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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 392 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 392 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.075, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 3.771, h-index: 262)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 583, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clean Energy     Open Access  
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.62, h-index: 53)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access  
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 59)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.199, h-index: 61)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.994, h-index: 107)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.327, h-index: 82)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.878, h-index: 80)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  [SJR: 3.771]   [H-I: 262]   [147 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0002-9165 - ISSN (Online) 1938-3207
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [392 journals]
  • Evidence of acculturation's impact on dietary quality among non-Hispanic
           blacks
    • Authors: Beydoun M; Beydoun H, Zonderman A.
      Pages: 679 - 680
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy084
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Another strategy to help counter the effects of low gravity'
    • Authors: Frassetto L.
      Pages: 681 - 682
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy085
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Effect of dietary fat intake and genetics on fat taste sensitivity: a
           co-twin randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Costanzo A; Nowson C, Orellana L, et al.
      Pages: 683 - 694
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundIndividuals with impaired fat taste (FT) sensitivity have reduced satiety responses after consuming fatty foods, leading to increased dietary fat intake. Habitual consumption of dietary fat may modulate sensitivity to FT, with high consumption decreasing sensitivity [increasing fatty acid taste threshold (FATT)] and low consumption increasing sensitivity (decreasing FATT). However, some individuals may be less susceptible to diet-mediated changes in FATT due to variations in gene expression.ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-wk low-fat or high-fat diet on FATT while maintaining baseline weight (<2.0 kg variation) to assess heritability and to explore the effect of genetics on diet-mediated changes in FATT.DesignA co-twin randomized controlled trial including 44 pairs (mean ± SD age: 43.7 ± 15.4 y; 34 monozygotic, 10 dizygotic; 33 women, 10 men, 1 gender-discordant) was conducted. Twins within a pair were randomly allocated to an 8-wk low-fat (<20% of energy from fat) or high-fat (>35% of energy from fat) diet. FATT was assessed by a 3-alternate forced choice methodology and transformed to an ordinal scale (FT rank) at baseline and at 4 and 8 wk. Linear mixed models were fit to assess diet effect on FT rank and diet effect modification due to zygosity. A variance components model was fit to calculate baseline heritability.ResultsThere was a significant time × diet interaction for FT rank after the 8-wk trial (P < 0.001), with the same conclusions for the subset of participants maintaining baseline weight (low-fat; n = 32; high-fat: n = 35). There was no evidence of zygosity effect modification (interaction of time × diet × zygosity: P = 0.892). Heritability of baseline FT rank was 8%.ConclusionsThere appears to be little to no genetic contribution on heritability of FATT or diet-mediated changes to FATT. Rather, environment, specifically dietary fat intake, is the main influencer of FT sensitivity, regardless of body weight. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry at http://www.anzctr.org.au/ as ACTRN12613000466741.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy022
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Diet quality among US-born and foreign-born non-Hispanic blacks: NHANES
           2003–2012 data
    • Authors: Brown A; Houser R, Mattei J, et al.
      Pages: 695 - 706
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundNon-Hispanic blacks in the United States are less likely to not meet national dietary recommendations than non-Hispanic whites; however, most studies do not consider nativity of US blacks.ObjectiveWith the use of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index–2010 (AHEI-2010) and the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores, this cross-sectional study compared diet quality between US-born (n = 3,911) and foreign-born (n = 408) non-Hispanic black adults aged 22–79 y, based on pooled nationally representative data (NHANES 2003–2012) as well as by length of US residency.DesignThe association between nativity and diet quality was determined by using multivariable-adjusted linear regression for the continuous total diet quality scores and their components or multinomial (polytomous) logistic regression for categorical tertiles (low, medium, or high) of the total scores and their components.ResultsForeign-born blacks had significantly higher AHEI-2010 (β: 9.3; 95% CI: 7.5, 11.0) and DASH (β: 3.1; 95% CI: 2.5, 3.8) scores compared with US-born blacks and more favorable intakes for many of the score components. Among foreign-born blacks, diet quality did not significantly differ by length of residency. Foreign-born blacks were more likely to be in the high than in the low tertile for vegetables [excluding starchy vegetables; relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.68; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.29], fruit [excluding and including fruit juice—RRR: 2.42 (95% CI: 1.69, 3.47) and RRR: 2.95 (95% CI: 1.90, 4.59), respectively], percentage of whole grains (RRR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.64, 3.49), and omega–3 (ω-3) fatty acids (RRR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.38, 2.97).ConclusionsForeign-born blacks have better diet quality than their US-born counterparts. In nutrition research and public health efforts, considering the place of birth among US blacks may improve the accuracy of characterizing dietary intakes and facilitate the development of targeted nutrition interventions to reduce diet-related diseases in the diverse black population in the United States.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy021
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Effects of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners on antroduodenal motility,
           gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite-related sensations in
           healthy subjects
    • Authors: Meyer-Gerspach A; Biesiekierski J, Deloose E, et al.
      Pages: 707 - 716
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundActivation of gastrointestinal (GI) sweet taste receptors by caloric sweeteners triggers secretion of anorexigenic and inhibition of orexigenic GI hormones to regulate food intake. The effect of noncaloric sweeteners on these mechanisms is controversial. We have recently shown that motilin-induced gastric phase III contractions signal hunger feelings, thereby identifying GI motility, and its regulatory hormone motilin, as novel players in food intake regulation.ObjectiveThe objective of the present study was to determine the effect of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners on GI motility, GI hormone secretion, and hunger in humans.DesignThe study was a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent 4 gastroduodenal manometry recordings in which the occurrence of phase III contractions was followed by the intragastric (i.g.) administration of 250 mL tap water or equisweet caloric (1) 50 g glucose and 2) 25 g fructose) and noncaloric sweeteners [220 mg acesulfame-K (ace-K)] dissolved in 250 mL tap water. Measurement continued until ≥1 subsequent phase III. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of GI hormones. Visual analog scales were used to rate hunger and satiety feelings. Response curves were analyzed using (generalized) linear mixed models.ResultsWe found: 1) an inhibitory effect of the 2 caloric sweeteners on antral motility (P < 0.01), but no effect after ace-K, 2) an inhibitory effect of the 2 caloric sweeteners on motilin secretion (P < 0.01), but no effect after ace-K, 3) an early increase in cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion after the 2 caloric sweeteners (P < 0.01), but no effect after ace-K, and 4) an initial stronger decrease in hunger feelings and stronger increase in satiety after ace-K (P < 0.05), followed by a steeper return of hunger and decrease of satiety after ace-K (P < 0.05).ConclusionsOur results demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that the caloric sweeteners glucose and fructose, but not the noncaloric sweetener ace-K, inhibit motilin secretion and antral motility while increasing CCK secretion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02891525.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy004
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Early nutrition and signs of metabolic syndrome at 6 y of age in children
           born very preterm
    • Authors: Toftlund L; Halken S, Agertoft L, et al.
      Pages: 717 - 724
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundIn term-born infants, the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been shown to be associated with formula feeding and early rapid growth. Breastfeeding, however, seems to be associated with a lower risk of MetS among term-born infants.ObjectiveThe possible association between type of early nutrition, early growth, and possible influence on different metabolic outcomes at 6 y of age was investigated in very-preterm-born children.DesignThis study is a 6-y follow-up of 281 very-preterm-born infants with a gestational age of ≤32 wk. Infants breastfed at discharge from the hospital were randomly assigned to receive unfortified or fortified mother's milk, whereas those who were not breastfed received a preterm formula. The intervention lasted until 4 mo of corrected age. At 6 y of age, height, weight, and body mass index were measured and a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and blood sampling were performed.ResultsIn total, 239 children participated in the follow-up. No differences were found between the 2 breastfed groups. Formula-fed children were more often predisposed to obesity and from families with a lower social status than were children who were breastfed only. Early rapid growth (crossing of weight percentiles with >1 SD in either direction) was seen in 53% of the children from 34 wk of postmenstrual age and until 2 mo of corrected age and was significantly correlated with several metabolic outcomes at 6 y of age.ConclusionsChildren fed a preterm formula postdischarge more often showed early rapid growth than did breastfed children, and early rapid growth was correlated with early signs of MetS at 6 y of age. However, all of the values were within normal ranges. This trial was registered at as NCT02078687.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy015
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • High-dose vitamin D3 in the treatment of severe acute malnutrition: a
           multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Saleem J; Zakar R, Zakar M, et al.
      Pages: 725 - 733
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundVitamin D deficiency is common in children with severe acute malnutrition, in whom it is associated with severe wasting. Ready-to-use therapeutic food (the standard treatment) contains modest amounts of vitamin D that do not reliably correct deficiency.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine whether high-dose oral vitamin D3 enhances weight gain and development in children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition.DesignWe conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial of high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in children aged 6–58 mo with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in Pakistan. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 2 oral doses of 200,000 IU vitamin D3 or placebo at 2 and 4 wk after starting ready-to-use therapeutic food. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants gaining >15% of baseline weight at 8 wk after starting ready-to-use therapeutic food (the end of the study). Secondary outcomes were mean weight-for-height or -length z score and the proportion of participants with delayed development at the end of the study (assessed with the Denver Development Screening Tool II), adjusted for baseline values.ResultsOf the 194 randomly assigned children who started the study, 185 completed the follow-up and were included in the analysis (93 assigned to intervention, 92 to control). High-dose vitamin D3 did not influence the proportion of children gaining >15% of baseline weight at the end of the study (RR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.94,1.15, P = 0.47), but it did increase the weight-for-height or -length z score (adjusted mean difference: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.49,1.65, P < 0.001) and reduce the proportion of participants with delayed global development [adjusted RR (aRR): 0.49; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.77, P = 0.002], delayed gross motor development (aRR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.64, P = 0.002), delayed fine motor development (aRR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.91, P = 0.018), and delayed language development (aRR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.96, P = 0.036).ConclusionsHigh-dose vitamin D3 improved the mean weight-for-height or -length z score and developmental indexes in children receiving standard therapy for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in Pakistan. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03170479.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy027
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • A meat- or dairy-based complementary diet leads to distinct growth
           patterns in formula-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Tang M; Hendricks A, Krebs N.
      Pages: 734 - 742
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundProtein intake from cow milk–based infant formula has been associated with rapid weight gain and increased adiposity, but the effect of protein from complementary foods has not been prospectively evaluated, and the effect of protein from sources other than formula during complementary feeding is not clear.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to directly compare the effect of protein from 2 common complementary food sources, meat and dairy, on infant growth and weight trajectory.DesignHealthy term, formula-fed infants were recruited from the metro Denver area, matched by sex and race/ethnicity and randomly assigned to a meat or a dairy complementary food group from 5 to 12 mo of age. Total protein intake during this 7-mo intervention was ∼3 g ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ d−1 for both groups. Intakes of infant formula, cereal, fruit, and vegetables were ad libitum. Caregivers also completed 3-d diet records at 5, 10, and 12 mo of age. Anthropometric measures were obtained during monthly home visits, and blood samples were collected at 5 and 12 mo of age.ResultsSixty-four infants completed the intervention (meat: n = 32; dairy: n = 32). The average total protein intake (mean ± SD) increased from 2.01 ± 0.06 g ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ d−1 at 5 mo to 3.35 ±0.12 g ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ d−1 at 12 mo and did not differ between groups. Over time, weight and weight-for-age z score increased by 0.48 ± 0.07. However, there was a significant group-by-time interaction for both length-for-age z score (LAZ) and weight-for-length z score (WLZ). Post hoc analysis showed that LAZ increased in the meat group (+0.33 ± 0.09; P = 0.001 over time) and decreased in the dairy group (−0.30 ± 0.10; P = 0.0002 over time); WLZ significantly increased in the dairy group (0.76 ± 0.21; P = 0.000002 over time) compared with the meat group (0.30 ± 0.17; P = 0.55 over time). Insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 both increased over time without group differences.ConclusionsProtein source may have an important role in regulating growth. In these formula-fed older infants, meat- and dairy-based complementary foods led to distinct growth patterns, especially for length. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02142647.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy038
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients with intestinal
           failure receiving home parenteral support: risks related to a
           catheter-salvage strategy
    • Authors: Tribler S; Brandt C, Fuglsang K, et al.
      Pages: 743 - 753
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundIn intestinal failure (IF) patients receiving home parenteral support (HPS), catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) frequently result in replacement of their tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), which may lead to future loss of central venous access.ObjectiveThis observational study investigated the consequences of a catheter-salvage strategy related to CRBSIs.DesignAll CRBSIs from 2002 to 2016 in the Copenhagen IF and microbiological databases were retrospectively analyzed. Catheter salvage was defined by successful antimicrobial therapy with a retained CVC at discharge. Re-occurrences of CRBSIs with the same microbial species and identical antibiogram were defined as a relapse (<30 d) or as a recurrent (30–100 d) infection. Cox regression analyses incorporated a frailty factor to account for recurrent events and overrepresentation by some patients. Cumulative incidence curves are presented with a competing risk model.ResultsThere were 2006 tunneled CVCs inserted in 715 adult HPS patients covering 2014.3 CVC years, with a CRBSI incidence rate of 1.83/1000 (n = 1350) and a mortality rate of 0.007/1000 CVC days (n = 5). The mean ± SD salvage rate was 55.3% ± 5.5%, varying according to infection type [monoinfections (62.9% ± 4.4%) and polyinfections (58.6% ± 17.3%)] and causative microorganism [coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) (68.1% ± 9.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (42.6% ± 17.5%), and Enterobacteriaceae (54.3% ± 16.7%)]. The overall risk of CRBSI relapse was 7.5%, and the risk of CRBSI recurrence was 7.3%. The HR for a subsequent CRBSI was 14% lower in a replaced than in a retained CVC (95% CI: 0.74, 0.99). The HR for a new CRBSI after catheter salvage was 36% higher after polyinfections than after monoinfections (95% CI: 1.03, 1.79). Enterobacteriaceae entailed an increased risk of CRBSI recurrence compared with CoNS (2.26; 95% CI; 1.08, 4.75) and S. aureus (4.45; 95% CI: 1.28, 15.5).ConclusionsHigh catheter-salvage rates related to CRBSIs were achievable and safe in HPS patients within a broad range of microorganisms but contributed to an increased risk of CRBSI relapse or recurrence.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy010
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • An 18-mo randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DHA-rich
           fish oil to prevent age-related cognitive decline in cognitively normal
           older adults
    • Authors: Danthiir V; Hosking D, Nettelbeck T, et al.
      Pages: 754 - 762
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundFish oil trials in cognitively healthy older adults have yielded inconsistent results. Supplementation may differentially affect the domains that underpin cognitive performance, and effects may differ across sex or genotype.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to test whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–rich fish oil slows 18-mo cognitive decline in cognitively healthy elders.DesignIn a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, cognitively healthy Australian community-dwelling adults (aged 65–90 y) consumed either 1720 mg DHA and 600 mg eicosapentaenoic acid or low-polyphenolic olive oil daily, as capsules, for 18 mo. Groups were allocated by permuted-block randomization and stratified by age. Cognitive assessment was conducted at baseline and then every 6 mo. Primary analyses tested the difference between groups in the rate of 18-mo cognitive change via latent growth curve models on any of the following: reasoning, working memory, short-term memory, retrieval fluency, and cognitive speed-related constructs. Treatment interactions with sex and APOE-ε4 were tested. Secondary outcomes were self-reported changes in well-being and everyday functioning, blood pressure, biomarkers of n–3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFAs), lipids, glucose metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and Mini-Mental State Examination.ResultsA total of 403 people were randomly assigned. Data from those who completed baseline were analyzed (n = 390; intervention n = 194, control n = 196). Daily supplementation with 2.3 g DHA-rich fish oil for 18 mo did not maintain or improve cognitive performance. A small negative main effect was found on psychomotor speed (intervention = –0.02, 95% CI: –0.04 to 0.00; d = 0.24, P = 0.03). Treatment effects differed according to sex on retrieval fluency and some speed-based domains, including psychomotor speed, and according to APOE-ε4 carrier status on reaction time and reasoning. For secondary outcomes, treatment was associated with increased perceived cognitive mistakes (d = 0.24; P = 0.003), increased oxidative stress, and expected changes in fatty acid metabolism.ConclusionsFindings do not support supplementing older adults with fish oil to prevent cognitive decline. Treatment interactions with sex and APOE-ε4 carrier status warrant further investigation. This trial was registered at the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR) as ACTRN12607000278437.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqx077
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Mediterranean diet and risk of frailty syndrome among women with type 2
           diabetes
    • Authors: Lopez-Garcia E; Hagan K, Fung T, et al.
      Pages: 763 - 771
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundPrevious research indicates that patients with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk of becoming frail. Emerging evidence also indicates that the Mediterranean diet may prevent frailty in the older population.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to assess whether a Mediterranean-style diet pattern was associated with lower risk of frailty among older women with diabetes.DesignThis was a prospective cohort study in 8970 women aged ≥60 y with type 2 diabetes from the Nurses’ Health Study. Adherence to the alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED) score was first measured in 1990 and repeated every 4 y until 2010. Frailty occurrence was ascertained up to 2012 and was defined as having ≥3 of the following 5 criteria from the fatigue, resistance, aerobic, illnesses, loss of weight (FRAIL) scale: Fatigue, low Resistance, low Aerobic capacity, having ≥5 Illnesses, and weight Loss of ≥5%. Those with frailty at baseline were excluded.ResultsDuring follow-up, we identified 569 incident cases of frailty. After adjustment for lifestyle factors and medication use, the HR (95% CI) of frailty was 1 for the lowest quartile of the aMED score, 0.88 (0.71, 1.10) for the second quartile, 0.69 (0.53, 0.88) for the third quartile, and 0.54 (0.42, 0.71) for the highest quartile (P-trend < 0.001). A 2-point (∼1 SD) increase in the aMED score was associated with a 28% (95% CI: 19%, 36%) reduced risk of frailty. The largest reduction in the risk was observed for a higher consumption of vegetables and fruit, as well as for alcohol intake.ConclusionsA Mediterranean-style diet pattern was associated with reduced risk of frailty syndrome in older women with type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy026
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Prospective association between added sugars and frailty in older adults
    • Authors: Laclaustra M; Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Guallar-Castillon P, et al.
      Pages: 772 - 779
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundSugar-sweetened beverages and added sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) in the diet are associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, which are all risk factors for decline in physical function among older adults.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to examine the association between added sugars in the diet and incidence of frailty in older people.DesignData were taken from 1973 Spanish adults ≥60 y old from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort. In 2008–2010 (baseline), consumption of added sugars (including those in fruit juices) was obtained using a validated diet history. Study participants were followed up until 2012–2013 to assess frailty based on Fried's criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking status, body mass index, energy intake, self-reported comorbidities, Mediterranean Diet Adherence Score (excluding sweetened drinks and pastries), TV watching time, and leisure-time physical activity.ResultsCompared with participants consuming <15 g/d added sugars (lowest tertile), those consuming ≥36 g/d (highest tertile) were more likely to develop frailty (OR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.34, 3.90; P-trend = 0.003). The frailty components “low physical activity” and “unintentional weight loss” increased dose dependently with added sugars. Association with frailty was strongest for sugars added during food production. Intake of sugars naturally appearing in foods was not associated with frailty.ConclusionsThe consumption of added sugars in the diet of older people was associated with frailty, mainly when present in processed foods. The frailty components that were most closely associated with added sugars were low level of physical activity and unintentional weight loss. Future research should determine whether there is a causal relation between added sugars and frailty.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy028
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Adverse effects on thyroid of Chinese children exposed to long-term iodine
           excess: optimal and safe Tolerable Upper Intake Levels of iodine for 7- to
           14-y-old children
    • Authors: Chen W; Zhang Y, Hao Y, et al.
      Pages: 780 - 788
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe adverse effects of iodine excess on the thyroid in children are not well understood, and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for iodine in children is unclear.ObjectiveThe aims of this study were to assess the effects of chronic long-term iodine excess on thyroid function in children and to explore the safe Tolerable Upper Intake Level of iodine in Chinese children.DesignA multistage cross-sectional study was conducted in 2224 children from areas with adequate to excessive iodine content in drinking water. Repeated samples of 24-h urine and spot urine samples were collected to estimate habitual daily iodine intakes of children. The thyroid volume in children was measured and blood samples were collected to determine thyroid function.ResultsThe habitual iodine intake of children was 298 μg/d (range: 186–437 μg/d). The total goiter rate was 9.7%, 232 (11.2%) children had hyperthyrotropinemia, and 232 (11.2%) children had thyroglobulin (Tg) concentrations >40 μg/L. The prevalence of hyperthyrotropinemia was >10% in children at iodine intakes of 200–300 μg/d. Tg concentrations increased with increased iodine intake (β = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.4, 0.6), and the prevalence of Tg >40 μg/L was >3% in all iodine-intake groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the risk of total goiter significantly increased at iodine intakes ≥250–299 μg/d in 7- to 10-y-old children (OR: 8.8; 95% CI: 2.3, 34.0) and at iodine intakes ≥300–399 μg/d in 11- to 14-y-old children (OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 1.5, 18.3). However, there were no consistent differences in the risk of hyperthyrotropinemia and Tg >40 μg/L in children between different iodine-intake groups.ConclusionsThyroid volume and goiter appear to be more sensitive indicators of thyroid stress than thyrotropin and Tg in children with long-term excess iodine intakes. We recommend 250 and 300 μg/d as safe Tolerable Upper Intake Levels of iodine for children aged 7–10 y and 11–14 y, respectively. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02915536.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy011
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Vitamin A and D intake in pregnancy, infant supplementation, and asthma
           development: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort
    • Authors: Parr C; Magnus M, Karlstad Ø, et al.
      Pages: 789 - 798
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundWestern diets may provide excess vitamin A, which is potentially toxic and could adversely affect respiratory health and counteract benefits from vitamin D.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to examine child asthma at age 7 y in relation to maternal intake of vitamins A and D during pregnancy, infant supplementation with these vitamins, and their potential interaction.DesignWe studied 61,676 school-age children (born during 2002–2007) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort with data on maternal total (food and supplement) nutrient intake in pregnancy (food-frequency questionnaire validated against biomarkers) and infant supplement use at age 6 mo (n = 54,142 children). Linkage with the Norwegian Prescription Database enabled near-complete follow-up (end of second quarter in 2015) for dispensed medications to classify asthma. We used log-binomial regression to calculate adjusted RRs (aRRs) for asthma with 95% CIs.ResultsAsthma increased according to maternal intake of total vitamin A [retinol activity equivalents (RAEs)] in the highest (≥2031 RAEs/d) compared with the lowest (≤779 RAEs/d) quintile (aRR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40) and decreased for total vitamin D in the highest (≥13.6 µg/d) compared with the lowest (≤3.5 µg/d) quintile (aRR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.97) during pregnancy. No association was observed for maternal intake in the highest quintiles of both nutrients (aRR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.18) and infant supplementation with vitamin D or cod liver oil.ConclusionsExcess vitamin A (≥2.5 times the recommended intake) during pregnancy was associated with increased risk, whereas vitamin D intake close to recommendations was associated with a reduced risk of asthma in school-age children. No association for high intakes of both nutrients suggests antagonistic effects of vitamins A and D. This trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03197233.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy016
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Calcium, magnesium, and whole-milk intakes and high-aggressive prostate
           cancer in the North Carolina–Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP)
    • Authors: Steck S; Omofuma O, Su L, et al.
      Pages: 799 - 807
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundCalcium and dairy product intakes have been positively associated with prostate cancer risk. An imbalance in concentrations of calcium and magnesium has been associated with multiple chronic diseases, although few studies have examined the relation with prostate cancer aggressiveness.ObjectiveThe goal of this study was to examine the association between dietary intakes of calcium and magnesium, the calcium-to-magnesium ratio (Ca:Mg), and dairy products and prostate cancer aggressiveness.DesignDietary intake was assessed with the use of an interviewer-administered modified National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire in 996 African American and 1064 European American men with a recent histologically confirmed diagnosis of prostate cancer from the North Carolina–Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP). High-aggressive disease was defined as Gleason sum ≥8, or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >20 ng/mL, or Gleason score ≥7 and clinical stage T3–T4. The comparison group was all other prostate cancer cases. Logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted ORs and 95% CIs for high-aggressive prostate cancer by tertile of diet and supplement exposures.ResultsThere was a positive association across tertiles of dietary Ca:Mg intake, with odds of high-aggressive prostate cancer in the upper tertiles as follows—OR for tertile 2 compared with tertile 1: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.88); OR for tertile 3 compared with tertile 1: 1.46 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.02). When stratified by race, the positive association was more pronounced in African American men (OR for tertile 3 compared with tertile 2: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.53). Men who reported the highest daily consumption of whole-fat milk had a 74% increased odds of high-aggressive prostate cancer compared with non–whole-fat milk drinkers, which was attenuated after adjustment for potential mediating factors, such as saturated fat and Ca:Mg intake.ConclusionsAmong both African American and European American men diagnosed with prostate cancer, a higher Ca:Mg and whole-milk intake were associated with higher odds of high-aggressive prostate cancer. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03289130.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy037
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • A dynamic model for predicting growth in zinc-deficient stunted infants
           given supplemental zinc
    • Authors: Wastney M; McDonald C, King J.
      Pages: 808 - 816
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundZinc deficiency limits infant growth and increases susceptibility to infections, which further compromises growth. Zinc supplementation improves the growth of zinc-deficient stunted infants, but the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc supplementation required to restore growth in an individual child is unknown. A dynamic model of zinc metabolism that predicts changes in weight and length of zinc-deficient, stunted infants with dietary zinc would be useful to define effective zinc supplementation regimens.ObjectiveThe aims of this study were to develop a dynamic model for zinc metabolism in stunted, zinc-deficient infants and to use that model to predict the growth response when those infants are given zinc supplements.DesignA model of zinc metabolism was developed using data on zinc kinetics, tissue zinc, and growth requirements for healthy 9-mo-old infants. The kinetic model was converted to a dynamic model by replacing the rate constants for zinc absorption and excretion with functions for these processes that change with zinc intake. Predictions of the dynamic model, parameterized for zinc-deficient, stunted infants, were compared with the results of 5 published zinc intervention trials. The model was then used to predict the results for zinc supplementation regimes that varied in the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc dosing.ResultsModel predictions agreed with published changes in plasma zinc after zinc supplementation. Predictions of weight and length agreed with 2 studies, but overpredicted values from a third study in which other nutrient deficiencies may have been growth limiting; the model predicted that zinc absorption was impaired in that study.ConclusionsThe model suggests that frequent, smaller doses (5–10 mg Zn/d) are more effective for increasing growth in stunted, zinc-deficient 9-mo-old infants than are larger, less-frequent doses. The dose amount affects the duration of dosing necessary to restore and maintain plasma zinc concentration and growth.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy020
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • An evidence-based approach to globally assess the covariate-dependent
           effect of the MTHFR single nucleotide polymorphism rs1801133 on blood
           homocysteine: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Jin H; Cheng H, Chen W, et al.
      Pages: 817 - 825
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe single nucleotide polymorphism of the gene 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T (or rs1801133) is the most established genetic factor that increases plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and consequently results in hyperhomocysteinemia. Yet, given the limited penetrance of this genetic variant, it is necessary to individually predict the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia for an rs1801133 carrier.ObjectiveWe hypothesized that variability in this genetic risk is largely due to the presence of factors (covariates) that serve as effect modifiers, confounders, or both, such as folic acid (FA) intake, and aimed to assess this risk in the complex context of these covariates.DesignWe systematically extracted from published studies the data on tHcy, rs1801133, and any previously reported rs1801133 covariates. The resulting metadata set was first used to analyze the covariates’ modifying effect by meta-regression and other statistical means. Subsequently, we controlled for this modifying effect by genotype-stratifying tHcy data and analyzed the variability in the risk resulting from the confounding of covariates.ResultsThe data set contains data on 36 rs1801133 covariates that were collected from 114,799 participants and 256 qualified studies, among which 6 covariates (sex, age, race, FA intake, smoking, and alcohol consumption) are the most frequently informed and therefore included for statistical analysis. The effect of rs1801133 on tHcy exhibits significant variability that can be attributed to effect modification as well as confounding by these covariates. Via statistical modeling, we predicted the covariate-dependent risk of tHcy elevation and hyperhomocysteinemia in a systematic manner.ConclusionsWe showed an evidence-based approach that globally assesses the covariate-dependent effect of rs1801133 on tHcy. The results should assist clinicians in interpreting the rs1801133 data from genetic testing for their patients. Such information is also important for the public, who increasingly receive genetic data from commercial services without interpretation of its clinical relevance. This study was registered at Research Registry with the registration number reviewregistry328.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy035
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Joint effects of fatty acid desaturase 1 polymorphisms and dietary
           polyunsaturated fatty acid intake on circulating fatty acid proportions
    • Authors: Juan J; Huang H, Jiang X, et al.
      Pages: 826 - 833
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are associated with a lower risk of multiple diseases. Fatty acid desaturase 1 gene (FADS1) polymorphisms and dietary PUFA intake are both established determinants of circulating PUFA proportions.ObjectiveWe explored the joint effects of FADS1 polymorphisms and dietary PUFA intake on circulating PUFA proportions.DesignWe studied 2288 participants from a nested case-control study of coronary artery disease among participants who provided blood samples in the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Dietary PUFA intake was obtained from semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaires. FADS1 rs174546 was genotyped by using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform, and circulating PUFA proportions were measured with gas-liquid chromatography. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between rs174546 and circulating proportions of each fatty acid. Gene-diet interactions were tested by including a cross-product term of dietary intake of each PUFA by rs174546 genotype in the linear regression models.ResultsAfter adjustment for sex and ancestry, each copy of the C allele of rs174546 was associated with higher circulating proportions of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and lower proportions of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid. The magnitude of positive association between higher consumption of dietary EPA or DHA and circulating proportions of EPA increased with each copy of the rs174546_T allele (P-interaction = 0.01 and 0.007, respectively). Each 1-SD increment in EPA intake was associated with an average 3.7% increase in circulating EPA proportions among participants with the rs174546_CC genotype and an average 7.8% increase among participants with the TT genotype.ConclusionsCarriers of the T allele at FADS1 rs174546 may need higher doses of dietary EPA and DHA to achieve the same circulating proportions of EPA as carriers of the C allele. The implications of these findings on disease risk and dietary guidelines require further study.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy025
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Dietary acid load and bone turnover during long-duration spaceflight and
           bed rest
    • Authors: Zwart S; Rice B, Dlouhy H, et al.
      Pages: 834 - 844
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundBed rest studies document that a lower dietary acid load is associated with lower bone resorption.ObjectiveWe tested the effect of dietary acid load on bone metabolism during spaceflight.DesignControlled 4-d diets with a high or low animal protein–to-potassium (APro:K) ratio (High and Low diets, respectively) were given to 17 astronauts before and during spaceflight. Each astronaut had 1 High and 1 Low diet session before flight and 2 High and 2 Low sessions during flight, in addition to a 4-d session around flight day 30 (FD30), when crew members were to consume their typical in-flight intake. At the end of each session, blood and urine samples were collected. Calcium, total protein, energy, and sodium were maintained in each crew member's preflight and in-flight controlled diets.ResultsRelative to preflight values, N-telopeptide (NTX) and urinary calcium were higher during flight, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) was higher toward the end of flight. The High and Low diets did not affect NTX, BSAP, or urinary calcium. Dietary sulfur and age were significantly associated with changes in NTX. Dietary sodium and flight day were significantly associated with urinary calcium during flight. The net endogenous acid production (NEAP) estimated from the typical dietary intake at FD30 was associated with loss of bone mineral content in the lumbar spine after the mission. The results were compared with data from a 70-d bed rest study, in which control (but not exercising) subjects’ APro:K was associated with higher NTX during bed rest.ConclusionsLong-term lowering of NEAP by increasing vegetable and fruit intake may protect against changes in loss of bone mineral content during spaceflight when adequate calcium is consumed, particularly if resistive exercise is not being performed. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01713634.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy029
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Glycemic response and the glycemic index of foods: more remains to be seen
           on the second-meal effect of proteins
    • Authors: Brighenti F; Kendall C, Augustin L, et al.
      Pages: 845 - 850
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy030
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Reply to Brighenti F et al.
    • Authors: Meng H; Matthan N, Lichtenstein A.
      Pages: 846 - 847
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy031
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Methodologic weaknesses notwithstanding, can a study examining the
           association between potatoes (or really any food or nutrient) and
           “all-cause mortality” truly tell us anything meaningful'
    • Authors: Beals K.
      Pages: 847 - 849
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy033
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Response to: Fried potato consumption is associated with elevated
           mortality: an 8-y longitudinal cohort study
    • Authors: Parks C.
      Pages: 849 - 849
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy034
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Reply to KA Beals and to C Parks
    • Authors: Veronese N; Stubbs B, Maggi S, et al.
      Pages: 849 - 850
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy036
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Calendar of Events
    • Pages: 851 - 851
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy094
      Issue No: Vol. 107, No. 5 (2018)
       
 
 
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