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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 397 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 397 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 327, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 599, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.191
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 35  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0022-3166 - ISSN (Online) 1541-6100
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [397 journals]
  • Ironing out the Relation between Iron Supplementation and Exercise
           Performance in the Absence of Anemia
    • Authors: Hennigar S.
      Pages: 177 - 178
      Abstract: In this issue of The Journal of Nutrition, Pompano and Haas (1) provide data that clarify the impact of iron supplementation on endurance performance in iron-deficient nonanemic (IDNA) women. The data gleaned from this randomized, placebo-controlled trial indicate that iron supplementation during an 8-wk aerobic training program improves endurance performance at submaximal and maximal exercise intensities in previously untrained IDNA women and, importantly, that improving iron status has no impact on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max).
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy288
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Persistent Food Insecurity's Association with Mental Health of Women
           Living With or at Risk of HIV: A Call to Action
    • Authors: Metallinos-Katsaras E.
      Pages: 179 - 180
      Abstract: HIV, food insecurity, and depression are 3 major public health concerns that are frequently found in the same communities and often in the same people. Women are disproportionately affected by all 3 of these health-related concerns (1–3). The WHO estimated that in 2017, of the 35.1 million adults living with HIV worldwide, 18.2 million (52%) were women (1). Similarly, food insecurity affected about 15 million households or 11.8% of all households in the United States in 2017; however, at 30.3%, the prevalence is almost triple among female-headed households (2). Finally, depression is more prevalent in women than men (3); based on the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, between 2005 and 2015 the prevalence of depression increased among women from 8.84% in 2005 to 9.72% in 2015 (3). Men, in contrast, not only had a lower prevalence every year from 2005 to 2015 but the prevalence essentially remained unchanged over the 10-y period (4.84–4.69%) (3).
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy294
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Best Practices for Dietary Supplement Assessment and Estimation of Total
           Usual Nutrient Intakes in Population-Level Research and Monitoring
    • Authors: Bailey R; Dodd K, Gahche J, et al.
      Pages: 181 - 197
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe use of dietary supplements (DS) is pervasive and can provide substantial amounts of micronutrients to those who use them. Therefore when characterizing dietary intakes, describing the prevalence of inadequacy or excess, or assessing relations between nutrients and health outcomes, it is critical to incorporate DS intakes to improve exposure estimates. Unfortunately, little is known about the best methods to assess DS, and the structure of measurement error in DS reporting. Several characteristics of nutrients from DS are salient to understand when comparing to those in foods. First, DS can be consumed daily or episodically, in bolus form and can deliver discrete and often very high doses of nutrients that are not limited by energy intakes. These characteristics contribute to bimodal distributions and distributions severely skewed to the right. Labels on DS often provide nutrient forms that differ from those found in conventional foods, and underestimate analytically derived values. Finally, the bioavailability of many nutrient-containing DS is not known and it may not be the same as the nutrients in a food matrix. Current methods to estimate usual intakes are not designed specifically to handle DS. Two temporal procedures are described to refer to the order that nutrient intakes are combined relative to usual intake procedures, referred to as a “shrinking” the distribution to remove random error. The “shrink then add” approach is preferable to the “add then shrink” approach when users and nonusers are combined for most research questions. Stratifying by DS before usual intake methods is another defensible option. This review describes how to incorporate nutrient intakes from DS to usual intakes from foods, and describes the available methods and fit-for-purpose of different analytical strategies to address research questions where total usual intakes are of interest at the group level for use in nutrition research and to inform policy decisions. Clinical Trial Registry: NCT03400436.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy264
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Myofibrillar and Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis Rates Do Not Differ in
           Young Men Following the Ingestion of Carbohydrate with Milk Protein, Whey,
           or Micellar Casein after Concurrent Resistance- and Endurance-Type
           Exercise
    • Authors: Churchward-Venne T; Pinckaers P, Smeets J, et al.
      Pages: 198 - 209
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundWhey and micellar casein are high-quality dairy proteins that can stimulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates. How whey and casein compare with milk protein in their capacity to stimulate postprandial myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis rates during postexercise recovery is currently unknown.ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to compare postprandial MyoPS and MitoPS rates after protein-carbohydrate co-ingestion with milk protein, whey, or micellar casein during recovery from a single bout of concurrent resistance- and endurance-type exercise in young healthy men.MethodsIn a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group design, 48 healthy, young, recreationally active men (mean ± SEM age: 23 ± 0.3 y) received a primed continuous infusion of L-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine and L-[ring-3,5-2H2]-tyrosine and ingested 45 g carbohydrate with 0 g protein (CHO), 20 g milk protein (MILK), 20 g whey protein (WHEY), or 20 g micellar casein protein (CASEIN) after a sequential bout of resistance- and endurance-type exercise (i.e., concurrent exercise). Blood and muscle biopsies were collected over 360 min during recovery from exercise to assess MyoPS and MitoPS rates and signaling through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1).ResultsDespite temporal differences in postprandial plasma leucine concentrations between treatments (P < 0.001), MyoPS rates over 360 min of recovery did not differ between treatments (CHO: 0.049% ± 0.003%/h; MILK: 0.059% ± 0.003%/h; WHEY: 0.054% ± 0.002%/h; CASEIN: 0.059% ± 0.005%/h; P = 0.11). When MILK, WHEY, and CASEIN were pooled into a single group (PROTEIN), protein co-ingestion resulted in greater MyoPS rates compared with CHO (PROTEIN: 0.057% ± 0.002%/h; CHO: 0.049% ± 0.003%/h; P = 0.04). MitoPS rates and signaling through the mTORC1 pathway were similar between treatments.ConclusionMyoPS and MitoPS rates do not differ after co-ingestion of either milk protein, whey protein, or micellar casein protein with carbohydrate during recovery from a single bout of concurrent resistance- and endurance-type exercise in recreationally active young men. Co-ingestion of protein with carbohydrate results in greater MyoPS, but not MitoPS rates, when compared with the ingestion of carbohydrate only during recovery from concurrent exercise. This trial was registered at Nederlands Trial Register: NTR5098.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy244
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Myofibrillar and Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis Rates Do Not Differ in
           Young Men Following the Ingestion of Carbohydrate with Whey, Soy, or
           Leucine-Enriched Soy Protein after Concurrent Resistance- and
           Endurance-Type Exercise
    • Authors: Churchward-Venne T; Pinckaers P, Smeets J, et al.
      Pages: 210 - 220
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundProtein ingestion during recovery from resistance-type exercise increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis rates. Whey protein has been reported to have greater anabolic properties than soy protein, an effect which may be attributed to the higher leucine content of whey.ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to compare postprandial myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis rates after ingestion of carbohydrate with whey, soy, or soy protein enriched with free leucine (to match the leucine content of whey) during recovery from a single bout of concurrent resistance- and endurance-type exercise in young healthy men.MethodsIn a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group design, 36 healthy young recreationally active men (mean ± SEM age: 23 ± 0.4 y) received a primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine and l-[ring-3,5-2H2]-tyrosine and ingested 45 g carbohydrate with 20 g protein from whey (WHEY), soy (SOY), or leucine-enriched soy (SOY + LEU) after concurrent resistance- and endurance-type exercise. Blood and muscle biopsies were collected over a 360 min postexercise recovery period to assess MyoPS and MitoPS rates, and associated signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1).ResultsPostprandial peak plasma leucine concentrations were significantly higher in WHEY (mean ± SEM: 322 ± 10 μmol/L) and SOY + LEU (328 ± 14 μmol/L) compared with SOY (216 ± 6 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). Despite the apparent differences in plasma leucinemia, MyoPS (WHEY: 0.054 ± 0.002; SOY: 0.053 ± 0.004; SOY + LEU: 0.056 ± 0.004%·h−1; P = 0.83), and MitoPS (WHEY: 0.061 ± 0.004; SOY: 0.061 ± 0.006; SOY + LEU: 0.063 ± 0.004%·h−1; P = 0.96) rates over the entire 360 min recovery period did not differ between treatments. Similarly, signaling through mTORC1Ser2448, p70S6kThr389, 4E-BP1Thr37/46, and rpS6Ser235/236 was similar between treatments.ConclusionPostexercise MyoPS and MitoPS rates do not differ after co-ingestion of carbohydrate with 20 g protein from whey, soy, or leucine-enriched soy protein during 360 min of recovery from concurrent resistance- and endurance-type exercise in young, recreationally active men. This trial was registered at Nederlands Trial Register as NTR5098.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy251
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Dose-Dependent Increases in Whole-Body Net Protein Balance and Dietary
           Protein-Derived Amino Acid Incorporation into Myofibrillar Protein During
           Recovery from Resistance Exercise in Older Men
    • Authors: Holwerda A; Paulussen K, Overkamp M, et al.
      Pages: 221 - 230
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAge-related decline in skeletal muscle mass is at least partly attributed to anabolic resistance to food intake. Resistance exercise sensitizes skeletal muscle tissue to the anabolic properties of amino acids.ObjectiveThe present study assessed protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics, whole-body protein balance, and the myofibrillar protein synthetic response to ingestion of different amounts of protein during recovery from resistance exercise in older men.MethodsForty-eight healthy older men [mean ± SEM age: 66 ± 1 y; body mass index (kg/m2): 25.4 ± 0.3] were randomly assigned to ingest 0, 15, 30, or 45 g milk protein concentrate after a single bout of resistance exercise consisting of 4 sets of 10 repetitions of leg press and leg extension and 2 sets of 10 repetitions of lateral pulldown and chest press performed at 75–80% 1-repetition maximum. Postprandial protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics, whole-body protein metabolism, and myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were assessed using primed, continuous infusions of l-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine, l-[ring-2H2]-tyrosine, and l-[1-13C]-leucine combined with ingestion of intrinsically l-[1-13C]-phenylalanine and l-[1-13C]-leucine labeled protein.ResultsWhole-body net protein balance showed a dose-dependent increase after ingestion of 0, 15, 30, or 45 g of protein (0.015 ± 0.002, 0.108 ± 0.004, 0.162 ± 0.008, and 0.215 ± 0.009 μmol Phe · kg−1 · min−1, respectively; P < 0.001). Myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were higher after ingesting 30 (0.0951% ± 0.0062%/h, P = 0.07) or 45 g of protein (0.0970% ± 0.0062%/h, P < 0.05) than after 0 g (0.0746% ± 0.0051%/h). Incorporation of dietary protein–derived amino acids (l-[1-13C]-phenylalanine) into de novo myofibrillar protein showed a dose-dependent increase after ingestion of 15, 30, or 45 g protein (0.0171 ± 0.0017, 0.0296 ± 0.0030, and 0.0397 ± 0.0026 mole percentage excess, respectively; P < 0.05).ConclusionsDietary protein ingested during recovery from resistance exercise is rapidly digested and absorbed. Whole-body net protein balance and dietary protein-derived amino acid incorporation into myofibrillar protein show dose-dependent increases. Ingestion of ≥30 g protein increases postexercise myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in older men. This trial was registered at Nederlands Trial Register as NTR4492.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy263
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Increasing Iron Status through Dietary Supplementation in Iron-Depleted,
           Sedentary Women Increases Endurance Performance at Both Near-Maximal and
           Submaximal Exercise Intensities
    • Authors: Pompano L; Haas J.
      Pages: 231 - 239
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundIron deficiency persists as the most common micronutrient deficiency globally, despite having known detrimental effects on physical performance. Although iron supplementation and aerobic exercise have been examined individually and are known to improve physical performance, the impact of simultaneous iron supplementation and aerobic training remains unclear.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to examine the individual and combined effects of iron supplementation and aerobic training on improving maximal and submaximal physical performance in iron-depleted, nonanemic (IDNA) women. We hypothesized that women receiving iron would improve their endurance performance but not their estimated maximal oxygen consumption (eVO2max).MethodsSeventy-three sedentary, previously untrained IDNA (serum ferritin <25 µg/L and hemoglobin >110 g/L) women aged 18–26 y with a body mass index (kg/m2) of 17–25 participated in a double-blind, 8-wk, randomized controlled trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design including iron supplementation (42 mg elemental Fe/d) or placebo and aerobic exercise training (5 d/wk for 25 min at 75–85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate) or no training. Linear models were used to examine relations between training, supplement, and changes in the primary outcomes of observed maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and eVO2max and ventilatory threshold (absolute oxygen consumption and percentage of maximum). Re-evaluation of a published meta-analysis was used to compare effects of iron supplementation on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and VO2peak.ResultsThere were significant training-by-supplement interactions for VO2peak, volume of oxygen consumption at the ventilatory threshold, and the percentage of eVO2max where the threshold occurred, with the iron-untrained group performing better than the placebo-untrained group. There was no beneficial effect of iron supplementation for VO2max (mean difference: 0.53; 95% CI: −0.75, 1.81; P = 0.42), but a significant benefit was observed for VO2peak (mean difference: 1.87; 95% CI: 0.15, 3.60; P = 0.03).ConclusionsIron supplementation increases endurance performance at submaximal and maximal (VO2peak) exercise intensities in IDNA women. However, increasing iron status does not increase eVO2max. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03002090.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy271
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Persistent Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health among
           Women Living with or at Risk of HIV in the United States
    • Authors: Tuthill E; Sheira L, Palar K, et al.
      Pages: 240 - 248
      Abstract: BackgroundFood insecurity and mental health negatively affect the lives of women in the United States. Participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) provided the opportunity to understand the association of food insecurity with depression and mental well-being over time.ObjectiveWe investigated the association between current and persistent food insecurity and depression among women at risk of or living with HIV in the United States.MethodsWe used longitudinal data from the WIHS, a prospective cohort study in women at risk of or living with HIV from multiple sites in the United States. Participants completed 6 semiannual assessments from 2013 to 2016 on food security (FS; high, marginal, low, and very low) and mental health (i.e., depressive symptoms and mental well-being). We used multiple regression analysis to estimate the association between these variables.ResultsAmong 2551 participants, 44% were food insecure and 35% reported depressive symptoms indicative of probable depression. Current marginal, low, and very low FS were associated with 2.1-, 3.5-, and 5.5-point (all P < 0.001) higher depression scores, respectively. In models adjusting for both current and previous FS, previous marginal, low, and very low FS were associated with 0.2-, 0.93-, and 1.52-point higher scores, respectively (all P < 0.001). Women with very low FS at both time points (persistent food insecurity) had a 6.86-point higher depression score (P < 0.001). In the mental health models, there was a dose-response relation between current FS and worse mental health even when controlling for previous FS (all P < 0.001). Previous low FS was associated with worse mental health. These associations did not differ by HIV status.ConclusionsFood insecurity placed women at risk of depression and poor mental well-being, but the risk was substantially higher for women experiencing persistent food insecurity. Future interventions to improve women's mental health call for multilevel components that include addressing food insecurity.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy203
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Apiaceous and Cruciferous Vegetables Fed During the Post-Initiation Stage
           Reduce Colon Cancer Risk Markers in Rats
    • Authors: Kim S; Trudo S, Gallaher D.
      Pages: 249 - 257
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundVegetable consumption reduces colon cancer risk when fed in the initiation stage of carcinogenesis; however, the effect of vegetable consumption during the post-initiation stage has rarely been examined.ObjectiveWe investigated the chemopreventive effects of feeding apiaceous and cruciferous vegetables on colon cancer risk in the post-initiation stage.MethodsThirty male Wistar rats (∼5 wk, 92 g) were subcutaneously injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine 1 time/wk for 2 wk. One week after the last dose, rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: the basal diet, an apiaceous vegetable-containing diet (API; 21% fresh wt/wt), or a cruciferous vegetable-containing diet (CRU; 21% fresh wt/wt). All diets contained ∼20% protein, 7% fat, and 63% digestible carbohydrate. Experimental diets were fed for 10 wk, after which colons were harvested.ResultsCRU reduced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) number compared to the basal group (P = 0.014) and API (P = 0.013), whereas API decreased the proportion of dysplastic ACF relative to the basal group (P < 0.05). Both CRU and API reduced doublecortin-like kinase 1-positive marker expression relative to basal by 57.9% (P = 0.009) and 51.4% (P < 0.02). The numbers of CD44-positive ACF did not differ between the groups. We identified 14 differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs). Of these, expression of 6 miRNAs were greater or tended to be greater (P ≤ 0.10) in one or both vegetable-containing groups compared to the basal group. Bioinformatic analysis of these expression changes in miRNA predicted a change in WNT/β-catenin signaling, indicating downregulation of β-catenin in the vegetable-fed groups. Consistent with this bioinformatics analysis, β-catenin-accumulated ACF were decreased in CRU (93.1%, P = 0.012), but not in API (54.4%, P = 0.125), compared to the basal group.ConclusionBoth apiaceous and cruciferous vegetables, fed post-initiation, reduce colonic preneoplastic lesions as well as cancer stem cell marker expression in rats, possibly by suppressing oncogenic signaling through changes in miRNA expression.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy257
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • The Incidence of Obesity, Assessed as Adiposity, Is Reduced After 1 Year
           in Primary Schoolchildren by the POIBA Intervention
    • Authors: Ariza C; Sánchez-Martínez F, Serral G, et al.
      Pages: 258 - 269
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundChildhood obesity is becoming a serious problem, and prevention programs are needed.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to evaluate, after 1 y, the effectiveness of a multicomponent, school-based obesity intervention program.MethodsThis intervention, conducted in Barcelona, Spain, was a quasi-experimental obesity primary prevention intervention targeting schoolchildren aged 9–10 y. Participants were assigned to an intervention group (IG) (1464 students) or to a comparison group (CG) (1609 students). The intervention consisted of a 9-session classroom program, 6 weekly sessions of physical education and out-of-school physical activity, and a workshop for families. It lasted from October 2011 to May 2012. Data obtained at baseline (spring 2011) and follow-up (spring 2012) included information on nutrition and physical activity, through 2 self-reported questionnaires, and measurement of weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. The cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of obesity was calculated from triceps skinfold measures. A multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to determine the association between the intervention and the CIR of obesity. The effect size of the program was estimated with Cohen's criteria.ResultsThe overall prevalence of obesity at baseline was 12.7%. At the 12-mo follow-up, the incidence of obesity was 7.8% in the IG compared with 11.4% in the CG (P < 0.005), representing 31% fewer new cases of obesity in the IG. The Cohen's d effect size of the program was 0.33. In the multilevel analysis, there was a protective effect of the intervention on the CIR of obesity at 12 mo (OR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5, 0.9) (P = 0.009).ConclusionsThe first Prevención de la Obesidad Infantil en Barcelona (Childhood Obesity Prevention in Barcelona) (POIBA) intervention, targeting children aged 9–10 y, reduced the incidence of obesity as measured by adiposity. The intervention could prevent 1 in 3 new cases of childhood obesity in this age range.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy259
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • High Pancreatic Amylase Expression Promotes Adiposity in Obesity-Prone
           Carbohydrate-Sensitive Rats
    • Authors: Azzout-Marniche D; Chaumontet C, Piedcoq J, et al.
      Pages: 270 - 279
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundWe have reported large differences in adiposity (fat mass/body weight) gain between rats fed a low-fat, high-starch diet, leading to their classification into carbohydrate “sensitive” and “resistant” rats. In sensitive animals, fat accumulates in visceral adipose tissues, leading to the suggestion that this form of obesity could be responsible for rapid development of metabolic syndrome.ObjectiveWe investigated whether increased amylase secretion by the pancreas and accelerated starch degradation in the intestine could be responsible for this phenotype.MethodThirty-two male Wistar rats (7-wk-old) were fed a purified low-fat (10%), high-carbohydrate diet for 6 wk, in which most of the carbohydrate (64% by energy) was provided as corn starch. Meal tolerance tests of the Starch diet were performed to measure glucose and insulin responses to meal ingestion. Indirect calorimetry combined with use of 13C-labelled dietary starch was used to assess meal-induced changes in whole body and starch-derived glucose oxidation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess mRNA expression in pancreas, liver, white and brown adipose tissues, and intestine. Amylase activity was measured in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum contents. ANOVA and regression analyses were used for statistical comparisons.Results“Resistant” and “sensitive” rats were separated according to adiposity gain during the study (1.73% ± 0.20% compared with 4.35% ± 0.36%). Breath recovery of 13CO2 from 13C-labelled dietary starch was higher in “sensitive” rats, indicating a larger increase in whole body glucose oxidation and, conversely, a larger decrease in lipid oxidation. Amylase mRNA expression in pancreas, and amylase activity in jejunum, were also higher in sensitive rats.ConclusionDifferences in digestion of starch can promote visceral fat accumulation in rats when fed a low-fat, high-starch diet. This mechanism may have important implications in human obesity.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy262
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Tryptophan Requirement in School-Age Children Determined by the Indicator
           Amino Acid Oxidation Method is Similar to Current Recommendations
    • Authors: Al-mokbel A; Courtney-Martin G, Elango R, et al.
      Pages: 280 - 285
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe requirement for dietary tryptophan in school-age children has never been empirically derived.ObjectiveThe objective of our study was to determine the tryptophan requirement of school-age children using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique.MethodsVolunteer healthy school-age children, between 8 and 12 y, were enrolled and the oxidation of l-[13C]-phenylalanine to 13CO2 measured in response to graded intakes of dietary tryptophan. Seven children (3 boys, 4 girls) participated in the study and received randomly assigned tryptophan intakes ranging from 0.5 to 9.75 mg.kg-1.d-1 for a total of 36 studies. The diets provided energy at 1.5 times each subject's resting energy expenditure and were isocaloric. Protein was provided as an amino acid mixture on the basis of the egg protein pattern, and phenylalanine and tyrosine were maintained constant across the protein intake concentrations at 25 and 40 mg.kg−1.d−1. All subjects were adapted for 2 d before the study day to a protein intake of 1.5 g.kg−1.d−1. The mean tryptophan requirement was determined by applying a mixed-effect change-point regression analysis to F13CO2 (label tracer oxidation in 13CO2 breath) which identified a breakpoint in the F13CO2 in response to graded amounts of tryptophan.ResultsThe mean [estimated average requirement (EAR)] and upper 95% CI, (approximating the RDA) of tryptophan requirements were estimated to be 4.7 and 6.1 mg.kg−1.d−1, respectively.ConclusionOur results are similar to the current recommended EAR and RDA of 5 and 6 mg.kg−1.d−1 for healthy growing children based on the factorial calculation. Clinical Trials Registration No. NCT02018588.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy250
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Maternal Lactase Polymorphism (rs4988235) Is Associated with Neural Tube
           Defects in Offspring in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study
    • Authors: Hoang T; Lei Y, Mitchell L, et al.
      Pages: 295 - 303
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe risk of neural tube defect (NTD)–affected pregnancies is reduced with adequate folic acid intake during early pregnancy. However, NTDs have been observed among offspring of women with adequate folic acid intake. Some of these women are possibly not absorbing enough folic acid. Because lactase deficiency can lead to poor nutrient absorption, we hypothesized that lactase-deficient women will be at increased risk of having offspring with NTDs.ObjectiveWe examined the association between maternal rs4988235 (a lactase deficiency genetic marker) and NTDs in offspring.MethodsWe conducted a case-control study using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, United States, 1997–2009, restricting to non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Hispanic women. Cases were women with an offspring with an NTD (n = 378 NHW, 207 Hispanic), and controls were women with an offspring without a birth defect (n = 461 NHW, 165 Hispanic). Analyses were conducted separately by race/ethnicity, using logistic regression. Women with the CC genotype were categorized as being lactase deficient. To assess potential effect modification, analyses were stratified by lactose intake, folic acid supplementation, dietary folate, and diet quality.ResultsAmong NHW women, the odds of being lactase deficient were greater among cases compared with controls (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.82). Among Hispanic women, the odds of being lactase deficient were significantly lower among cases compared with controls (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.77). The association differed when stratified by lactose intake in NHW women (higher odds among women who consumed ≥12 g lactose/1000 kcal) and by dietary folate in Hispanic women (opposite direction of associations). The association did not differ when stratified by folic acid supplementation or diet quality.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that maternal lactase deficiency is associated with NTDs in offspring. However, we observed opposite directions of effect by race/ethnicity that could not be definitively explained.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy246
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Sweet Snacks Are Positively and Fruits and Vegetables Are Negatively
           Associated with Visceral or Liver Fat Content in Middle-Aged Men and Women
           
    • Authors: van Eekelen E; Geelen A, Alssema M, et al.
      Pages: 304 - 313
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundVisceral adipose tissue (VAT) and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) are major risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases.ObjectiveWe aimed to investigate the association of dietary intake of the main food groups with VAT and HTGC in middle-aged men and women.MethodsWe used data from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, a population-based study including 6671 participants aged 45–65 y at baseline. In this cross-sectional analysis, VAT and HTGC were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, respectively, as the primary outcomes. Habitual intake of main food groups (dairy, meat, fish, fruits and vegetables, sweet snacks, and fats and oils) was estimated through the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. We examined associations of intake of different food groups with VAT and HTGC by linear regression analysis stratified by sex and adjusted for age, smoking, education, ethnicity, physical activity, basal metabolic rate, energy-restricted diet, menopausal state, and total energy intake.ResultsIn women, a 100-g/d higher intake of dairy was associated with 2.0 cm2 less VAT (95% CI: −3.4, −0.7 cm2) and a 0.95-fold lower HTGC (95% CI: 0.90-, 0.99-fold). Moreover, a 100-g/d higher intake of fruit and vegetables was associated with 1.6 cm2 less VAT (95% CI: −2.9, −0.2 cm2) in women. Fruit and vegetables were negatively associated (0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.00) with HTGC, and sweet snacks were positively associated (1.29; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.63). Patterns were weaker but similar in men. Fish intake was not associated with VAT or HTGC and plant-based fat and oil intake were only associated with VAT after adjustment for total body fat.ConclusionsDespite some variation in the strength of the associations between men and women, dietary intake of sweet snacks was positively associated with HTGC, and fruit and vegetable intake were negatively associated with visceral and liver fat content. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results. The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov with identifier NCT03410316.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy260
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Dietary Supplement Use among Infants and Toddlers Aged <24 Months in
           the United States, NHANES 2007–2014
    • Authors: Gahche J; Herrick K, Potischman N, et al.
      Pages: 314 - 322
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundLimited nationally representative data are available on dietary supplement (DS) use and resulting nutrient exposures among infants and toddlers.ObjectiveThis study evaluated DS use among US infants and toddlers to characterize DS use, estimate nutrient intake from DSs, and assess trends in DS use over time.MethodsUsing nationally representative data from NHANES (2007–2014) and trends over time (1999–2014), we estimated prevalence of DS use and types of products used for US infants and toddlers aged <2 y (n = 2823). We estimated median daily intakes of vitamins and minerals consumed via DSs for all participants aged <2 y, by age groups (0–11.9 mo and 12.0–23.9 mo), and by feeding practices for infants 0–5.9 mo.ResultsOverall, 18.2% (95% CI: 16.2%, 20.3%) of infants and toddlers used ≥1 DS in the past 30 d. Use was lower among infants (0–5.9 mo: 14.6%; 95% CI: 11.5%, 18.1%; 6–11.9 mo: 11.6%; 95% CI: 8.8%, 15.0%) than among toddlers (12–23.9 mo: 23.3%; 95% CI: 20.4%, 26.3%). The most commonly reported DSs were vitamin D and multivitamin infant drops for those <12 mo, and chewable multivitamin products for toddlers (12–23.9 mo). The nutrients most frequently consumed from DSs were vitamins D, A, C, and E for those <2 y; for infants <6 mo, a higher percentage of those fed breast milk than those fed formula consumed these nutrients via DSs. DS use remained steady for infants (6–11.9 mo) and toddlers from 1999–2002 to 2011–2014, but increased from 7% to 20% for infants aged 0–5.9 mo.ConclusionsOne in 5 infants and toddlers aged <2 y use ≥1 DS. Future studies should examine total nutrient intake from foods, beverages, and DSs to evaluate nutrient adequacy overall and by nutrient source.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy269
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Access to the School Breakfast Program Is Associated with Higher
           Attendance and Test Scores among Elementary School Students
    • Authors: Bartfeld J; Berger L, Men F, et al.
      Pages: 336 - 343
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe School Breakfast Program (SBP) has grown and evolved substantially since its inception, yet relatively little is known about its impact on school engagement and academic outcomes.ObjectivesThe purpose of this study is to estimate the impact of the SBP on school attendance and standardized test scores, as well as how impacts differ among student subpopulations and between traditional and nontraditional program models.MethodsThe study uses administrative data from ∼1000 Wisconsin elementary schools during 2009–2014, including almost all public elementary schools in the state except those in Milwaukee Public School District. Over the 5-y period, 168 schools in our sample introduced a new SBP and/or changed the location of breakfast (classroom or cafeteria) or the payment structure. The impact of breakfast availability and type was evaluated using multivariable regression models with school fixed effects and extensive demographic controls, leveraging within-school changes in SBP availability and type.ResultsImplementing the SBP was associated with a 3.5-percentage-point reduction in the percentage of students with low attendance and an increase of 0.08 SD in normalized reading scores among likely-participant boys (P = 0.015), with no impact among girls. When breakfast was offered free to all students, the probability of low attendance was 3.5 percentage points lower than with traditional SBP for a broad cross-section of students (P < 0.001), and math and reading scores were 0.07 and 0.04 SD higher among the higher-income sample, respectively (P = 0.001 and P = 0.035, respectively). When breakfast was offered in the classroom, neither attendance nor reading scores differed relative to cafeteria-based SBP, whereas math scores among likely-participant boys were 0.05 SD lower (P = 0.045).ConclusionsOffering breakfast at school can modestly improve educational engagement and performance, but benefits differ across children and by program structure. Universally free breakfast appears particularly beneficial to both attendance and test scores.
      PubDate: Sat, 02 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy267
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • The Combination of Bifidobacterium breve and Three Prebiotic
           Oligosaccharides Modifies Gut Immune and Endocrine Functions in Neonatal
           Mice
    • Authors: Izumi H; Ehara T, Sugahara H, et al.
      Pages: 344 - 353
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundSeveral types of oligosaccharides are used in infant formula to improve the gut microbiota of formula-fed infants. We previously reported that a combination of 3 oligosaccharides (lactulose, raffinose, and galacto-oligosaccharides; LRG) and Bifidobacterium breve effectively increased B. breve numbers, acetate, and the expression of several immune- and gut hormone-related mRNAs in neonatal mice gut.ObjectiveWe investigated whether changes in neonatal gut microbiota alter gut immune and endocrine development.MethodsWe first compared postnatal day (PD) 14 with PD21 in C57BL/6J male mouse pups to identify the physiologic immune and endocrine changes during development. In a separate study, we administered phosphate-buffered saline (control group; CON), B. breve M-16V (M-16V), or M-16V + LRG to male mouse pups from PD6 to PD13, and analyzed the gut microbiota and immune and endocrine parameters on PD14 to evaluate whether M-16V + LRG accelerates gut immune and endocrine development.ResultsThe proportion of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the CD4+ cells of large intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) was significantly increased (63% higher) at PD21 compared with PD14. The serum glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 tended to be lower (P = 0.0515) and that of GLP-2 was significantly lower (58% lower) at PD21 than at PD14. M-16V + LRG significantly increased the Treg proportion in large intestinal LPL CD4+ cells (20% and 29% higher compared with CON and M-16V, respectively) at PD14. M-16V + LRG also caused significant changes in expression of large intestinal mRNAs that are consistent with developmental progression, and increased serum concentrations of GLP-1 (207% and 311% higher compared with CON and M-16V, respectively) and GLP-2 (57% and 97% higher compared with CON and M-16V, respectively) at PD14.ConclusionsNeonatal administration of M-16V + LRG alters the gut microbiota and enhances gut immune and endocrine development in suckling mice.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy248
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Corrigendum for Nandi et al. Early-life nutrition is associated positively
           with schooling and labor market outcomes and negatively with marriage
           rates at age 20–25 years: evidence from the Andhra Pradesh Children and
           Parents Study (APCAPS) in India. J Nutr 2018;148:140–6
    • Pages: 354 - 354
      Abstract: Corrigendum for Nandi et al. Early-life nutrition is associated positively with schooling and labor market outcomes and negatively with marriage rates at age 20–25 years: evidence from the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS) in India. J Nutr 2018;148:140–6.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy297
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Erratum for Chaumontet et al. The protein status of rats affects the
           rewarding value of meals due to their protein content. J Nutr
           2018;148:989–98
    • Pages: 354 - 354
      Abstract: Erratum for Chaumontet et al. The protein status of rats affects the rewarding value of meals due to their protein content. J Nutr 2018;148:989–98.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy254
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Calendar of Events
    • Pages: 355 - 355
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz012
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Fernando Jose Eugenio Viteri, MD, ScD (1930–2016)
    • Authors: Solomons N; King J.
      Pages: 173 - 176
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy280
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Postprandial Duration Influences the Association of Insulin-Related
           Dietary Indexes and Plasma C-peptide Concentrations in Adult Men and Women
           
    • Authors: Tabung F; Nimptsch K, Giovannucci E.
      Pages: 286 - 294
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe dietary insulin index (II) directly quantifies dietary effects on postprandial insulin secretion, whereas the empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH), based on fasting C-peptide concentrations, is primarily reflective of insulin resistance. How these scores are related to nonfasting C-peptide in cohort studies has not been examined.ObjectiveWe investigated the extent to which EDIH and II scores predict plasma C-peptide concentrations, in cross-sectional analyses by postprandial duration at blood collection from 1 to ≥15 h.MethodsBoth EDIH and II scores were calculated from food-frequency questionnaire data reported by 3964 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1993–1995) and 6215 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (1989–1990) who were not diabetic. We constructed 12 multivariable-adjusted linear regression models separately in men and women, by postprandial duration, to calculate relative differences and absolute values of plasma C-peptide concentrations in dietary index quintiles.ResultsIn both men and women, C-peptide concentrations were elevated 1–2 h after eating and declined with increasing postprandial duration. In men, percent differences in C-peptide concentration in the highest compared with lowest dietary index quintile were: EDIH: 0–1 h: 50%; 2 h: 22%; 14 h: 14%; ≥15 h: 30% (all P-trend< 0.05). II: 0–1 h: 19% (P-trend = 0.09); 2 h: 3% (P-trend = 0.09); 14 h: −6% (P-trend = 0.17); ≥15 h: −15% (P-trend = 0.02). Corresponding results among women were: EDIH: 0–1 h: 29% (P-trend = 0.002); 2 h: 33% (P-trend = 0.009); 14 h: 44% (P-trend < 0.0001); ≥15 h: 40% (P-trend < 0.0001). II: 0–1 h: −12% (P-trend = 0.09); 2 h: 17% (P-trend = 0.09); 14 h: −14% (P-trend = 0.009); ≥15 h: −3% (P-trend = 0.37).ConclusionThe EDIH was superior to the II in predicting both fasting and nonfasting C-peptide concentrations, suggesting that the EDIH may be better in assessing dietary effects of hyperinsulinemia on disease risk in adult men and women.
      PubDate: Sat, 22 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy239
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A Diabetes-Related Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Incident Diabetes in
           Obese Men in the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study
    • Authors: Lee H; Son N, Lee W, et al.
      Pages: 323 - 329
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundDiet plays an important role in both the development and management of diabetes.ObjectiveUsing data from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, we assessed dietary patterns associated with the clinical indicators of diabetes.MethodsThis study included 7255 subjects aged 40–69 y. Individuals with chronic diseases were excluded. The daily intakes of specific food items were assessed using a dish-based semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire comprising 103 items; the food items were then grouped into 26 food groups. Dietary patterns were analyzed by the reduced rank regression method using glycated hemoglobin, the homeostasis model of insulin resistance, and fasting glucose concentrations as dependent variables. We investigated the associations between dietary patterns and incident diabetes using the Cox proportional hazards model.ResultsDuring an 11.5-y follow-up, the incidence of diabetes was 11.8/1000 person-years. The dietary pattern related to selected biomarkers of diabetes was characterized by a relatively high intake of kimchi, beef, other meat, fish, and coffee in men and a high intake of rice, kimchi, and fruit in women. In men, the association of dietary patterns with incident diabetes was significant only in the obese group, and those in the top quartile of the dietary pattern score had a 1.72 times (95% CI: 1.15, 2.56 times) greater risk of incident diabetes than those in the bottom quartile. Conversely, dietary patterns in women were not associated with incident diabetes.ConclusionUsing reduced rank regression, we identified dietary patterns related to selected biomarkers of diabetes in a long-term study with follow-up data in Korea.
      PubDate: Sat, 22 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy274
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Food Insecurity Is More Strongly Associated with Poor Subjective
           Well-Being in More-Developed Countries than in Less-Developed Countries
    • Authors: Frongillo E; Nguyen H, Smith M, et al.
      Pages: 330 - 335
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundFood insecurity is strongly associated with subjective well-being. People compare their well-being to a subjective reference that adjusts over time, which is called hedonic adaptation.ObjectiveWe aimed to deepen understanding of the relation between food insecurity and subjective well-being among countries from the perspective of possible hedonic adaptation between food insecurity and subjective well-being.MethodsGlobal data from the Gallup World Poll 2014 were collected from 152,206 individuals in 147 countries. Telephone and face-to-face surveys were conducted in 37 and 111 countries, respectively, collecting data on law and order; food and shelter; institutions and infrastructure; job climate; and financial, social, physical, and evaluative well-being, including the Food Insecurity Experience Scale. Data were aggregated to country level and merged with economic and social measures from World Bank and United Nations sources: infant mortality, gross domestic product, economic inequality, agricultural value added, fertility, maternal mortality, female schooling, and female participation in the labor force. Multilevel linear regression was used to examine associations between well-being and food insecurity.ResultsExperiencing moderate or severe food insecurity was prevalent among countries, with a mean probability of 0.273 ± 0.220. Countries that were less developed economically and socially had a higher probability of experiencing food insecurity, lower subjective well-being as measured by the daily experience index, and less negative slopes for the relation between daily experience index and food insecurity. Food insecurity was the strongest predictor of daily experience from among the measures of economic and social development.ConclusionsThe prevalence of food insecurity was strongly and negatively associated with subjective well-being across 147 countries. The association between food insecurity and poor subjective well-being within countries was stronger for more-developed countries, providing evidence of hedonic adaptation between food insecurity and subjective well-being. Food insecurity explained substantial variation in subjective well-being both among and within countries.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy261
      Issue No: Vol. 149, No. 2 (2018)
       
 
 
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