Publisher: Oxford University Press (Total: 369 journals)
Journal of Integrated Pest Management
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2155-7470
Published by Oxford University Press [369 journals]
- Ecology and Management of the Alfalfa Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
in Western United States Alfalfa
Authors: Pellissier ME; Nelson Z, Jabbour R.
Abstract: Alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a pest of concern in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) fields throughout the western United States. This introduced pest is most problematic in the early season causing defoliation and reduced hay yield and quality. Both adults and larvae feed on alfalfa, damaging terminals, foliage, and new crown shoots, but the larvae cause the majority of the damage. Three strains of alfalfa weevil, all H. postica, can be found in the western United States: the Western, Eastern, and Egyptian alfalfa weevil, H. brunnipennis (Boheman). Cultural, chemical, and biological control options are all viable strategies to include in an integrated management plan for alfalfa weevil, regardless of strain. We highlight research findings to best inform effective use of early harvest, grazing, insecticides, intercropping, and conservation biological control in alfalfa production systems.
- Advancing Our Understanding of Charcoal Rot in Soybeans
Authors: Romero Luna MP; Mueller D, Mengistu A, et al.
Abstract: Charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is an important but commonly misidentified disease, and very few summary articles exist on this pathosystem. Research conducted over the past 10 yr has improved our understanding of the environment conducive to disease development, host resistance, and improved disease diagnosis and management. This article summarizes the currently available research with an emphasis on disease management.
- Biology and Management of the Fall Webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera:
Authors: Schowalter TD; Ring DR.
Abstract: The fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), is a widespread defoliator that is native throughout the continental United States, as well as southern Canada and northern Mexico. It has been introduced accidentally into many parts of Europe and Asia. Larvae have been recorded from >400 species of forest and shade trees, primarily hardwoods, but also several conifer species in the southern United States. This species is of minor importance in forests, but can cause serious losses in pecan and fruit tree orchards and is a major nuisance in urban parks and homelots where it often completely defoliates ornamental and shade trees. Fall webworm larvae construct conspicuous webs that start at the ends of branches and expand as the larvae grow to incorporate multiple branches. Foliage within webs is completely consumed. Two color races occur throughout the range of this moth, but pure white adults and black-headed larvae predominate in northern regions, whereas spotted adults and red-headed larvae predominate in southern regions. Populations of fall webworm are regulated naturally in its native range by host quality and abundance and by at least 50 species of dipteran and hymenopteran parasitoids and 36 species of predators and parasites. Physical removal, biocontrol, and insecticides are available for management of this moth.
- Outlook of Pyrethroid Insecticides for Pest Management in the Salinas
Valley of California
Authors: Joseph SV; Martin T, Steinmann K, et al.
Abstract: Vegetable and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) pest management involves intensive use of insecticides. Recently, pyrethroid insecticide residues toxic to benthic organisms (e.g., Hyalella azteca Saussure) were detected in the surface water of the Salinas Valley, California, resulting in the establishment of a Total Maximum Daily Load level for bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin. Three discussion sessions and surveys were conducted during grower meetings held in Salinas, California, in 2016, regarding integrated pest management and critical use patterns of pyrethroid insecticides. Survey results were filtered to include only responses from qualified participants involved in pest management decisions on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce Mill.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), Brassica crops, and strawberry. Results indicated that there were many important crop-specific pests that were currently being controlled by pyrethroids, for example, western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae); Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae); cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); and root maggots, Delia spp. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae). Participants suggested that the carbamate, methomyl, was the only effective alternative to pyrethroid insecticides for these pests. Although some lower risk controls may be useful on organic crops where there tends to be a higher tolerance for damage, lower risk controls will not be useful in conventional cropping systems until there is a higher tolerance for damage in the product. The survey indicated that insecticides selected for pest management were chosen based on cost, efficacy, low mammalian toxicity, and short reentry and preharvest intervals.
- Biology and Management of the Buck Moth, Hemileuca maia (Lepidoptera:
Authors: Schowalter TD; Ring DR.
Abstract: The genus Hemileuca Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is widespread across North America, with about 20 species, including the buck moth, Hemileuca maia (Drury). This species is important as a periodic defoliator in oak forests of the eastern United States but is not considered to be destructive to forest resources. Buck moth populations are regulated naturally by environmental factors, particularly foliage quality, predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. The buck moth has become a species of conservation concern in northern states, where it is threatened by habitat loss, fire suppression and other anthropogenic changes in habitat conditions, and perhaps by parasitoids introduced to control invasive Lepidoptera. In the South, the buck moth caterpillars attract attention because the urticating spines of its larvae cause painful stings that often require first-aid advice. Although considered a nuisance in urban areas, this insect generally is not sufficiently abundant to warrant specific control measures. If control is warranted, several biological and insecticidal options are available.
- A Troubleshooting Guide for Mechanistic Plant Pest Forecast Models
Authors: Magarey RD; Isard SA.
Abstract: There is copious literature on development and validation of models to forecast risk to crops from arthropods and diseases; however, there is little published on causes of failure associated with these models. This manuscript provides mechanistic model builders and users with a list of likely problems, potential causes, possible solutions, and associated references. The problems are divided into four categories: environmental inputs, model construction and parameterization, validation, and implementation. The list is based on the authors’ extensive experiences developing and running mechanistic modeling systems. A multidisciplinary approach involving researchers with expertise in pest biology, crop management, meteorology, and information technology is recommended for delivering the most effective pest forecast models.
- A Survey of Regional Trends in Annual Bluegrass Weevil (Coleoptera:
Curculionidae) Management on Golf Courses in Eastern North America
Authors: McGraw BA; Koppenhöfer AM.
Abstract: The annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis Kirby, is the most difficult to control insect pest of short-mown golf course turf in the northeastern United States and Eastern Canada. We conducted a survey among golf course superintendents throughout the weevil's area of impact to better understand the severity of damage, prevalence of insecticide resistance, information sources, and trends in management practices. Responses were received from 293 golf courses in 14 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces. The average population caused damage to 6.6 fairways, 5.7 tee boxes, and 6.4 greens/collars, amounting to a total of 5.2 ha requiring protection on an 18-hole facility. On average, courses made 3.9 insecticide applications per year and spent US$9,270 on L. maculicollis management. Twenty percent of the responders reported having a pyrethroid-resistant L. maculicollis population. “Resistant” populations were located across the region, though higher-than-average incidence was reported from areas with long histories of managing L. maculicollis. “Resistant” populations caused more damage than “susceptible” populations, reported higher average insecticide budgets, and were more likely to make more than five insecticide applications per year than “susceptible” courses. Surveys indicated that, despite the reliance on chemical controls, 90% of turf managers used multiple monitoring tactics to better time and target controls. The greatest influence on management philosophy was by University personnel (43%) followed by colleagues (31%) and sales/distributors (21%). This survey highlights the need for developing alternatives to chemical insecticides to control L. maculicollis and provides insight into the costs associated with the development of pyrethroid resistance.
- Reviewers for Journal of Integrated Pest Management (September
Abstract: The Co-Editors-in-Chief and the Subject Editors of Journal of Integrated Pest Management thank the following scientists for their voluntary commitment of valuable professional time and expertise to peer reviewing manuscripts submitted for publication in our journal. The quality and scientific stature of the journal depends on the conscientious efforts of these individuals.