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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 406 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 192, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 348, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 604, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.191
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 35  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0022-3166 - ISSN (Online) 1541-6100
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [406 journals]
  • Origins of the Human Milk Microbiome: A Complex Issue
    • Authors: Greer F.
      Pages: 887 - 889
      Abstract: The study by Williams et al. (1) in this issue of the Journal explores the complex relations between the microbiome of human milk and the oral and fecal microbiotic communities of the mother-infant dyad, using 21 healthy breastfeeding mothers and their infants. By comparison, the microbiome of human milk contains relatively few organisms, estimated at a density of 106 bacteria/mL using newer qPCR molecular technology (2). The source of the microbiota in human milk is controversial. Though previous studies have shown that the human milk microbiome has little resemblance to the rest of the human microbiome (3), this article sheds new light on this controversy. Given that the most common microflora of breast milk are found in the aerobic genera Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, as reported by Williams et al. (1) and confirmed by a recent systematic review (4), the obvious source would be the migration of bacteria from the skin of the areola of the mammary gland and/or the infant's oral cavity into the milk ducts. In support of this theory, the most prominent genera in the breastfeeding infant's mouth are also Streptococcus with the genus Staphylococcus well represented, as demonstrated by Williams et al. (1) and others (5–8). Although the present study did not report skin cultures of the maternal areola, previous studies have also shown a predominance of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus on the areola of breastfeeding mothers (5, 9). Ultrasound studies of the human breast during the milk ejection process have demonstrated the reflux of milk from the infant's mouth into the milk ducts during the act of breastfeeding (10).
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz004
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • The Chemical Forms of Iron in Commercial Prenatal Supplements Are Not
           Always the Same as Those Tested in Clinical Trials
    • Authors: Saldanha L; Dwyer J, Andrews K, et al.
      Pages: 890 - 893
      Abstract: ABSTRACTIn the US, 70% of pregnant women use an iron-containing prenatal supplement product; however, only 2.6% of pregnant women have iron-deficiency anemia and 16.3% are iron deficient. Yet, published data on the amounts and chemical forms of iron used in formulating these products are not available, although they are known to affect bioavailability. This information is especially important in comparing commercially available products with those that were tested in clinical trials. Our examination of nonprescription and prescription iron-containing prenatal supplement products in NIH's Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) and DailyMed found the labeled amount of elemental iron ranged between 9 and 60 mg/serving in 148 nonprescription supplements and between 4.5 and 106 mg/serving in 101 prescription supplements. Ferrous fumarate was the preferred chemical form used in these products. In contrast, ferrous sulfate was the preferred chemical form of iron reported in the clinical trials summarized in a 2015 Cochrane Systematic review assessing the effects of daily oral iron supplements for pregnant women. Ferrous sulfate was not found on any prenatal supplement product label in the DSLD or DailyMed. The chemical forms of products on the market and those tested in clinical trials are dissimilar, and we believe this may have clinical implications. The findings raise several questions. Do outcomes in clinical trials correlate with the benefits and risks that might adhere to iron supplements with different iron formulations' Should the differences in chemical forms, their bioavailability, and safety profiles, be considered in greater depth when evaluating the effect of the various formulations on maternal iron nutriture' Should new clinical trials for pregnant and lactating women in the US use a form of iron not found in prenatal supplements sold in the US or should a more common form be used'
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz042
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Selenium Deficiency Aggravates Aflatoxin B1–Induced Immunotoxicity in
           Chick Spleen by Regulating 6 Selenoprotein Genes and
           Redox/Inflammation/Apoptotic Signaling
    • Authors: Zhao L; Feng Y, Deng J, et al.
      Pages: 894 - 901
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundSelenium (Se) plays a protective role in aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)–induced splenic immunotoxicity in chicks.ObjectiveThis study was designed to reveal the underlying mechanism of Se-mediated protection against AFB1-induced splenic injury in broilers.MethodsFour groups of 1-d-old Cobb male broilers (n = 5 cages/diet, 6 chicks/cage) were arranged in a 3-wk 2 × 2 factorial design trial whereby they were fed an Se-deficient, corn- and soy-based diet [base diet (BD), 36 μg Se/kg], BD plus 1.0 mg AFB1/kg, BD plus 0.3 mg Se/kg, or BD plus 1.0 mg AFB1/kg and 0.3 mg Se/kg (as 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid). Serum and spleen were collected at week 3 to assay for cytokines, histology, redox status, selected inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and the selenogenome.ResultsDietary AFB1 induced growth retardation and spleen injury, decreasing (P < 0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, and serum interleukin-1β by 17.8–98.1% and increasing (P < 0.05) the spleen index and serum interleukin-6 by 37.6–113%. It also reduced the splenic lymphocyte number, the white pulp region, and histiocyte proliferation in Se-adequate groups. However, Se deficiency aggravated (P < 0.05) these AFB1-induced alterations by 16.2–103%. Moreover, Se deficiency decreased (P < 0.05) splenic glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and glutathione-S transferase and glutathione concentrations by 35.6–89.4% in AFB1-exposed groups. Furthermore, Se deficiency upregulated (P < 0.05) the apoptotic (Caspase 3 and Caspase 9) and antimicrobial (β defensin 1 and 2) genes, but downregulated (P < 0.05) antiapoptotic (B-cell lymphoma 2) and inflammatory (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase CBL-B) genes at the mRNA and/or protein level in AFB1 supplementation groups. Additionally, Se deficiency downregulated (P < 0.05) GPX3, thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD 1), GPX4, and selenoprotein (SELENO) S, and upregulated (P < 0.05) SELENOT and SELENOU in spleen in AFB1 administered groups.ConclusionsDietary Se deficiency exacerbated AFB1-induced spleen injury in chicks, partially through the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic signaling, and 6 selenoproteins.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz019
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Strong Multivariate Relations Exist Among Milk, Oral, and Fecal
           
    • Authors: Williams J; Carrothers J, Lackey K, et al.
      Pages: 902 - 914
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundNeonatal gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial community structure may be related to bacterial communities of the mother, including those of her milk. However, very little is known about the diversity in and relationships among complex bacterial communities in mother-infant dyads.ObjectiveOur primary objective was to assess whether microbiomes of milk are associated with those of oral and fecal samples of healthy lactating women and their infants.MethodsSamples were collected 9 times from day 2 to 6 mo postpartum from 21 healthy lactating women and their infants. Milk was collected via complete breast expression, oral samples via swabs, and fecal samples from tissue (mothers) and diapers (infants). Microbiomes were characterized using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Alpha and beta diversity indices were used to compare microbiomes across time and sample types. Membership and composition of microbiomes were analyzed using nonmetric multidimensional scaling and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The contribution of various bacterial communities of the mother-infant dyad to both milk and infant fecal bacterial communities were estimated using SourceTracker2.ResultsBacterial community structures were relatively unique to each sample type. The most abundant genus in milk and maternal and infant oral samples was Streptococcus (47.1% ± 2.3%, 53.9% ± 1.3%, and 69.1% ± 1.8%, respectively), whereas Bacteroides were predominant in maternal and infant fecal microbiomes (22.9% ± 1.3% and 21.4% ± 2.4%, respectively). The milk microbiome was more similar to the infant oral microbiome than the infant fecal microbiome. However, CCA suggested strong associations between the complex microbial communities of milk and those of all other sample types collected.ConclusionsThese findings suggest complex microbial interactions between breastfeeding mothers and their infants and support the hypothesis that variation in the milk microbiome may influence the infant GI microbiome.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy299
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Metabolomics Reveal Altered Postprandial Lipid Metabolism After a
           High-Carbohydrate Meal in Men at High Genetic Risk of Diabetes
    • Authors: Adamska-Patruno E; Samczuk P, Ciborowski M, et al.
      Pages: 915 - 922
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene confers one of the strongest genetic predispositions to type 2 diabetes, but diabetes development can be modified by diet.ObjectiveThe aim of our study was to evaluate postprandial metabolic alterations in healthy men with a high genetic risk of diabetes, after two meals with varying macronutrient content.MethodsThe study was conducted in 21 homozygous nondiabetic men carrying the high-risk (HR, n = 8, age: 31.2 ± 6.3 y, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) 28.5 ± 8.1) or low-risk (LR, n = 13, age: 35.2 ± 10.3 y, BMI: 28.1 ± 6.4) genotypes at the rs7901695 locus. During two meal challenge test visits subjects received standardized isocaloric (450 kcal) liquid meals: high-carbohydrate (HC, carbohydrates: 89% of energy) and normo-carbohydrate (NC, carbohydrates: 45% of energy). Fasting (0 min) and postprandial (30, 60, 120, 180 min) plasma samples were analyzed for metabolite profiles through untargeted metabolomics. Metabolic fingerprinting was performed on an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) system connected to an iFunnel quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer.ResultsIn HR-genotype men, after the intake of an HC-meal, we noted a significantly lower area under the curves (AUCs) of postprandial plasma concentrations of most of the phospholipids (−37% to −53%, variable importance in the projection (VIP) = 1.2–1.5), lysophospholipids (−29% to −86%, VIP = 1.1–2.6), sphingolipids (−32% to −47%, VIP = 1.1–1.3), as well as arachidonic (−36%, VIP = 1.4) and oleic (−63%, VIP = 1.3) acids, their metabolites: keto- and hydoxy-fatty acids (−38% to −78%, VIP = 1.3–2.5), leukotrienes (−65% to −83%, VIP = 1.4–2.2), uric acid (−59%, VIP = 1.5), and pyroglutamic acid (−65%, VIP = 1.8). The AUCs of postprandial sphingosine concentrations were higher (125–832%, VIP = 1.9–3.2) after the NC-meal, AUCs of acylcarnitines were lower (−21% to −61%, VIP = 1.1–2.4), and AUCs of fatty acid amides were higher (51–508%, VIP = 1.7–3.1) after the intake of both meals.ConclusionsIn nondiabetic men carrying the TCF7L2 HR genotype, subtle but detectable modifications in intermediate lipid metabolism are induced by an HC-meal. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03792685.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz024
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • N-Carbamylglutamate and l-Arginine Promote Intestinal Absorption of Amino
           Acids by Regulating the mTOR Signaling Pathway and Amino Acid and Peptide
           Transporters in Suckling Lambs with Intrauterine Growth Restriction
    • Authors: Zhang H; Peng A, Yu Y, et al.
      Pages: 923 - 932
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundPrevious studies have revealed that dietary N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) and l-arginine (Arg) improve intestinal integrity, oxidative state, and immune function in Hu suckling lambs with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Whether these treatments alter intestinal nutrient absorption is unknown.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine the influence of dietary NCG and Arg treatment during the suckling period on intestinal amino acid (AA) absorption, alterations in the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, and the abundance of AA and peptide transporters in IUGR lambs.MethodsOn day 7 after birth, 48 newborn Hu lambs were selected from a cohort of 424 twin lambs. Normal-birth-weight and IUGR Hu lambs were allocated randomly (n = 12/group) to a control (4.09 ± 0.12 kg), IUGR (3.52 ± 0.09 kg), IUGR + 0.1% NCG (3.49 ± 0.11 kg), or IUGR + 1% Arg (3.53 ± 0.10 kg).ResultsAt day 28, compared with the IUGR group, the IUGR groups receiving NCG and Arg had 7.4% and 7.2% greater (P < 0.05) body weight, respectively. Compared with the IUGR group, the serum concentration of insulin was greater (P < 0.05) and the cortisol was lower (P < 0.05) in the IUGR groups receiving NCG and Arg. Compared with the IUGR group, the IUGR groups receiving NCG and Arg had 13.2%–62.6% greater (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of arginine, cysteine, isoleucine, and proline. Dietary NCG or Arg to IUGR lambs resulted in greater protein abundance (P < 0.05) of peptide transporter 1 (41.9% or 38.2%) in the ileum compared with the unsupplemented IUGR lambs, respectively. Furthermore, dietary NCG or Arg treatment normalized the IUGR-induced variation (P < 0.05) in the ileal ratio of phosphorylated mTOR to total mTOR protein.ConclusionBoth NCG and Arg can help mitigate the negative effect of IUGR on nutrient absorption in neonatal lambs.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz016
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Lipid Intake Enhances Muscle Growth But Does Not Influence Glucose
           Kinetics in 3-Week-Old Low-Birth-Weight Neonatal Pigs
    • Authors: El-Kadi S; McCauley S, Seymour K, et al.
      Pages: 933 - 941
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundLow-birth-weight (LBWT) neonates grow at a slower rate than their normal-birth-weight (NBWT) counterparts and may develop hypoglycemia postnatally.ObjectiveWe investigated whether dietary lipid supplementation would enhance growth and improve glucose production in LBWT neonatal pigs.MethodsTwelve 3-d-old NBWT (1.606 kg) crossbred pigs were matched to 12 LBWT (1.260 kg) same-sex littermates. At 6 d of age, 6 pigs in each group were fed a low-energy (LE) or a high-energy (HE) isonitrogenous formula containing 5.2% and 7.3% fat, respectively. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; plasma glucose and glycerol kinetics were assessed using stable isotope tracers. After killing, weights of skeletal muscles and visceral organs were measured. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for a 2 × 2 factorial design; temporal effects were investigated using repeated-measures analysis.ResultsLipid supplementation did not affect body weight of LBWT or NBWT pigs. However, liver and longissimus dorsi weights as a percentage of body weight were greater for pigs fed an HE diet than for those fed an LE diet (4.3% compared with 3.4% and 1.5% compared with 1.2%, respectively) but remained less for LBWT than for NBWT pigs (3.8% compared with 3.9% and 1.3% compared with 1.5%, respectively) (P < 0.05). In addition, hepatic fat content increased (7.9 compared with 2.6 g) in pigs fed the HE compared with those fed the LE formula (P < 0.05). Lipid supplementation did not influence plasma glucose concentration which remained lower in the LBWT than in the NBWT group (4.1 compared with 4.5 mmol/L) (P < 0.05).ConclusionsOur data suggest that lipid supplementation modestly improved growth of skeletal muscle and the liver but did not affect glucose homeostasis in all groups, and glucose concentration remained lower in LBWT than in NBWT pigs. These data suggest that the previously reported hyperglycemic effect of lipid supplementation may depend on the route of administration or age of the neonatal pig.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz030
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Inclusion of Dietary Defatted Microalgae Dose-Dependently Enriches ω-3
           Fatty Acids in Egg Yolk and Tissues of Laying Hens
    • Authors: Manor M; Derksen T, Magnuson A, et al.
      Pages: 942 - 950
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe potential for dietary microalgae to enrich eggs of laying hens with ω-3 (n–3) fatty acids, and the mechanisms involved, are unclear.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine the effects and molecular regulation of a defatted Nannochloropsis oceanica microalgae (DNOM) biomass on the enrichment of the eggs and tissues of laying hens with ω-3 fatty acids.MethodsFifty Shaver-White Leghorn hens (46 wk of age, body weight: 1.70 ± 0.27 kg) were individually caged (n = 10) and fed a corn-soy–based diet supplemented with DNOM at 0% (control), 2.86%, 5.75%, 11.5%, and 23% for 6 wk. Fatty acid profiles, health status, and related gene expression in eggs, blood, and tissues were performed at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. Data were analyzed by a combination of 1-factor ANOVA and correlation between DNOM doses and measures.ResultsThe DNOM produced linear (P < 0.01) enrichments of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total ω-3 fatty acids in the egg yolk (R2 > 0.9) and of DHA in the liver, breast, and thigh (R2 = 0.66–0.82). Concentrations of EPA + DHA in the egg yolk and these 3 tissues of hens fed 11.5% and 23% DNOM were 1.4–2.1, 0.6–1, 3.3–5.3, and 6–7 times greater (P < 0.001) than those in the controls, respectively. The DNOM caused dose-dependent elevations (P < 0.01) of malic enzyme and elongases 3, 4, and 5 mRNA levels (R2 = 0.97, 0.78, 0.97, and 0.86, respectively), along with increased (P < 0.01) Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases and decreased (P < 0.01) Δ9-desaturase and acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase 4 mRNA levels in the liver.ConclusionsFeeding DNOM to laying hens produced dose-dependent enrichments of DHA in their eggs, liver, and muscles by regulating key genes involved in the elongation and desaturation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our findings will help produce DHA-enriched eggs.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz032
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Carrot Leaves Maintain Liver Vitamin A Concentrations in Male Mongolian
           Gerbils Regardless of the Ratio of α- to β-Carotene When β-Carotene
           Equivalents Are Equalized
    • Authors: Titcomb T; Kaeppler M, Sandoval Cates S, et al.
      Pages: 951 - 958
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundCarrots are an important horticultural crop that contain provitamin A carotenoids (PACs). Orange carrots have high concentrations of α-carotene, which upon central cleavage yields 1 retinal and 1 α-retinal molecule. The leaves of carrot plants are a source of PACs when consumed.ObjectiveMale Mongolian gerbils aged 27–30 d were used to assess the bioefficacy of carrot leaves to maintain vitamin A (VA) status and investigate whether the ratio of α- to β-carotene (α:β-carotene) affected bioefficacy.MethodsAfter 3 wk depletion, baseline gerbils were killed (n = 6) and the remaining gerbils (n = 60) were divided into 6 groups to receive 4 VA-deficient, carrot leaf–fortified feeds (1:1.4, 1:2.5, 1:5.0, and 1:80 α:β-carotene ratio) equalized to 4.8 nmol/g β-carotene equivalents (βCEs), or VA-deficient feed with (VA+) or without (VA−) retinyl acetate supplements. Carrot-leaf powder from 4 carrot plants with differing α:β-carotene ratios was used. After 4 wk, gerbils were killed and tissues were collected and analyzed for retinoids by HPLC.ResultsVA+ had higher total liver VA (means ± SD 0.91 ± 0.29 μmol) than all other groups (range: 0.40–0.62) (P ≤ 0.03), and the carrot leaf treatments did not differ from baseline (0.55 ± 0.09 μmol). VA− (0.40 ± 0.23 μmol VA/liver) did not differ from the leaf-fed groups, but 30% became VA deficient (defined as <0.1 μmol VA/g liver). α-Retinol accumulated in livers and lungs and was correlated to total α-carotene consumption (R2 = 0.83 and 0.88, respectively; P < 0.0001). Bioefficacy factors ranged from 4.2 to 6.2 μg βCE to 1 μg retinol.ConclusionsCarrot leaves maintain VA status and prevent deficiency in gerbils regardless of the α:β-carotene ratio. The bioconversion of PACs from carrot leaves to retinol is similar to what has been reported for other green leafy vegetables, making the consumption of carrot leaves a viable method to improve dietary PAC intake.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz036
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Leucine Supplementation Does Not Alter Insulin Sensitivity in Prefrail and
           Frail Older Women following a Resistance Training Protocol
    • Authors: Jacob K; Chevalier S, Lamarche M, et al.
      Pages: 959 - 967
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundFrailty is a clinical condition associated with loss of muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia). Although sarcopenia has multifactorial causes, it might be partly attributed to a blunted response to anabolic stimuli. Leucine acutely increases muscle protein synthesis, and resistance training (RT) is the strongest stimuli to counteract sarcopenia and was recently shown to improve insulin sensitivity (IS) in frail older women. Discrepancies exist regarding whether chronic supplementation of leucine in conjunction with RT can improve muscle mass and IS.ObjectiveThe aim of this double-blinded placebo-controlled study was to determine the effects of leucine supplementation and RT on IS in prefrail and frail older women.MethodsUsing the Fried criteria, 19 nondiabetic prefrail (1–2 criteria) and frail (≥3 criteria) older women (77.5 ± 1.3 y; body mass index (kg/m2): 25.1 ± 0.9) underwent a 3-mo intervention of RT 3 times/wk with protein-optimized diet of 1.2 g·kg−1·d−1 and 7.5 g·d−1 of l-leucine supplementation compared with placebo l-alanine. Pre-/postintervention primary outcomes were fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, and 4-h responses to a standard meal of complete liquid formula. Secondary outcomes of resting energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry and body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Paired t tests analyzed pooled data, and 2-factor repeated-measures ANOVA determined supplementation, training, and interaction effects.ResultsNo significant time, group, or interaction effects were observed for postprandial areas under the curve of serum insulin or plasma glucose or for resting energy expenditure in l-leucine compared with l-alanine. Total lean body mass increased and percentage body fat decreased significantly for both groups postintervention (0.76 ± 0.13 and −0.92 ± 0.33 kg, respectively; time effect: P < 0.01).ConclusionsIS was not affected by RT and leucine supplementation in nondiabetic prefrail and frail older women. Therefore, leucine supplementation does not appear to influence IS under these conditions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01922167.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz038
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A Meta-Analysis of 46 Studies Identified by the FDA Demonstrates that Soy
           Protein Decreases Circulating LDL and Total Cholesterol Concentrations in
           Adults
    • Authors: Blanco Mejia S; Messina M, Li S, et al.
      Pages: 968 - 981
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundCertain plant foods (nuts and soy protein) and food components (viscous fibers and plant sterols) have been permitted by the FDA to carry a heart health claim based on their cholesterol-lowering ability. The FDA is currently considering revoking the heart health claim for soy protein due to a perceived lack of consistent LDL cholesterol reduction in randomized controlled trials.ObjectiveWe performed a meta-analysis of the 46 controlled trials on which the FDA will base its decision to revoke the heart health claim for soy protein.MethodsWe included the 46 trials on adult men and women, with baseline circulating LDL cholesterol concentrations ranging from 110 to 201 mg/dL, as identified by the FDA, that studied the effects of soy protein on LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol (TC) compared with non-soy protein. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method with a random effects model and expressed as mean differences with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed and quantified.ResultsOf the 46 trials identified by the FDA, 43 provided data for meta-analyses. Of these, 41 provided data for LDL cholesterol, and all 43 provided data for TC. Soy protein at a median dose of 25 g/d during a median follow-up of 6 wk decreased LDL cholesterol by 4.76 mg/dL (95% CI: −6.71, −2.80 mg/dL, P < 0.0001; I2 = 55%, P < 0.0001) and decreased TC by 6.41 mg/dL (95% CI: −9.30, −3.52 mg/dL, P < 0.0001; I2 = 74%, P < 0.0001) compared with non-soy protein controls. There was no dose–response effect or evidence of publication bias for either outcome. Inspection of the individual trial estimates indicated most trials (∼75%) showed a reduction in LDL cholesterol (range: −0.77 to −58.60 mg/dL), although only a minority of these were individually statistically significant.ConclusionsSoy protein significantly reduced LDL cholesterol by approximately 3–4% in adults. Our data support the advice given to the general public internationally to increase plant protein intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03468127.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz020
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Inflammation and Stress Biomarkers Mediate the Association between
           Household Food Insecurity and Insulin Resistance among Latinos with Type 2
           Diabetes
    • Authors: Bermúdez-Millán A; Wagner J, Feinn R, et al.
      Pages: 982 - 988
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundHousehold food insecurity (HFI) is a stressor that is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, little is known about HFI and the insulin resistance (IR) underlying T2D, and the mechanisms involved.ObjectiveWe examined the cross-sectional association between HFI and IR among low-income Latinos with T2D and tested whether inflammation and stress hormones mediated this association.MethodsHFI was measured with the 6-item US Household Food Security Survey module. IR was calculated from fasting plasma blood glucose and serum insulin. Inflammation was indicated by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and stress hormones included urinary cortisol, metanephrine, and normetanephrine. To test for an indirect effect of HFI on homeostasis model assessment of IR, a parallel multiple mediation model was run with biological markers that significantly differed between food security status—entered as mediators in the model. We used 95% bias-corrected bootstrap CIs, with 10,000 bootstrap samples, to assess the significance of the indirect effects.ResultsThe 121 participants with T2D were primarily Puerto Rican (85.8%), aged mean = 60.7 y, and 74% were female. Eighty-two (68%) were classified as food insecure. Compared with food-secure individuals, food-insecure individuals had a significantly higher IR [mean difference (Δ) = 7.21, P = 0.001], insulin (Δ = 9.7, P = 0.019), glucose (Δ = 41, P < 0.001), hsCRP (Δ = 0.8, P = 0.008), cortisol (Δ = 21, P = 0.045), and total cholesterol (Δ = 29, P = 0.004). Groups did not differ on other lipids, metanephrine, normetanephrine, or A1c. The mediation model showed a significant direct effect of HFI on hsCRP (P = 0.020) and on cortisol (P = 0.011). There was a direct effect of cortisol (P = 0.013), hsCRP (P = 0.044), and HFI on IR (P = 0.015). The total combined indirect effect of HFI through cortisol and hsCRP indicated partial mediation.ConclusionsAmong Latinos with T2D, HFI is associated with IR partially through inflammation and stress hormones. Interventions to ameliorate HFI and mitigate its effects on inflammation, stress, and IR are warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01578096.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz021
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Triplet Male Lambs Are More Susceptible than Twins to Dietary Soybean
           Oil–Induced Fatty Liver
    • Authors: Wang B; Qu Y, Wang Y, et al.
      Pages: 989 - 995
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundLitter size affects fetal development but its relation to diet-induced fatty liver later in life is unknown.ObjectivesThis aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that litter size influences postweaning fatty liver development in response to soybean oil–supplemented diet.MethodsWeanling twin (TW) or triplet (TP) male lambs (n = 16) were fed a control diet or 2% soybean oil–supplemented diet (SO) for 90 d. Liver tissue morphology, biochemical parameters, and lipid metabolic enzymes were determined. Hepatic gene expression was analyzed by RNA sequencing (n = 3), followed by enrichment analysis according to Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Differentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism were further verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (n = 4). All data were analyzed by a 2-factor ANOVA, apart from differentially expressed genes, which were identified by the Benjamini-Hochberg approach (q value ≤0.05).ResultsSO increased liver triglyceride (by 55%) and nonesterified fatty acid (by 54%) concentrations in TPs (P ≤ 0.05) but not in TWs (P > 0.05). SO also induced a 2.3- and 2.1-fold increase in the liver steatosis score of TPs and TWs, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, SO reduced the activity of lipolytic enzymes including hepatic lipase and total lipase in TPs by 47% and 25%, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). In contrast, activities of lipogenic enzymes, including malic enzyme and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, were significantly higher in TPs (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, TPs had higher expression of lipogenic genes, such as FASN (by 45%) and APOB (by 72%), and lower expression of lipolytic genes, such as PRKAA2 (by 28%) and CPT1A (by 43%), compared with TWs (P ≤ 0.05).ConclusionsTPs have a gene expression profile that is more susceptible to SO-induced fatty liver than that of TWs, which indicates that insufficient maternal nutrient supply at fetal and neonatal stages may increase the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz039
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Lower Non-HDL Cholesterol in Hamsters
           Fed a Diet Rich in Saturated Fat and Act on Genes Involved in Cholesterol
           Homeostasis
    • Authors: Nguyen A; Althwab S, Qiu H, et al.
      Pages: 996 - 1003
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundPinto beans contain multiple active agents such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and saponins, and have been shown to lower cholesterol, but the mechanisms involved in this effect have not been explored.ObjectiveThis study was to investigate the changes in cholesterol metabolism in response to whole pinto beans (wPB) and their hulls (hPB) supplemented into a diet rich in saturated fat and the molecular mechanisms potentially responsible for these effects in hamsters.MethodsForty-four 9-wk-old male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly assigned to 4 diet groups (n = 11), including a 5% (wt:wt) fat diet [normal-fat diet (NF)], a 15% (wt:wt) fat diet [diet rich in saturated fat (HSF), saturated fatty acids accounted for 70% of total fatty acids], or HSF supplemented with 5% (wt:wt) wPB or 0.5% (wt:wt) hPB for 4 wk. Plasma, liver, intestinal, and fecal samples were collected to evaluate multiple cholesterol markers and gene targets.ResultsThe plasma non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) concentration was significantly reduced in the wPB- and hPB-supplemented groups by 31.9 ± 3.5% and 53.6 ± 3.2%, respectively, compared with the HSF group (P < 0.01), to concentrations comparable with the NF group. The wPB-supplemented hamsters had significantly lower liver cholesterol (45.1%, P < 0.001) and higher fecal cholesterol concentrations (94.8%, P = 0.001) than those fed the HSF. The expressions of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (Hmgcr) and small intestinal acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (Acat2) were significantly decreased in animals administered wPB (by 89.1% and 63.8%, respectively) and hPB (by 72.9% and 47.7%, respectively) compared with their HSF-fed counterparts (P < 0.05). The wPB normalized the expression of Acat2 to the level of the NF group.ConclusionPinto beans remediated high cholesterol induced by HSF in male hamsters by decreasing hepatic cholesterol synthesis and intestinal cholesterol absorption, effects which were partially exerted by the hulls.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz044
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • A Green-Mediterranean Diet, Supplemented with Mankai Duckweed, Preserves
           
    • Authors: Yaskolka Meir A; Tsaban G, Zelicha H, et al.
      Pages: 1004 - 1011
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundDecreased dietary meat may deplete iron stores, as plant-derived iron bioavailability is typically limited.ObjectivesWe explored the effect of a low-meat Mediterranean (green-MED) diet, supplemented with Wolffia globosa duckweed (Mankai: rich in protein and iron) as a food source for humans, on iron status. We further examined the iron bioavailability of Mankai in rats.MethodsTwo hundred and ninety-four abdominally obese/dyslipidemic [mean age = 51.1 y; body mass index (kg/m2) = 31.3; 88% men] nonanemic participants were randomly assigned to physical activity (PA), PA + MED diet, or PA + green-MED diet. Both isocaloric MED groups consumed 28 g walnuts/d and the low-meat green-MED group further consumed green tea (800 mL/d) and Mankai (100 g green shake/d). In a complementary animal experiment, after 44 d of an iron deficiency anemia–inducing diet, 50 female rats (age = 3 wk; Sprague Dawley strain) were randomly assigned into: iron-deficient diet (vehicle), or vehicle + iso-iron: ferrous gluconate (FG) 14, Mankai 50, and Mankai 80 versions (1.7 mg · kg−1 · d−1 elemental iron), or FG9.5 and Mankai 50-C version (1.15 mg · kg−1 · d−1 elemental iron). The specific primary aim for both studies was changes in iron homeostasis parameters.ResultsAfter 6 mo of intervention, iron status trajectory did not differ between the PA and PA + MED groups. Hemoglobin modestly increased in the PA + green-MED group (0.23 g/dL) compared with PA (−0.1 g/dL; P < 0.001) and PA + MED (−0.1 g/dL; P < 0.001). Serum iron and serum transferrin saturation increased in the PA + green-MED group compared with the PA group (8.21 μg/dL compared with −5.23 μg/dL and 2.39% compared with −1.15%, respectively; P < 0.05 for both comparisons), as did folic acid (P = 0.011). In rats, hemoglobin decreased from 15.7 to 9.4 mg/dL after 44 d of diet-induced anemia. After depletion treatment, the vehicle-treated group had a further decrease of 1.3 mg/dL, whereas hemoglobin concentrations in both FG and Mankai iso-iron treatments similarly rebounded (FG14: +10.8 mg/dL, Mankai 50: +6.4 mg/dL, Mankai 80: +7.3 mg/dL; FG9.5: +5.1 mg/dL, Mankai 50-C: +7.1 mg/dL; P < 0.05 for all vs. the vehicle group).ConclusionsIn humans, a green-MED low-meat diet does not impair iron homeostasis. In rats, iron derived from Mankai (a green-plant protein source) is bioavailable and efficient in reversal of anemia. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03020186.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy321
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Serum Iodine Is Correlated with Iodine Intake and Thyroid Function in
           School-Age Children from a Sufficient-to-Excessive Iodine Intake Area
    • Authors: Cui T; Wang W, Chen W, et al.
      Pages: 1012 - 1018
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAn alternative feasible and convenient method of assessing iodine intake is needed.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to examine the utility of serum iodine for assessing iodine intake in children.MethodsOne blood sample and 2 repeated 24-h urine samples (1-mo interval) were collected from school-age children in Shandong, China. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (Tg), total iodine (StI), and non-protein-bound iodine (SnbI) concentrations and urine iodine (UIC) and creatinine (UCr) concentrations were measured. Iodine intake was estimated based on two 24-h urine iodine excretions (24-h UIE). Associations between serum iodine and other factors were analyzed using the Spearman rank correlation test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to illustrate diagnostic ability of StI and SnbI.ResultsIn total, 1686 children aged 7–14 y were enrolled. The median 24-h UIC for the 2 collections was 385 and 399 μg/L, respectively. The median iodine intake was estimated to be 299 μg/d and was significantly higher in boys than in girls (316 μg/d compared with 283 μg/d; P < 0.001). StI and SnbI were both positively correlated with FT4 (ρ = 0.30, P < 0.001; and ρ = 0.21, P < 0.001), Tg (ρ = 0.21, P < 0.001; and ρ = 0.19, P < 0.001), 24-h UIC (ρ = 0.56, P < 0.001; and ρ = 0.47, P < 0.001), 24-h UIE (ρ = 0.46, P < 0.001; and ρ = 0.49, P < 0.001), urine iodine-to-creatinine ratio (ρ = 0.58, P < 0.001; and ρ = 0.62, P < 0.001), and iodine intake (ρ = 0.49, P < 0.001; and ρ = 0.53, P < 0.001). The areas under the ROC curves for StI and SnbI for the diagnosis of excessive iodine intake in children were 0.76 and 0.77, respectively. The optimal StI and SnbI threshold values for defining iodine excess in children were 101 and 56.2 μg/L, respectively.ConclusionsSerum iodine was positively correlated with iodine intake and the serum FT4 concentration in children. It is a potential biomarker for diagnosing excessive iodine intake in children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02915536.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy325
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • School-Age Children Can Recall Some Foods and Beverages Consumed the Prior
           Day Using the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Assessment Tool
           (ASA24) without Assistance
    • Authors: Raffoul A; Hobin E, Sacco J, et al.
      Pages: 1019 - 1026
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundTechnological innovations allow for collection of 24-h recalls (24HRs) in a broader range of studies than previously possible. The web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24) has been shown to be feasible and to perform well in capturing true intake among adults. However, data to inform use with children are limited.ObjectiveThis observational feeding study was conducted to evaluate children's ability to accurately report a lunchtime meal using ASA24 without assistance.MethodsThe study was conducted among children (n = 100) aged 10–13 y within a school setting. Students were served an individual cheese pizza, baby carrots, ranch dip, yogurt, a cookie, and 1 choice of water, juice, or milk. Plate waste was collected and weighed. The next day, participants completed ASA24 and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were generated to determine match rates by food item and age, and linear regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between sociodemographic characteristics and accuracy of reported energy and nutrient intake. Associations between true and reported energy and nutrient intakes and portion sizes were assessed with use of t tests.ResultsJust under half (49%) of children fully completed ASA24 (median time, 41 min). Children reported an exact, close, or far match for 58% of all foods and beverages consumed, ranging from 29% for dip to 76% for pizza, but also reported some items not consumed as part of the study meal. Older children completed the recall in a shorter time than younger children (mean 31 among 13 y compared with 52 min among 10 y). Intakes of energy (39%), protein (33%), and sodium (78%) were significantly overestimated, whereas portion sizes for cookies (53%) and juice (69%) were underestimated.ConclusionsChildren can report some foods and drinks consumed using ASA24, but our findings suggest challenges with independent completion, necessitating research to examine strategies, such as training and resources, to support data quality.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz013
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Dietary Patterns Are Not Consistently Associated with Variability in Blood
           Lead Concentrations in Pregnant British Women
    • Authors: Taylor C; Doerner R, Northstone K, et al.
      Pages: 1027 - 1036
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundDuring pregnancy lead crosses the placenta freely and can have adverse effects on the fetus, with the potential for lifelong impact on the child. Identification of dietary patterns and food groups in relation to measures of lead status could provide a more useful alternative to nutrient-specific advice to minimize fetal lead exposure.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary patterns and food groups are associated with blood lead concentration (B-Pb) in pregnancy.DesignWhole blood samples were collected at a median of 11 wk gestation (IQR 9–13 wk) from women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort study, and analyzed for lead. Dietary pattern scores were derived from principal components analysis of a food-frequency questionnaire (32 wk gestation). Associations of dietary pattern scores (quartiles), and of food groups (frequency of consumption), with the likelihood of B-Pb ≥5 µg/dL identified with adjusted logistic regression (n = 2167 complete cases).ResultsThere was a negative association between the “confectionery” dietary pattern and the likelihood of B-Pb ≥5 µg/dL (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94) in an adjusted model. There were no associations with other dietary patterns. There was a positive association between the food group “all leafy green and green vegetables” and the likelihood of B-Pb ≥5 µg/dL (OR 1.45; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.01). Conversely, the food group “cakes and biscuits” was negatively associated (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.93). After multiple imputation, there was a positive association of the “healthy” diet pattern and no association of the “confectionery” pattern.ConclusionsWe found limited evidence of an association between women's typical diet and B-Pb during pregnancy. Our findings do not indicate need to revise dietary guidance for pregnant women, who are advised to adopt a healthy diet in pregnancy, with a variety of foods consumed in moderation.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz023
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Maternal Dietary Glycemic and Insulinemic Indexes Are Not Associated with
           Birth Outcomes or Childhood Adiposity at 5 Years of Age in an Irish Cohort
           Study
    • Authors: Chen L; Navarro P, Murrin C, et al.
      Pages: 1037 - 1046
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundHigh maternal dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may be associated with adverse offspring birth and postnatal adiposity outcomes through metabolic programming, but the evidence thus far, mainly from studies conducted in high-risk pregnant populations, has been inconclusive. No study has examined the influence of maternal insulin demand [measured by food insulinemic index (II) and insulinemic load (IL)] on offspring outcomes.ObjectivesWe investigated associations between maternal GI, GL, II, and IL and offspring birth outcomes and postnatal adiposity in a general pregnant population.MethodsThe study was based on data from 842 mother-child pairs from the Lifeways prospective cohort study in Ireland. Through the use of standard methodology, maternal GI, GL, II, and IL were derived from dietary information obtained via a validated food-frequency questionnaire in early pregnancy (12–16 wk). Birth outcomes were abstracted from hospital records. At 5-y follow-up, children's body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured. Associations were assessed through the use of multivariable-adjusted regression analysis.ResultsMothers had a mean ± SD age of 30.3 ± 5.7 y and a mean BMI (kg/m2) of 23.9 ± 4.2. The mean ± SD for dietary glycemic and insulinemic indexes were: GI = 58.9 ± 4.4; GL = 152 ± 49; II = 57.4 ± 14.5; IL = 673 ± 267. After adjustment for confounders, no consistent associations were observed between maternal GI, GL, II, and IL and birth outcomes including birth weight, macrosomia, gestational age, and postterm births. Similarly, no association was observed with BMI and waist circumference z scores and childhood obesity (general and central) at 5-y follow-up. There was no evidence of a nonlinear relation between the studied indexes and outcomes.ConclusionsWe observed no clear relation between maternal GI, GL, II, and IL and offspring birth outcomes and childhood obesity in a general pregnant population.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz025
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Generalizability of a Diabetes-Associated Country-Specific Exploratory
           Dietary Pattern Is Feasible Across European Populations
    • Authors: Jannasch F; Kröger J, Agnoli C, et al.
      Pages: 1047 - 1055
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundPopulation-specificity of exploratory dietary patterns limits their generalizability in investigations with type 2 diabetes incidence.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to derive country-specific exploratory dietary patterns, investigate their association with type 2 diabetes incidence, and replicate diabetes-associated dietary patterns in other countries.MethodsDietary intake data were used, assessed by country-specific questionnaires at baseline of 11,183 incident diabetes cases and 14,694 subcohort members (mean age 52.9 y) from 8 countries, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (mean follow-up time 6.9 y). Exploratory dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis. HRs for incident type 2 diabetes were calculated by Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models. Diabetes-associated dietary patterns were simplified or replicated to be applicable in other countries. A meta-analysis across all countries evaluated the generalizability of the diabetes-association.ResultsTwo dietary patterns per country/UK-center, of which overall 3 dietary patterns were diabetes-associated, were identified. A risk-lowering French dietary pattern was not confirmed across other countries: pooled HRFrance per 1 SD: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.10. Risk-increasing dietary patterns, derived in Spain and UK-Norfolk, were confirmed, but only the latter statistically significantly: HRSpain: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.22 and HRUK-Norfolk: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.20. Respectively, this dietary pattern was characterized by relatively high intakes of potatoes, processed meat, vegetable oils, sugar, cake and cookies, and tea.ConclusionsOnly few country/center-specific dietary patterns (3 of 18) were statistically significantly associated with diabetes incidence in this multicountry European study population. One pattern, whose association with diabetes was confirmed across other countries, showed overlaps in the food groups potatoes and processed meat with identified diabetes-associated dietary patterns from other studies. The study demonstrates that replication of associations of exploratory patterns with health outcomes is feasible and a necessary step to overcome population-specificity in associations from such analyses.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz031
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Inversely Associated with
           All-Cause Mortality among a Prospective Cohort of Chinese Adults Aged
           ≥80 Years
    • Authors: Mao C; Li F, Yin Z, et al.
      Pages: 1056 - 1064
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundHigh concentrations of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a marker of circulating vitamin D, have been associated with a lower risk of mortality in epidemiologic studies of multiple populations, but the association for Chinese adults aged ≥80 y (oldest old) remains unclear.ObjectiveWe investigated the association between plasma [25(OH)D] concentration and all-cause mortality among Chinese adults aged ≥80 y.DesignThe present study is a prospective cohort study of 2185 Chinese older adults (median age: 93 y). Prospective all-cause mortality data were analyzed for survival in relation to plasma 25(OH)D using Cox proportional hazards regression models, with adjustments for potential sociodemographic and lifestyle confounders and biomarkers. The associations were measured with HR and 95% CIs.ResultsThe median plasma 25(OH)D concentration was 34.4 nmol/L at baseline. Over the 5466 person-year follow-up period, 1100 deaths were identified. Men and women were analyzed together as no effect modification by sex was found. After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, the risk of all-cause mortality decreased as the plasma 25(OH)D concentration increased (P-trend <0.01). Compared with the lowest age-specific quartile of plasma 25(OH)D, the adjusted HRs for mortality for the second, third, and fourth age-specific quartiles were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.90), 0.73 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.93), and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.47, 0.81), respectively. The observed associations were broadly consistent across age and other subgroups. Sensitivity analyses generated similar results after excluding participants who died within 2 y of follow-up or after further adjustment for ethnicity and chronic diseases.ConclusionsA higher plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality among Chinese adults aged ≥80 y. This observed inverse association warrants further investigation in randomized controlled trials testing vitamin D supplementation in this age group.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz041
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Global Improvement in Dietary Quality Could Lead to Substantial Reduction
           in Premature Death
    • Authors: Wang D; Li Y, Afshin A, et al.
      Pages: 1065 - 1074
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe preventable premature mortality achievable by improvement in dietary quality at a global level is unclear.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to assess dietary quality globally, and to quantify the potential global impact of improving dietary quality on population health.MethodsWe applied the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI, potential range 0–100) to a global dietary database to assess dietary quality among adults in 190 countries/territories. The relation of AHEI score to risks of major chronic disease was estimated from 2 large cohorts of men and women for whom many repeated dietary assessments during up to 30 years were available. We calculated the preventable premature deaths achievable by shifting from current national diets to a reference healthy diet.ResultsThe global mean AHEI score in 2017 was 49.5 for males and 50.5 for females. Large differences between current and target intakes existed for whole grains, sodium, long-chain n–3 polyunsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, and fruits. From 1990 to 2017, the global mean AHEI score increased modestly from 45.4 to 50.0. Diet quality varied substantially across the world. Coastal Mediterranean nations, the Caribbean region, and Eastern Asia (except China and Mongolia) had a higher AHEI score, whereas Central Asia, the South Pacific, and Eastern and Northern Europe had a lower score. An improvement in dietary quality from the current global diet to the reference healthy diet could prevent >11 million premature deaths, ∼24% of total deaths in 2017. These included 1.6 million cancer deaths, 3.9 million coronary artery disease deaths, 1.0 million stroke deaths, 1.7 million respiratory disease deaths, 0.4 million neurodegenerative disease deaths, 0.5 million kidney disease deaths, 0.6 million diabetes deaths, and 1.2 million digestive disease deaths.ConclusionsGlobal dietary quality is slowly improving, but remains far from optimal and varies across countries. Improvements in dietary quality have the potential to reduce mortality rates substantially.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz010
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Neonatal Vitamin A Supplementation and Vitamin A Status Are Associated
           with Gut Microbiome Composition in Bangladeshi Infants in Early Infancy
           and at 2 Years of Age
    • Authors: Huda M; Ahmad S, Kalanetra K, et al.
      Pages: 1075 - 1088
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundInfancy is a crucial period for establishing the intestinal microbiome. This process may be influenced by vitamin A (VA) status because VA affects intestinal immunity and epithelial integrity, factors that can, in turn, modulate microbiome development.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine if neonatal VA supplementation (VAS) affected the abundance of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial commensal, or of Proteobacteria, a phylum containing enteric pathogens, in early (6–15 wk) or late (2 y) infancy. Secondary objectives were to determine if VAS affected the abundance of other bacterial taxa, and to determine if VA status assessed by measuring plasma retinol was associated with bacterial abundance.MethodsThree hundred and six Bangladeshi infants were randomized by sex and birthweight status (above/below median) to receive 1 VA dose (50,000 IU) or placebo within 48 h of birth. Relative abundance at the genus level and above was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A terminal restriction fragment-length polymorphism assay was used to identify Bifidobacterium species and subspecies at 6 wk.ResultsLinear regression showed that Bifidobacterium abundance in early infancy was lower in boys (median, 1st/3rd quartiles; 0.67, 0.52/0.78) than girls (0.73, 0.60/0.80; P = 0.003) but that boys receiving VAS (0.69, 0.55/0.78) had higher abundance than boys receiving placebo (0.65, 0.44/0.77; P = 0.039). However this difference was not seen in girls (VAS 0.71, 0.54/0.80; placebo 0.75, 0.63/0.81; P = 0.25). VAS did not affect Proteobacteria abundance. Sex-specific associations were also seen for VA status, including positive associations of plasma retinol with Actinobacteria (the phylum containing Bifidobacterium) and Akkermansia, another commensal with possible health benefits, for girls in late infancy.ConclusionsBetter VA status in infancy may influence health both in infancy and later in life by promoting the establishment of a healthy microbiota. This postulated effect of VA may differ between boys and girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02027610.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz034
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Percent Fat Mass Increases with Recovery, But Does Not Vary According to
           Dietary Therapy in Young Malian Children Treated for Moderate Acute
           Malnutrition
    • Authors: McDonald C; Ackatia-Armah R, Doumbia S, et al.
      Pages: 1089 - 1096
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundModerate acute malnutrition (MAM) affects 34.1 million children globally. Treatment effectiveness is generally determined by the amount and rate of weight gain. Body composition (BC) assessment provides more detailed information on nutritional stores and the type of tissue accrual than traditional weight measurements alone.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to compare the change in percentage fat mass (%FM) and other BC parameters among young Malian children with MAM according to receipt of 1 of 4 dietary supplements, and recovery status at the end of the 12-wk intervention period.MethodsBC was assessed using the deuterium oxide dilution method in a subgroup of 286 children aged 6–35 mo who participated in a 12-wk community-based, cluster-randomized effectiveness trial of 4 dietary supplements for the treatment of MAM: 1) lipid-based, ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF); 2) special corn–soy blend “plus plus” (CSB++); 3) locally processed, fortified flour (MI); or 4) locally milled flours plus oil, sugar, and micronutrient powder (LMF). Multivariate linear regression modeling was used to evaluate change in BC parameters by treatment group and recovery status.ResultsMean ± SD %FM at baseline was 28.6% ± 5.32%. Change in %FM did not vary between groups. Children who received RUSF vs. MI gained more (mean; 95% CI) weight (1.43; 1.13, 1.74 kg compared with 0.84; 0.66, 1.03 kg; P = 0.02), FM (0.70; 0.45, 0.96 kg compared with 0.20; 0.05, 0.36 kg; P = 0.01), and weight-for-length z score (1.23; 0.79, 1.54 compared with 0.49; 0.34, 0.71; P = 0.03). Children who recovered from MAM exhibited greater increases in all BC parameters, including %FM, than children who did not recover.ConclusionsIn this study population, children had higher than expected %FM at baseline. There were no differences in %FM change between groups. International BC reference data are needed to assess the utility of BC assessment in community-based management of acute malnutrition programs. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015950.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz037
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Erratum
    • Pages: 1097 - 1097
      Abstract: Erratum to Suryawan and Davis. Amino Acid- and Insulin-Induced Activation of mTORC1 in Neonatal Piglet Skeletal Muscle Involves Sestrin2-GATOR2, Rag A/C-mTOR, and RHEB-mTOR Complex Formation. J Nutr 2018;148:825–33.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz057
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Erratum
    • Pages: 1097 - 1097
      Abstract: Erratum to Churchward-Venne, et al. Myofibrillar and Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis Rates Do Not Differ in Young Men Following the Ingestion of Carbohydrate with Whey, Soy, or Leucine-Enriched Soy Protein after Concurrent Resistance- and Endurance-Type Exercise. J Nutr 2019; 149:210–20.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz027
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
  • Calendar of Events
    • Pages: 1098 - 1098
      PubDate: Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz134
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 6 (2019)
       
 
 
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