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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 286, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 577, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Cerebral Cortex
  [SJR: 4.827]   [H-I: 192]   [45 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1047-3211 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2199
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Distal Functional Connectivity of Known and Emerging Cortical Targets for
           Therapeutic Noninvasive Stimulation
    • Authors: Doñamayor N; Baek K, Voon V.
      Abstract: Noninvasive stimulation is an emerging modality for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, including addiction. A crucial element in effective cortical target selection is its distal influence. We approached this question by examining resting-state functional connectivity patterns in known and potential stimulation targets in 145 healthy adults. We compared connectivity patterns with distant regions of particular relevance in the development and maintenance of addiction. We used stringent Bonferroni-correction for multiple comparisons. We show how the anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex had opposing functional connectivity with striatum compared to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. However, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the currently preferred target, and the presupplementary motor area had strongest negative connections to amygdala and hippocampus. Our findings highlight differential and opposing influences as a function of cortical site, underscoring the relevance of careful cortical target selection dependent on the desired effect on subcortical structures. We show the relevance of dorsal anterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortex as emerging cortical targets, and further emphasize the anterior insula as a potential promising target in addiction treatment, given its strong connections to ventral striatum, putamen, and substantia nigra.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Joint Analysis of Cortical Area and Thickness as a Replacement for the
           Analysis of the Volume of the Cerebral Cortex
    • Authors: Winkler A; Greve D, Bjuland K, et al.
      Abstract: Cortical surface area is an increasingly used brain morphology metric that is ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct from cortical thickness and offers a separate index of neurodevelopment and disease. However, the various existing methods for assessment of cortical surface area from magnetic resonance images have never been systematically compared. We show that the surface area method implemented in FreeSurfer corresponds closely to the exact, but computationally more demanding, mass-conservative (pycnophylactic) method, provided that images are smoothed. Thus, the data produced by this method can be interpreted as estimates of cortical surface area, as opposed to areal expansion. In addition, focusing on the joint analysis of thickness and area, we compare an improved, analytic method for measuring cortical volume to a permutation-based nonparametric combination (NPC) method. We use the methods to analyze area, thickness and volume in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight, and show that NPC analysis is a more sensitive option for studying joint effects on area and thickness, giving equal weight to variation in both of these 2 morphological features.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Computational Anatomy of Visual Neglect
    • Authors: Parr T; Friston K.
      Abstract: Visual neglect is a debilitating neuropsychological phenomenon that has many clinical implications and—in cognitive neuroscience—offers an important lesion deficit model. In this article, we describe a computational model of visual neglect based upon active inference. Our objective is to establish a computational and neurophysiological process theory that can be used to disambiguate among the various causes of this important syndrome; namely, a computational neuropsychology of visual neglect. We introduce a Bayes optimal model based upon Markov decision processes that reproduces the visual searches induced by the line cancellation task (used to characterize visual neglect at the bedside). We then consider 3 distinct ways in which the model could be lesioned to reproduce neuropsychological (visual search) deficits. Crucially, these 3 levels of pathology map nicely onto the neuroanatomy of saccadic eye movements and the systems implicated in visual neglect.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • In the Piriform Cortex, the Primary Impetus for Information Encoding
           through Synaptic Plasticity Is Provided by Descending Rather than
           Ascending Olfactory Inputs
    • Authors: Strauch C; Manahan-Vaughan D.
      Abstract: Information encoding by means of persistent changes in synaptic strength supports long-term information storage and memory in structures such as the hippocampus. In the piriform cortex (PC), that engages in the processing of associative memory, only short-term synaptic plasticity has been described to date, both in vitro and in anesthetized rodents in vivo. Whether the PC maintains changes in synaptic strength for longer periods of time is unknown: Such a property would indicate that it can serve as a repository for long-term memories. Here, we report that in freely behaving animals, frequency-dependent synaptic plasticity does not occur in the anterior PC (aPC) following patterned stimulation of the olfactory bulb (OB). Naris closure changed action potential properties of aPC neurons and enabled expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) by OB stimulation, indicating that an intrinsic ability to express synaptic plasticity is present. Odor discrimination and categorization in the aPC is supported by descending inputs from the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Here, OFC stimulation resulted in LTP (>4 h), suggesting that this structure plays an important role in promoting information encoding through synaptic plasticity in the aPC. These persistent changes in synaptic strength are likely to comprise a means through which long-term memories are encoded and/or retained in the PC.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Frequency of Maternal Touch Predicts Resting Activity and Connectivity of
           the Developing Social Brain
    • Authors: Brauer J; Xiao Y, Poulain T, et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Walking, Gross Motor Development, and Brain Functional Connectivity in
           Infants and Toddlers
    • Authors: Marrus N; Eggebrecht A, Todorov A, et al.
      Abstract: Infant gross motor development is vital to adaptive function and predictive of both cognitive outcomes and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about neural systems underlying the emergence of walking and general gross motor abilities. Using resting state fcMRI, we identified functional brain networks associated with walking and gross motor scores in a mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort of infants at high and low risk for autism spectrum disorder, who represent a dimensionally distributed range of motor function. At age 12 months, functional connectivity of motor and default mode networks was correlated with walking, whereas dorsal attention and posterior cingulo-opercular networks were implicated at age 24 months. Analyses of general gross motor function also revealed involvement of motor and default mode networks at 12 and 24 months, with dorsal attention, cingulo-opercular, frontoparietal, and subcortical networks additionally implicated at 24 months. These findings suggest that changes in network-level brain–behavior relationships underlie the emergence and consolidation of walking and gross motor abilities in the toddler period. This initial description of network substrates of early gross motor development may inform hypotheses regarding neural systems contributing to typical and atypical motor outcomes, as well as neurodevelopmental disorders associated with motor dysfunction.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Hierarchical Organization of the Default, Dorsal Attention and
           Salience Networks in Adolescents and Young Adults
    • Authors: Zhou Y; Friston K, Zeidman P, et al.
      Abstract: An important characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is the anticorrelation between the core default network (cDN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the salience network (SN). This anticorrelation may constitute a key aspect of functional anatomy and is implicated in several brain disorders. We used dynamic causal modeling to assess the hypothesis that a causal hierarchy underlies this anticorrelation structure, using resting-state fMRI of healthy adolescent and young adults (N = 404). Our analysis revealed an asymmetric effective connectivity, such that the regions in the SN and DAN exerted an inhibitory influence on the cDN regions; whereas the cDN exerted an excitatory influence on the SN and DAN regions. The relative strength of efferent versus afferent connections places the SN at the apex of the hierarchy, suggesting that the SN modulates anticorrelated networks with descending hierarchical connections. In short, this study of directed neuronal coupling reveals a causal hierarchical architecture that generates or orchestrates anticorrelation of brain activity. These new findings shed light on functional integration of intrinsic brain networks at rest and speak to future dynamic causal modeling studies of large-scale networks.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Erratum to “Experience-Dependent Regulation of Cajal–Retzius Cell
           Networks in the Developing and Adult Mouse Hippocampus”
    • Authors: Anstötz M; Lee S, Neblett T, et al.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Stimulus-Tuned Structure of Correlated fMRI Activity in Human Visual
    • Authors: Ryu J; Lee S.
      Abstract: Processing units are interconnected in the visual system, where a sensory organ and downstream cortical regions communicate through hierarchical connections, and local sites within the regions communicate through horizontal connections. In such networks, neural activities at local sites are likely to influence one another in complex ways and thus are intricately correlated. Recognizing the functional importance of correlated activity in sensory representation, spontaneous activities have been studied via diverse local or global measures in various time scales. Here, measuring functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals in human early visual cortex, we explored systematic patterns that govern the correlated activities arising spontaneously. Specifically, guided by previously identified biases in anatomical connection patterns, we characterized all possible pairs of gray matter sites in 3 relational factors: “retinotopic distance,” “cortical distance,” and “stimulus tuning similarity.” By evaluating and comparing the unique contributions of these factors to the correlated activity, we found that tuning similarity factors overrode distance factors in accounting for the structure of correlated fMRI activity both within and between V1, V2, and V3, irrespective of the presence or degree of visual stimulation. Our findings indicate that the early human visual cortex is intrinsically organized as a network tuned to the stimulus features.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Connectivity of the Cingulate Sulcus Visual Area (CSv) in the Human
           Cerebral Cortex
    • Authors: Smith A; Beer A, Furlan M, et al.
      Abstract: The human cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv) responds selectively to visual and vestibular cues to self-motion. Although it is more selective for visual self-motion cues than any other brain region studied, it is not known whether CSv mediates perception of self-motion. An alternative hypothesis, based on its location, is that it provides sensory information to the motor system for use in guiding locomotion. To evaluate this hypothesis we studied the connectivity pattern of CSv, which is completely unknown, with a combination of diffusion MRI and resting-state functional MRI. Converging results from the 2 approaches suggest that visual drive is provided primarily by areas hV6, pVIP (putative intraparietal cortex) and PIC (posterior insular cortex). A strong connection with the medial portion of the somatosensory cortex, which represents the legs and feet, suggests that CSv may receive locomotion-relevant proprioceptive information as well as visual and vestibular signals. However, the dominant connections of CSv are with specific components of the motor system, in particular the cingulate motor areas and the supplementary motor area. We propose that CSv may provide a previously unknown link between perception and action that serves the online control of locomotion.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Experience-Dependent Regulation of Cajal–Retzius Cell Networks in the
           Developing and Adult Mouse Hippocampus
    • Authors: Anstötz M; Lee S, Neblett T, et al.
      Abstract: In contrast to their near-disappearance in the adult neocortex, Cajal–Retzius cells have been suggested to persist longer in the hippocampus. A distinctive feature of the mature hippocampus, not maintained by other cortical areas, is its ability to sustain adult neurogenesis. Here, we have investigated whether environmental manipulations affecting hippocampal postnatal neurogenesis have a parallel impact on Cajal–Retzius cells. We used multiple mouse reporter lines to unequivocally identify Cajal–Retzius cells and quantify their densities during postnatal development. We found that exposure to an enriched environment increased the persistence of Cajal–Retzius cells in the hippocampus, but not in adjacent cortical regions. We did not observe a similar effect for parvalbumin-expressing interneurons, which suggested the occurrence of a cell type-specific process. In addition, we did not detect obvious changes either in Cajal–Retzius cell electrophysiological or morphological features, when compared with what previously reported in animals not exposed to enriched conditions. However, optogenetically triggered synaptic output of Cajal–Retzius cells onto local interneurons was enhanced, consistent with our observation of higher Cajal–Retzius cell densities. In conclusion, our data reveal a novel form of hippocampal, cell type-specific, experience-dependent network plasticity. We propose that this phenomenon may be involved in the regulation of enrichment-dependent enhanced hippocampal postnatal neurogenesis.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Abnormal Gray Matter Shape, Thickness, and Volume in the Motor
           Cortico-Subcortical Loop in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior
           Disorder: Association with Clinical and Motor Features
    • Authors: Rahayel S; Postuma R, Montplaisir J, et al.
      Abstract: Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a major risk factor for Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Anatomical gray matter abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop areas remain under studied in iRBD patients. We acquired T1-weighted images and administrated quantitative motor tasks in 41 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 41 healthy subjects. Cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses were performed to investigate local cortical thickness and gray matter volume changes, vertex-based shape analysis to investigate shape of subcortical structures, and structure-based volumetric analyses to investigate volumes of subcortical and brainstem structures. Cortical thickness analysis revealed thinning in iRBD patients in bilateral medial superior frontal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate cortices, and the right dorsolateral primary motor cortex. VBM results showed lower gray matter volume in iRBD patients in the frontal lobes, anterior cingulate gyri, and caudate nucleus. Shape analysis revealed extensive surface contraction in the external and internal segments of the left pallidum. Clinical and motor impaired features in iRBD were associated with anomalies of the motor cortico-subcortical loop. In summary, iRBD patients showed numerous gray matter structural abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop, which are associated with lower motor performance and clinical manifestations of iRBD.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Correction to “Distinct Corticocortical Contributions to Human
           Precision and Power Grip”
    • Authors: Federico P; Perez M.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Number of Parvalbumin-Expressing Interneurons Is Decreased in the
           Prefrontal Cortex in Autism
    • Authors: Hashemi E; Ariza J, Rogers H, et al.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • GRK5 Regulates Social Behavior Via Suppression of mTORC1 Signaling in
           Medial Prefrontal Cortex
    • Authors: Niu B; Liu P, Shen M, et al.
      Abstract: Impairments in social behaviors are features of a number of psychiatric diseases associated with subtle alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 5 is widely expressing in the cortex, however, its role in regulation of the mPFC activity and the development of social behaviors and psychiatric disorders is unclear. Here, we found that GRK5 dificiency in mice caused social behavior impairments. Further morphological, electrophysiological, and biochemical analyses showed abnormal postsynaptic ultrastructure, impaired excitatory synaptic transmission, the increased association of raptor with mTOR, and overactivated mTORC1-S6K signaling in the mPFC of Grk5−/− mice. Conditional knockdown of GRK5 in the mPFC caused impairments in social interaction and social novelty recognition behaviors; whereas selectively overexpressing GRK5 in the mPFC of Grk5−/− mice rescued the social novelty recognition phenotype. Inhibition of the overactivated mTORC1-S6K signaling pathway by rapamycin or mGluR5 antagonist ameliorated the deficiency of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the mPFC and the social recognition of Grk5−/− mice. These results indicate that GRK5 is critical for maintaining normal mTORC1 signaling and connectivity in mPFC, and normal social behavior.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Erratum to: “Functional MRI of Human Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in
           Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders”
    • Authors: Cheng D; Meintjes E, Stanton M, et al.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Axotomized Corticospinal Neurons Increase Supra-Lesional Innervation and
           Remain Crucial for Skilled Reaching after Bilateral Pyramidotomy
    • Authors: Mosberger A; Miehlbradt J, Bjelopoljak N, et al.
      Abstract: Skilled upper limb function heavily depends on the corticospinal tract. After bilateral lesions to this tract, motor control is disrupted but can be partially substituted by other motor systems to allow functional recovery. However, the remaining roles of motor cortex and especially of axotomized corticospinal neurons (CSNs) are not well understood. Using the single pellet retrieval task in adult rats, we induced significant recovery of skilled reaching after bilateral pyramidotomy by rehabilitative reaching training, and show that reach-related motor cortex activity, recorded in layer V, topographically reappeared shortly after axotomy. Using a chemogenetic neuronal silencing technique, we found that axotomized CSNs retained a crucial role for the recovered pellet retrieval success. The axotomized CSNs sprouted extensively in the red nucleus supplying new innervation to its magnocellular and parvocellular parts. Specific silencing of the rubrospinal tract (RST) also strongly abolished the recovered pellet retrieval success, suggesting a role of this cervically projecting nucleus in relaying cortical motor control. In summary, our results show that after bilateral corticospinal axotomy, motor cortex still actively engages in forelimb motor control and axotomized CSNs are crucially involved in the recovered reaching movement, potentially by relaying motor control via the RST.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Neuro-Computational Architecture of Value-Based Selection in the Human
    • Authors: Domenech P; Redouté J, Koechlin E, et al.
      Abstract: Current neural models of value-based decision-making consider choices as a 2-stage process, proceeding from the “valuation” of each option under consideration to the “selection” of the best option on the basis of their subjective values. However, little is known about the computational mechanisms at play at the selection stage and its implementation in the human brain. Here, we used drift-diffusion models combined with model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging, effective connectivity, and multivariate pattern analysis to characterize the neuro-computational architecture of value-based decisions. We found that 2 key drift-diffusion computations at the selection stage, namely integration and choice readout, engage distinct brain regions, with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex integrating a decision value signal computed in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex reading out choice outcomes. Our findings suggest that this prefronto-parietal network acts as a hub implementing behavioral selection through a distributed drift-diffusion process.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • How the Brain Converts Negative Evaluation into Performance Facilitation
    • Authors: Prévost C; Lau H, Mobbs D.
      Abstract: Surpassing negative evaluation is a recurrent theme of success stories. Yet, there is little evidence supporting the counterintuitive idea that negative evaluation might not only motivate people, but also enhance performance. To address this question, we designed a task that required participants to decide whether taking up a risky challenge after receiving positive or negative evaluations from independent judges. Participants believed that these evaluations were based on their prior performance on a related task. Results showed that negative evaluation caused a facilitation in performance. Concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the motivating effect of negative evaluation was represented in the insula and striatum, while the performance boost was associated with functional positive connectivity between the insula and a set of brain regions involved in goal-directed behavior and the orienting of attention. These findings provide new insight into the neural representation of negative evaluation-induced facilitation.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Causal Evidence of Motion Signals in Macaque Middle Temporal Area
           Weighted-Pooled for Global Heading Perception
    • Authors: Yu X; Hou H, Spillmann L, et al.
      Abstract: Accurate heading perception relies on visual information integrated across a wide field, that is, optic flow. Numerous computational studies have speculated how local visual information might be pooled by the brain to compute heading, but these hypotheses lack direct neurophysiological support. In the current study, we instructed human and monkey subjects to judge heading directions based on global optic flow. We showed that a local perturbation cue applied within only a small part of the visual field could bias the subjects’ heading judgments, and shift the neuronal tuning in the macaque middle temporal (MT) area at the same time. Electrical microstimulation in MT significantly biased the animals’ heading judgments predictable from the tuning of the stimulated neurons. Masking the visual stimuli within these neurons’ receptive fields could not remove the stimulation effect, indicating a sufficient role of the MT signals pooled by downstream neurons for global heading estimation. Interestingly, this pooling is not homogeneous because stimulating neurons with excitatory surrounds produced relatively larger effects than stimulating neurons with inhibitory surrounds. Thus our data not only provide direct causal evidence, but also new insights into the neural mechanisms of pooling local motion information for global heading estimation.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Circadian Oscillator of the Cerebral Cortex: Molecular, Biochemical
           and Behavioral Effects of Deleting the Arntl Clock Gene in Cortical
    • Authors: Bering T; Carstensen M, Wörtwein G, et al.
      Abstract: A molecular circadian oscillator resides in neurons of the cerebral cortex, but its role is unknown. Using the Cre-LoxP method, we have here abolished the core clock gene Arntl in those neurons. This mouse represents the first model carrying a deletion of a circadian clock component specifically in an extrahypothalamic cell type of the brain. Molecular analyses of clock gene expression in the cerebral cortex of the Arntl conditional knockout mouse revealed disrupted circadian expression profiles, whereas clock gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus was still rhythmic, thus showing that Arntl is required for normal function of the cortical circadian oscillator. Daily rhythms in running activity and temperature were not influenced, whereas the resynchronization response to experimental jet-lag exhibited minor though significant differences between genotypes. The tail-suspension test revealed significantly prolonged immobility periods in the knockout mouse indicative of a depressive-like behavioral state. This phenotype was accompanied by reduced norepinephrine levels in the cerebral cortex. Our data show that Arntl is required for normal cortical clock function and further give reason to suspect that the circadian oscillator of the cerebral cortex is involved in regulating both circadian biology and mood-related behavior and biochemistry.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • DMRT5 Together with DMRT3 Directly Controls Hippocampus Development and
           Neocortical Area Map Formation
    • Authors: De Clercq S; Keruzore M, Desmaris E, et al.
      Abstract: Mice that are constitutively null for the zinc finger doublesex and mab-3 related (Dmrt) gene, Dmrt5/Dmrta2, show a variety of patterning abnormalities in the cerebral cortex, including the loss of the cortical hem, a powerful cortical signaling center. In conditional Dmrt5 gain of function and loss of function mouse models, we generated bidirectional changes in the neocortical area map without affecting the hem. Analysis indicated that DMRT5, independent of the hem, directs the rostral-to-caudal pattern of the neocortical area map. Thus, DMRT5 joins a small number of transcription factors shown to control directly area size and position in the neocortex. Dmrt5 deletion after hem formation also reduced hippocampal size and shifted the position of the neocortical/paleocortical boundary. Dmrt3, like Dmrt5, is expressed in a gradient across the cortical primordium. Mice lacking Dmrt3 show cortical patterning defects akin to but milder than those in Dmrt5 mutants, perhaps in part because Dmrt5 expression increases in the absence of Dmrt3. DMRT5 upregulates Dmrt3 expression and negatively regulates its own expression, which may stabilize the level of DMRT5. Together, our findings indicate that finely tuned levels of DMRT5, together with DMRT3, regulate patterning of the cerebral cortex.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Dec 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Memory-Guided Stumbling Correction in the Hindlimb of Quadrupeds Relies on
           Parietal Area 5
    • Authors: Wong C; Wong G, Pearson K, et al.
      Abstract: In complex environments, tripping over an unexpected obstacle evokes the stumbling corrective reaction, eliciting rapid limb hyperflexion to lift the leg over the obstruction. While stumbling correction has been characterized within a single limb in the cat, this response must extend to both forelegs and hindlegs for successful avoidance in naturalistic settings. Furthermore, the ability to remember an obstacle over which the forelegs have tripped is necessary for hindleg clearance if locomotion is delayed. Therefore, memory-guided stumbling correction was studied in walking cats after the forelegs tripped over an unexpected obstacle. Tactile input to only one foreleg was often sufficient in modulating stepping of all four legs when locomotion was continuous, or when hindleg clearance was delayed. When obstacle height was varied, animals appropriately scaled step height to obstacle height. As tactile input without foreleg clearance was insufficient in reliably modulating stepping, efference, or proprioceptive information about modulated foreleg stepping may be important for producing a robust, long-lasting memory. Finally, cooling-induced deactivation of parietal area 5 altered hindleg stepping in a manner indicating that animals no longer recalled the obstacle over which they had tripped. Altogether, these results demonstrate the integral role area 5 plays in memory-guided stumbling correction.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Dec 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Early Alterations of Hippocampal Neuronal Firing Induced by Abeta42
    • Authors: Gavello D; Calorio C, Franchino C, et al.
      Abstract: We studied the effect of Amyloid β 1-42 oligomers (Abeta42) on Ca2+ dependent excitability profile of hippocampal neurons. Abeta42 is one of the Amyloid beta peptides produced by the proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein and participates in the initiating event triggering the progressive dismantling of synapses and neuronal circuits. Our experiments on cultured hippocampal network reveal that Abeta42 increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration by 46% and inhibits firing discharge by 19%. More precisely, Abeta42 differently regulates ryanodine (RyRs), NMDA receptors (NMDARs), and voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) by increasing Ca2+ release through RyRs and inhibiting Ca2+ influx through NMDARs and VGCCs. The overall increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration causes stimulation of K+ current carried by big conductance Ca2+ activated potassium (BK) channels and hippocampal network firing inhibition. We conclude that Abeta42 alters neuronal function by means of at least 4 main targets: RyRs, NMDARs, VGCCs, and BK channels. The development of selective modulators of these channels may in turn be useful for developing effective therapies that could enhance the quality of life of AD patients during the early onset of the pathology.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Dec 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Activity-Independent Effects of CREB on Neuronal Survival and
           Differentiation during Mouse Cerebral Cortex Development
    • Authors: Landeira B; Santana T, Araújo J, et al.
      Abstract: Neuronal survival and morphological maturation depends on the action of the transcription factor calcium responsive element binding protein (CREB), which regulates expression of several target genes in an activity-dependent manner. However, it remains largely unknown whether CREB-mediated transcription could play a role at early stages of neuronal differentiation, prior to the establishment of functional synaptic contacts. Here, we show that CREB is phosphorylated at very early stages of neuronal differentiation in vivo and in vitro, even in the absence of depolarizing agents. Using genetic tools, we also show that inhibition of CREB-signaling affects neuronal growth and survival in vitro without affecting cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Expression of A-CREB or M-CREB, 2 dominant-negative inhibitors of CREB, decreases cell survival and the complexity of neuronal arborization. Similar changes are observed in neurons treated with protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors, which also show decreased levels of pCREBSer133. Notably, expression of CREB-FY, a Tyr134Phe CREB mutant with a lower Km for phosphorylation, partly rescues the effects of PKA and CaMKII inhibition. Our data indicate that CREB-mediated signaling play important roles at early stages of cortical neuron differentiation, prior to the establishment of fully functional synaptic contacts.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Dec 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Attention Networks Revealed by Representational
           Similarity Analysis of EEG and fMRI
    • Authors: Salmela V; Salo E, Salmi J, et al.
      Abstract: The fronto-parietal attention networks have been extensively studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but spatiotemporal dynamics of these networks are not well understood. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) with electroencephalography (EEG) and collected fMRI data from identical experiments where participants performed visual and auditory discrimination tasks separately or simultaneously and with or without distractors. To overcome the low temporal resolution of fMRI, we used a novel ERP-based application of multivariate representational similarity analysis (RSA) to parse time-averaged fMRI pattern activity into distinct spatial maps that each corresponded, in representational structure, to a short temporal ERP segment. Discriminant analysis of ERP-fMRI correlations revealed 8 cortical networks—2 sensory, 3 attention, and 3 other—segregated by 4 orthogonal, temporally multifaceted and spatially distributed functions. We interpret these functions as 4 spatiotemporal components of attention: modality-dependent and stimulus-driven orienting, top-down control, mode transition, and response preparation, selection and execution.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Dec 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Delta-Band Oscillations in Motor Regions Predict Hand Selection for
    • Authors: Hamel-Thibault A; Thénault F, Whittingstall K, et al.
      Abstract: Current models hold that action selection is achieved by competitive interactions between co-existing motor representations associated with each potential action. Critically, selection via competition requires biasing signals to enable one of these alternatives to be selected. This study tested the hypothesis that selection is related to the prestimulus excitability of neuronal ensembles in which movements are encoded, as assessed through the phase of delta-band oscillations (2–4 Hz). Electroencephalography was recorded while participants performed speeded reaches toward appearing visual targets using the hand of their choice. The target locations were controlled such that only targets for which the left and right hands were selected equally often were used for analysis. Results revealed that hand selection as well as reach reaction times strongly depended upon the instantaneous phase of delta at the moment of target onset. This effect was maximal over contralateral motor regions, and occurred in the absence of prestimulus alpha- (8–12 Hz) and beta-band (15–30 Hz) amplitude modulations. These findings demonstrate that the excitability of motor regions acts as a modulatory factor for hand choice during reaching. They extend current models by showing that action selection is related to the underlying brain state independently of previously known decision variables.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Dec 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Adaptation to Leftward Shifting Prisms Alters Motor Interhemispheric
    • Authors: Martín-Arévalo E; Schintu S, Farnè A, et al.
      Abstract: Adaptation to rightward shifting prisms (rightward prism adaptation, RPA) ameliorates neglect symptoms in patients while adaptation to leftward shifting prisms (leftward prism adaptation, LPA) induces neglect-like behaviors in healthy subjects. It has been hypothesized that prism adaptation (PA) modulates interhemispheric balance between the parietal cortices by inhibiting the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) contralateral to the prismatic deviation, but PA's effects on interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) have not been directly investigated. Since there are hyper-excitable connections between the PPC and primary motor cortex (M1) in the left hemisphere of neglect patients, we reasoned that LPA might mimic right hemisphere lesions by reducing parietal IHI, hyper-exciting the left PPC and PPC-M1 connections, and in turn altering IHI at the motor level. Namely, we hypothesized that LPA would increase IHI from the left to the right M1. We examined changes in left-to-right and right-to-left IHI between the 2 M1s using the ipsilateral silent period (iSP) (Meyer et al. 1995) before and after either LPA or RPA. The iSP was significantly longer after LPA but only from left-to-right and it did not change at all after RPA. This is the first physiological demonstration that LPA alters IHI in the healthy brain.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Dec 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions to Episodic Future Thinking: Scene
           Construction or Future Projection'
    • Authors: Palombo D; Hayes S, Peterson K, et al.
      Abstract: Previous research has shown that the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are more strongly engaged when individuals think about the future than about the present, leading to the suggestion that future projection drives MTL engagement. However, future thinking tasks often involve scene processing, leaving open the alternative possibility that scene-construction demands, rather than future projection, are responsible for the MTL differences observed in prior work. This study explores this alternative account. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we directly contrasted MTL activity in 1) high scene-construction and low scene-construction imagination conditions matched in future thinking demands and 2) future-oriented and present-oriented imagination conditions matched in scene-construction demands. Consistent with the alternative account, the MTL was more active for the high versus low scene-construction condition. By contrast, MTL differences were not observed when comparing the future versus present conditions. Moreover, the magnitude of MTL activation was associated with the extent to which participants imagined a scene but was not associated with the extent to which participants thought about the future. These findings help disambiguate which component processes of imagination specifically involve the MTL.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Pro-Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (proBDNF)-Mediated p75NTR Activation
           Promotes Depolarizing Actions of GABA and Increases Susceptibility to
           Epileptic Seizures
    • Authors: Riffault B; Kourdougli N, Dumon C, et al.
      Abstract: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is synthesized as a precursor, namely proBDNF, which can be processed into mature BDNF (mBDNF). Evidences suggest that proBDNF signaling through p75NTR may account for the emergence of neurological disorders. These findings support the view that the relative availability of mBDNF and proBDNF forms is an important mechanism underlying brain circuit formation and cognitive functions. Here we describe novel insights into the proBDNF/p75NTR mechanisms and function in vivo in modulating neuronal circuit and synaptic plasticity during the first postnatal weeks in rats. Our results showed that increased proBDNF/p75NTR signaling during development maintains a depolarizing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) response in a KCC2-dependent manner in mature neuronal cells. This resulted in altered excitation/inhibition balance and enhanced neuronal network activity. The enhanced proBDNF/p75NTR signaling ultimately led to increased seizure susceptibility that was abolished by in vivo injection of function blocking p75NTR antibody. Altogether, our study shed new light on how proBDNF/p75NTR signaling can orchestrate the GABA excitatory/inhibitory developmental sequence leading to depolarizing and excitatory actions of GABA in adulthood and subsequent epileptic disorders.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Dec 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Anatomy of Subcortical Structures Predicts Age-Related Differences in
           Skill Acquisition
    • Authors: Chalavi S; Adab H, Pauwels L, et al.
      Abstract: Skill acquisition capabilities vary substantially from one individual to another. Volumetric brain studies have demonstrated that global volume of several subcortical structures predicts variations in learning outcome in young adults (YA) and older adults (OA). In this study, for the first time, we utilized shape analysis, which offers a more sensitive detection of subregional brain anatomical deformations, to investigate whether subregional anatomy of subcortical structures is associated with training-induced performance improvement on a bimanual task in YA and OA, and whether this association is age-dependent. Compared with YA, OA showed poorer performance, greater performance improvement, and smaller global volume and compressed subregional shape in subcortical structures. In OA, global volume of the right nucleus accumbens and subregional shape of the right thalamus, caudate, putamen and nucleus accumbens were positively correlated with acquisition of difficult (non-preferred) but not easy (preferred) task conditions. In YA, global volume and subregional shape of the right hippocampus were negatively correlated with performance improvement in both the easy and difficult conditions. We argue that pre-existing neuroanatomical measures of subcortical structures involved in motor learning differentially predict skill acquisition potential in YA and OA.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • Distinct Contributions of Dorsal and Ventral Streams to Imitation of
           Tool-Use and Communicative Gestures
    • Authors: Dressing A; Nitschke K, Kümmerer D, et al.
      Abstract: Imitation of tool-use gestures (transitive; e.g., hammering) and communicative emblems (intransitive; e.g., waving goodbye) is frequently impaired after left-hemispheric lesions. We aimed 1) to identify lesions related to deficient transitive or intransitive gestures, 2) to delineate regions associated with distinct error types (e.g., hand configuration, kinematics), and 3) to compare imitation to previous data on pantomimed and actual tool use. Of note, 156 patients (64.3 ± 14.6 years; 56 female) with first-ever left-hemispheric ischemic stroke were prospectively examined 4.8 ± 2.0 days after symptom onset. Lesions were delineated on magnetic resonance imaging scans for voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. First, while inferior-parietal lesions affected both gesture types, specific associations emerged between intransitive gesture deficits and anterior temporal damage and between transitive gesture deficits and premotor and occipito-parietal lesions. Second, impaired hand configurations were related to anterior intraparietal damage, hand/wrist-orientation errors to premotor lesions, and kinematic errors to inferior-parietal/occipito-temporal lesions. Third, premotor lesions impacted more on transitive imitation compared with actual tool use, pantomimed and actual tool use were more susceptible to lesioned insular cortex and subjacent white matter. In summary, transitive and intransitive gestures differentially rely on ventro-dorsal and ventral streams due to higher demands on temporo-spatial processing (transitive) or stronger reliance on semantic information (intransitive), respectively.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Number of Chandelier and Basket Cells Are Differentially Decreased in
           Prefrontal Cortex in Autism
    • Authors: Ariza J; Rogers H, Hashemi E, et al.
      Abstract: An interneuron alteration has been proposed as a source for the modified balance of excitation / inhibition in the cerebral cortex in autism. We previously demonstrated a decreased number of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons in prefrontal cortex in autism. PV-expressing interneurons include chandelier (Ch) and basket (Bsk) cells. We asked whether the decreased PV+ interneurons affected both Ch cells and Bsk cells in autism. The lack of single markers to specifically label Ch cells or Bsk cells presented an obstacle for addressing this question. We devised a method to discern between PV-Ch and PV-Bsk cells based on the differential expression of Vicia villosa lectin (VVA). VVA binds to N-acetylgalactosamine, that is present in the perineuronal net surrounding some cell types where it plays a role in intercellular communication. N-acetylgalactosamine is present in the perineuronal net surrounding Bsk but not Ch cells. We found that the number of Ch cells is consistently decreased in the prefrontal cortex of autistic (n = 10) when compared with control (n = 10) cases, while the number of Bsk cells is not as severely affected. This finding expand our understanding of GABAergic system functioning in the human cerebral cortex in autism, which will impact translational research directed towards providing better treatment paradigms for individuals with autism.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Nov 2016 00:00:00 GMT
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