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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 585, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.438
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 145  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-9165 - ISSN (Online) 1938-3207
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • Genetic susceptibility to the “obesogenic” environment: the role of
           eating behavior in obesity and an appetite for change
    • Authors: Llewellyn C.
      Pages: 429 - 430
      Abstract: The sudden onset of the obesity epidemic in high-income countries at the end of the last century coincided with major changes to the food supply, resulting in larger portion sizes, greater availability and affordability of energy dense foods, and increased marketing (1). Notwithstanding diminished physical activity levels, the modern food environment is deemed largely responsible for increases in obesity. However, despite the ubiquity of the “obesogenic” environment, we have not uniformly developed obesity. On the contrary, there is large population variation in adiposity. In fact, it is not uncommon for siblings living in the same household to be discordant in weight status, highlighting the considerable variability in susceptibility to obesity even among those exposed to similar environments. Obesity is about far more than the environment in which we live.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy210
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • The not-so-sweet effects of sucralose on blood sugar control
    • Authors: Pepino M.
      Pages: 431 - 432
      Abstract: In recent years, the food industry has provided consumers with the choice of low-calorie versions of foods and beverages by substituting added sugars with low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) and a growing number of “sweetener enhancers” (1). Marketing claims include how these foods and beverages can contribute to diet healthfulness by delivering a pleasant, sweet taste with fewer or no calories. Despite these claims, data from several epidemiologic studies, but not all (2), suggest that frequent consumption of LCSs is associated with the same detrimental health effects as high consumption of added sugars, including an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (3, 4).
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy205
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Intake biomarkers and the chronic disease nutritional epidemiology
           research agenda
    • Authors: Prentice R.
      Pages: 433 - 434
      Abstract: Dietary assessment poses a major challenge in nutritional epidemiology research. For example, in an observational cohort setting, even if individual dietary intake history could be measured precisely over the life span, substantial efforts would be required to quantify the role of specific nutrients, food groups, and dietary patterns in chronic disease risk. In particular, related analyses would need to allow for a complex mixture of correlated and interactive intake variables, as well as the usual confounding issues. When substantial random and systematic biases in dietary assessment are added to this background, it should not be surprising that rather few clear associations of nutritional variables with chronic disease risk have emerged, in spite of several decades of analytic epidemiologic study (1, 2). However, whether this paucity is due to diet being unimportant for chronic disease risk, or whether important associations are being masked by dietary assessment measurement issues, remains largely unknown.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy206
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Sugar taxation: a good start but not the place to finish
    • Authors: Lean M; Garcia A, Gill T.
      Pages: 435 - 436
      Abstract: In April 2018, the United Kingdom introduced a levy on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), with 2 bands of taxation: beverages containing 5–8 g added sugar/100 mL are taxed at 18 p/L and those with ≥8 g at 24 p/L (1). Of course, familiar voices loudly oppose such taxation, supporting the principle of market freedom and dismissing public health arguments that taxation will reduce SSB consumption thereby reducing the incidence of obesity and related chronic diseases, and raise valuable revenue to amplify public health gains (2). Taxation changes behaviors, and has effectively reduced harms from tobacco and alcohol, although their continued excessive consumption among more deprived communities is worrying (3). Reassuringly, Redondo et al. (4) in this issue of the Journal find SSB taxation to be effective among people in poorer socioeconomic circumstances, without causing a damaging tax burden.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy211
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Recommendations for characterization and reporting of dietary fibers in
           nutrition research
    • Authors: Poutanen K; Fiszman S, Marsaux C, et al.
      Pages: 437 - 444
      Abstract: ABSTRACTDietary fiber (DF) comprises a wide range of naturally occurring and modified materials with substantial variations in physical and chemical properties and potential physiologic effects. Although nutrition studies testing the effects of DF usually provide extensive detail on the physiologic responses, many still fail to adequately report the type and properties of the DF itself. This weakens the ability to directly replicate and compare studies and to establish structure-function relations. We outline the factors that affect DF functionality and provide 4 overarching recommendations for the characterization and reporting of DF preparations and DF-containing foods in nutrition research. These relate to 1) undertaking characterization methods that reflect the study hypothesis; 2) adequate reporting of DF source, quantity, and composition; 3) measurement of DF rheological properties; and 4) estimation of the DF fermentation rate and extent. Importantly, the food matrix of the test products should also be considered, because this can influence DF functionality and hence the apparent DF efficacy for health-relevant outcomes. Finally, we point out differences in DF functionality to be considered in acute and longer-term trials, the need to design the control treatment according to the research question, and the importance of reporting the amount and type of DF in the background diet.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy095
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • The role of eating behavior traits in mediating genetic susceptibility to
           obesity
    • Authors: Jacob R; Drapeau V, Tremblay A, et al.
      Pages: 445 - 452
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundGenome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified several genes associated with obesity. The mechanisms through which these genes affect body weight are not fully characterized. Recent studies suggest that eating behavior (EB) traits could be involved, but only a few EB traits were investigated.ObjectiveThis study aimed to investigate whether genetic susceptibility to obesity is mediated by EB traits (cognitive restraint, disinhibition, hunger) and their subscales. We hypothesized that EB traits, and their subscales, partly mediate this association.DesignAdult individuals (n = 768) who participated in the Quebec Family Study were included in this cross-sectional study. A genetic risk score (GRS) of obesity was calculated based on the 97 genetic variants recently identified in a GWAS meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI). EB traits and their subscales were assessed with the use of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Regression analyses with age and sex as covariates were used to investigate the associations between GRS, EB traits, BMI, and WC and whether the association between GRS and obesity is mediated by EB traits, which represents the indirect effect of GRS on obesity.ResultsThe GRS of obesity was positively associated with BMI (β = 0.19 ± 0.04, P < 0.0001) and WC (β = 0.46 ± 0.10, P < 0.0001). Regression analyses also revealed that the association between GRS of obesity and BMI was partly mediated by disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger (βindirect = 0.09 ± 0.03, P = 0.0007, and βindirect = 0.04 ± 0.02, P = 0.02, respectively). Habitual and situational susceptibility to disinhibition (βindirect = 0.08 ± 0.03, P = 0.002 and βindirect = 0.05 ± 0.02, P = 0.003, respectively) as well as internal and external locus of hunger (βindirect = 0.03 ± 0.02, P = 0.03 for both) were also found to mediate the association between GRS of obesity and BMI. The same trends were observed with WC.ConclusionsThe results of this study indicate that the genetic susceptibility to obesity is partly mediated through undesirable EB traits, which suggests that they could be targeted in obesity treatment and prevention. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03355729.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy130
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Body mass index is negatively associated with telomere length: a
           collaborative cross-sectional meta-analysis of 87 observational studies
    • Authors: Gielen M; Hageman G, Antoniou E, et al.
      Pages: 453 - 475
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEven before the onset of age-related diseases, obesity might be a contributing factor to the cumulative burden of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation throughout the life course. Obesity may therefore contribute to accelerated shortening of telomeres. Consequently, obese persons are more likely to have shorter telomeres, but the association between body mass index (BMI) and leukocyte telomere length (TL) might differ across the life span and between ethnicities and sexes.ObjectiveA collaborative cross-sectional meta-analysis of observational studies was conducted to investigate the associations between BMI and TL across the life span.DesignEighty-seven distinct study samples were included in the meta-analysis capturing data from 146,114 individuals. Study-specific age- and sex-adjusted regression coefficients were combined by using a random-effects model in which absolute [base pairs (bp)] and relative telomere to single-copy gene ratio (T/S ratio) TLs were regressed against BMI. Stratified analysis was performed by 3 age categories (“young”: 18–60 y; “middle”: 61–75 y; and “old”: >75 y), sex, and ethnicity.ResultsEach unit increase in BMI corresponded to a −3.99 bp (95% CI: −5.17, −2.81 bp) difference in TL in the total pooled sample; among young adults, each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a −7.67 bp (95% CI: −10.03, −5.31 bp) difference. Each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a −1.58 × 10−3 unit T/S ratio (0.16% decrease; 95% CI: −2.14 × 10−3, −1.01 × 10−3) difference in age- and sex-adjusted relative TL in the total pooled sample; among young adults, each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a −2.58 × 10−3 unit T/S ratio (0.26% decrease; 95% CI: −3.92 × 10−3, −1.25 × 10−3). The associations were predominantly for the white pooled population. No sex differences were observed.ConclusionsA higher BMI is associated with shorter telomeres, especially in younger individuals. The presently observed difference is not negligible. Meta-analyses of longitudinal studies evaluating change in body weight alongside change in TL are warranted.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy107
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Serial measures of circulating biomarkers of dairy fat and total and
           
    • Authors: de Oliveira Otto M; Lemaitre R, Song X, et al.
      Pages: 476 - 484
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundControversy has emerged about the benefits compared with harms of dairy fat, including concerns over long-term effects. Previous observational studies have assessed self-reported estimates of consumption or a single biomarker measure at baseline, which may lead to suboptimal estimation of true risk.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate prospective associations of serial measures of plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic (15:0), heptadecanoic (17:0), and trans-palmitoleic (trans-16:1n–7) acids with total mortality, cause-specific mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among older adults.DesignAmong 2907 US adults aged ≥65 y and free of CVD at baseline, circulating fatty acid concentrations were measured serially at baseline, 6 y, and 13 y. Deaths and CVD events were assessed and adjudicated centrally. Prospective associations were assessed by multivariate-adjusted Cox models incorporating time-dependent exposures and covariates.ResultsDuring 22 y of follow-up, 2428 deaths occurred, including 833 from CVD, 1595 from non-CVD causes, and 1301 incident CVD events. In multivariable models, circulating pentadecanoic, heptadecanoic, and trans-palmitoleic acids were not significantly associated with total mortality, with extreme-quintile HRs of 1.05 for pentadecanoic (95% CI: 0.91, 1.22), 1.07 for heptadecanoic (95% CI: 0.93, 1.23), and 1.05 for trans-palmitoleic (95% CI: 0.91, 1.20) acids. Circulating heptadecanoic acid was associated with lower CVD mortality (extreme-quintile HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.98), especially stroke mortality, with a 42% lower risk when comparing extreme quintiles of heptadecanoic acid concentrations (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.97). In contrast, heptadecanoic acid was associated with a higher risk of non-CVD mortality (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.52), which was not clearly related to any single subtype of non-CVD death. No significant associations of pentadecanoic, heptadecanoic, or trans-palmitoleic acids were seen for total incident CVD, coronary heart disease, or stroke.ConclusionsLong-term exposure to circulating phospholipid pentadecanoic, heptadecanoic, or trans-palmitoleic acids was not significantly associated with total mortality or incident CVD among older adults. High circulating heptadecanoic acid was inversely associated with CVD and stroke mortality and potentially associated with higher risk of non-CVD death.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy117
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Sucralose decreases insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects: a randomized
           controlled trial
    • Authors: Romo-Romo A; Aguilar-Salinas C, Brito-Córdova G, et al.
      Pages: 485 - 491
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundRecently, the absence of metabolic effects from nonnutritive sweeteners has been questioned.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sucralose consumption on glucose metabolism variables.DesignWe performed a randomized controlled trial involving healthy subjects without comorbidities and with a low habitual consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners (n = 33/group).MethodsThe intervention consisted of sucralose consumption as 15% of Acceptable Daily Intake every day for 14 d using commercial sachets. The control group followed the same procedures without any intervention. The glucose metabolism variables (insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response to glucose, disposition index, and glucose effectiveness) were evaluated by using a 3-h modified intravenous-glucose-tolerance test before and after the intervention period.ResultsIndividuals assigned to sucralose consumption showed a significant decrease in insulin sensitivity with a median (IQR) percentage change of −17.7% (−29.3% to −1.0%) in comparison to −2.8% (−30.7% to 40.6%) in the control group (P= 0.04). An increased acute insulin response to glucose from 577 mU · L-1· min (350–1040 mU · L-1· min) to 671 mU · L-1· min (376–1010 mU · L-1· min) (P = 0.04) was observed in the sucralose group for participants with adequate adherence.ConclusionsSucralose may have effects on glucose metabolism, and our study complements findings previously reported in other trials. Further studies are needed to confirm the decrease in insulin sensitivity and to explore the mechanisms for these metabolic alterations. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02589002.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy152
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Effect of 12 wk of resistant starch supplementation on cardiometabolic
           risk factors in adults with prediabetes: a randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Peterson C; Beyl R, Marlatt K, et al.
      Pages: 492 - 501
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundType 2 resistant starch (RS2) has been shown to improve glycemic control and some cardiovascular endpoints in rodent and human studies.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to perform one of the first randomized clinical trials in adults with prediabetes and one of the longest trials to test whether RS2 can improve cardiometabolic health.Design68 overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2] adults aged 35–75 y with prediabetes were randomized to consume 45 g/d of high-amylose maize (RS2) or an isocaloric amount of the rapidly digestible starch amylopectin (control) for 12 wk. At baseline and postintervention, ectopic fat depots (visceral adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipids, and intramyocellular lipids) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, energy metabolism by respiratory chamber, and carbohydrate metabolism by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), an intravenous glucose tolerance test, and a meal tolerance test. Cardiovascular risk factors—serum lipids, blood pressure, heart rate, and inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α)—were also measured. The primary endpoints were insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, ectopic fat, and markers of inflammation. Data were primarily analyzed as treatment effects via a linear mixed model both with and without the addition of covariates.ResultsRelative to the control group, RS2 lowered HbA1c by a clinically insignificant 0.1 ± 0.2% (Δ = −1 ± 2 mmol/mol; P = 0.05) but did not affect insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, the disposition index, or glucose or insulin areas under the curve relative to baseline (P ≥ 0.23). RS2 decreased heart rate by 5 ± 9 beats/min (P = 0.02) and TNF-α concentrations by 2.1 ± 2.7 pg/mL (P = 0.004), relative to the control group. Ectopic fat, energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, and all other cardiovascular risk factors were unaffected (P ≥ 0.06).Conclusions12 wk of supplementation with resistant starch reduced the inflammatory marker TNF-α and heart rate, but it did not significantly improve glycemic control and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, in adults with prediabetes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01708694.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy121
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • The complex human urinary sugar profile: determinants revealed in the
           cross-sectional KarMeN study
    • Authors: Mack C; Weinert C, Egert B, et al.
      Pages: 502 - 516
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAlthough sugars and sugar derivatives are an important class of metabolites involved in many physiologic processes, there is limited knowledge on their occurrence and pattern in biofluids.ObjectiveOur aim was to obtain a comprehensive urinary sugar profile of healthy participants and to demonstrate the wide applicability and usefulness of this sugar profiling approach for nutritional as well as clinical studies.DesignIn the cross-sectional KarMeN study, the 24-h urine samples of 301 healthy participants on an unrestricted diet, assessed via a 24-h recall, were analyzed by a newly developed semitargeted gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiling method that enables the detection of known and unknown sugar compounds. Statistical analyses were performed with respect to associations of sex and diet with the urinary sugar profile.ResultsIn total, 40 known and 15 unknown sugar compounds were detected in human urine, ranging from mono- and disaccharides, polyols, and sugar acids to currently unknown sugar-like compounds. A number of rarely analyzed sugars were found in urine samples. Maltose was found in statistically higher concentrations in the urine of women compared with men and was also associated with menopausal status. Further, a number of individual sugar compounds associated with the consumption of specific foods, such as avocado, or food groups, such as alcoholic beverages and dairy products, were identified.ConclusionsWe here provide data on the complex nature of the sugar profile in human urine, of which some compounds may have the potential to serve as dietary markers or early disease biomarkers. Thus, comprehensive urinary sugar profiling not only has the potential to increase our knowledge of host sugar metabolism, but can also reveal new dietary markers after consumption of individual food items, and may lead to the identification of early disease biomarkers in the future. The KarMeN study was registered at drks.de as DRKS00004890.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy131
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A new food-composition database for 437 polyphenols in 19,899 raw and
           prepared foods used to estimate polyphenol intakes in adults from 10
           European countries
    • Authors: Knaze V; Rothwell J, Zamora-Ros R, et al.
      Pages: 517 - 524
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBACKGROUNDAccurate assessment of polyphenol intakes is needed in epidemiologic research in order to study their health effects, and this can be particularly challenging in international study settings.OBJECTIVEThe purpose of this work is to describe the procedures to prepare a comprehensive polyphenol food-composition database that was used to calculate standardized polyphenol intakes from 24-h diet recalls (24HDRs) and dietary questionnaires (DQs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).DesignWith the use of the comparable food classification and facet-descriptor system of the computerized 24HDR program EPIC-Soft (renamed GloboDiet), foods reported in the 24HDR (n = 74,626) were first aggregated following a stepwise process. Multi-ingredient and generic foods were broken down into ingredients or more-specific foods with consideration of regional consumption habits before matching to foods in the Phenol-Explorer database. Food-composition data were adjusted by using selected retention factors curated in Phenol-Explorer. DQ foods (n = 13,946) were matched to a generated EPIC 24HDR polyphenol-composition database before calculation of daily intakes from the 24HDR and DQ.RESULTSFood matching yielded 2.0% and 2.7% of foods with missing polyphenol content in the 24HDR and DQ food data sets, respectively. Process-specific retention factors for 42 different polyphenol compounds were applied to adjust the polyphenol content in 35 prioritized Phenol-Explorer foods, thereby adjusting the polyphenol content in 70% of all of the prepared 24 food occurrences. A detailed food-composition database was finally generated for 437 polyphenols in 19,899 aggregated raw and prepared foods reported by 10 EPIC countries in the 24HDR.ConclusionsAn efficient procedure was developed to build the most-comprehensive food-composition database for polyphenols, thereby standardizing the calculations of dietary polyphenol intakes obtained from different dietary assessment methods and European populations. The whole database is accessible online. This procedure could equally be used for other food constituents and in other cohorts.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy098
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Vitamin B-12 content in breast milk of vegan, vegetarian, and
           nonvegetarian lactating women in the United States
    • Authors: Pawlak R; Vos P, Shahab-Ferdows S, et al.
      Pages: 525 - 531
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe nutritional profile of human milk varies significantly between women, and the impact of maternal diet on these variations is not well understood.ObjectiveWe analyzed breast-milk vitamin B-12 concentration and vitamin B-12 supplement use pattern among women who adhered to different dietary patterns: vegan, vegetarian, and nonvegetarian.DesignA total of 74 milk samples, 29 from vegan, 19 from vegetarian, and 26 from nonvegetarian breastfeeding mothers, were analyzed.ResultsThe prevalences of low vitamin B-12 (<310 pmol/L) were 19.2% for vegans, 18.2% for vegetarians, and 15.4% for nonvegetarians, which was not significant by diet group (P = 1.00). The median (quartile 1, quartile 3) vitamin B-12 values were 558 pmol/L (331, 759 pmol/L) for vegans, 509 pmol/L (368, 765 pmol/L) for vegetarians, and 444 pmol/L (355, 777 pmol/L) for nonvegetarians (P = 0.890). The use of individual vitamin B-12 supplements was higher in vegans (46.2%) than in vegetarians (27.3%) and nonvegetarians (3.9%) (P = 0.001). In linear regression analysis, the use of individual vitamin B-12 supplements was a significant positive predictor of milk vitamin B-12 concentration (β ± SE: 172.9 ± 75.2; standardized β = 0.263; P = 0.024; R2 = 0.069), the use of a multivitamin had a significant negative relation with milk vitamin B-12 concentrations (β ± SE −222.0 ± 98.7; standardized β = −0.258; P = 0.028, R2 = 0.067;), whereas the use of a B-complex vitamin and prenatal vitamin were not predictive of vitamin B-12 milk concentration (P > 0.05).ConclusionsAlmost 20% of our study participants were classified as having low breast-milk vitamin B-12 concentrations (<310 pmol/L), independent of maternal diet pattern. Approximately 85% of participants categorized as having low vitamin B-12 were taking vitamin B-12 supplements at doses in excess of the Recommended Dietary Allowance, which suggests that more research is needed to determine breast-milk adequacy values.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy104
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Validity of predictive equations for 24-h urinary potassium excretion
           based on timing of spot urine collection among adults: the MESA and CARDIA
           Urinary Sodium Study and NHANES Urinary Sodium Calibration Study
    • Authors: Mercado C; Cogswell M, Loria C, et al.
      Pages: 532 - 547
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackground24-h urine collections are the suggested method to measure daily urinary potassium excretion (uK) but are costly and burdensome to implement.ObjectiveThis study tested how well existing equations with the use of spot urine samples can estimate 24-h uK and if accuracy varies by timing of spot urine collection, age, race, or sex.DesignThis cross-sectional study used data from 407 participants aged 18–39 y from the Washington, DC area in 2011 and 554 participants aged 45–79 y from Chicago in 2013. Spot urine samples were collected in individual containers for 24 h, and 1 for each timed period (morning, afternoon, evening, and overnight) was selected. For each selected timed spot urine, 24-h uK was predicted through the use of published equations. Difference (bias) between predicted and measured 24-h uK was calculated for each timed period and within age, race, and sex subgroups. Individual-level differences were assessed through the use of Bland-Altman plots and correlation tests.ResultsFor all equations, regardless of the timing of spot urine, mean bias was usually significantly different than 0. No one prediction equation was unbiased across all sex, race, and age subgroups. With the use of the Kawasaki and Tanaka equations, 24-h uK was overestimated at low levels and underestimated at high levels, whereas observed differential bias with the Mage equation was in the opposite direction. Depending on prediction equation and timing of urine sample, 61–75% of individual 24-h uKs were misclassified among 500-mg incremental categories from <1500 to ≥3000 mg. Correlations between predicted and measured 24-h uK were poor to moderate (0.19–0.71).ConclusionBecause predicted 24-h uK accuracy varies by timing of spot urine collection, published prediction equations, and within age-race-sex subgroups, study results making use of predicted 24-h uK in association with health outcomes should be interpreted with caution. It is possible that a more accurate prediction equation can be developed leading to different results.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy138
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • The impact of the tax on sweetened beverages: a systematic review
    • Authors: Redondo M; Hernández-Aguado I, Lumbreras B.
      Pages: 548 - 563
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundObesity has a serious impact on public health. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are implicated in the obesity epidemic. Regulation has been suggested as one approach to limit consumption.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to synthesize existing evidence related to the impact of taxes on the consumption, purchase, or sales of SSBs.DesignA systematic review was conducted by using MEDLINE through PubMed (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed), the Cochrane Library (http://www.cochranelibrary.com/), the Web of Science (https://login.webofknowledge.com/error/Error'PathInfo=%2F&Error=IPError), and Scopus (https://www.scopus.com/search/form.uri'display=basic) in the period 2011–2017 for studies that analyzed the impact of fiscal regulatory measures on the consumption, purchase, or sales of SSBs. The quality of evidence was assessed according to the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) and the TREND (Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Nonrandomized Designs) statements.ResultsOf the 17 studies, 5 (29.4%) evaluated the impact of a tax on SSBs in naturalistic experiments by county or city in the United States and in Mexico. Findings indicated that purchases or sales of SSBs decreased significantly with taxation amounts of 8% (Berkeley, CA) and 10% (Mexico). One study found no effect on sales of SSBs in 2 states that enacted a 5.5% tax on sodas. Twelve (70.6%) studies were based on virtual or experimental conditions evaluating either purchasing behavior or sales (6 studies; 50.0%) or behavioral intent (6 studies; 50.0%), resulting in a decrease in either purchasing behavior or sales or intent behavior with heterogeneity according to the tax rate.ConclusionsTaxation significantly influences planned purchases and increases the probability of the purchase of healthy beverages. SSB taxes have the potential to reduce calorie and sugar intake, but further research is needed to evaluate effects on diet quality.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy135
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Plasma metabolites associated with healthy Nordic dietary indexes and risk
           of type 2 diabetes—a nested case-control study in a Swedish population
    • Authors: Shi L; Brunius C, Johansson I, et al.
      Pages: 564 - 575
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEpidemiologic evidence on the association of a healthy Nordic diet and future type 2 diabetes (T2D) is limited. Exploring metabolites as biomarkers of healthy Nordic dietary patterns may facilitate investigation of associations between such patterns and T2D.ObjectivesWe aimed to identify metabolites related to a priori-defined healthy Nordic dietary indexes, the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) and Healthy Nordic Food Index (HNFI), and evaluate associations with the T2D risk in a case-control study nested in a Swedish population-based prospective cohort.DesignPlasma samples from 421 case-control pairs at baseline and samples from a subset of 151 healthy controls at a 10-y follow-up were analyzed with the use of untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics. Index-related metabolites were identified through the use of random forest modelling followed by partial correlation analysis adjustment for lifestyle confounders. Metabolite patterns were derived via principal component analysis (PCA). ORs of T2D were estimated via conditional logistic regression. Reproducibility of metabolites was assessed by intraclass correlation (ICC) in healthy controls. Associations were also assessed for 10 metabolites previously identified as linking a healthy Nordic diet with T2D.ResultsIn total, 31 metabolites were associated with BSDS and/or HNFI (−0.19 ≤ r ≤ 0.21, 0.10 ≤ ICC ≤ 0.59). Two PCs were determined from index-related metabolites: PC1 strongly correlated to the indexes (r = 0.27 for BSDS, r = 0.25 for HNFI, ICC = 0.45) but showed no association with T2D risk. PC2 was weakly associated with the indexes, but more strongly with foods not part of the indexes, e.g., pizza, sausages, and hamburgers. PC2 was also significantly associated with T2D risk. Predefined metabolites were confirmed to be reflective of consumption of whole grains, fish, or vegetables, but not related to T2D risk.ConclusionsOur study did not support an association between healthy Nordic dietary indexes and T2D. However, foods such as hamburger, sausage, and pizza not covered by the indexes appeared to be more important for T2D risk in the current population.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy145
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Food groups and intermediate disease markers: a systematic review and
           network meta-analysis of randomized trials
    • Authors: Schwingshackl L; Hoffmann G, Iqbal K, et al.
      Pages: 576 - 586
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundIn previous meta-analyses of prospective observational studies, we investigated the association between food groups and risk of chronic disease.ObjectiveThe aim of the present network meta-analysis (NMA) was to assess the effects of these food groups on intermediate-disease markers across randomized intervention trials.DesignLiterature searches were performed until January 2018. The following inclusion criteria were defined a priori: 1) randomized trial (≥4 wk duration) comparing ≥2 of the following food groups: refined grains, whole grains, nuts, legumes, fruits and vegetables, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); 2) LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TG) were defined as primary outcomes; total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein were defined as secondary outcomes. For each outcome, a random NMA was performed, and for the ranking, the surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) was determined.ResultsA total of 66 randomized trials (86 reports) comparing 10 food groups and enrolling 3595 participants was identified. Nuts were ranked as the best food group at reducing LDL cholesterol (SUCRA: 93%), followed by legumes (85%) and whole grains (70%). For reducing TG, fish (97%) was ranked best, followed by nuts (78%) and red meat (72%). However, these findings are limited by the low quality of the evidence. When combining all 10 outcomes, the highest SUCRA values were found for nuts (66%), legumes (62%), and whole grains (62%), whereas SSBs performed worst (29%).ConclusionThe present NMA provides evidence that increased intake of nuts, legumes, and whole grains is more effective at improving metabolic health than other food groups. For the credibility of diet-disease relations, high-quality randomized trials focusing on well-established intermediate-disease markers could play an important role. This systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO) as CRD42018086753.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy151
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Dietary sodium intake in urban and rural Malawi, and directions for future
           interventions
    • Authors: Prynn J; Banda L, Amberbir A, et al.
      Pages: 587 - 593
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundHigh dietary sodium intake is a major risk factor for hypertension. Data on population sodium intake are scanty in sub-Saharan Africa, despite a high hypertension prevalence in most countries.ObjectiveWe aimed to determine daily sodium intake in urban and rural communities in Malawi.DesignIn an observational cross-sectional survey, data were collected on estimated household-level per capita sodium intake, based on how long participants reported that a defined quantity of plain salt lasts in a household. In a subset of 2078 participants, 24-h urinary sodium was estimated from a morning spot urine sample.ResultsOf 29,074 participants, 52.8% of rural and 50.1% of urban individuals lived in households with an estimated per capita plain salt consumption >5 g/d. Of participants with urinary sodium data, 90.8% of rural and 95.9% of urban participants had estimated 24-h urinary sodium >2 g/d; there was no correlation between household per capita salt intake and estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Younger adults were more likely to have high urinary sodium and to eat food prepared outside the home than were those over the age of 60 y. Households with a member with previously diagnosed hypertension had reduced odds (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.68) of per capita household plain salt intake >5 g/d, compared with those where hypertension was undiagnosed.ConclusionsSodium consumption exceeds the recommended amounts for most of the population in rural and urban Malawi. Population-level interventions for sodium intake reduction with a wide focus are needed, targeting both sources outside the home as well as home cooking. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03422185.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy125
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Modeled replacement of traditional soybean and canola oil with high-oleic
           varieties increases monounsaturated fatty acid and reduces both saturated
           fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in the US adult
           population
    • Authors: Raatz S; Conrad Z, Jahns L, et al.
      Pages: 594 - 602
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBACKGROUNDHigh-oleic (HO) seed oils are being introduced as replacements for trans fatty acid (TFA)–containing fats and oils. Negative health effects associated with TFAs led to their removal from the US Generally Recognized As Safe list. HO oils formulated for use in food production may result in changes in fatty acid intake at population levels.ObjectivesThe purposes of this study were to 1) identify major food sources of soybean oil (SO) and canola oil (CO), 2) estimate effects of replacing SO and CO with HO varieties on fatty acid intake overall and by age and sex strata, and 3) compare predicted intakes with the Dietary Reference Intakes and Adequate Intakes (AIs) for the essential fatty acids (EFAs) α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA).DesignFood and nutrient intakes from NHANES waves 2007–2008, 2009–2010, 2011–2012, and 2013–2014 in 21,029 individuals aged ≥20 y were used to model dietary changes. We estimated the intake of fatty acid with the replacement of HO-SO and HO-CO for commodity SO and CO at 10%, 25%, and 50% and evaluated the potential for meeting the AI at these levels.RESULTSEach modeling scenario decreased saturated fatty acids (SFAs), although intakes remained greater than recommended for all age and sex groups. Models of all levels increased the intake of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), especially oleic acid, and decreased the intake of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly LA and ALA. Replacement of traditional with HO oils at 25–50% places specific adult age and sex groups at risk of not meeting the AI for LA and ALA.ConclusionsThe replacement of traditional oils with HO varieties will increase MUFA intake and reduce both SFA and PUFA intakes, including EFAs, and may place specific age and sex groups at risk of inadequate LA and ALA intake.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy127
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Plasma concentration of trimethylamine-N-oxide and risk of gestational
           diabetes mellitus
    • Authors: Li P; Zhong C, Li S, et al.
      Pages: 603 - 610
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has been reported as a novel and independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, but the association with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unclear.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma TMAO concentration and GDM in a 2-phase study.DesignA 2-phase design was used in the current study. An initial phase included 866 participants (433 GDM cases and 433 matched controls) with fasting blood samples collected at the time of GDM screening (24–32 wk of gestation). An independent-phase study, with 276 GDM cases and 552 matched controls who provided fasting blood samples before 20 wk of gestation and who had GDM screened during 24–32 wk of gestation, was nested within a prospective cohort study. These 2 studies were both conducted in Wuhan, China, and the incidence of GDM in the cohort study was 10.8%. Plasma TMAO concentrations were determined by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. GDM was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria by using an oral-glucose-tolerance test.ResultsIn the initial case-control study, the adjusted OR of GDM comparing the highest TMAO quartile with the lowest quartile was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.28, 2.93). Each SD increment of ln-transformed plasma TMAO was associated with 22% (95% CI: 5%, 41%) higher odds of GDM. In the nested case-control study, women in the highest quartile also had increased odds of GDM (adjusted OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.31) compared with women in the lowest quartile, and the adjusted OR for GDM per SD increment of ln-transformed plasma TMAO was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.47).ConclusionsConsistent findings from this 2-phase study indicate a positive association between plasma TMAO concentrations and GDM. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03415295.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy116
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Dietary intake of one-carbon metabolism nutrients and DNA methylation in
           peripheral blood
    • Authors: Chamberlain J; Dugué P, Bassett J, et al.
      Pages: 611 - 621
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundFolate and other one-carbon metabolism nutrients are essential to enable DNA methylation to occur, but the extent to which their dietary intake influences methylation in adulthood is unclear.ObjectiveWe assessed associations between dietary intake of these nutrients and DNA methylation in peripheral blood, overall and at specific genomic locations.DesignWe conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data and samples from 5186 adult participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS). Nutrient intake was estimated from a food-frequency questionnaire. DNA methylation was measured by using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array (HM450K). We assessed associations of intakes of folate, riboflavin, vitamins B-6 and B-12, methionine, choline, and betaine with methylation at individual cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs), and with median (genome-wide) methylation across all CpGs, CpGs in gene bodies, and CpGs in gene promoters. We also assessed associations with methylation at long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1), satellite 2 (Sat2), and Arthrobacter luteus restriction endonuclease (Alu) repetitive elements for a subset of participants. We used linear mixed regression, adjusting for age, sex, country of birth, smoking, energy intake from food, alcohol intake, Mediterranean diet score, and batch effects to assess log-linear associations with dietary intake of each nutrient. In secondary analyses, we assessed associations with low or high intakes defined by extreme quintiles.ResultsNo evidence of log-linear association was observed at P < 10−7 between the intake of one-carbon metabolism nutrients and methylation at individual CpGs. Low intake of riboflavin was associated with higher methylation at CpG cg21230392 in the first exon of PROM1 (P = 5.0 × 10−8). No consistent evidence of association was observed with genome-wide or repetitive element measures of methylation.ConclusionOur findings suggest that dietary intake of one-carbon metabolism nutrients in adulthood, as measured by a food-frequency questionnaire, has little association with blood DNA methylation. An association with low intake of riboflavin requires replication in independent cohorts. This study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03227003.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy119
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Plasma fatty acids in de novo lipogenesis pathway are associated with
           diabetogenic indicators among adults: NHANES 2003–2004
    • Authors: Yu E; Hu P, Mehta S.
      Pages: 622 - 632
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundInsulin regulates fatty acids (FAs) in the blood; conversely, FAs may mediate insulin sensitivity and are potentially modifiable risk factors of the diabetogenic state.ObjectiveThe objective of our study was to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of FAs, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among individuals (n = 1433) in the NHANES (2003–2004).DesignPlasma concentrations of 24 individual FAs were considered individually and in subgroups, per chemical structure. Study participants were categorized in diabetogenic groups: Group 1 (HbA1c ≥6.5% or FPG ≥126 mg/dL), Group 2 (HbA1c 5.7% to <6.5% or FPG 100 to <126 mg/dL), and Group 3 (HbA1c <5.7% and FPG <100 mg/dL). We assessed associations between diabetogenic groups and plasma FAs in multivariate multinomial regressions (with Group 3 as the reference).ResultsOverall, 7.0% of study participants were in Group 1; 33.3% were in Group 2. Plasma concentrations of several individual FAs, including even-chain saturated FAs (SFAs; myristic, palmitic, stearic acids) and monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs; cis-vaccenic, oleic acids), were respectively associated with greater odds of Groups 1 and 2 status, adjusting for covariates. Higher concentrations of SFA and MUFA subgroups (highest compared with lowest quartile) were associated with increased odds of Group 2 status [SFAs adjusted OR (aOR): 1.51 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.18); MUFAs aOR: 1.78 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.85)]. Higher eicosapentaenoic acid plasma concentration was associated with decreased odds of Group 1 status [quartile 4 aOR: 0.41 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.95)].ConclusionsHigher plasma concentrations of SFAs and MUFAs, primary de novo lipogenesis products, were associated with elevated FPG and HbA1c in a nationally representative study population in the United States. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate potential causal relationships between FAs (from endogenous production and dietary consumption) and diabetogenic indicators, as well as clinical implications for managing diabetes and prediabetes.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy165
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A Mediterranean-like dietary pattern with vitamin D3 (10 µg/d)
           supplements reduced the rate of bone loss in older Europeans with
           osteoporosis at baseline: results of a 1-y randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Jennings A; Cashman K, Gillings R, et al.
      Pages: 633 - 640
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe Mediterranean diet (MD) is widely recommended for the prevention of chronic disease, but evidence for a beneficial effect on bone health is lacking.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to examine the effect of a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern [NU-AGE (New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe)] on indexes of inflammation with a number of secondary endpoints, including bone mineral density (BMD) and biomarkers of bone and collagen degradation in a 1-y multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT; NU-AGE) in elderly Europeans.DesignAn RCT was undertaken across 5 European centers. Subjects in the intervention group consumed the NU-AGE diet for 1 y by receiving individually tailored dietary advice, coupled with supplies of foods including whole-grain pasta, olive oil, and a vitamin D3 supplement (10 µg/d). Participants in the control group were provided with leaflets on healthy eating available in their country.ResultsA total of 1294 participants (mean ± SD age: 70.9 ±4.0 y; 44% male) were recruited to the study and 1142 completed the 1-y trial. The Mediterranean-like dietary pattern had no effect on BMD (site-specific or whole-body); the inclusion of compliance to the intervention in the statistical model did not change the findings. There was also no effect of the intervention on the urinary biomarkers free pyridinoline or free deoxypyridinoline. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D significantly increased and parathyroid hormone decreased (P < 0.001) in the MD compared with the control group. Subgroup analysis of individuals with osteoporosis at baseline (site-specific BMD T-score ≤ −2.5 SDs) showed that the MD attenuated the expected decline in femoral neck BMD (n = 24 and 30 in MD and control groups, respectively; P = 0.04) but had no effect on lumbar spine or whole-body BMD.ConclusionsA 1-y intervention of the Mediterranean-like diet together with vitamin D3 supplements (10 µg/d) had no effect on BMD in the normal age-related range, but it significantly reduced the rate of loss of bone at the femoral neck in individuals with osteoporosis. The NU-AGE trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754012.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy122
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Reply to “Adverse effects on thyroid of Chinese children exposed to
           long-term iodine excess: optimal and safe Tolerable Upper Intake Levels of
           iodine for 7- to 14-y-old children”
    • Authors: Ma Z.
      Pages: 641 - 641
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy140
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Reply to Ma ZF
    • Authors: Chen W; Pearce E, Zhang W.
      Pages: 642 - 642
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy141
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Calendar of Events
    • Pages: 644 - 644
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy269
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 3 (2018)
       
 
 
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