Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 413 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 413 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 217, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 397, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 623, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 240, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insect Systematics and Diversity     Hybrid Journal  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.438
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 233  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-9165 - ISSN (Online) 1938-3207
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [413 journals]
  • Carbohydrates and fertility: just the tip of the (fertility) iceberg
    • Authors: Chavarro J.
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Regular readers of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition will undoubtedly recognize the importance of diet on shaping human health throughout the life course. AJCN readers will also be familiar with the notion that nutrition's influence on health begins even before birth, as clearly signaled by AJCN's section on Women's Nutrition. What may be surprising to some readers is that nutritional influences on our health—and perhaps the very fact that we were born—may have been influenced by our parents’ dietary choices. Over the last decade the literature on the relation between nutrition and fertility has experienced a dramatic expansion and found a primary audience in o and gynecology journals rather than nutrition journals, with some exceptions (1, 2). Interestingly, this literature seems to suggest a substantial overlap between the dietary factors recommended for the prevention of major chronic noncommunicable diseases and those related to a variety of markers of fertility, from semen quality parameters in men and markers of ovulation or ovarian reserve in women, to risk of infertility and time to pregnancy among couples attempting conception, to outcomes of infertility treatment among couples requiring medical assistance to conceive (3). Despite the apparent consistency of this expanding literature, there are still some important gaps to fill. Replication of findings is one of them; not so much because findings fail to replicate when replication is attempted (they do for the most part), but rather because very few studies have even attempted replication, either because relevant data are not available in many existing studies or because studies expressly designed to evaluate the relation of diet and fertility have only recently been able to do so.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa039
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Linoleic acid intake and reduction in mortality: the icing on the cake of
           health benefits from n–6 PUFAs'
    • Authors: Ros E.
      Pages: 3 - 4
      Abstract: Linoleic acid [LA; C18:2n–6 (ω-6)] is an essential fatty acid and the prototype of n–6 PUFAs. LA abounds in edible oils and spreads derived from oleaginous seeds, accounting for ≥50% of the fatty acids present in safflower, sunflower, corn, and soybean oils (1) and in walnuts (2).
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa062
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Eat fiber, live better!
    • Authors: Veronese N.
      Pages: 5 - 5
      Abstract: In this issue of the Journal, Partula and coworkers (1) have published a very interesting article regarding the importance of eating fiber for living longer and better. Briefly, these authors found, in > 100,000 middle-aged participants, that a higher intake of dietary fiber was associated with a significant decrease in the risks of both the incidence and mortality of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) (1). These results persisted despite adjustment for a large number of potential confounders, suggesting that fiber is probably necessary for the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality (1). These strong results are likely of great clinical importance to the field of nutritional epidemiology and perhaps public health more broadly. In a previous umbrella review published by our team (2), we reported that higher dietary fiber intake was associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular disease, pancreatic cancer, and mortality, similar to the study of Partula and coworkers. However, the studies included in this umbrella review were mainly case-control and not, as the current study is, cohort studies.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa080
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • The power of protein
    • Authors: Simpson S; Raubenheimer D.
      Pages: 6 - 7
      Abstract: In this issue of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Lieberman et al. (1) add to a growing consilience of evidence suggesting a central role for protein in the control of food and energy intake in humans.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa088
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Fetal adiposity epidemic in the modern world: a thrifty phenotype
           aggravated by maternal obesity and diabetes
    • Authors: Yajnik C; Yajnik P.
      Pages: 8 - 10
      Abstract: Along with the ongoing struggle to overcome undernutrition, infectious disease, and low birth weight in many countries, we are facing a rising epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and big babies (1). The large infants have excess fat in the body (adiposity) which is thought to be the harbinger of the obesity and diabetes epidemics. Controlling fetal adiposity may be the only solution to the vicious intergenerational cycle of obesity and diabetes. We now have a double duty to solve this double burden of malnutrition.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa122
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Correcting measurement error in dietary exposure assessments: no piece of
    • Authors: Dahm C.
      Pages: 11 - 12
      Abstract: The issue of measurement error in dietary assessments remains a central, yet often underappreciated, issue in nutritional epidemiological studies (1). Prospective cohort studies are typically large, comprising tens or even hundreds of thousands of participants. Historically, the FFQ has therefore been the dietary measurement tool of choice because it is less burdensome for participants to complete than other dietary instruments, such as food diaries. The data from FFQs validly rank individuals according to their intake of a broad range of foods and nutrients, and capture episodically consumed foods (2). However, seminal studies comparing self-reported dietary intake with recovery biomarkers from 24-h urine collections showed that the measurement error terms for micronutrients such as sodium and potassium were much larger in FFQ data than in, for example, food diary data (3, 4). These findings have important implications when interpreting results from nutritional epidemiological studies, because it is likely that measurement error in dietary exposures results in biased estimates of diet–disease associations (5). The study by Prentice et al. (6) in this issue of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition is the latest in a long line of carefully conducted assessments of the impact of measurement error in dietary exposure assessments by the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) research team.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa130
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Public health guidelines should recommend reducing saturated fat
           consumption as much as possible: YES
    • Authors: Kris-Etherton P; Krauss R.
      Pages: 13 - 18
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBased on decades of research, there is strong evidence that supports ongoing dietary recommendations to decrease intakes of SFAs and, more recently, to replace SFAs with unsaturated fat, including PUFAs and MUFAs. Epidemiologic research has shown that replacement of SFAs with unsaturated fat, but not refined carbohydrate and added sugars, is associated with a reduction in coronary heart disease events and death. There is much evidence from controlled clinical studies demonstrating that SFAs increase LDL cholesterol, a major causal factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. When each (nonprotein) dietary macronutrient isocalorically replaces SFA, the greatest LDL-cholesterol–lowering effect is seen with PUFA, followed by MUFA, and then total carbohydrate. New research on full-fat dairy products high in saturated fat, particularly fermented dairy foods, demonstrates some benefits for cardiometabolic diseases. However, compared with food sources of unsaturated fats, full-fat dairy products increase LDL cholesterol. Thus, current dietary recommendations to decrease SFA and replace it with unsaturated fat should continue to the basis for healthy food-based dietary patterns.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa110
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Public health guidelines should recommend reducing saturated fat
           consumption as much as possible: NO
    • Authors: Krauss R; Kris-Etherton P.
      Pages: 19 - 24
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe proposition that dietary SFAs should be restricted to the maximal extent possible (e.g., to achieve approximately half of current consumption) is based primarily on observational and clinical trial data that are interpreted as indicating a benefit of such limitation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Further support is believed to derive from the capacity of SFAs to raise LDL cholesterol, and the evidence that LDL-cholesterol lowering reduces CVD incidence. Despite their apparent merit, these arguments are flawed. In fact, although it is possible that dietary intake of SFAs has a causal role in CVD, the evidence to support this contention is inconclusive. Moreover, other considerations argue against a guideline focused primarily on limiting SFA intake, including the heterogeneity of individual SFAs, the likelihood of clinically meaningful interindividual variation in response to SFA reduction, the potential for unintended health consequences of population-wide promotion of severe restriction, and the critical differences in health impacts among individual SFA-containing foods.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa111
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Public health guidelines should recommend reducing saturated fat
           consumption as much as possible: Debate Consensus
    • Authors: Krauss R; Kris-Etherton P.
      Pages: 25 - 26
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThere is ongoing debate as to whether public health guidelines should advocate reducing SFA consumption as much as possible to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). In considering both sides of this question, we identified a number of points of agreement, most notably that the overall dietary patterns in which SFAs are consumed are of greater significance for cardiometabolic and general health than SFA intake alone. Nevertheless, there remained significant disagreements, centered largely on the interpretation of evidence bearing on 4 major questions: 1) does reducing dietary SFAs lower the incidence of CVD, 2) is the LDL-cholesterol reduction with lower SFA intake predictive of reduced CVD risk, 3) do dietary SFAs affect factors other than LDL cholesterol that may impact CVD risk, and 4) is there a sufficient rationale for setting a target for maximally reducing dietary SFAs' Finally, we identified specific research needs for addressing knowledge gaps that have contributed to the controversies.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa134
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Glycemic load, dietary fiber, and added sugar and fecundability in 2
           preconception cohorts
    • Authors: Willis S; Wise L, Wesselink A, et al.
      Pages: 27 - 38
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundGlycemic load (GL) reflects the quantity and quality of carbohydrates in the diet; dietary fiber and added sugar are components of GL. Few epidemiologic studies have assessed the association between these dietary factors and fecundability.ObjectiveWe prospectively evaluated the associations of GL, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and added sugar with fecundability.MethodsSnart Foraeldre (SF) and Pregnancy Study Online (PRESTO) are parallel web-based prospective preconception cohorts of couples attempting to conceive in Denmark and North America. At baseline, female participants completed a web-based questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors and a validated FFQ. We calculated GL, total carbohydrate intake, total dietary fiber, carbohydrate-to-fiber ratio, and added sugar based on reported frequencies for individual foods, standard recipes for mixed foods, and average serving sizes. The analysis included 2709 SF participants and 4268 PRESTO participants. We used proportional probabilities regression models to estimate fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% CIs.ResultsCompared with an average daily GL of ≤100, FRs for an average daily GL of ≥141 were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.08) in SF and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.98) in PRESTO participants. Compared with consuming ≤16 g/d of dietary fiber, FRs for consuming ≥25 g/d were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.22) in SF and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.20) in PRESTO. Compared with a carbohydrate-to-fiber ratio of ≤8, FRs for a ratio of ≥13 were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.01) in SF and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.98) in PRESTO. Compared with ≤27 g/d of added sugar, FRs for ≥72 g/d were 0.87 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.10) in SF and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.99) in PRESTO participants.ConclusionsAmong women attempting to conceive in Denmark and North America, diets high in GL, carbohydrate-to-fiber ratio, and added sugar were associated with modestly reduced fecundability.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz312
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Maternal glycemia during pregnancy and offspring abdominal adiposity
           measured by MRI in the neonatal period and preschool years: The Growing Up
           in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) prospective
           mother–offspring birth cohort study
    • Authors: Tint M; Sadananthan S, Soh S, et al.
      Pages: 39 - 47
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundGestational diabetes is associated with unfavorable body fat distribution in offspring. However, less is known about the effects across the range of maternal gestational glycemia on offspring abdominal adiposity (AA) in infancy and early childhood.ObjectivesThis study determined the association between gestational glycemia and offspring AA measured by MRI in the neonatal period and during the preschool years.MethodsParticipants were mother–offspring pairs from the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) prospective cohort study. Children who underwent MRI within 2 wk postdelivery (n = 305) and/or at preschool age, 4.5 y (n = 273), and whose mothers had a 2-h 75-g oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 26–28 weeks of gestation were included. AA measured by adipose tissue compartment volumes—abdominal superficial (sSAT), deep subcutaneous (dSAT), and internal (IAT) adipose tissue—was quantified from MRI images.ResultsAdjusting for potential confounders including maternal prepregnancy BMI, each 1-mmol/L increase in maternal fasting glucose was associated with higher SD scores for sSAT (0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.86), dSAT (0.65; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.87), and IAT (0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.86) in neonates. Similarly, each 1-mmol/L increase in 2-h OGTT glucose was associated with higher neonatal sSAT (0.11; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.19) and dSAT (0.09; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.17). These associations were stronger in female neonates but only persisted in girls between fasting glucose, and sSAT and dSAT at 4.5 y.ConclusionsA positive association between maternal glycemia and neonatal AA was observed across the whole range of maternal mid-gestation glucose concentrations. These findings may lend further support to efforts toward optimizing maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy. The study also provides suggestive evidence on sex differences in the impact of maternal glycemia, which merits further confirmation in other studies.This trial was registered at as NCT01174875.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa055
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Calcium supplementation for improving bone density in lactating women: a
           systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    • Authors: Cai G; Tian J, Winzenberg T, et al.
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundClinical trials evaluating the effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in lactating women have been small, with inconsistent results.ObjectivesWe aimed to determine the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) in lactating women.MethodsAn electronic search of databases was conducted from inception to January 2020. Two authors screened studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of eligible studies. Percentage change in BMD was pooled using random-effects models and reported as weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% CIs. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.ResultsFive randomized controlled trials including 567 lactating women were included. All had a high risk of bias. Mean baseline calcium intake ranged from 562 to 1333 mg/d. Compared with control groups (placebo/no intervention), calcium supplementation (600/1000 mg/d) had no significant effect on BMD at the lumbar spine (WMD: 0.74%; 95% CI: −0.10%, 1.59%; I2 = 47%; 95% CI: 0%, 81%; n = 527 from 5 trials) or the forearm (WMD: 0.53%; 95% CI: −0.35%, 1.42%; I2 = 55%; 95% CI: 0%, 85%; n = 415 from 4 trials). BMD at other sites was assessed in single trials: calcium supplementation had a small to moderate effect on total-hip BMD (WMD: 3.3%; 95% CI: 1.5%, 5.1%) but no effect on total body or femoral neck BMD.ConclusionsOverall, the meta-analysis indicates that calcium supplementation does not provide clinically important benefits for BMD in lactating women. However, there was adequate dietary intake before supplementation in some studies, and others did not measure baseline calcium intake. Advising lactating women to meet the current recommended calcium intakes (with supplementation if dietary intake is low) is warranted unless new high-certainty evidence to the contrary from robust clinical trials becomes available. More research needs to be done in larger samples of women from diverse ethnic and racial groups.This systematic review was registered at as CRD42015022092.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa103
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Serum sphingolipids and incident diabetes in a US population with high
           diabetes burden: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos
    • Authors: Chen G; Chai J, Yu B, et al.
      Pages: 57 - 65
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundGenetic or pharmacological inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthases prevented diabetes in animal studies.ObjectivesWe sought to evaluate prospective associations of serum sphingolipids with incident diabetes in a population-based cohort.MethodsWe included 2010 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) aged 18–74 y who were free of diabetes and other major chronic diseases at baseline (2008–2011). Metabolomic profiling of fasting serum was performed using a global, untargeted approach. A total of 43 sphingolipids were quantified and, considering subclasses and chemical structures of individual species, 6 sphingolipid scores were constructed. Diabetes status was assessed using standard procedures including blood tests. Multivariable survey Poisson regressions were applied to estimate RR and 95% CI of incident diabetes associated with individual sphingolipids or sphingolipid scores.ResultsThere were 224 incident cases of diabetes identified during, on average, 6 y of follow-up. After adjustment for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, a ceramide score (RR Q4 versus Q1 = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.24, 4.65; P-trend = 0.003) and a score of sphingomyelins with fully saturated sphingoid-fatty acid pairs (RR Q4 versus Q1 = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.75, 5.67; P-trend <0.001) both were positively associated with risk of diabetes, whereas scores of glycosylceramides, lactosylceramides, or other unsaturated sphingomyelins (even if having an SFA base) were not associated with risk of diabetes. After additional adjustment for numerous traditional risk factors (especially triglycerides), both associations were attenuated and only the saturated-sphingomyelin score remained associated with risk of diabetes (RR Q4 versus Q1 = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.59; P-trend = 0.031).ConclusionsOur findings suggest that a cluster of saturated sphingomyelins may be associated with elevated risk of diabetes beyond traditional risk factors, which needs to be verified in other population studies. This study was registered at as NCT02060344.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa114
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Association between serum phosphorus and subclinical coronary
           atherosclerosis in asymptomatic Korean individuals without kidney
    • Authors: Park K; Lee Y, Park G, et al.
      Pages: 66 - 73
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThere are limited data regarding the relation between serum phosphorus concentration (SPC) and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in the asymptomatic healthy population without kidney dysfunction.ObjectivesWe aimed to investigate the relation between SPC and characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques and cardiac events according to SPCs using a large cohort of asymptomatic Korean individuals.MethodsWe evaluated 6329 asymptomatic Korean individuals [mean age: 53.6 ± 7.6 y, 4611 men (72.9%)] without kidney dysfunction and coronary artery disease who voluntarily underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as part of a general health examination. Study participants were stratified into quartiles according to their SPCs (≤3.0, 3.1–3.3, 3.4–3.7, ≥3.8 mg/dL). The degree and extent of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis were evaluated with CCTA. Stenosis of diameter ≥50% was defined as significant. A cardiac event was defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and coronary revascularization.ResultsAfter adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors, the risk of any atherosclerotic plaque was significantly higher with increasing SPC quartiles (P = 0.001). In particular, the risk of calcified plaque increased in the second (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.51; P = 0.006), third (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.64; P < 0.001), and fourth SPC quartiles (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.82; P < 0.001) compared with that in the first quartile. However, there were no significant differences in the adjusted ORs for noncalcified plaque, mixed plaque, or significant stenosis. During a follow-up of median 5.4 y, there was no significant difference in cardiac events between the SPC quartiles.ConclusionsIn asymptomatic Korean individuals without kidney dysfunction, a high SPC was an independent predictor of calcified plaques without any difference in cardiac events. Further long-term prospective studies are required to validate these results.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa091
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Effects of oily fish intake on cognitive and socioemotional function in
           healthy 8–9-year-old children: the FiSK Junior randomized trial
    • Authors: Teisen M; Vuholm S, Niclasen J, et al.
      Pages: 74 - 83
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundLong-chain n–3 PUFAs (n–3 LCPUFAs) accrete in the brain during childhood and affect brain development. Randomized trials in children show inconsistent effects of n–3 LCPUFAs on cognitive and socioemotional function, and few have investigated effects of fish per se.ObjectivesWe aimed to investigate the effects of oily fish consumption on overall and domain-specific cognitive and socioemotional scores and explore sex differences.MethodsHealthy 8–9-y-old children (n = 199) were randomly allocated to receive ∼300 g/wk oily fish or poultry (control) for 12 ± 2 wk. At baseline and endpoint, we assessed attention, processing speed, executive functions, memory, emotions, and behavior with a large battery of tests and questionnaires and analyzed erythrocyte fatty acid composition.ResultsOne hundred and ninety-seven (99%) children completed the trial. Children in the fish group consumed 375 (25th–75th percentile: 325–426) g/wk oily fish resulting in 2.3 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.6) fatty acid percentage points higher erythrocyte n–3 LCPUFA than in the poultry group. The overall cognitive performance score tended to improve by 0.17 (95% CI: −0.01, 0.35) points in children who received fish compared with poultry, supported by n–3 LCPUFA dose dependency. This was driven mainly by fewer errors [−1.9 (95% CI: −3.4, −0.3)] in an attention task and improved cognitive flexibility measured as faster reaction time [−51 ms (95% CI: −94, −7 ms)] in a complex relative to a simple task (“mixing cost”). The fish intervention furthermore reduced parent-rated Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire total difficulties by −0.89 (95% CI: −1.60, −0.18) points mainly due to a −0.63 (95% CI: −1.11, −0.16) points reduction in internalizing problems that was reflected in tendency to a decrease in the overall socioemotional problems score of −0.13 (95% CI: −0.26, 0.01) points. The overall effects were similar in boys and girls.ConclusionsOily fish dose-dependently improved cognitive function, especially attention and cognitive flexibility, and reduced socioemotional problems. The results support the importance of n–3 LCPUFAs for optimal brain function and fish intake recommendations in children.The trial was registered at as NCT02809508.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa050
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sex-and race-specific associations of protein intake with change in muscle
           mass and physical function in older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body
           Composition (Health ABC) Study
    • Authors: Elstgeest L; Schaap L, Heymans M, et al.
      Pages: 84 - 95
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundProtein intake recommendations advise ≥0.8 g/kg body weight (BW)/d, whereas experts propose a higher intake for older adults (1.0–1.2 g/kg BW/d). It is unknown whether optimal protein intake differs by sex or race.ObjectivesWe examined the shape of sex- and race-specific associations of dietary protein intake with 3- and 6-y changes in appendicular lean mass (aLM) and gait speed and also 6-y incidence of mobility limitation in community-dwelling older men and women.MethodsWe used data on men (n = 1163) and women (n = 1237) aged 70–81 y of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Protein intake was assessed using an FFQ (1998–1999). aLM and gait speed were measured at baseline and at 3 and 6 y. Difficulty walking one-quarter mile or climbing stairs was measured every 6 mo over 6 y. Prospective associations were evaluated with linear and Cox regression models, comparing fit of models with and without spline functions. All analyses were stratified by sex and additionally by race.ResultsMean ± SD protein intake was 0.94 ± 0.36 g/kg adjusted body weight (aBW)/d in men and 0.95 ± 0.36 g/kg aBW/d in women. There were no strong indications of nonlinear associations. In women, higher protein intake was associated with less aLM loss over 3 y (adjusted B per 0.1 g/kg aBW/d: 39.4; 95% CI: 11.6, 67.2), specifically in black women, but not over 6 y or with gait speed decline. In men, protein intake was not associated with changes in aLM and gait speed. Higher protein intake was associated with a lower risk of mobility limitation in men (adjusted HR per 1.0 g/kg aBW/d: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.91) and women (adjusted HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.94), specifically white women.ConclusionsAssociations between protein intake and physical outcomes may vary by sex and race. Therefore, it is important to consider sex and race in future studies regarding protein needs in older adults.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa099
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Associations of birth size, infancy, and childhood growth with
           intelligence quotient at 5 years of age: a Danish cohort study
    • Authors: Kirkegaard H; Möller S, Wu C, et al.
      Pages: 96 - 105
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe correlates of prenatal and postnatal growth on Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in childhood in term-born children living in high-income countries are not well known.ObjectivesWe examined how birth size and growth in infancy and childhood were associated with IQ at age 5 y in term-born children using path analysis.MethodsThe study sample comprised 1719 children from the Danish National Birth Cohort who participated in a substudy in which psychologists assessed IQ using the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence–Revised. Measured weight, length/height, and head circumference at birth, 5 mo, 12 mo, and 5 y were included in a path model to estimate their total, indirect, and direct effects on IQ. All growth measures were included in the model as sex- and age-standardized z-scores.ResultsAfter adjusting for potential confounders, a positive association between birth weight and IQ was observed, and 88% of the association was direct. Weight gain in infancy was associated with IQ [per z-score increase from 5 to 12 mo, IQ increased by 1.53 (95% CI: 0.14; 2.92) points] whereas weight gain from 12 mo to 5 y was not associated with IQ. Height and head circumference growth in childhood was associated with IQ [per z-score increase from 12 mo to 5 y, IQ increased by 0.98 (95% CI: 0.17; 1.79) and 2.09 (95% CI: 0.78; 3.41) points, respectively].ConclusionsIn children born at term in an affluent country with free access to health care, higher IQ was seen with greater size at birth and greater weight gain in infancy. Also, greater growth in height and head circumference throughout the first 5 y of life was associated with higher childhood IQ whereas greater weight gain after the first year of life was not.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa051
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Human milk oligosaccharides and their association with late-onset neonatal
           sepsis in Peruvian very-low-birth-weight infants
    • Authors: Torres Roldan V; Urtecho S M, Gupta J, et al.
      Pages: 106 - 112
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundOligosaccharides are the third most abundant component in human milk. They are a potential protective agent against neonatal sepsis.ObjectivesWe aimed to explore the association between human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and late-onset sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants, and to describe the composition and characteristics of HMOs in Peruvian mothers of these infants.MethodsThis is a secondary data analysis of a randomized clinical trial. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of mothers and their very-low-birth-weight (<1500 g) infants with ≥1 milk sample and follow-up data for >30 d. HMOs were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We used factor analysis and the Mantel–Cox test to explore the association between HMOs and late-onset neonatal sepsis.ResultsWe included 153 mother–infant pairs and 208 milk samples. Overall, the frequency of the secretor phenotype was 93%. Secretors and nonsecretors were defined by the presence and near-absence of α1-2-fucosylated HMOs, respectively. The most abundant oligosaccharides were 2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I, and difucosyllacto-N-tetraose in secretors and lacto-N-tetraose and LNFP II in nonsecretors. Secretors had higher amounts of total oligosaccharides than nonsecretors (11.45 g/L; IQR: 0.773 g/L compared with 8.04 g/L; IQR: 0.449 g/L). Mature milk samples were more diverse in terms of HMOs than colostrum (Simpson's Reciprocal Diversity Index). We found an association of factor 3 in colostrum with a reduced risk of late-onset sepsis (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.97). Fucosyl-disialyllacto-N-hexose (FDSLNH) was the only oligosaccharide correlated to factor 3.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that concentrations of different HMOs vary from one individual to another according to their lactation period and secretor status. We also found that FDSLNH might protect infants with very low birth weight from late-onset neonatal sepsis. Confirming this association could prove 1 more mechanism by which human milk protects infants against infections and open the door to clinical applications of HMOs.This trial was registered at as NCT01525316.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa102
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Effect of lean red meat combined with a multicomponent exercise program on
           muscle and cognitive function in older adults: a 6-month randomized
           controlled trial
    • Authors: Formica M; Gianoudis J, Nowson C, et al.
      Pages: 113 - 128
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundExercise and increased dietary protein have been linked to improved muscle and cognitive health, but the combination may be more effective.ObjectiveIn this study performed in community-dwelling older adults undergoing a 3-d/wk resistance-based exercise training program, we investigated whether those who consumed lean red meat compared to carbohydrates on the 3 training days per wk would experience greater exercise-induced improvements in total body and leg lean mass (LM), muscle strength, and executive function (multiple primary outcomes), as well as muscle size and density, functional performance, cognition, inflammatory and neurotrophic markers, blood pressure, and lipid concentrations.DesignIn a 24-wk, 2-arm parallel randomized controlled trial, 154 adults aged ≥65 y participated in a multicomponent 3-d/wk resistance-based exercise program with random allocation to either a lean red meat group (two 80-g servings of cooked red meat), the exercise plus lean red meat (Ex + Meat) group (n = 77) or a control group receiving carbohydrates in the form of one-half cup (approximately 225 g cooked weight) of rice or pasta or 1 medium potato, the exercise plus carbohydrate control (C + Ex) group (n = 77), on the training days.ResultsExercise-induced improvements (mean within group changes) did not significantly differ between groups for the primary outcomes of total body LM (0.6 to 0.8 kg), leg LM (0.1 to 0.2 kg), thigh muscle cross-sectional area (3.7% to 4.9%), leg and back muscle strength (26% to 40%), and executive function (z-score SD: 0.33 to 0.39), nor the secondary outcomes of global cognition function (0.17 to 0.23 SD), fat mass (−0.65 to −0.75 kg), physical function measures (sit-to-stand, both 15%; 4-square step test, 2% to 7%), or systolic blood pressure (−3.2 to −4.1 mm Hg). The Ex + Meat group experienced greater improvements than the C + Ex in arm LM (0.07 kg; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.14; P = 0.029), gait speed (0.05 m/s; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.11; P = 0.042), muscle density (1.0%; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.9; P = 0.015), and appendicular LM in the per-protocol analysis (0.21 kg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.40; P = 0.03). The C + Ex group had greater net improvements in working memory/learning after 12 wk (SD: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.43; P = 0.011) and 24 wk (SD: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.49; P = 0.007). Inflammatory and neurotrophic markers did not change in either group.ConclusionIn healthy community-dwelling older adults undertaking resistance-based exercise training 3-d/wk, participants who consumed lean red meat in line with current Australian dietary recommendations did not experience any significant additional benefits in the primary outcome measures of muscle mass, strength, or cognitive function compared to participants consuming carbohydrates.This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12613001153707.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa104
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • The association between dietary and skin advanced glycation end products:
           the Rotterdam Study
    • Authors: Chen J; Waqas K, Tan R, et al.
      Pages: 129 - 137
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in tissues with age and in conditions such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and they may be involved in age-related diseases. Skin AGEs measured as skin autofluorescence (SAF) are a noninvasive reflection of long-term AGE accumulation in tissues. Whether AGEs present in the diet (dAGEs) contribute to tissue AGEs is unclear.ObjectivesOur aim was to investigate the association between dietary and skin AGEs in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort of mainly European ancestry.MethodsIn 2515 participants, intake of 3 dAGEs [carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), N-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MGH1), and carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL)] was estimated using FFQs and the content of AGEs measured in commonly consumed foods. SAF was measured 5 y (median value) later using an AGE Reader. The association of dAGEs with SAF was analyzed in linear regression models and stratified for diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤60 mL/min) status.ResultsMean ± SD intake was 3.40 ±0.89 mg/d for CML, 28.98 ±7.87 mg/d for MGH1, and 3.11 ±0.89 mg/d for CEL. None of them was associated with SAF in the total study population. However, in stratified analyses, CML was positively associated with SAF after excluding both individuals with diabetes and individuals with CKD: 1 SD higher daily CML intake was associated with a 0.03 (95% CI: 0.009, 0.05) arbitrary units higher SAF. MGH1 and CEL intake were not significantly associated with SAF. Nevertheless, the associations were stronger when the time difference between dAGEs and SAF measurements was shorter.ConclusionsHigher dietary CML intake was associated with higher SAF only among participants with neither diabetes nor CKD, which may be explained by high AGE formation in diabetes and decreased excretion in CKD or by dietary modifications in these disease groups. The dAGE–SAF associations were also modified by the time difference between measurements. Our results suggest that dAGEs can influence tissue AGE accumulation and possibly thereby age-related diseases. This trial was registered at the Netherlands National Trial Register as NTR6831 ('TC=6831) and at the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform as NTR6831 (
      PubDate: Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa117
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Dietary intake and biomarkers of linoleic acid and mortality: systematic
           review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
    • Authors: Li J; Guasch-Ferré M, Li Y, et al.
      Pages: 150 - 167
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundCurrent evidence on associations between intakes of linoleic acid (LA), the predominant n–6 (ω-6) fatty acid, and mortality is inconsistent and has not been summarized by a systematic review and meta-analysis.ObjectiveThe aim was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examine associations between LA intake and mortality.MethodsWe conducted a comprehensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases through 31 July 2019 for prospective cohort studies reporting associations of LA (assessed by dietary surveys and/or LA concentrations in adipose tissue or blood compartments) with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. Multivariable-adjusted RRs were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.ResultsThirty-eight studies reporting 44 prospective cohorts were identified; these included 811,069 participants with dietary intake assessment (170,076 all-cause, 50,786 CVD, and 59,684 cancer deaths) and 65,411 participants with biomarker measurements (9758 all-cause, 6492 CVD, and 1719 cancer deaths). Pooled RRs comparing extreme categories of dietary LA intake (high vs low) were 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.94; I2 = 67.9%) for total mortality, 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.92; I2 = 3.7%) for CVD mortality, and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.93; I2 = 0%) for cancer mortality. Pooled RRs for each SD increment in LA concentrations in adipose tissue/blood compartments were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.87, 0.95; I2 = 64.1%) for total mortality, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.94; I2 = 28.9%) for CVD mortality, and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.98; I2 = 26.3%) for cancer mortality. Meta-regressions suggested baseline age and dietary assessment methods as potential sources of heterogeneity for the association between LA and total mortality.ConclusionsIn prospective cohort studies, higher LA intake, assessed by dietary surveys or biomarkers, was associated with a modestly lower risk of mortality from all causes, CVD, and cancer. These data support the potential long-term benefits of PUFA intake in lowering the risk of CVD and premature death.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz349
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Can dietary self-reports usefully complement blood concentrations for
           estimation of micronutrient intake and chronic disease associations'
    • Authors: Prentice R; Pettinger M, Neuhouser M, et al.
      Pages: 168 - 179
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundWe recently presented associations between serum-based biomarkers of carotenoid and tocopherol intake and chronic disease risk in a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Measurement Precision subcohort (n = 5488). Questions remain as to whether self-reported dietary data can usefully augment such biomarkers or can be calibrated using biomarkers for reliable disease association estimation in larger WHI cohorts.ObjectivesThe aims were to examine the potential of FFQ data to explain intake variation in a WHI Feeding Study and to compare association parameter estimates and their precision from studies based on biomarker-calibrated FFQ intake in larger WHI cohorts, with those previously presented.MethodsSerum-based intake measures were augmented by using FFQ data in a WHI Feeding Study (n = 153). Corresponding calibration equations were generated, both in a companion Nutritional Biomarker Study (n = 436) and in the previously mentioned subcohort (n = 5488), by regressing these intake measures on dietary data and participant characteristics, for α- and β-carotene, lutein plus zeaxanthin, and α-tocopherol. The supplemental value of FFQ data was considered by examining the fraction of feeding study intake variation explained by these regression models. Calibrated intake and disease association analyses were evaluated by comparisons with previously reported subcohort results.ResultsThe inclusion of FFQ data led to some increases in feeding study intake variation explained (total R2 of ∼50%). Calibrated intake estimates explained 25–75% of serum-based intake variation, whether developed using either of the 2 cohort subsamples. Related disease associations for micronutrients were precisely estimated in larger WHI cohorts (n = 76,691) but were often closer to the null compared with previously reported associations.ConclusionsFFQ data may usefully augment blood concentrations in estimating the intake of carotenoids and tocopherols. Calibrated intake estimates using FFQ, dietary supplement, and participant characteristics only may require further justification to ensure reliable estimation of related disease associations.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa034
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Protein intake is more stable than carbohydrate or fat intake across
           various US demographic groups and international populations
    • Authors: Lieberman H; Fulgoni V, III, Agarwal S, et al.
      Pages: 180 - 186
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe optimal macronutrient composition of the diet is controversial and many adults attempt to regulate the intake of specific macronutrients for various health-related reasons.ObjectiveThe objective was to compare stability and ranges of intakes of different macronutrients across diverse adult populations in the USA and globally.MethodsUS dietary intake data from NHANES 2009–2014 were used to determine macronutrient intake as a percentage of total energy intake. Variability in macronutrient intake was estimated by calculating the difference between 75th and 25th percentile (Q3–Q1) IQRs of macronutrient intake distributions. In addition, intake data from 13 other countries with per capita gross domestic product (GDP) over $10,000 US dollars (USD) were used to assess variability of intake internationally since there are large differences in types of foods consumed in different countries.ResultsProtein, carbohydrate, and fat intake (NHANES 2009–2014) was 15.7 ± 0.1, 48.1 ± 0.1, and 32.9 ± 0.1% kcal, respectively, in US adults. The IQR of protein intake distribution (3.73 ± 0.11% kcal) was 41% of carbohydrate intake distribution (9.18 ± 0.20% kcal) and 58% of fat intake distribution (6.40 ± 0.14% kcal). The IQRs of carbohydrate and fat intake distributions were significantly (P <0.01) influenced by age and race; however, the IQR of protein intake was not associated with demographic and lifestyle factors including sex, race, income, physical activity, and body weight. International mean protein intake was 16.3 ± 0.2% kcal, similar to US intake, and there was less variation in protein than carbohydrate or fat intake.ConclusionProtein intake of the US population and multiple international populations, regardless of demographic and lifestyle factors, was consistently ∼16% of total energy, suggesting biological control mechanism(s) tightly regulate protein intake and, consequently, influence intake of other macronutrients and food constituents. Substantial differences in intake of the other macronutrients observed in US and international populations had little influence on protein intake. This trial was registered at the ISRCTN registry as ISRCTN46157745 (
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa044
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Associations between growth from birth to 18 years, intelligence, and
           schooling in a Brazilian cohort
    • Authors: Baptista Menezes A; Oliveira P, Wehrmeister F, et al.
      Pages: 187 - 194
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundGrowth faltering in the first 1000 d is associated with lower human capital among adults. The existence of a second window of opportunity for nutritional interventions during adolescence has been postulated.ObjectivesWe aimed to verify the associations between growth from birth to 18 y and intelligence and schooling in a cohort.MethodsA total of 5249 hospital-born infants in Pelotas, Brazil, were enrolled during 1993. Follow-up visits to random subsamples took place at 6, 12, and 48 mo and to the full cohort at 11, 15, and 18 y. Weight and length/height were collected in all visits. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was applied at age 18 y, and primary school completion was recorded. Conditional length/height and conditional BMI were calculated and expressed as z scores according to the WHO Growth Standards. These express the difference between observed and expected size at a given age based on a regression that includes earlier anthropometric measures. Analyses were adjusted for income, parental education, maternal skin color and smoking, and breastfeeding duration.ResultsIn the adjusted analyses, participants with conditional length ≥1 z score at 1 y had mean intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 18 y 4.50 points (95% CI: 1.08, 7.92) higher than those with conditional length ≤−1 at 1 y. For height-for-age at 4 y, this difference was equal to 3.70 (95% CI: 0.49, 6.90) IQ points. There were no associations between conditional height at 11, 15, or 18 y and IQ. For the same previously mentioned comparison, the prevalence ratio for less than primary schooling was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.80) for conditional height at 1 y. There were no consistent associations with conditional BMI.ConclusionsOur findings show that adolescent growth is not associated with intelligence and schooling, and are consistent with the literature on the associations between intelligence and schooling and early linear growth.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa047
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Associations between consumption of dietary fibers and the risk of
           cardiovascular diseases, cancers, type 2 diabetes, and mortality in the
           prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort
    • Authors: Partula V; Deschasaux M, Druesne-Pecollo N, et al.
      Pages: 195 - 207
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundMounting evidence, yet with varying levels of proof, suggests that dietary fibers (DFs) may exert a protective role against various chronic diseases, but this might depend on the DF type and source.ObjectivesOur objectives were to assess the associations between the intake of DFs of different types [total (TDF), soluble (SF), insoluble (IF)] and from different sources (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, potatoes and tubers) and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and mortality in the large-scale NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort (2009–2019).MethodsOverall, 107,377 participants were included. Usual DF intake was estimated from validated repeated 24-h dietary records over the first 2 y following inclusion in the cohort. Associations between sex-specific quintiles of DF intake and the risk of chronic diseases and mortality were assessed using multiadjusted Cox proportional hazards models.ResultsT2D risk was inversely associated with TDFs [HR for quintile 5 compared with quintile 1: 0.59 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.82), P-trend <0.001], SFs [HR: 0.77 (0.56, 1.08); P-trend = 0.02], and IFs [HR: 0.69 (0.50, 0.96); P-trend = 0.004]. SFs were associated with a decreased risk of CVD [HR: 0.80 (0.66, 0.98); P-trend = 0.01] and colorectal cancer [HR: 0.41 (0.21, 0.79); P-trend = 0.01]. IFs were inversely associated with mortality from cancer or CVDs [HR: 0.65 (0.45, 0.94); P-trend = 0.02]. TDF intake was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer [HR:: 0.79 (0.54, 1.13); P-trend = 0.04]. DF intake from fruit was associated with the risk of several chronic diseases.ConclusionsOur results suggest that DF intake, especially SFs and DFs from fruits, was inversely associated with the risk of several chronic diseases and with mortality. Further studies are needed, involving different types and sources of fiber. Meanwhile, more emphasis should be put on DFs in public health nutrition policies, as DF intake remains below the recommended levels in many countries. This trial was registered at as NCT03335644.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa063
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Association of nut intake with risk factors, cardiovascular disease, and
           mortality in 16 countries from 5 continents: analysis from the Prospective
           Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study
    • Authors: de Souza R; Dehghan M, Mente A, et al.
      Pages: 208 - 219
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe association of nuts with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated mostly in Europe, the USA, and East Asia, with few data available from other regions of the world or from low- and middle-income countries.ObjectiveTo assess the association of nuts with mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD).MethodsThe Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study is a large multinational prospective cohort study of adults aged 35–70 y from 16 low-, middle-, and high-income countries on 5 continents. Nut intake (tree nuts and ground nuts) was measured at the baseline visit, using country-specific validated FFQs. The primary outcome was a composite of mortality or major cardiovascular event [nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or heart failure].ResultsWe followed 124,329 participants (age = 50.7 y, SD = 10.2; 41.5% male) for a median of 9.5 y. We recorded 10,928 composite events [deaths (n = 8,662) or major cardiovascular events (n = 5,979)]. Higher nut intake (>120 g per wk compared with <30 g per mo) was associated with a lower risk of the primary composite outcome of mortality or major cardiovascular event [multivariate HR (mvHR): 0.88; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.96; P-trend = 0.0048]. Significant reductions in total (mvHR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.87; P-trend <0.0001), cardiovascular (mvHR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.92; P-trend = 0.048), and noncardiovascular mortality (mvHR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.96; P-trend = 0.0046) with a trend to reduced cancer mortality (mvHR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00; P-trend = 0.081) were observed. No significant associations of nuts were seen with major CVD (mvHR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.02; P-trend = 0.14), stroke (mvHR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.14; P-trend = 0.76), or MI (mvHR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.04; P-trend = 0.29).ConclusionsHigher nut intake was associated with lower mortality risk from both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular causes in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa108
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Genetic susceptibility, plant-based dietary patterns, and risk of
           cardiovascular disease
    • Authors: Heianza Y; Zhou T, Sun D, et al.
      Pages: 220 - 228
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundPlant-based dietary patterns may be related to better cardiovascular profiles. Whether a healthy plant-based dietary index is predictive of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) across people with different genetic susceptibility remains uncertain.ObjectiveWe investigated associations of adherence to healthy plant-based diets with the incidence of CVD considering the genetic susceptibility.MethodsThis prospective cohort study included a total of 156,148 adults initially free of CVD and cancer. We calculated a healthful plant-based diet index (healthful-PDI) in which healthy plant foods received positive scores, and less healthy plant foods and animal foods received reverse scores. Genetic risk scores (GRSs) for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke were calculated to assess interactions between healthful-PDI and GRSs.ResultsDuring 5 y of follow-up, we observed 1812 incident cases of CVD. Higher healthful-PDI was associated with a lower CVD risk [HR per 10-unit increment: 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and other dietary factors (model 1); HR 0.90 (0.84, 0.97) after further adjusting for obesity and metabolic factors (model 2)]. The risk of CVD was gradually decreased in association with higher adherence to healthful-PDI, regardless of genetic susceptibility. The inverse associations of healthful-PDI with CVD were consistently observed in people with low GRS-MI [HR 0.85 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.94) in model 1; HR 0.88 (0.79, 0.97) in model 2] and those with high GRS-MI [HR 0.91 (0.82, 0.99) in model 1; HR 0.94 (0.86, 1.04) in model 2], without significant interactions (Pinteraction = 0.59 in model 1; Pinteraction = 0.66 in model 2). Similarly, higher healthful-PDI was related to a lower risk of CVD, regardless of low/high GRS-stroke.ConclusionAdherence to healthy plant-based diets may be associated with a decreased incidence of CVD in the entire population, suggesting that plant-based dietary patterns may modify the risk of CVD, regardless of genetic susceptibility.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa107
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Supplementation with vitamin D or ω-3 fatty acids in adolescent girls and
           young women with endometriosis (SAGE): a double-blind, randomized,
           placebo-controlled trial
    • Authors: Nodler J; DiVasta A, Vitonis A, et al.
      Pages: 229 - 236
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAdolescents with endometriosis are a particularly underserved population who struggle with chronic pain. Despite widespread use, there are no published trials examining the individual effects of vitamin D and omega-3 (n–3) fatty acid supplementation on endometriosis-associated pain in adolescents.ObjectivesWe aimed to determine whether supplementation with vitamin D or ω-3 fatty acids remediates pain, changes frequency of pain medication usage, or affects quality of life in young women with endometriosis.MethodsWomen (aged 12–25 y) with surgically confirmed endometriosis and pelvic pain enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The primary outcome was pain measured by the visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes were quality of life, pain catastrophizing, and pain medication usage. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 2000 IU vitamin D3, 1000 mg fish oil, or placebo daily for 6 mo.ResultsA total of 147 women were screened and 69 were randomly assigned as follows: 27 to vitamin D3; 20 to fish oil; and 22 to placebo. Participants in the vitamin D arm experienced significant improvement in VAS pain [mean (95% CI) worst pain in the past month, from baseline to 6 mo: 7.0 (6.2, 7.8) to 5.5 (4.2, 6.8), P = 0.02]; however, an improvement of nearly identical magnitude was observed in the placebo arm [6.0 (5.1, 6.9) to 4.4 (3.0, 5.8), P = 0.07]. A more modest improvement was observed in the fish oil arm [5.9 (4.8, 7.0) to 5.2 (3.7, 6.8), P = 0.39]. Neither of the intervention arms were statistically different from placebo.ConclusionsIn young women with endometriosis, supplementation with vitamin D led to significant changes in pelvic pain; however, these were similar in magnitude to placebo. Supplementation with fish oil resulted in about half of the VAS pain reduction of the other 2 arms. Studies are needed to better define the physiology underlying the observed reduction in pain score in the placebo arm that persisted across 6 mo.This trial was registered at as NCT02387931.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa096
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • The protective association of linoleic acid against mortality might be
           under- or over-estimated
    • Authors: Salari-Moghaddam A; Naghshi S, Larijani B, et al.
      Pages: 237 - 237
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa105
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Reply to A Salari-Moghaddam et al.
    • Authors: Li J; Hu F.
      Pages: 237 - 238
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa106
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Effect of daily vitamin B-12 and folic acid supplementation on fracture
           incidence in elderly individuals with an elevated plasma homocysteine
           concentration: B-PROOF, a randomized controlled trial
    • Pages: 239 - 239
      Abstract: Corrigendum for van Wijngaarden et al. Effect of daily vitamin B-12 and folic acid supplementation on fracture incidence in elderly individuals with an elevated plasma homocysteine concentration: B-PROOF, a randomized controlled trial). Am J Clin Nutr 2014;100(6):1578–86,
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa129
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Vitamin E absorption and kinetics in healthy women, as modulated by food
           and by fat, studied using 2 deuterium-labeled α-tocopherols in a 3-phase
           crossover design
    • Pages: 239 - 239
      Abstract: Erratum for Traber et al Vitamin E absorption and kinetics in healthy women, as modulated by food and by fat, studied using 2 deuterium-labeled α-tocopherols in a 3-phase crossover design. Am J Clin Nutr 2019;110(5):1148–67,
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa133
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
  • Calendar of Events
    • Pages: 240 - 240
      Abstract: Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, events around the world are being postponed or moved online. For the most current information on events listed below, please visit the meeting's website.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa168
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1 (2020)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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