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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 372 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 372 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 281, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 577, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)

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Journal Cover International Health
  [SJR: 0.835]   [H-I: 15]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1876-3413 - ISSN (Online) 1876-3405
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [372 journals]
  • Onchocerciasis: the beginning of the end
    • Authors: Lawrence J; Sodahlon Y.
      Abstract: EliminationLymphatic filariasisMectizan Donation ProgramNon-governmental organizationsOnchocerciasis
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Onchocerciasis: shifting the target from control to elimination requires a
           new first-step—elimination mapping
    • Authors: Rebollo M; Zoure H, Ogoussan K, et al.
      Abstract: The meaning of ‘mapping’ in relation to onchocerciasis has changed at least three times over the past 50 years as the programmatic goals and the assessment tools have changed. With the current goal being global elimination of Onchocerca volvulus (OV), all areas where OV might currently be transmitted and where mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin treatment has not been delivered previously must now be identified by careful, detailed ‘elimination mapping’ as either OV endemic or not, so that appropriate programmatic targets can be established. New tools and strategies for such elimination mapping have become available, though ongoing studies must still be completed to define agreed upon optimal diagnostic evaluation units, sampling strategies and serologic tools. With detailed guidance and technical support from the World Health Organization and with implementation and financial support from their global partners, the OV-endemic countries of Africa can soon complete their elimination mapping and then continue with MDA programmes to progressively achieve the same success in OV elimination as that already achieved by the growing list of formerly OV-endemic countries in the Americas.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Diagnostics for onchocerciasis in the era of elimination
    • Authors: Unnasch T; Golden A, Cama V, et al.
      Abstract: In the past few years, efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis from Africa have intensified. These efforts are primarily based on the mass distribution of the anti-helminthic drug Mectizan™ (ivermectin). This program has led to the development of new guidelines by the World Health Organization for the verification that transmission has been suppressed and eventually eliminated. The requirements of diagnostic tools for this purpose differ in many ways from tests used to diagnose infection in individuals. In this review, we summarize the progress that has been made to identify diagnostics that meet the specialized requirements needed to verify onchocerciasis elimination, discuss why these tests were selected and summarize the needs that still exist to complete the arsenal of diagnostic tools that will be useful as the goal of elimination is achieved.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Refocusing vector assessment towards the elimination of onchocerciasis
           from Africa: a review of the current status in selected countries
    • Authors: Boakye D; Tallant J, Adjami A, et al.
      Abstract: Measures to control onchocerciasis have been in place for well over 30 years. Recently, programs have turned from disease control towards transmission elimination. The absence of infective larvae in the black fly Simulium sp. vector is central to defining elimination, and assessments of infectivity by O150 polymerase chain reaction in the vector not only provide valuable information to programs, but are also required for verification of elimination. The status of transmission in black flies was assessed in five countries in the African region during 2014 and 2015. Several of these countries were evaluated because of promising results from epidemiological studies in humans. No infective flies were found in two countries. Infective flies were found in the other three, despite the absence of infection in humans (as evaluated by skin-snip microscopy). Ongoing transmission as demonstrated in the black flies could be due to a variety of factors, including lack of treatment of hypo-endemic areas and cross-border issues. Challenges identified during the course of the entomological work suggest that there is a need for improved selection of vector collection sites and vector collection periods in order to improve fly catches. Two important challenges to achieving elimination identified were definition of the hypo-endemic zones and establishing the existence of areas of cross-border transmission occurring between countries.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • For as Long as Necessary: Examining 30 years of MSD’s† Focus on
           Achieving Elimination of Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis
    • Authors: Gustavsen K; Colatrella B, McCoy T.
      Abstract: Established by MSD, also known as Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ USA in 1987, the Mectizan Donation Program (MDP) is the longest running disease-specific program of its kind. Initially aimed at control of onchocerciasis (river blindness), the company expanded its commitment through the MDP in 1998 to include lymphatic filariasis (LF). Both diseases are now candidates for elimination and the company is engaged in several global partnerships to help advance towards that goal. To support the steadily growing demand from country-led disease elimination programs, the company has put in place several administrative and operational improvements. In addition, the company is involved ‘beyond the pill’, including making financial and management contributions to partners such as the END Fund and the Expanded Special Project to Eliminate NTDs (ESPEN) to support the technical needs of elimination programs. While the time-bound elimination targets are challenging, clear progress is being made for both onchocerciasis and LF, with several national and subnational areas in Latin America and Africa having stopped transmission of one or both diseases. The company’s donation of Mectizan and contributions of financial, management and technical resources reflect the company’s long-standing commitment to pursue inventive ways to expand and enhance access to medicine. Continued support from MSD and other partners will enable countries to advance towards their elimination targets for LF and onchocerciasis.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Establishing quality assured (QA) laboratory support for onchocerciasis
           elimination in Africa
    • Authors: Shott J; Ducker C, Unnasch T, et al.
      Abstract: An essential component in achieving accepted successful elimination of a disease or a pathogen involves the acquisition of quality-assured (QA) data that ultimately define the absence of infection or transmission in previously endemic areas. The acquisition of these essential data, in the case of onchocerciasis elimination, requires strong laboratory support for both testing and continuing evaluation/validation of the tools used for the required diagnostic and epidemiology procedures. There is also a need for standardization of the laboratory-based and field-based assays used across the onchocerciasis-endemic countries as well as continuing technical, fiscal and logistical support for laboratory activities. To achieve these needs, it is proposed to build on the existing onchocerciasis programme laboratory activities in the endemic areas by expanding these to include additional laboratories as referral services organized on a regional basis to support the needs of endemic countries. Included in these plans are the development of quality assurance mechanisms, supply chain procedures and standardization of protocols for the basic assays needed for both national onchocerciasis elimination programme surveys and supporting research activities. Such an entity could then include quality-assured testing for other neglected tropical diseases.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Alternative treatment strategies to accelerate the elimination of
           onchocerciasis
    • Authors: Boussinesq M; Fobi G, Kuesel A.
      Abstract: The use of alternative (or complementary) treatment strategies (ATSs) i.e. differing from annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) is required in some African foci to eliminate onchocerciasis by 2025. ATSs include vector control, biannual or pluriannual CDTI, better timing of CDTI, community-directed treatment with combinations of currently available anthelminthics or new drugs, and ‘test-and-treat’ (TNT) strategies requiring diagnosis of infection and/or contraindications to treatment for decisions on who to treat with what regimen. Two TNT strategies can be considered. Loa-first TNT, designed for loiasis-endemic areas and currently being evaluated using a rapid test (LoaScope), consists of identifying individuals with levels of Loa microfilaremia associated with a risk of post-ivermectin severe adverse events to exclude them from ivermectin treatment and in treating the rest (usually >97%) of the population safely. Oncho-first TNT consists of testing community members for onchocerciasis before giving treatment (currently ivermectin or doxycycline) to those who are infected. The choice of the ATS depends on the prevalences and intensities of infection with Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa and on the relative cost-effectiveness of the strategies for the given epidemiological situation. Modelling can help select the optimal strategies, but field evaluations to determine the relative cost-effectiveness are urgently needed.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Operationalization of the test and not treat strategy to accelerate the
           elimination of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Central Africa
    • Authors: Kamgno J; Nana-Djeunga H, Pion S, et al.
      Abstract: After 30 years of treatment with Mectizan (ivermectin), cutaneous and ocular complications of Onchocerca volvulus infection are now scarce in endemic communities. Indeed, transmission has been interrupted and the O. volvulus- associated disease has disappeared in some African foci. Despite this success, onchocerciasis elimination in Loa loa co-endemic areas is still constrained by severe adverse events (SAEs) occurring after ivermectin treatment in some individuals harbouring very high L. loa microfilaremia. One approach towards the prevention of these SAEs is to identify individuals with high L. loa microfilaremia and exclude them from ivermectin treatment. The development of the LoaScope has provided the tool that underlies this test and not treat (TaNT) strategy. The first successful TaNT campaign was conducted in a L. loa highly endemic focus in Cameroon in 2015 without any SAEs. To accomplish this within a research setting, 60 people were deployed for this campaign, making this ‘research’ strategy not sustainable from a cost perspective. We describe here a way of reducing the cost of the TaNT strategy with a smaller team (three people) selected within affected communities. We also suggest the organization of a TaNT campaign in affected countries.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Cross-border issues: an important component of onchocerciasis elimination
           programmes
    • Authors: Bush S; Sodahlon Y, Downs P, et al.
      Abstract: Endemic areas that involve national or local borders present an important challenge to the success of elimination of onchocerciasis; such cross-border endemic foci require special attention to ensure that programme activities are unified. It is vital that national programmes and the committees responsible for the oversight of progress towards elimination are aware and address such issues in their current planning and programmatic activities. Although international borders that intersect endemic zones present the biggest challenge, intracountry borders (such as between administrative districts or loiasis endemic and non-loiasis areas) can also pose problems. The recent change in the onchocerciasis programme from disease control to transmission interruption, given the historical lack of treatment in hypo-endemic areas, may have increased the already relatively high number of cross-national scenarios in Africa. It is vital that all national programmes address the issue of any cross-border endemic areas as a matter of urgency and include this important issue in their elimination plans.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The role of national committees in eliminating onchocerciasis
    • Authors: Griswold E; Unnasch T, Eberhard M, et al.
      Abstract: National onchocerciasis elimination committees (NOECs) serve to help ministries of health complete the pathway to successful verification of elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness), as outlined in the 2016 World Health Organization guidelines. These guidelines, however, only take effect when the country believes it has reached a point that elimination can be demonstrated, and do not address the preceding milestones. Therefore, NOECs can be of great help with guiding and tailoring earlier planning, programming and assessments to empower national programs to aggressively move toward their countries’ elimination goals. In this article, we provide suggestions for organizing NOECs and examples of four such committees that have successfully operated in Africa and the Americas.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Transitioning from river blindness control to elimination: steps toward
           stopping treatment
    • Authors: Cantey P; Roy S, Boakye D, et al.
      Abstract: The transition from onchocerciasis control to elimination requires country programmes to rethink their approach to a variety of activities as they move from addressing morbidity to addressing transmission of the parasite. Although the 2016 WHO guidelines provide extensive recommendations, it was beyond the scope of the document to provide guidance on all aspects of the transition. This paper will discuss some of the important issues that programmes are grappling with as they transition to elimination and provide some potential approaches that programmes can use to address them. Although there are some data to support some aspects of the suggested approaches, operational research will be needed to generate data to support these approaches further and to determine how programmes could best tailor them to their own unique epidemiological challenges. Good communication between the national programmes and the broader global programme will facilitate the clear articulation of programmatic challenges and the development of the evidence to support programme decision-making.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis in the Americas
    • Authors: Sauerbrey M; Rakers L, Richards F.
      Abstract: The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA) is a regional initiative and international partnership that has made considerable progress toward its goal since it was launched in 1993. Its strategy is based on mass drug administration of ivermectin (Mectizan, donated by MSD, also known as Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA), twice or four times per year, with at least 85% coverage of eligible populations. From 1989 to 2016, 11 741 276 ivermectin treatments have been given in the Americas, eliminating transmission in 11 of 13 foci. The OEPA’s success has had a great influence on programs in Africa, especially Sudan and Uganda, which moved from a control to an elimination strategy in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The successes in the Americas have also greatly influenced WHO guidelines for onchocerciasis transmission elimination. With four of the six originally endemic American countries now WHO verified as having eliminated onchocerciasis transmission, and 95% of ivermectin treatments in the region halted, the regional focus is now on the remaining active transmission zone, called the Yanomami Area, on the border between Venezuela and Brazil. Both countries have difficult political climates that hinder the elimination task in this remote and relatively neglected region. As with other elimination efforts, ‘the final inch’ is often the most difficult task of all.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • After 70 years of fighting an age-old scourge, onchocerciasis in Uganda,
           the end is in sight
    • Authors: Katabarwa M; Lakwo T, Habomugisha P, et al.
      Abstract: Onchocerciasis causes severe itching, serious skin disease and ocular damage leading to visual impairment or permanent blindness. It is associated with hanging groin, epilepsy, Nakalanga dwarfism and, most recently, nodding disease. This disease affected communities in 17 transmission foci in 37 districts of Uganda, where about 6.7 million people are once at risk. The efforts against onchocerciasis in Uganda commenced in the late 1940s, when vector control was launched using dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; by 1973, Simulium damnosum had been eliminated in the Victoria focus. Success outside of the Victoria focus was short-lived due to changes in government priorities and the political upheavals of the 1970s and 1980s. With the return of political stability, annual treatment with ivermectin through mass drug administration was launched in the early 1990s. Control of the disease has been successful, but there has been failure in interrupting transmission after more than 15 years. In 2007 Uganda launched a nationwide transmission elimination policy based on twice-per-year treatment and vector control/elimination, with a goal of eliminating river blindness nationwide by 2020. By 2017, 1 157 303 people from six foci had been freed from river blindness. This is the largest population ever declared free under World Health Organization elimination guidelines, providing evidence that elimination of river blindness in Africa is possible.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Onchocerciasis in Yemen: moving forward towards an elimination program
    • Authors: Al-Kubati A; Mackenzie C, Boakye D, et al.
      Abstract: The onchocerciasis focus in Yemen has been known for many years as an endemic area with unique characteristics, notably the atypical and most severe form of onchodermatitis, known as sowda or reactive onchodermatitis (ROD). The national effort to control the disease began in 1992 as an individual case treatment program by administering ivermectin to those presenting with ROD. The challenging geography of the endemic area and the current political and military unrest both underscore a need for special approaches when attempting to eliminate onchocerciasis from this country. An assessment of the national situation regarding this disease was carried out in 2011–2013 aimed at defining the best approach for moving from individual clinical case treatment to elimination of transmission. The history of the control efforts and the current status of the disease are reviewed and the essential changes needed to a mass drug administration (MDA) approach are identified as the national program addresses elimination. Yemen, despite the current troubles, has shown that it can successfully implement MDA programs despite many difficulties and therefore should be supported in its efforts towards countrywide elimination of this infection; however, success will need renewed national and international efforts.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The role of the NGDO Coordination Group for the Elimination of
           Onchocerciasis
    • Authors: Elhassan E; Zhang Y, Bush S, et al.
      Abstract: The NGDO Coordination Group for the Control of Onchocerciasis was launched in 1992, and with the paradigm shift from control of disease to elimination of onchocerciasis transmission, the Group shifted its orientation to that new paradigm in 2013. It also changed its name, replacing ‘control’ with ‘elimination.’ In doing so, the Group has repositioned itself to build on the successes of the past to finish the job it began over 25 years ago.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
 
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