entorhinal cortex (EC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). Our results provide first evidence that BOLD suppression in EVC for predictable stimuli is indeed mediated by specific high-level areas, in accord with the theory of predictive coding.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-24
  • Lateral Thalamic Eminence: A Novel Origin for mGluR1/Lot Cells
    • Authors: Ruiz-Reig N; Andrés B, Huilgol D, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>A unique population of cells, called “lot cells,” circumscribes the path of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) in the rodent brain and acts to restrict its position at the lateral margin of the telencephalon. Lot cells were believed to originate in the dorsal pallium (DP). We show that <span style="font-style:italic;">Lhx2</span> null mice that lack a DP show a significant increase in the number of mGluR1/lot cells in the piriform cortex, indicating a non-DP origin of these cells. Since lot cells present common developmental features with Cajal–Retzius (CR) cells, we analyzed <span style="font-style:italic;">Wnt3a-</span> and <span style="font-style:italic;">Dbx1-</span>reporter mouse lines and found that mGluR1/lot cells are not generated in the cortical hem, ventral pallium, or septum, the best characterized sources of CR cells. Finally, we identified a novel origin for the lot cells by combining in utero electroporation assays and histochemical characterization. We show that mGluR1/lot cells are specifically generated in the lateral thalamic eminence and that they express mitral cell markers, although a minority of them express ΔNp73 instead. We conclude that most mGluR1/lot cells are prospective mitral cells migrating to the accessory olfactory bulb (OB), whereas mGluR1<sup>+</sup>, ΔNp73<sup>+</sup> cells are CR cells that migrate through the LOT to the piriform cortex and the OB.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
  • Reorganization of Functional Networks in Verbal Working Memory Circuitry
           in Early Midlife: The Impact of Sex and Menopausal Status
    • Authors: Jacobs EG; Weiss B, Makris N, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Converging preclinical and human evidence indicates that the decline in ovarian estradiol production during the menopausal transition may play a mechanistic role in the neuronal changes that occur early in the aging process. Here, we present findings from a population-based fMRI study characterizing regional and network-level differences in working memory (WM) circuitry in midlife men and women (<span style="font-style:italic;">N</span> = 142; age range 46–53), as a function of sex and reproductive stage. Reproductive histories and hormonal evaluations were used to determine menopausal status. Participants performed a verbal WM task during fMRI scanning. Results revealed robust differences in task-evoked responses in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus as a function of women's reproductive stage, despite minimal variance in chronological age. Sex differences in regional activity and functional connectivity that were pronounced between men and premenopausal women were diminished for postmenopausal women. Critically, analyzing data without regard to sex or reproductive status obscured group differences in the circuit-level neural strategies associated with successful working memory performance. These findings underscore the importance of reproductive age and hormonal status, over and above chronological age, for understanding sex differences in the aging of memory circuitry. Further, these findings suggest that early changes in working memory circuitry are evident decades before the age range typically targeted in cognitive aging studies.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
  • Neonatal Maternal Separation Impairs Prefrontal Cortical Myelination and
           Cognitive Functions in Rats Through Activation of Wnt Signaling
    • Authors: Yang Y; Cheng Z, Tang H, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Adverse early-life experience such as depriving the relationship between parents and children induces permanent phenotypic changes, and impairs the cognitive functions associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we used rat neonatal maternal separation (NMS) model to illuminate whether and how NMS in early life affects cognitive functions, and what the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism is. We showed that rat pups separated from their dam 3 h daily during the first 3 postnatal weeks alters medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) myelination and impairs mPFC-dependent behaviors. Myelination appears necessary for mPFC-dependent behaviors, as blockade of oligodendrocytes (OLs) differentiation or lysolecithin-induced demyelination, impairs mPFC functions. We further demonstrate that histone deacetylases 1/2 (HDAC1/2) are drastically reduced in NMS rats. Inhibition of HDAC1/2 promotes Wnt activation, which negatively regulates OLs development. Conversely, selective inhibition of Wnt signaling by XAV939 partly rescue myelination arrestment and behavior deficiency caused by NMS. These findings indicate that NMS impairs mPFC cognitive functions, at least in part, through modulation of oligodendrogenesis and myelination. Understanding the mechanism of NMS on mPFC-dependent behaviors is critical for developing pharmacological and psychological interventions for child neglect and abuse.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
  • Learned Value Shapes Responses to Objects in Frontal and Ventral Stream
           Networks in Macaque Monkeys
    • Authors: Kaskan PM; Costa VD, Eaton HP, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>We have an incomplete picture of how the brain links object representations to reward value, and how this information is stored and later retrieved. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), together with the amygdala, are thought to play key roles in these processes. There is an apparent discrepancy, however, regarding frontal areas thought to encode value in macaque monkeys versus humans. To address this issue, we used fMRI in macaque monkeys to localize brain areas encoding recently learned image values. Each week, monkeys learned to associate images of novel objects with a high or low probability of water reward. Areas responding to the value of recently learned reward-predictive images included MFC area 10 m/32, VLPFC area 12, and inferior temporal visual cortex (IT). The amygdala and OFC, each thought to be involved in value encoding, showed little such effect. Instead, these 2 areas primarily responded to visual stimulation and reward receipt, respectively. Strong image value encoding in monkey MFC compared with OFC is surprising, but agrees with results from human imaging studies. Our findings demonstrate the importance of VLPFC, MFC, and IT in representing the values of recently learned visual images.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-10
  • Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation Can Enhance Motor Learning in
    • Authors: Ciechanski P; Kirton A.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>This study aims to determine the effects of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) on motor learning in healthy school-aged children. Safety, tolerability, and translation of effects to untrained tasks were also explored. We recruited 24 right-handed children for a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded trial to receive: right primary motor cortex (M1) 1 mA anodal (1A-tDCS), left M1 1 mA cathodal (1C-tDCS), left M1 2 mA cathodal tDCS (2C-tDCS), or sham tDCS over 3 consecutive days of motor task practice. Participants trained their left hand to perform the Purdue Pegboard Test (PPT) during tDCS application. Right hand and bimanual PPT, the Jebsen–Taylor Test (JTT), and the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) were tested at baseline and post-training. All measures were retested 6 weeks later. Active tDCS montages enhanced motor learning compared with sham (all <span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.002). Effects were sustained at 6 weeks. Effect sizes were large and comparable across montages: contralateral 1A-tDCS (Cohen's <span style="font-style:italic;">d</span> = 2.58) and ipsilateral 1C-tDCS (3.44) and 2C-tDCS (2.76). Performance in the untrained hand PPT, bilateral JTT, and SRTT often improved with tDCS. tDCS was well-tolerated and safe with no adverse events. These first principles will advance the pairing of tDCS with therapy to enhance rehabilitation for disabled children such as those with cerebral palsy.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-10
  • Modulation of Functional Connectivity in Auditory–Motor Networks in
           Musicians Compared with Nonmusicians
    • Authors: Palomar-García M; Zatorre RJ, Ventura-Campos N, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Correlation of spontaneous fluctuations at rest between anatomically distinct brain areas are proposed to reflect the profile of individual a priori cognitive biases, coded as synaptic efficacies in cortical networks. Here, we investigate functional connectivity at rest (rs-FC) in musicians and nonmusicians to test for differences in auditory, motor, and audiomotor connectivity. As expected, musicians had stronger rs-FC between the right auditory cortex (AC) and the right ventral premotor cortex than nonmusicians, and this stronger rs-FC was greater in musicians with more years of practice. We also found reduced rs-FC between the motor areas that control both hands in musicians compared with nonmusicians, which was more evident in the musicians whose instrument required bimanual coordination and as a function of hours of practice. Finally, we replicated previous morphometric data to show an increased volume in the right AC in musicians, which was greater in those with earlier musical training, and that this anatomic feature was in turn related to greater rs-FC between auditory and motor systems. These results show that functional coupling within the motor system and between motor and auditory areas is modulated as a function of musical training, suggesting a link between anatomic and functional brain features.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-10
  • Nogo-66 Restricts Synaptic Strengthening via Lingo1 and the
           ROCK2–Cofilin Pathway to Control Actin Dynamics
    • Authors: Iobbi C; Korte M, Zagrebelsky M.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Nogo-A restricts long-term potentiation (LTP) at the Schaffer collateral–CA1 pathway in the adult hippocampus via 2 extracellular domains: Nogo-A-Δ20 and Nogo-66. Nogo-66 signals via Nogo Receptor 1 (NgR1) to regulate synaptic function. Whether the NgR1 coreceptors Lingo1 and p75<sup>NTR</sup> are involved in the signaling in this context is still not known. Moreover, the intracellular cascade mediating the activity of Nogo-66 in restricting LTP is unexplored. We combine electrophysiology and biochemistry in acute hippocampal slices and demonstrate that a loss of function for Lingo1 results in a significant increase in LTP levels at the Schaffer collateral–CA1 pathway, and that Lingo1 is the NgR1 coreceptor mediating the role of Nogo-66 in restricting LTP. Our data show that p75<sup>NTR</sup> is not involved in mediating the Nogo-66 effect on LTP. Moreover, loss of function for p75<sup>NTR</sup> and NgR1 equally attenuate LTD, suggesting that p75<sup>NTR</sup> might mediate the NgR1-dependent regulation of LTD, independently of Nogo-66. Finally, our results indicate that Nogo-66 signaling limits LTP via the ROCK2–Cofilin pathway to control the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton. The present results elucidate the signaling pathway activated by Nogo-66 to control LTP and contribute to the understanding of how Nogo-A stabilizes the neural circuits to limit activity-dependent plasticity events in the mature hippocampus.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-10
  • Spectral Signatures of Feedforward and Recurrent Circuitry in Monkey Area
    • Authors: Solomon SS; Morley JW, Solomon SG.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Recordings of local field potential (LFP) in the visual cortex can show rhythmic activity at gamma frequencies (30–100 Hz). While the gamma rhythms in the primary visual cortex have been well studied, the structural and functional characteristics of gamma rhythms in extrastriate visual cortex are less clear. Here, we studied the spatial distribution and functional specificity of gamma rhythms in extrastriate middle temporal (MT) area of visual cortex in marmoset monkeys. We found that moving gratings induced narrowband gamma rhythms across cortical layers that were coherent across much of area MT. Moving dot fields instead induced a broadband increase in LFP in middle and upper layers, with weaker narrowband gamma rhythms in deeper layers. The stimulus dependence of LFP response in middle and upper layers of area MT appears to reflect the presence (gratings) or absence (dot fields and other textures) of strongly oriented contours. Our results suggest that gamma rhythms in these layers are propagated from earlier visual cortex, while those in the deeper layers may emerge in area MT.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-10
  • The Addiction-Related Protein ANKK1 is Differentially Expressed During the
           Cell Cycle in Neural Precursors
    • Authors: España-Serrano L; Guerra Martín-Palanco N, Montero-Pedrazuela A, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div><span style="font-style:italic;">Taq</span>IA is a polymorphism associated with addictions and dopamine-related traits. It is located in the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 gene (<span style="font-style:italic;">ANKK1</span>) nearby the gene for the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). Since ANKK1 function is unknown, <span style="font-style:italic;">Taq</span>IA-associated traits have been explained only by differences in D2R. Here we report <span style="font-style:italic;">ANKK1</span> studies in mouse and human brain using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. <span style="font-style:italic;">ANKK1</span> mRNA and protein isoforms vary along neurodevelopment in the human and mouse brain. In mouse adult brain ANKK1 is located in astrocytes, nuclei of postmitotic neurons and neural precursors from neurogenic niches. In both embryos and adults, nuclei of neural precursors show significant variation of ANKK1 intensity. We demonstrate a correlation between ANKK1 and the cell cycle. Cell synchronization experiments showed a significant increment of ANKK1-kinase in mitotic cells while ANKK1-kinase overexpression affects G1 and M phase that were found to be modulated by <span style="font-style:italic;">ANKK1</span> alleles and apomorphine treatment. Furthermore, during embryonic neurogenesis ANKK1 was expressed in slow-dividing neuroblasts and rapidly dividing precursors which are mitotic cells. These results suggest a role of ANKK1 during the cell cycle in neural precursors thus providing biological support to brain structure involvement in the <span style="font-style:italic;">Taq</span>IA-associated phenotypes.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-10
  • Remodeling of Dendritic Spines in the Avian Vocal Motor Cortex Following
           Deafening Depends on the Basal Ganglia Circuit
    • Authors: Zhou X; Fu X, Lin C, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Deafening elicits a deterioration of learned vocalization, in both humans and songbirds. In songbirds, learned vocal plasticity has been shown to depend on the basal ganglia-cortical circuit, but the underlying cellular basis remains to be clarified. Using confocal imaging and electron microscopy, we examined the effect of deafening on dendritic spines in avian vocal motor cortex, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), and investigated the role of the basal ganglia circuit in motor cortex plasticity. We found rapid structural changes to RA dendritic spines in response to hearing loss, accompanied by learned song degradation. In particular, the morphological characters of RA spine synaptic contacts between 2 major pathways were altered differently. However, experimental disruption of the basal ganglia circuit, through lesions in song-specialized basal ganglia nucleus Area X, largely prevented both the observed changes to RA dendritic spines and the song deterioration after hearing loss. Our results provide cellular evidence to highlight a key role of the basal ganglia circuit in the motor cortical plasticity that underlies learned vocal plasticity.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-10
  • Look Hear! The Prefrontal Cortex is Stratified by Modality of Sensory
           Input During Multisensory Cognitive Control
    • Authors: Mayer AR; Ryman SG, Hanlon FM, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle"> </div>Parsing multisensory information from a complex external environment is a fundamental skill for all organisms. However, different organizational schemes currently exist for how multisensory information is processed in human (supramodal; organized by cognitive demands) versus primate (organized by modality/cognitive demands) lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). Functional magnetic resonance imaging results from a large cohort of healthy controls (<span style="font-style:italic;">N</span> = 64; Experiment 1) revealed a rostral-caudal stratification of LPFC for auditory versus visual attention during an audio-visual Stroop task. The stratification existed in spite of behavioral and functional evidence of increased interference from visual distractors. Increased functional connectivity was also observed between rostral LPFC and auditory cortex across independent samples (Experiments 2 and 3) and multiple methodologies. In contrast, the caudal LPFC was preferentially activated during visual attention but functioned in a supramodal capacity for resolving multisensory conflict. The caudal LPFC also did not exhibit increased connectivity with visual cortices. Collectively, these findings closely mirror previous nonhuman primate studies suggesting that visual attention relies on flexible use of a supramodal cognitive control network in caudal LPFC whereas rostral LPFC is specialized for directing attention to auditory inputs (i.e., human auditory fields).</span>
      PubDate: 2016-05-10
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