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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 393 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 393 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.075, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 3.771, h-index: 262)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 163, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 584, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clean Energy     Open Access  
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.62, h-index: 53)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access  
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 59)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.199, h-index: 61)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.994, h-index: 107)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.327, h-index: 82)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.878, h-index: 80)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)

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Journal Cover Cerebral Cortex
  [SJR: 4.827]   [H-I: 192]   [45 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1047-3211 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2199
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [393 journals]
  • Rab23 Regulates Radial Migration of Projection Neurons via N-cadherin
    • Authors: Hor C; Goh E.
      Abstract: Radial migration of cortical projection neurons is a prerequisite for shaping a distinct multilayered cerebral cortex during mammalian corticogenesis. Members of Rab GTPases family were reported to regulate radial migration. Here, in vivo conditional knockout or in utero knockdown (KD) of Rab23 in mice neocortex causes aberrant polarity and halted migration of cortical projection neurons. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism reveals down-regulation of N-cadherin in the Rab23-deficient neurons, which is a cell adhesion protein previously known to modulate radial migration. (Shikanai M, Nakajima K, Kawauchi T. 2011. N-cadherin regulates radial glial fiber-dependent migration of cortical locomoting neurons. Commun Integr Biol. 4:326–330.) Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) also decreases the expression of N-cadherin, implicating an upstream effect of ERK1/2 on N-cadherin and also suggesting a link between Rab23 and ERK1/2. Further biochemical studies show that silencing of Rab23 impedes activation of ERK1/2 via perturbed platelet-derived growth factor-alpha (PDGFRα) signaling. Restoration of the expression of Rab23 or N-cadherin in Rab23-KD neurons could reverse neuron migration defects, indicating that Rab23 modulates migration through N-cadherin. These studies suggest that cortical neuron migration is mediated by a molecular hierarchy downstream of Rab23 via N-cadherin.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Self-Face Recognition Begins to Share Active Region in Right Inferior
           Parietal Lobule with Proprioceptive Illusion During Adolescence
    • Authors: Morita T; Saito D, Ban M, et al.
      Abstract: We recently reported that right-side dominance of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in self-body recognition (proprioceptive illusion) task emerges during adolescence in typical human development. Here, we extend this finding by demonstrating that functional lateralization to the right IPL also develops during adolescence in another self-body (specifically a self-face) recognition task. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 60 right-handed healthy children (8–11 years), adolescents (12–15 years), and adults (18–23 years; 20 per group) while they judged whether a presented face was their own (Self) or that of somebody else (Other). We also analyzed fMRI data collected while they performed proprioceptive illusion task. All participants performed self-face recognition with high accuracy. Among brain regions where self-face-related activity (Self vs. Other) developed, only right IPL activity developed predominantly for self-face processing, with no substantial involvement in other-face processing. Adult-like right-dominant use of IPL emerged during adolescence, but was not yet present in childhood. Adult-like common activation between the tasks also emerged during adolescence. Adolescents showing stronger right-lateralized IPL activity during illusion also showed this during self-face recognition. Our results suggest the importance of the right IPL in neuronal processing of information associated with one’s own body in typically developing humans.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Polycomb Protein Eed is Required for Neurogenesis and Cortical Injury
           Activation in the Subventricular Zone
    • Authors: Sun B; Chang E, Gerhartl A, et al.
      Abstract: The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) harbors neural stem cells (NSCs) that exhibit robust neurogenesis. However, the epigenetic mechanisms that maintain NSCs and regulate neurogenesis remain unclear. We report that label-retaining SVZ NSCs express Eed, the core component of Polycomb repressive complex 2. In vivo and in vitro conditional knockout and knockdown show Eed is necessary for maintaining NSC proliferation, neurogenesis and neurosphere formation. We discovered that Eed functions to maintain p21 protein levels in NSCs by repressing Gata6 transcription. Both Gata6 overexpression and p21 knockdown reduced neurogenesis, while Gata6 knockdown or p21 overexpression partially rescued neurogenesis after Eed loss. Furthermore, genetic deletion of Eed impaired injury induced SVZ proliferation and emigration. These data reveal a novel epigenetic regulated pathway and suggest an essential role for Eed in SVZ homeostasis and injury.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Distinct Beta-band Oscillatory Circuits Underlie Corticospinal Gain
    • Authors: Khademi F; Royter V, Gharabaghi A.
      Abstract: Rhythmic synchronization of neurons is known to affect neuronal interactions. In the motor system, oscillatory power fluctuations modulate corticospinal excitability. However, previous research addressing phase-specific gain modulation in the motor system has resulted in contradictory findings. It remains unclear how many time windows of increased responsiveness each oscillatory cycle provides. Moreover, we still lack conclusive evidence as to whether the motor cortex entails an intrinsic response modulation along the rhythm cycle, as shown for spinal neurons. We investigated this question with single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex at rest. Application of near-motor threshold stimuli revealed a frequency- and phase-specific gain modulation at both cortical and spinal level, independent of the spontaneous oscillatory power fluctuations at each level. We detected bilateral sensorimotor circuits in the lower beta-band (14–17 Hz) and unilateral corticospinal circuits in the upper beta-band (20–24 Hz). These findings provide novel evidence that intrinsic activity in the human motor cortex modulates input gain along the beta oscillatory cycle within distinct circuits. In accordance with periodic alternations of synchronous hyper- and depolarization, increased neuronal responsiveness occurred once per oscillatory beta cycle. This information may lead to new brain state-dependent and circuit-specific interventions for targeted neuromodulation.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Physiological and Anatomical Outputs of Rat Genital Cortex
    • Authors: Lenschow C; Brecht M.
      Abstract: Rat somatosensory genital cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic representation of the penis in males and the clitoris in females. Genital cortex microstimulation-evoked movements of legs, trunk and genitals, which showed sex-specific differences related to mating behaviors and included thrusting in males and lordosis-like movements in females. Erections/tumescence of penis or clitoris could not be evoked, however. Anterograde tracer injections into penis/clitoris cortex revealed eleven corticocortical and 10 subcortical projection targets, which were qualitatively similar in both sexes. Corticocortical genital-cortex-projections innervated about 3% of the cortical surface and most were analog to other somatosensory projections targeting motor cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, parietal cortex and perirhinal cortex. Corticocortical projections that differed from other parts of somatosensory cortex targeted male scrotum cortex, female vulva cortex, the somatosensory–ear–auditory-cortex-region and the caudal parietal area. Aligning cytoarchitectonic borders with motor topography, sensory genital responses and corticocortical projections identified a candidate region for genital motor cortex. Most subcortical genital-cortex-projections were analog to other thalamic, tectal or pontine projections of somatosensory cortex. Genital-cortex-specific subcortical projections targeted amygdala and nucleus submedius and accumbens. Microstimulation-effects and projections support a sexual function of genital cortex and suggest that genital cortex is a major hub of sexual sensorimotor processing in rodents.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Core Differences in Synaptic Signaling Between Primary Visual and
           Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
    • Authors: Yang S; Wang M, Paspalas C, et al.
      Abstract: Neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are more resilient than those in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in aging, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. The current study compared glutamate and neuromodulatory actions in macaque V1 to those in dlPFC, and found striking regional differences. V1 neuronal firing to visual stimuli depended on AMPA receptors, with subtle NMDA receptor contributions, while dlPFC depends primarily on NMDA receptors. Neuromodulatory actions also differed between regions. In V1, cAMP signaling increased neuronal firing, and the phosphodiesterase PDE4A was positioned to regulate cAMP effects on glutamate release from axons. HCN channels in V1 were classically located on distal dendrites, and enhanced cell firing. These data contrast with dlPFC, where PDE4A and HCN channels are concentrated in thin spines, and cAMP-HCN signaling gates inputs and weakens firing. These regional differences may explain why V1 neurons are more resilient than dlPFC neurons to the challenges of age and disease.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Roles of Left Versus Right Anterior Temporal Lobes in Semantic Memory:
           A Neuropsychological Comparison of Postsurgical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
    • Authors: Rice G; Caswell H, Moore P, et al.
      Abstract: The presence and degree of specialization between the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) is a key issue in debates about the neural architecture of semantic memory. Here, we comprehensively assessed multiple aspects of semantic cognition in a large group of postsurgical temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with left versus right anterior temporal lobectomy (n = 40). Both subgroups showed deficits in expressive and receptive verbal semantic tasks, word and object recognition, naming and recognition of famous faces and perception of faces and emotions. Graded differences in performance between the left and right groups were secondary to the overall mild semantic impairment; primarily, left resected TLE patients showed weaker performance on tasks that required naming or accessing semantic information from a written word. Right resected TLE patients were relatively more impaired at recognizing famous faces as familiar, although this effect was observed less consistently. These findings unify previous partial, inconsistent results and also align directly with fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation results in neurologically intact participants. Taken together, these data support a model in which the 2 ATLs act as a coupled bilateral system for the representation of semantic knowledge, and in which graded hemispheric specializations emerge as a consequence of differential connectivity to lateralized speech production and face perception regions.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Heterogeneous Redistribution of Facial Subcategory Information Within and
           Outside the Face-Selective Domain in Primate Inferior Temporal Cortex
    • Authors: Miyakawa N; Majima K, Sawahata H, et al.
      Abstract: The inferior temporal cortex (ITC) contains neurons selective to multiple levels of visual categories. However, the mechanisms by which these neurons collectively construct hierarchical category percepts remain unclear. By comparing decoding accuracy with simultaneously acquired electrocorticogram (ECoG), local field potentials (LFPs), and multi-unit activity in the macaque ITC, we show that low-frequency LFPs/ECoG in the early evoked visual response phase contain sufficient coarse category (e.g., face) information, which is homogeneous and enhanced by spatial summation of up to several millimeters. Late-induced high-frequency LFPs additionally carry spike-coupled finer category (e.g., species, view, and identity of the face) information, which is heterogeneous and reduced by spatial summation. Face-encoding neural activity forms a cluster in similar cortical locations regardless of whether it is defined by early evoked low-frequency signals or late-induced high-gamma signals. By contrast, facial subcategory-encoding activity is distributed, not confined to the face cluster, and dynamically increases its heterogeneity from the early evoked to late-induced phases. These findings support a view that, in contrast to the homogeneous and static coarse category-encoding neural cluster, finer category-encoding clusters are heterogeneously distributed even outside their parent category cluster and dynamically increase heterogeneity along with the local cortical processing in the ITC.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Reassessing the Evidence for Capacity Limits in Neural Signals Related to
           Working Memory
    • Authors: Bays P.
      Abstract: In 2004, two landmark studies described the discovery of brain imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography) signals that increase with the number of items held in visual working memory (WM). These studies claimed that the signals leveled off (plateaued) once the number of memoranda reached the capacity of WM, as estimated by the prevailing model of the time. However, alternative models were not considered, and changing concepts of WM in the more than a decade since these studies were published necessitate a re-evaluation of their findings; newer models that provide the most accurate account of behavioral data do not incorporate a fixed limit on the number of items stored. Furthermore, an important claim made about the original studies, that signals plateau at each individual’s estimated capacity, has never been tested. Here, we pit the plateau model of signal strength against an alternative, saturation model, a biophysically plausible account in which signals increase continuously without plateau. We show that the saturation model provides a better description of the original data, challenging the assumption that imaging results provide evidence for a fixed item limit in WM.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Morphological and Functional Characterization of Non-fast-Spiking
           GABAergic Interneurons in Layer 4 Microcircuitry of Rat Barrel Cortex
    • Authors: Emmenegger V; Qi G, Wang H, et al.
      Abstract: GABAergic interneurons are notorious for their heterogeneity, despite constituting a small fraction of the neuronal population in the neocortex. Classification of interneurons is crucial for understanding their widespread cortical functions as they provide a complex and dynamic network, balancing excitation and inhibition. Here, we investigated different types of non-fast-spiking (nFS) interneurons in Layer 4 (L4) of rat barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings with biocytin-filling. Based on a quantitative analysis on a combination of morphological and electrophysiological parameters, we identified 5 distinct types of L4 nFS interneurons: 1) trans-columnar projecting interneurons, 2) locally projecting non-Martinotti-like interneurons, 3) supra-granular projecting Martinotti-like interneurons, 4) intra-columnar projecting VIP-like interneurons, and 5) locally projecting neurogliaform-like interneurons. Trans-columnar projecting interneurons are one of the most striking interneuron types, which have not been described so far in Layer 4. They feature extensive axonal collateralization not only in their home barrel but also in adjacent barrels. Furthermore, we identified that most of the L4 nFS interneurons express somatostatin, while few are positive for the transcription factor Prox1. The morphological and electrophysiological characterization of different L4 nFS interneuron types presented here provides insights into their synaptic connectivity and functional role in cortical information processing.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Reconfiguration of Cortical Networks in MDD Uncovered by Multiscale
           Community Detection with fMRI
    • Authors: He Y; Lim S, Fortunato S, et al.
      Abstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is known to be associated with altered interactions between distributed brain regions. How these regional changes relate to the reorganization of cortical functional systems, and their modulation by antidepressant medication, is relatively unexplored. To identify changes in the community structure of cortical functional networks in MDD, we performed a multiscale community detection algorithm on resting-state functional connectivity networks of unmedicated MDD (uMDD) patients (n = 46), medicated MDD (mMDD) patients (n = 38), and healthy controls (n = 50), which yielded a spectrum of multiscale community partitions. we selected an optimal resolution level by identifying the most stable community partition for each group. uMDD and mMDD groups exhibited a similar reconfiguration of the community structure of the visual association and the default mode systems but showed different reconfiguration profiles in the frontoparietal control (FPC) subsystems. Furthermore, the central system (somatomotor/salience) and 3 frontoparietal subsystems showed strengthened connectivity with other communities in uMDD but, with the exception of 1 frontoparietal subsystem, returned to control levels in mMDD. These findings provide evidence for reconfiguration of specific cortical functional systems associated with MDD, as well as potential effects of medication in restoring disease-related network alterations, especially those of the FPC system.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Multicontact Co-operativity in Spike-Timing–Dependent Structural
           Plasticity Stabilizes Networks
    • Authors: Deger M; Seeholzer A, Gerstner W.
      Abstract: Excitatory synaptic connections in the adult neocortex consist of multiple synaptic contacts, almost exclusively formed on dendritic spines. Changes of spine volume, a correlate of synaptic strength, can be tracked in vivo for weeks. Here, we present a combined model of structural and spike-timing–dependent plasticity that explains the multicontact configuration of synapses in adult neocortical networks under steady-state and lesion-induced conditions. Our plasticity rule with Hebbian and anti-Hebbian terms stabilizes both the postsynaptic firing rate and correlations between the pre- and postsynaptic activity at an active synaptic contact. Contacts appear spontaneously at a low rate and disappear if their strength approaches zero. Many presynaptic neurons compete to make strong synaptic connections onto a postsynaptic neuron, whereas the synaptic contacts of a given presynaptic neuron co-operate via postsynaptic firing. We find that co-operation of multiple synaptic contacts is crucial for stable, long-term synaptic memories. In simulations of a simplified network model of barrel cortex, our plasticity rule reproduces whisker-trimming–induced rewiring of thalamocortical and recurrent synaptic connectivity on realistic time scales.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • What Role Does “Elongation” Play in “Tool-Specific” Activation and
           Connectivity in the Dorsal and Ventral Visual Streams'
    • Authors: Chen J; Snow J, Culham J, et al.
      Abstract: Images of tools induce stronger activation than images of nontools in a left-lateralized network that includes ventral-stream areas implicated in tool identification and dorsal-stream areas implicated in tool manipulation. Importantly, however, graspable tools tend to be elongated rather than stubby, and so the tool-selective responses in some of these areas may, to some extent, reflect sensitivity to elongation rather than “toolness” per se. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the role of elongation in driving tool-specific activation in the 2 streams and their interconnections. We showed that in some “tool-selective” areas, the coding of toolness and elongation coexisted, but in others, elongation and toolness were coded independently. Psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that toolness, but not elongation, had a strong modulation of the connectivity between the ventral and dorsal streams. Dynamic causal modeling revealed that viewing tools (either elongated or stubby) increased the connectivity from the ventral- to the dorsal-stream tool-selective areas, but only viewing elongated tools increased the reciprocal connectivity between these areas. Overall, these data disentangle how toolness and elongation affect the activation and connectivity of the tool network and help to resolve recent controversies regarding the relative contribution of “toolness” versus elongation in driving dorsal-stream “tool-selective” areas.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Boosting and Decreasing Action Prediction Abilities Through Excitatory and
           Inhibitory tDCS of Inferior Frontal Cortex
    • Authors: Avenanti A; Paracampo R, Annella L, et al.
      Abstract: Influential theories suggest that humans predict others’ upcoming actions by using their own motor system as an internal forward model. However, evidence that the motor system is causally essential for predicting others’ actions is meager. Using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we tested the role of the inferior frontal cortex (IFC), in action prediction (AP). We devised a novel AP task where participants observed the initial phases of right-hand reaching-to-grasp actions and had to predict their outcome (i.e., the goal/object to be grasped). We found that suppression by cathodal (inhibitory) tDCS of the left IFC, but not the left superior temporal sulcus or the right IFC, selectively impaired performance on the AP task, but not on a difficulty-matched control task. Remarkably, anodal (excitatory) tDCS of the left IFC brought about a selective improvement in the AP task. These findings indicate that the left IFC is necessary for predicting the outcomes of observed human right-hand actions. Crucially, our study shows for the first time that down- and up-regulating excitability within the motor system can hinder and enhance AP abilities, respectively. These findings support predictive coding theories of action perception and have implications for enhancement of AP abilities.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Functional Brain Parcellations of the Infant Brain and the Associated
           Developmental Trends
    • Authors: Shi F; Salzwedel A, Lin W, et al.
      Abstract: Resting-state functional connectivity studies have dramatically improved our understanding of the early human brain functional development during the past decade. However, one emerging problem that could potentially impede future progresses in the field is the definition of regions of interest (ROI), since it is well known that functional connectivity estimation can be seriously contaminated by within-ROI signal heterogeneity. In this study, based on a large-scale rsfMRI data set in human infants (230 neonates, 143 1-year olds, and 107 2-year olds), we aimed to derive a set of anatomically constrained, infant-specific functional brain parcellations using functional connectivity-based clustering. Our results revealed significantly higher levels of signal homogeneity within the newly defined functional parcellations compared with other schemes. Importantly, the global functional connectivity patterns associated with the newly defined functional subunits demonstrated significantly increasing levels of differentiation with age, confirming increasing levels of local specialization. Subsequent whole brain connectivity analysis revealed intriguing patterns of regional-level functional connectivity developments and system-level hub redistribution during infancy. Overall, the newly derived infant-specific functional brain parcellations and the associated novel developmental patterns will likely prove valuable for future early developmental studies using the functional connectivity technique.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Reciprocal Connections Between Cortex and Thalamus Contribute to Retinal
           Axon Targeting to Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
    • Authors: Diao Y; Cui L, Chen Y, et al.
      Abstract: The dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (dLGN) is the primary image-forming target of the retina and shares a reciprocal connection with primary visual cortex (V1). Previous studies showed that corticothalamic input is essential for the development of thalamocortical projections, but less is known about the potential role of this reciprocal connection in the development of retinal projections. Here, we show a deficit of retinal innervation in the dLGN around E18.5 in Tra2β conditional knockout (cKO) “cortexless” mice, an age when apoptosis occurs along the thalamocortical tract and in some dLGN neurons. In vivo electrophysiology experiments in the dLGN further confirmed the loss of functional retinal input. Experiments with N-methyl-d-aspartic acid-induced V1 lesion as well as Fezf2 cKO mice confirmed that the disruption of connections between the dLGN and V1 lead to abnormal retinal projections to the dLGN. Interestingly, retinal projections to the ventral Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (vLGN) and Superior Colliculus (SC) were normal in all 3 mice models. Finally, we show that the cortexless mice had worse performance than control mice in a go-no go task with visual cues. Our results provide evidence that the wiring of visual circuit from the retina to the dLGN and V1 thereafter is coordinated at a surprisingly early stage of circuit development.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • POm Thalamocortical Input Drives Layer-Specific Microcircuits in
           Somatosensory Cortex
    • Authors: Audette N; Urban-Ciecko J, Matsushita M, et al.
      Abstract: Higher-order thalamic nuclei, such as the posterior medial nucleus (POm) in the somatosensory system or the pulvinar in the visual system, densely innervate the cortex and can influence perception and plasticity. To systematically evaluate how higher-order thalamic nuclei can drive cortical circuits, we investigated cell-type selective responses to POm stimulation in mouse primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex, using genetically targeted whole-cell recordings in acute brain slices. We find that ChR2-evoked thalamic input selectively targets specific cell types in the neocortex, revealing layer-specific modules for the summation and processing of POm input. Evoked activity in pyramidal neurons from deep layers is fast and synchronized by rapid feedforward inhibition from GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing neurons, and activity in superficial layers is weaker and prolonged, facilitated by slow inhibition from GABAergic neurons expressing the 5HT3a receptor. Somatostatin-expressing GABAergic neurons do not receive direct input in either layer and their spontaneous activity is suppressed during POm stimulation. This novel pattern of weak, delayed, thalamus-evoked inhibition in layer 2 suggests a longer integration window for incoming sensory information and may facilitate stimulus detection and plasticity in superficial pyramidal neurons.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Variations in Acetylcholinesterase Activity within Human Cortical
           Pyramidal Neurons Across Age and Cognitive Trajectories
    • Authors: Janeczek M; Gefen T, Samimi M, et al.
      Abstract: We described an extensive network of cortical pyramidal neurons in the human brain with abundant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Emergence of these neurons during childhood/adolescence, attainment of highest density in early adulthood, and virtual absence in other species led us to hypothesize involvement of AChE within these neurons in higher cortical functions. The current study quantified the density and staining intensity of these neurons using histochemical procedures. Few faintly stained AChE-positive cortical pyramidal neurons were observed in children/adolescents. These neurons attained their highest density and staining intensity in young adulthood. Compared with the young adult group, brains of cognitively normal elderly displayed no significant change in numerical density but a significant decrease in staining intensity of AChE-positive cortical pyramidal neurons. Brains of elderly above age 80 with unusually preserved memory performance (SuperAgers) showed significantly lower staining intensity and density of these neurons when compared with same-age peers. Conceivably, low levels of AChE activity could enhance the impact of acetylcholine on pyramidal neurons to counterbalance other involutional factors that mediate the decline of memory capacity during average aging. We cannot yet tell if elderly with superior memory capacity have constitutively low neuronal AChE levels or if this feature reflects adaptive neuroplasticity.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Characterization of White Matter Tracts by Diffusion MR Tractography in
           Cat and Ferret that Have Similar Gyral Patterns
    • Authors: Das A; Takahashi E.
      Abstract: The developmental relationships between gyral structures and white matter tracts have long been debated, but it is still difficult to discern whether they influence each other's development or are causally related. To explore this topic, this study used cats and ferrets as models for species that share similar gyral folding patterns and imaged with diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to compare white matter innervations in homologous gyri and other brain regions. Adult cat and ferret brains were analyzed via diffusion spectrum imaging tractography and homologous regions of interest were compared. Although similar genetic lineage and gyral structures would suggest analogous white matter tracts, tractography reveals significantly differing white matter connectivity in both the visual and auditory cortices. Similarities in connectivity were concentrated primarily in the highly conserved cerebellar region. These results correlate well with existing histological and functional studies of both species. Our results indicate that, while the 2 species may share similar gyral structures, they utilize different white matter connectivity; suggesting that while species may share similar gyral structures, they can develop different underlying white matter connectivity.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Mirroring the Social Aspects of Speech and Actions: The Role of the Insula
    • Authors: Di Cesare G; Marchi M, Errante A, et al.
      Abstract: Action and speech may take different forms, being expressed, for example, gently or rudely. These aspects of social communication, named vitality forms, have been little studied in neuroscience. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of insula in processing action and speech vitality forms. In speech runs, participants were asked to listen or imaging themselves to pronounce action verbs gently or rudely. In action runs, they were asked to observe or imaging themselves to perform actions gently or rudely. The results showed that, relative to controls, there was an activation of the dorso-central insula in both tasks of speech and action runs. The insula sector specific for action vitality form was located slightly more dorsally than that of speech with a large overlap of their activations. The psycho-physiological interaction analysis showed that the insular sector involved in action vitality forms processing is connected with the left hemisphere areas controlling arm actions, whereas the sector involved in speech vitality forms processing is linked with right hemisphere areas related to speech prosody. We conclude that the central part of the insula is a key region for vitality forms processing regardless of the modality by which they are conveyed or expressed.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Inter-Regional Variations in Gene Expression and Age-Related Cortical
           Thinning in the Adolescent Brain
    • Authors: Wong A; French L, Leonard G, et al.
      Abstract: Age-related decreases in cortical thickness observed during adolescence may be related to fluctuations in sex and stress hormones. We examine this possibility by relating inter-regional variations in age-related cortical thinning (data from the Saguenay Youth Study) to inter-regional variations in expression levels of relevant genes (data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas); we focus on genes coding for glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PGR), and estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2). Across 34 cortical regions (Desikan-Killiany parcellation), age-related cortical thinning varied as a function of mRNA expression levels of NR3C1 in males (R2 = 0.46) and females (R2 = 0.30) and AR in males only (R2 = 0.25). Cortical thinning did not vary as a function of expression levels of PGR, ESR1, or ESR2 in either sex; this might be due to the observed low consistency of expression profiles of these 3 genes across donors. Inter-regional levels of the NR3C1 and AR expression interacted with each other vis-à-vis cortical thinning: age-related cortical thinning varied as a function of NR3C1 mRNA expression in brain regions with low (males: R2 = 0.64; females: R2 = 0.58) but not high (males: R2 = 0.0045; females: R2 = 0.15) levels of AR mRNA expression. These results suggest that glucocorticoid and androgen receptors contribute to cortical maturation during adolescence.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Attenuated Fast Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials During Human Sleep
    • Authors: Sharon O; Nir Y.
      Abstract: During sleep, external sensory events rarely elicit a behavioral response or affect perception. However, how sensory processing differs between wakefulness and sleep remains unclear. A major difficulty in this field stems from using brief auditory stimuli that often trigger nonspecific high-amplitude “K-complex” responses and complicate interpretation. To overcome this challenge, here we delivered periodic visual flicker stimulation across sleep and wakefulness while recording high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in humans. We found that onset responses can be separated from frequency-specific steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) selectively observed over visual cortex. Sustained SSVEPs in response to fast (8/10 Hz) stimulation are substantially stronger in wakefulness than in both nonrapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep, whereas SSVEP responses to slow (3/5 Hz) stimulation are stronger in both NREM and REM sleep than in wakefulness. Despite wake-like spontaneous activity, responses in REM sleep were similar to those in NREM sleep and different than wakefulness, in accordance with perceptual disconnection during REM sleep. Finally, analysis of amplitude and phase in single trials revealed that stronger fast SSVEPs in wakefulness are driven by more consistent phase locking and increased induced power. These results suggest that the sleeping brain is unable to effectively synchronize large neuronal populations in response to rapid sensory stimulation.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Long Time No See: Enduring Behavioral and Neuronal Changes in Perceptual
           Learning of Motion Trajectories 3 Years After Training
    • Authors: Frank S; Greenlee M, Tse P.
      Abstract: Here, we report on the long-term stability of changes in behavior and brain activity following perceptual learning of conjunctions of simple motion features. Participants were trained for 3 weeks on a visual search task involving the detection of a dot moving in a “v”-shaped target trajectory among inverted “v”-shaped distractor trajectories. The first and last training sessions were carried out during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Learning stability was again examined behaviorally and using fMRI 3 years after the end of training. Results show that acquired behavioral improvements were remarkably stable over time and that these changes were specific to trained target and distractor trajectories. A similar pattern was observed on the neuronal level, when the representation of target and distractor stimuli was examined in early retinotopic visual cortex (V1–V3): training enhanced activity for the target relative to the surrounding distractors in the search array and this enhancement persisted after 3 years. However, exchanging target and distractor trajectories abolished both neuronal and behavioral effects, suggesting that training-induced changes in stimulus representation are specific to trained stimulus identities.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Decoding Grasping Movements from the Parieto-Frontal Reaching Circuit in
           the Nonhuman Primate
    • Authors: Nelissen K; Fiave P, Vanduffel W.
      Abstract: Prehension movements typically include a reaching phase, guiding the hand toward the object, and a grip phase, shaping the hand around it. The dominant view posits that these components rely upon largely independent parieto-frontal circuits: a dorso-medial circuit involved in reaching and a dorso-lateral circuit involved in grasping. However, mounting evidence suggests a more complex arrangement, with dorso-medial areas contributing to both reaching and grasping. To investigate the role of the dorso-medial reaching circuit in grasping, we trained monkeys to reach-and-grasp different objects in the dark and determined if hand configurations could be decoded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) responses obtained from the reaching and grasping circuits. Indicative of their established role in grasping, object-specific grasp decoding was found in anterior intraparietal (AIP) area, inferior parietal lobule area PFG and ventral premotor region F5 of the lateral grasping circuit, and primary motor cortex. Importantly, the medial reaching circuit also conveyed robust grasp-specific information, as evidenced by significant decoding in parietal reach regions (particular V6A) and dorsal premotor region F2. These data support the proposed role of dorso-medial “reach” regions in controlling aspects of grasping and demonstrate the value of complementing univariate with more sensitive multivariate analyses of functional MRI (fMRI) data in uncovering information coding in the brain.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Tracking Training-Related Plasticity by Combining fMRI and DTI: The Right
           Hemisphere Ventral Stream Mediates Musical Syntax Processing
    • Authors: Oechslin M; Gschwind M, James C.
      Abstract: As a functional homolog for left-hemispheric syntax processing in language, neuroimaging studies evidenced involvement of right prefrontal regions in musical syntax processing, of which underlying white matter connectivity remains unexplored so far. In the current experiment, we investigated the underlying pathway architecture in subjects with 3 levels of musical expertise. Employing diffusion tensor imaging tractography, departing from seeds from our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study on music syntax processing in the same participants, we identified a pathway in the right ventral stream that connects the middle temporal lobe with the inferior frontal cortex via the extreme capsule, and corresponds to the left hemisphere ventral stream, classically attributed to syntax processing in language comprehension. Additional morphometric consistency analyses allowed dissociating tract core from more dispersed fiber portions. Musical expertise related to higher tract consistency of the right ventral stream pathway. Specifically, tract consistency in this pathway predicted the sensitivity for musical syntax violations. We conclude that enduring musical practice sculpts ventral stream architecture. Our results suggest that training-related pathway plasticity facilitates the right hemisphere ventral stream information transfer, supporting an improved sound-to-meaning mapping in music.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Geometric Navigation of Axons in a Cerebral Pathway: Comparing dMRI with
           Tract Tracing and Immunohistochemistry
    • Authors: Mortazavi F; Oblak A, Morrison W, et al.
      Abstract: Brain fiber pathways are presumed to follow smooth curves but recent high angular resolution diffusion MRI (dMRI) suggests that instead they follow 3 primary axes often nearly orthogonal. To investigate this, we analyzed axon pathways under monkey primary motor cortex with (1) dMRI tractography, (2) axon tract tracing, and (3) axon immunohistochemistry. dMRI tractography shows the predicted crossings of axons in mediolateral and dorsoventral orientations and does not show axon turns in this region. Axons labeled with tract tracer in the motor cortex dispersed in the centrum semiovale by microscopically sharp axonal turns and/or branches (radii ≤15 µm) into 2 sharply defined orientations, mediolateral and dorsoventral. Nearby sections processed with SMI-32 antibody to label projection axons and SMI-312 antibody to label all axons revealed axon distributions parallel to the tracer axons. All 3 histological methods confirmed preponderant axon distributions parallel with dMRI axes with few axons (<20%) following smooth curves or diagonal orientations. These findings indicate that axons navigate deep white matter via microscopic sharp turns and branches between primary axes. They support dMRI observations of primary fiber axes, as well as the prediction that fiber crossings include navigational events not yet directly resolved by dMRI. New methods will be needed to incorporate coherent microscopic navigation into dMRI of connectivity.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Neuronal Activation After Prolonged Immobilization: Do the Same or
           Different Neurons Respond to a Novel Stressor'
    • Authors: Marín-Blasco I; Muñoz-Abellán C, Andero R, et al.
      Abstract: Despite extensive research on the impact of emotional stressors on brain function using immediate-early genes (e.g., c-fos), there are still important questions that remain unanswered such as the reason for the progressive decline of c-fos expression in response to prolonged stress and the neuronal populations activated by different stressors. This study tackles these 2 questions by evaluating c-fos expression in response to 2 different emotional stressors applied sequentially, and performing a fluorescent double labeling of c-Fos protein and c-fos mRNA on stress-related brain areas. Results were complemented with the assessment of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activation. We showed that the progressive decline of c-fos expression could be related to 2 differing mechanisms involving either transcriptional repression or changes in stimulatory inputs. Moreover, the neuronal populations that respond to the different stressors appear to be predominantly separated in high-level processing areas (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex). However, in low-hierarchy areas (e.g., paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) neuronal populations appear to respond unspecifically. The data suggest that the distinct physiological and behavioral consequences of emotional stressors, and their implication in the development of psychopathologies, are likely to be closely associated with neuronal populations specifically activated by each stressor.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cognitive Enhancement Induced by Anodal tDCS Drives Circuit-Specific
           Cortical Plasticity
    • Authors: Pisoni A; Mattavelli G, Papagno C, et al.
      Abstract: Increasing evidence shows that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhances cognitive performance in healthy and clinical population. Such facilitation is supposed to be linked to plastic changes at relevant cortical sites. However, direct electrophysiological evidence for this causal relationship is still missing. Here, we show that cognitive enhancement occurring in healthy human subjects during anodal tDCS is affected by ongoing brain activity, increasing cortical excitability of task-related brain networks only, as directly measured by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). Specifically, TMS-EEG recordings were performed before and after anodal tDCS coupled with a verbal fluency task. To control for effects of tDCS protocol and TMS target location, 3 conditions were assessed: anodal/sham tDCS with TMS over left premotor cortex, anodal tDCS with TMS over left posterior parietal cortex. Modulation of cortical excitability occurred only at left Brodmann's areas 6, 44, and 45, a key network for language production, after anodal tDCS and TMS over the premotor cortex, and was positively correlated to the degree of cognitive enhancement. Our results suggest that anodal tDCS specifically affects task-related functional networks active while delivering stimulation, and this boost of specific cortical circuits is correlated to the observed cognitive enhancement.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Homozygous Loss of Autism-Risk Gene CNTNAP2 Results in Reduced Local and
           Long-Range Prefrontal Functional Connectivity
    • Authors: Liska A; Bertero A, Gomolka R, et al.
      Abstract: Functional connectivity aberrancies, as measured with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), have been consistently observed in the brain of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) patients. However, the genetic and neurobiological underpinnings of these findings remain unclear. Homozygous mutations in contactin associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2), a neurexin-related cell-adhesion protein, are strongly linked to autism and epilepsy. Here we used rsfMRI to show that homozygous mice lacking Cntnap2 exhibit reduced long-range and local functional connectivity in prefrontal and midline brain “connectivity hubs.” Long-range rsfMRI connectivity impairments affected heteromodal cortical regions and were prominent between fronto-posterior components of the mouse default-mode network, an effect that was associated with reduced social investigation, a core “autism trait” in mice. Notably, viral tracing revealed reduced frequency of prefrontal-projecting neural clusters in the cingulate cortex of Cntnap2−/− mutants, suggesting a possible contribution of defective mesoscale axonal wiring to the observed functional impairments. Macroscale cortico-cortical white-matter organization appeared to be otherwise preserved in these animals. These findings reveal a key contribution of ASD-associated gene CNTNAP2 in modulating macroscale functional connectivity, and suggest that homozygous loss-of-function mutations in this gene may predispose to neurodevelopmental disorders and autism through a selective dysregulation of connectivity in integrative prefrontal areas.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • β-Catenin in the Adult Visual Cortex Regulates NMDA-Receptor Function
           and Visual Responses
    • Authors: Saiepour M; Min R, Kamphuis W, et al.
      Abstract: The formation, plasticity and maintenance of synaptic connections is regulated by molecular and electrical signals. β-Catenin is an important protein in these events and regulates cadherin-mediated cell adhesion and the recruitment of pre- and postsynaptic proteins in an activity-dependent fashion. Mutations in the β-catenin gene can cause cognitive disability and autism, with life-long consequences. Understanding its synaptic function may thus be relevant for the treatment of these disorders. So far, β-catenin's function has been studied predominantly in cell culture and during development but knowledge on its function in adulthood is limited. Here, we show that ablating β-catenin in excitatory neurons of the adult visual cortex does not cause the same synaptic deficits previously observed during development. Instead, it reduces NMDA-receptor currents and impairs visual processing. We conclude that β-catenin remains important for adult cortical function but through different mechanisms than during development.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Relation Between Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity at Glutamatergic
           Synapses in the Amygdala and Fear Learning in Adult Heterozygous
           BDNF-Knockout Mice
    • Authors: Meis S; Endres T, Munsch T, et al.
      Abstract: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) heterozygous knockout mice (BDNF+/− mice) show fear learning deficits from 3 months of age onwards. Here, we addressed the question how this learning deficit correlates with altered long-term potentiation (LTP) in the cortical synaptic input to the lateral amygdala (LA) and at downstream intra-amygdala synapses in BDNF+/- mice. Our results reveal that the fear learning deficit in BDNF+/− mice was not paralleled by a loss of LTP, neither at cortical inputs to the LA nor at downstream intra-amygdala glutamatergic synapses. As we did observe early fear memory (30 min after training) in BDNF+/− mice while long-term memory (24 h post-training) was absent, the stable LTP in cortico-LA and downstream synapses is in line with the intact acquisition of fear memories. Ex vivo recordings in acute slices of fear-conditioned wildtype (WT) mice revealed that fear learning induces long-lasting changes at cortico-LA synapses that occluded generation of LTP 4 and 24 h after training. Overall, our data show that the intact LTP in the tested amygdala circuits is consistent with intact acquisition of fear memories in both WT and BDNF+/− mice. In addition, the lack of learning-induced long-term changes at cortico-LA synapses in BDNF+/− mice parallels the observed deficit in fear memory consolidation.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Intertemporal Decision-Making Involves Prefrontal Control Mechanisms
           Associated with Working Memory
    • Authors: Jimura K; Chushak M, Westbrook A, et al.
      Abstract: Intertemporal decision-making involves simultaneous evaluation of both the magnitude and delay to reward, which may require the integrated representation and comparison of these dimensions within working memory (WM). In the current study, neural activation associated with intertemporal decision-making was directly compared with WM load-related activation. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants performed an intermixed series of WM trials and intertemporal decision-making trials both varying in load, with the latter in terms of choice difficulty, via options tailored to each participant's subjective value function for delayed rewards. The right anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) showed activity modulation by choice difficulty within WM-related brain regions. In aPFC, these 2 effects (WM, choice difficulty) correlated across individuals. In dlPFC, activation increased with choice difficulty primarily in patient (self-controlled) individuals, and moreover was strongest when the delayed reward was chosen on the most difficult trials. Finally, the choice-difficulty effects in dlPFC and aPFC were correlated across individuals, suggesting a functional relationship between the 2 regions. Together, these results suggest a more precise account of the relationship between WM and intertemporal decision-making that is specifically tied to choice difficulty, and involves the coordinated activation of a lateral PFC circuit supporting successful self-control.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cortical Circuits of Callosal GABAergic Neurons
    • Authors: Rock C; Zurita H, Lebby S, et al.
      Abstract: Anatomical studies have shown that the majority of callosal axons are glutamatergic. However, a small proportion of callosal axons are also immunoreactive for glutamic acid decarboxylase, an enzyme required for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis and a specific marker for GABAergic neurons. Here, we test the hypothesis that corticocortical parvalbumin-expressing (CC-Parv) neurons connect the two hemispheres of multiple cortical areas, project through the corpus callosum, and are a functional part of the local cortical circuit. Our investigation of this hypothesis takes advantage of viral tracing and optogenetics to determine the anatomical and electrophysiological properties of CC-Parv neurons of the mouse auditory, visual, and motor cortices. We found a direct inhibitory pathway made up of parvalbumin-expressing (Parv) neurons which connects corresponding cortical areas (CC-Parv neurons → contralateral cortex). Like other Parv cortical neurons, these neurons provide local inhibition onto nearby pyramidal neurons and receive thalamocortical input. These results demonstrate a previously unknown long-range inhibitory circuit arising from a genetically defined type of GABAergic neuron that is engaged in interhemispheric communication.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Regulation of Dendritic Spine Morphology in Hippocampal Neurons by
    • Authors: Burk K; Ramachandran B, Ahmed S, et al.
      Abstract: Dendritic spines compartmentalize information in the brain, and their morphological characteristics are thought to underly synaptic plasticity. Here we identify copine-6 as a novel modulator of dendritic spine morphology. We found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) – a molecule essential for long-term potentiation of synaptic strength – upregulated and recruited copine-6 to dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. Overexpression of copine-6 increased mushroom spine number and decreased filopodia number, while copine-6 knockdown had the opposite effect and dramatically increased the number of filopodia, which lacked PSD95. Functionally, manipulation of post-synaptic copine-6 levels affected miniature excitatory post-synaptic current (mEPSC) kinetics and evoked synaptic vesicle recycling in contacting boutons, and post-synaptic knockdown of copine-6 reduced hippocampal LTP and increased LTD. Mechanistically, copine-6 promotes BDNF-TrkB signaling and recycling of activated TrkB receptors back to the plasma membrane surface, and is necessary for BDNF-induced increases in mushroom spines in hippocampal neurons. Thus copine-6 regulates BDNF-dependent changes in dendritic spine morphology to promote synaptic plasticity.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Feb 2017 00:00:00 GMT
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