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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 372 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 372 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 590, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)

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Journal Cover Carcinogenesis
  [SJR: 2.439]   [H-I: 167]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0143-3334 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2180
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [372 journals]
  • MiR-134, epigenetically silenced in gliomas, could mitigate the malignant
           phenotype by targeting KRAS
    • Authors: Wang Z; Zhang C, Wang Z, et al.
      Abstract: Gliomas are characterized by a malignant phenotype with proliferation, cell cycle arrest and invasion. To explore the biological consequences of epigenetically regulated miRNAs, we performed a microarray-based screening (whose expression was affected by 5-AZA treatment) followed by bisulfite sequencing validation. We found that miR-134 as an epigenetically regulated suppressor gene with prognostic value in gliomas. MicroRNA-134 was downregulated in high-grade gliomas, especially in GBM samples. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo in mouse models showed that overexpression of miR-134 was sufficient to reduce cell cycle arrest, cell proliferation and invasion. Target analysis and functional assays correlated the malignant phenotype with miR-134 target gene KRAS, an established upstream regulator of ERK and AKT pathways. Overall, our results highlighted a role for miR-134 in explaining the malignant phenotype of gliomas and suggested its relevance as a target to develop for early diagnostics and therapy.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Transcriptional and post-transcriptional upregulation of p27 mediates
    • Authors: Jiang G; Huang C, Li J, et al.
      Abstract: There are few approved drugs available for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Recently, we have demonstrated that isorhapontigenin (ISO), a new derivative isolated from the Chinese herb Gnetum cleistostachyum, effectively induces cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and inhibits anchorage-independent cell growth through the miR-137/Sp1/cyclin D1 axis in human MIBC cells. Herein, we found that treatment of bladder cancer (BC) cells with ISO resulted in a significant upregulation of p27, which was also observed in ISO-treated mouse BCs that were induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN). Importantly, knockdown of p27 caused a decline in the ISO-induced G0–G1 growth arrest and reversed ISO suppression of anchorage-independent growth in BC cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that ISO promoted p27 expression at mRNA transcription level through increasing direct binding of forkhead box class O1 (FOXO1) to its promoter, while knockdown of FOXO1 attenuated ISO inhibition of BC cell growth. On the other hand, ISO upregulated the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) activity of p27, which was accompanied by a reduction of miR-182 expression. In line with these observations, ectopic expression of miR-182 significantly blocked p27 3′-UTR activity, whereas mutation of the miR-182-binding site at p27 mRNA 3′-UTR effectively reversed this inhibition. Accordingly, ectopic expression of miR-182 also attenuated ISO upregulation of p27 expression and impaired ISO inhibition of BC cell growth. Our results not only provide novel insight into understanding of the underlying mechanism related to regulation of MIBC cell growth but also identify new roles and mechanisms underlying ISO inhibition of BC cell growth.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Polycomb proteins RING1B and EZH2 repress the tumoral pro-inflammatory
           function in metastasizing primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma
    • Authors: Hernández-Ruiz E; Toll A, García-Diez I, et al.
      Abstract: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common malignancy in humans and approximately 5% metastasize, usually to regional lymph nodes. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression may allow tumoral cells to acquire new functions in order to escape from the primary tumor. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of proteins of the Polycomb family of epigenetic regulators in the metastatic process of cSCC. A higher expression of RING1B and EZH2 was detected by immunohistochemistry in a series of primary cSCC tumors that metastasized (MSCCs) when compared with non-metastasizing cSCCs (non-MSCCs). Stable downregulation of RING1B and EZH2 in cSCC cells results in enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Accordingly, non-MSCCs display higher levels of membranous pS176-inhibitor of NF-kB kinase, and their stroma is enriched in neutrophils and eosinophils when compared with MSCCs. In vitro, hematopoietic cells exhibit a substantial migratory response to supernatants from Polycomb-depleted cSCC cells. Altogether, these data indicate that RING1B and EZH2 repress the innate inflammatory cSCC function and impair tumor immunosurveillance and suggest that patients with high-risk cSCCs could benefit from clinical therapies addressed to harness the immune response.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Alcohol intake, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes, and the risk of colorectal
           cancer by sex and subsite in the Netherlands Cohort Study
    • Authors: Offermans N; Ketcham S, van den Brandt P, et al.
      Abstract: The alcohol–colorectal cancer (CRC) association may differ by sex and ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes. ADH enzymes oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, both of which are human carcinogens. The Netherlands Cohort Study includes 120 852 participants, aged 55–69 years at baseline (1986), and has 20.3 years follow-up (case-cohort: nsubcohort = 4774; ncases = 4597). The baseline questionnaire included questions on alcohol intake at baseline and 5 years before. Using toenail DNA, available for ~75% of the cohort, we successfully genotyped six ADH1B and six ADH1C SNPs (nsubcohort = 3897; ncases = 3558). Sex- and subsite-specific Cox hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for CRC were estimated comparing alcohol categories, genotypes within drinkers and alcohol categories within genotype strata. We used a dominant genetic model and adjusted for multiple testing. Alcohol intake increased CRC risk in both sexes, though in women only in the (proximal) colon when in excess of 30 g/day. In male drinkers, ADH1B rs4147536 increased (distal) colon cancer risk. In female drinkers, ADH1C rs283415 increased proximal colon cancer risk. ADH1B rs3811802 and ADH1C rs4147542 decreased CRC risk in heavy (>30 g/day) and stable drinkers (compared to 5 years before baseline), respectively. Rs3811802 and rs4147542 significantly modified the alcohol-colon cancer association in women (Pfor interaction = 0.004 and 0.02, respectively). A difference in associations between genotype strata was generally clearer in men than women. In conclusion, men showed increased CRC risks across subsites and alcohol intake levels, while only colon cancer risk was increased in women at heavy intake levels. ADH1B rs3811802 and ADH1C rs4147542 significantly modified the alcohol–colon cancer association in women.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • 14-3-3zeta is involved in the anticancer effect of metformin in colorectal
    • Authors: Ding J; Zhu Y, Yang L, et al.
      Abstract: Metformin is a promising drug for cancer prevention and treatment, especially in the diabetic population. We aimed to test whether 14-3-3zeta affects the anticancer effect of metformin on colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In this study, we confirmed that higher 14-3-3zeta expression was found in CRC tissues than in pericarcinoma tissues, and in CRC tissue of patients with diabetes than in those without diabetes. A knockdown of 14-3-3zeta inhibited CRC proliferation and promoted apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Then, we created stable cell lines with under-expressed 14-3-3zeta from SW480 and HCT15 cells after infection by a lentiviral vector carrying short hairpin RNA targeting 14-3-3zeta (named LV-sh14-3-3zeta). Of note, metformin induced apoptosis and retarded tumor growth in the CRCs with overexpressed 14-3-3zeta, whereas this action was attenuated when 14-3-3zeta was knocked down. Moreover, either metformin or downregulation of 14-3-3zeta noticeably activated AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, whereas the effect of metformin was attenuated when the 14-3-3zeta expression was decreased. Taken together, our results suggest that 14-3-3zeta may be associated with carcinogenesis and poor prognosis of CRCs associated with diabetes, and metformin may reverse the AMPK inhibition caused by 14-3-3zeta in CRCs in the background of diabetes. Our study should lead to a better understanding of the anticancer activity of metformin and points to possible application of metformin to the treatment of cancers overexpressing 14-3-3zeta.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by black raspberry anthocyanins
           involved the modulation of gut microbiota and SFRP2 demethylation
    • Authors: Chen L; Jiang B, Zhong C, et al.
      Abstract: Freeze-dried black raspberry (BRB) powder is considered as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. In this study, we fed azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated C57BL/6J mice with a diet containing BRB anthocyanins for 12 weeks, and this led to a reduction in colon carcinogenesis. These animals had consistently lower tumor multiplicity compared with AOM/DSS-treated mice not receiving BRB anthocyanins. In AOM/DSS-treated mice, the number of pathogenic bacteria, including Desulfovibrio sp. and Enterococcus spp., was increased significantly, whereas probiotics such as Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Lactobacillus were dramatically decreased, but BRB anthocyanins supplement could reverse this imbalance in gut microbiota. BRB anthocyanins also caused the demethylation of the SFRP2 gene promoter, resulting in increased expression of SFRP2, both at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the expression levels of DNMT31 and DNMT3B, as well as of p-STAT3 were downregulated by BRB anthocyanins in these animals. Taken together, these results suggested that BRB anthocyanins could modulate the composition of gut commensal microbiota, and changes in inflammation and the methylation status of the SFRP2 gene may play a central role in the chemoprevention of CRC.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • p53β: a new prognostic marker for patients with clear-cell renal cell
           carcinoma from 5.3 years of median follow-up
    • Authors: Zhang H; Zhao Y, Sun P, et al.
      Abstract: We previously reported six different p53 isoforms in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In the present study, influences of p53β on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Patients diagnosed with RCC in our center were into this study. mRNA expressions of p53 isoforms (p53α, p53β, p53γ) in tumors were determined by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Functional yeast-based assay was performed to analyze p53 mutational status. p53β transfected 786-O and CAKi-1 cells were cultured to examine expressions of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (bax) and caspase-3, and ratios of apoptosis. After surgeries, all patients were followed up at programmed intervals. 266 patients were analyzed in this study. Median follow-up time was 5.3 years. RT-PCR (r = −0.72, P = 0.016) and real-time PCR (r = −0.65, P = 0.033) both showed only p53β expressed higher level in lower tumor stage versus higher stage. p53 wild-type and p53 mutation had comparable RFS (P = 0.361) and OS (P = 0.218), respectively. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed high p53β expression was associated with significantly improved RFS and OS, regardless of p53 mutational status. High p53β expression indicated better RFS [hazard ratio (HR) 2.599, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.472–4.551, P = 0.038] and OS (HR 2.604, 95% CI 1.453–4.824, P = 0.031). p53β transfected 786-O and CAKi-1 cells expressed significantly higher level of bax and caspase-3, and had higher ratios of apoptosis than untransfected cells. Taken together, higher level of p53β predict better prognosis in patients with RCC through enhancing apoptosis in tumors.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Pancancer analysis identifies prognostic high-APOBEC1 expression level
           implicated in cancer in-frame insertions and deletions
    • Authors: Niavarani A; Shahrabi Farahani A, Sharafkhah M, et al.
      Abstract: Genome insertions and deletions (indels) show tremendous functional impacts despite they are much less common than single nucleotide variants, which are at the center of studies assessing cancer mutational signatures. We studied 8891 tumor samples of 32 types from The Cancer Genome Atlas in order to explore those genes which are potentially implicated in cancer indels. Survival analysis identified in-frame indels as the most important variants predicting adverse outcome. Transcriptome-wide association study identified 16 genes overexpressed in both tumor samples and tumor types with high number of in-frame indels, of whom four (APOBEC1, BCL2L15, FOXL1 and PDX1) were identified with gene products distributed within the nucleus. APOBEC1 emerged as the mere consistently hypomethylated gene in tumor samples with high number of in-frame indels. The correlation of APOBEC1 expression levels with cancer indels was independent of age and defects in DNA homologous recombination (HR) and/or mismatch repair. Unlike frame-shift indels, triplet repeat motifs were found to occur frequently at in-frame indel sites. The splicing variant 3, making a shorter isoform b, showed essentially all the same indel correlations as of APOBEC1. Expression levels of both APOBEC1 and variant 3 were found to be predicting adverse prognosis independent of DNA HR and mismatch repair. Not less importantly, high level of variant 3 in paired normal tissues was also proved to predict cancer outcome. Our findings propose APOBEC1 and isoform b as the potential endogenous mutators implicated in cancer in-frame indels and pave the way for their use as novel prognostic tumor markers.
      PubDate: Sat, 13 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • A novel stromal lncRNA signature reprograms fibroblasts to promote the
           growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma via LncRNA-CAF/interleukin-33
    • Authors: Ding L; Ren J, Zhang D, et al.
      Abstract: Stromal carcinoma-related fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main type of non-immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). CAFs interact with cancer cells to promote tumor proliferation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate cell growth, apoptosis and metastasis of cancer cells, but their role in stromal cells is unclear. Using RNA sequencing, we identified a stromal lncRNA signature during the transformation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts (NFs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We uncovered an uncharacterized lncRNA, FLJ22447, which was remarkably up-regulated in CAFs, referred to LncRNA-CAF (Lnc-CAF) hereafter. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) was mainly located in the stroma and positively co-expressed with Lnc-CAF to elevate the expression of CAF markers (α-SMA, vimentin and N-cadherin) in fibroblasts. In a co-culture system, IL-33 knockdown impaired Lnc-CAF-mediated stromal fibroblast activation, leading to decreased proliferation of tumor cells. Mechanistically, Lnc-CAF up-regulated IL-33 levels and prevented p62-dependent autophagy–lysosome degradation of IL-33, which was independent of LncRNA-protein scaffold effects. Treatment with the autophagy inducer, rapamycin, impaired the proliferative effect of Lnc-CAF/IL-33 by promoting IL-33 degradation. In turn, tumor cells further increased Lnc-CAF levels in stromal fibroblasts via exosomal Lnc-CAF. In patients with OSCC, high Lnc-CAF/IL-33 expression correlated with high TNM stage (n = 140). Moreover, high Lnc-CAF expression predicted poor prognosis. In vivo, Lnc-CAF knockdown restricted tumor growth and was associated with decreased Ki-67 expression and α-SMA+ CAF in the stroma. In conclusion, we identified a stromal lncRNA signature, which reprograms NFs to CAFs via Lnc-CAF/IL-33 and promotes OSCC development.
      PubDate: Sat, 13 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate reverses Bcl-xL-mediated apoptotic resistance
           to doxorubicin by inducing paraptosis
    • Authors: Park S; Lee D, Lim J, et al.
      Abstract: Elevated Bcl-xL expression in cancer cells contributes to doxorubicin (DOX) resistance, leading to failure in chemotherapy. In addition, the clinical use of high-dose doxorubicin (DOX) in cancer therapy has been limited by issues with cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Here, we show that co-treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) attenuates DOX-induced apoptosis in Chang-L liver cells and human hepatocytes, but overcomes DOX resistance in Bcl-xL-overexpressing Chang-L cells and several hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with high Bcl-xL expression. Additionally, combined treatment with DOX and PDTC markedly retarded tumor growth in a Huh-7 HCC cell xenograft tumor model, compared to either mono-treatment. These results suggest that DOX/PDTC co-treatment may provide a safe and effective therapeutic strategy against malignant hepatoma cells with Bcl-xL-mediated apoptotic defects. We also found that induction of paraptosis, a cell death mode that is accompanied by dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, is involved in this anti-cancer effect of DOX/PDTC. The intracellular glutathione levels were reduced in Bcl-xL-overexpressing Chang-L cells treated with DOX/PDTC, and DOX/PDTC-induced paraptosis was effectively blocked by pretreatment with thiol-antioxidants, but not by non-thiol antioxidants. Collectively, our results suggest that disruption of thiol homeostasis may critically contribute to DOX/PDTC-induced paraptosis in Bcl-xL-overexpressing cells.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • A functional CNVR_3425.1 damping lincRNA FENDRR increases lifetime risk of
           lung cancer and COPD in Chinese
    • Authors: Yang L; Wu D, Chen J, et al.
      Abstract: Genomic imbalance referring to somatic variation in chromosome copies represents the most frequent event in tumorigenesis. Germline copy number variations (gCNVs) overlapping regions of genomic imbalance harbor similar structural characteristics and thus influence tumor susceptibility. We aimed to test effects of such gCNVs on the risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Genomic imbalance of lung cancer was determined by the array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), and common gCNVs at these imbalance regions were genotyped in lung cancer-based and COPD-based retrospective studies. Functional assays were conducted to assess function of promising CNVs. A total of 115 genomic imbalances were discovered occurring at a frequency of more than 25%. The CNVR_3425.1, overlapping the chr16q24.1 with genomic imbalance, was significantly associated with increased risks of lung cancer (OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.46–2.11) and COPD (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.57–2.51). The increase copy of CNVR_3425.1 forms a new additional truncated FOXF1 adjacent non-coding developmental regulatory RNA (FENDRR) sequences comparing the gene promoter and perturbs the transcriptional factors (TFs) binding to the original FENDRR promoter and further downregulates FENDRR, a long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) that functions to inhibit lung cancer by affecting expressions of an abundant number of genes, including the tumor suppressor FOXF1. FENDRR can upregulate FOXF1 by competitively binding to miR-424. The TFs early growth response 1 (EGR1) and transcription factor AP-2 alpha (TFAP2A) were further found to involve the CNVR_3425.1-mediated FENDRR dysregulation. These findings suggested the CNVR_3425.1 to be a possibly predictive biomarker for the risk of lung cancer and COPD, and targeted molecular therapy pertaining to FENDRR upregulation may be a valuable pathway to fight two diseases.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Common genetic variants associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma may also
           modify risk of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
    • Authors: Obazee O; Capurso G, Tavano F, et al.
      Abstract: Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNEN) account for less than 5% of all pancreatic neoplasms and genetic association studies on susceptibility to the disease are limited. We sought to identify possible overlap of genetic susceptibility loci between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and pNEN; therefore, PDAC susceptibility variants (n = 23) from Caucasian genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were genotyped in 369 pNEN cases and 3277 controls from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium to evaluate the odds associated with pNEN risk, disease onset and tumor characteristics. Main effect analyses showed four PDAC susceptibility variants—rs9854771, rs1561927, rs9543325 and rs10919791 to be associated with pNEN risk. Subsequently, only associations with rs9543325, rs10919791 and rs1561927 were noteworthy with false positive report probability (FPRP) tests. Stratified analyses considering age at onset (50-year threshold), showed rs2736098, rs16986825 and rs9854771 to be associated with risk of developing pNEN at a younger age. Stratified analyses also showed some single nucleotide polymorphisms to be associated with different degrees of tumor grade, metastatic potential and functionality. Our results identify known GWAS PDAC susceptibility loci, which may also be involved in sporadic pNEN etiology and suggest that some genetic mechanisms governing pathogenesis of these two entities may be similar, with few of these loci being more influential in younger cases or tumor subtypes.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • In1-ghrelin splicing variant is associated with reduced disease-free
           survival of breast cancer patients and increases malignancy of breast
           cancer cells lines
    • Authors: Rincón-Fernández D; Culler M, Tsomaia N, et al.
      Abstract: Ghrelin gene generates several variants that regulate multiple pathophysiological functions, including tumor-related processes. In1-ghrelin is a splicing variant that was previously shown to be overexpressed in breast cancer (BCa), where it correlated with proliferation markers; however, its possible association with clinical outcome of BCa patients and underlying mechanisms are still unknown. To address this issue, expression levels and clinical associations of In1-ghrelin were analyzed in a cohort of 117 BCa samples. Additionally, a battery of cellular and molecular assays was implemented using two BCa cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), wherein the role of In1-ghrelin on proliferation, migration, dedifferentiation and signaling pathways was explored. The results generated revealed that high expression of In1-ghrelin in BCa samples was associated with lymph node metastasis and reduced disease-free survival. Indeed, In1-ghrelin overexpression stimulated proliferation and migration in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Similar results were found by treating MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 with In1-ghrelin-derived peptides. Conversely, In1-ghrelin silencing decreased proliferation and migration capacities of MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, In1-ghrelin (but not ghrelin) overexpression increased the capacity to form mammospheres in both cell lines. These effects could be associated with activation of MAPK-ERK, Jag1/Notch, Wnt/β-catenin and/or TGF-β1 pathways. Altogether, our data indicate that In1-ghrelin could play relevant functional roles in the regulation of BCa development and progression and may provide insights to identify novel biomarkers and new therapeutic approaches for this pathology.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • p19Arf inhibits aggressive progression of H-ras-driven hepatocellular
    • Authors: Kopanja D; Huang S, Al Raheed M, et al.
      Abstract: Arf, a well-established tumor suppressor, is either mutated or downregulated in a wide array of cancers. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression is controversial. Conflicting observations have been published regarding its expression in HCC. In this study, we provide clear genetic evidence demonstrating a protective role of p19Arf in hepatocarcinogenesis. Using Ras-induced mouse model, we show that p19Arf deficiency accelerates progression of aggressive HCC in vivo. To investigate the role of p14ARF in human liver cancers, we analyzed its expression in human HCC using immunohistochemistry (IHC). We observe lack of nucleolar p14ARF in 43.02% of human HCC samples and that low expression of p14ARF strongly correlates with the early onset of HCC. Importantly, cirrhotic livers that did not progress to HCC harbor higher expression of the p14ARF protein in hepatocytes compared with that in cirrhotic livers with HCC. These results are significant because they suggest that nucleolar p14ARF can be used as early prognostic marker in chronic liver disease to reliably identify patients with high risk for developing liver cancer. Currently, there is no effective systemic therapy for advanced liver cancer; hence, more efficient patient screening and early detection of HCC would significantly contribute to the eradication of this devastating disease.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • PAQR4 has a tumorigenic effect in human breast cancers in association with
           reduced CDK4 degradation
    • Authors: Zhang H; Han R, Ling Z, et al.
      Abstract: Progestin and adipoQ receptor 4 (PAQR4) is a member of the PAQR family, and the members within this family are involved in the regulation of a number of biological processes including metabolism and cancer development. The potential function of PAQR4 in human cancers is unknown. Analysis of ONCOMINE database reveals that PAQR4 is highly expressed in human breast cancers. We confirmed this finding by analyzing 82 human breast cancers samples. PAQR4 mRNA level was significantly upregulated in human breast cancer samples compared with their corresponding para-cancerous histological normal tissues (P < 0.0001). The mRNA level of PAQR4 was negatively correlated with disease-free survival (P < 0.0001) and overall survival of the patients (P = 0.001). Knockdown of PAQR4 in human breast cancer cells SUM159 and MCF7 suppressed cell proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of PAQR4 in SUM159 cells enhanced cell proliferation and colony formation. In a tumor xenograft model, overexpression of PAQR4 promoted tumor growth of SUM159 cells in vivo, while PAQR4 knockdown suppressed the tumor growth. PAQR4 was able to negatively regulate cyclin-dependent kinases 4 (CDK4) protein level in the breast cancer cells. Knockdown of PAQR4 accelerated degradation of CDK4 together with upregulation of CDK4 polyubiquitination. On the other hand, overexpression of PAQR4 slowed down CDK4 protein degradation and reduced CDK4 polyubiquitination. Collectively, these data at the cellular, animal and human levels indicate that PAQR4 has a tumorigenic effect on human breast cancers, and such effect is associated with a modulatory activity of PAQR4 on protein degradation of CDK4.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Prostate cancer: updates on current strategies for screening, diagnosis
           and clinical implications of treatment modalities
    • Authors: Tian J; Guo F, Zheng G, et al.
      Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men by way of diagnosis and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Early detection and intervention remains key to its optimum clinical management. This review provides the most updated information on the recent methods of prostate cancer screening, imaging and treatment modalities. Wherever possible, clinical trial data has been supplemented to provide a comprehensive overview of current prostate cancer research and development. Considering the recent success of immunotherapy in prostate cancer, we discuss cell, DNA and viruses based, as well as combinatorial immunotherapeutic strategies in detail. Furthermore, the potential of nanotechnology is increasingly being realized, especially in prostate cancer research, and we provide an overview of nanotechnology-based strategies, with special emphasis on nanotheranostics and multifunctional nanoconstructs. Understanding these recent developments is critical to the design of future therapeutic strategies to counter prostate cancer.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • A novel bioactive derivative of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) suppresses
           intestinal tumor development in ApcΔ14/+ mice
    • Authors: Nakanishi M; Hanley M, Zha R, et al.
      Abstract: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of hundreds of polyps throughout the colon. Without prophylactic colectomy, most individuals with FAP develop colorectal cancer at an early age. Treatment with EPA in the free fatty acid form (EPA-FFA) has been shown to reduce polyp burden in FAP patients. Since high-purity EPA-FFA is subject to rapid oxidation, a stable form of EPA compound has been developed in the form of magnesium l-lysinate bis-eicosapentaenoate (TP-252). We assessed the chemopreventive efficacy of TP-252 on intestinal tumor formation using ApcΔ14/+ mice and compared it with EPA-FFA. TP-252 was supplemented in a modified AIN-93G diet at 1, 2 or 4% and EPA-FFA at 2.5% by weight and administered to mice for 11 weeks. We found that administration of TP-252 significantly reduced tumor number and size in the small intestine and colon in a dose-related manner and as effectively as EPA-FFA. To gain further insight into the cancer protection afforded to the colon, we performed a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of total fatty acid composition and eicosanoid metabolites. Treatment with TP-252 significantly decreased the levels of arachidonic acid (AA) and increased EPA concentrations within the colonic mucosa. Furthermore, a classification and regression tree (CART) analysis revealed that a subset of fatty acids, including EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and their downstream metabolites, including PGE3 and 14-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (HDoHE), were strongly associated with antineoplastic activity. These results indicate that TP-252 warrants further clinical development as a potential strategy for delaying colectomy in adolescent FAP patients.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • PKK deletion in basal keratinocytes promotes tumorigenesis after chemical
    • Authors: Chen L; Hayden M, Gilmore E, et al.
      Abstract: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is a keratinocyte malignancy characterized by tumors presenting on sun-exposed areas with surgery being the mainstay treatment. Despite advances in targeted therapy in other skin cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma and melanoma, there have been no such advances in the treatment of SCC. This is partly due to an incomplete knowledge of the pathogenesis of SCC. We have recently identified a protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK) as a potential tumor suppressor in SCC. We now describe a novel conditional PKK knockout mouse model, which demonstrates that PKK deficiency promotes SCC formation during chemically induced tumorigenesis. Our results further support that PKK functions as a tumor suppressor in skin keratinocytes and is important in the pathogenesis of SCC of the skin. We further define the interactions of keratinocyte PKK with TP63 and NF-κB signaling, highlighting the importance of this protein as a tumor suppressor in SCC development.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Identification of cancer biomarkers of prognostic value using specific
           gene regulatory networks (GRN): a novel role of RAD51AP1 for ovarian and
           lung cancers
    • Authors: Chudasama D; Bo V, Hall M, et al.
      Abstract: To date, microarray analyses have led to the discovery of numerous individual ‘molecular signatures’ associated with specific cancers. However, there are serious limitations for the adoption of these multi-gene signatures in the clinical environment for diagnostic or prognostic testing as studies with more power need to be carried out. This may involve larger richer cohorts and more advanced analyses. In this study, we conduct analyses—based on gene regulatory network—to reveal distinct and common biomarkers across cancer types. Using microarray data of triple-negative and medullary breast, ovarian and lung cancers applied to a combination of glasso and Bayesian networks (BNs), we derived a unique network-containing genes that are uniquely involved: small proline-rich protein 1A (SPRR1A), follistatin like 1 (FSTL1), collagen type XII alpha 1 (COL12A1) and RAD51 associated protein 1 (RAD51AP1). RAD51AP1 and FSTL1 are significantly overexpressed in ovarian cancer patients but only RAD51AP1 is upregulated in lung cancer patients compared with healthy controls. The upregulation of RAD51AP1 was mirrored in the bloods of both ovarian and lung cancer patients, and Kaplan–Meier (KM) plots predicted poorer overall survival (OS) in patients with high expression of RAD51AP1. Suppression of RAD51AP1 by RNA interference reduced cell proliferation in vitro in ovarian (SKOV3) and lung (A549) cancer cells. This effect appears to be modulated by a decrease in the expression of mTOR-related genes and pro-metastatic candidate genes. Our data describe how an initial in silico approach can generate novel biomarkers that could potentially support current clinical practice and improve long-term outcomes.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Genome-wide interaction study of smoking behavior and non-small cell lung
           cancer risk in Caucasian population
    • Authors: Li Y; Xiao X, Han Y, et al.
      Abstract: Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. Both environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to lung carcinogenesis. We conducted a genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smoking status (never- versus ever-smokers) in a European-descent population. We adopted a two-step analysis strategy in the discovery stage: we first conducted a case-only interaction analysis to assess the relationship between SNPs and smoking behavior using 13336 non-small cell lung cancer cases. Candidate SNPs with P-value <0.001 were further analyzed using a standard case–control interaction analysis including 13970 controls. The significant SNPs with P-value <3.5 × 10−5 (correcting for multiple tests) from the case–control analysis in the discovery stage were further validated using an independent replication dataset comprising 5377 controls and 3054 non-small cell lung cancer cases. We further stratified the analysis by histological subtypes. Two novel SNPs, rs6441286 and rs17723637, were identified for overall lung cancer risk. The interaction odds ratio and meta-analysis P-value for these two SNPs were 1.24 with 6.96 × 10−7 and 1.37 with 3.49 × 10−7, respectively. In addition, interaction of smoking with rs4751674 was identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma with an odds ratio of 0.58 and P-value of 8.12 × 10−7. This study is by far the largest genome-wide SNP-smoking interaction analysis reported for lung cancer. The three identified novel SNPs provide potential candidate biomarkers for lung cancer risk screening and intervention. The results from our study reinforce that gene-smoking interactions play important roles in the etiology of lung cancer and account for part of the missing heritability of this disease.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT
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