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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 397 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 397 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 599, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.438
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 169  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-9165 - ISSN (Online) 1938-3207
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [397 journals]
  • Plasma alkylresorcinol metabolite, a biomarker of whole-grain wheat and
           rye intake, and risk of ischemic stroke: a case-control study
    • Authors: Sun T; Zhang Y, Huang H, et al.
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEpidemiologic studies on whole grains and risk of stroke have reported inconsistent results, with some suggesting a protective effect but others showing a null association.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to examine whether plasma 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA), a biomarker of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, is associated with risk of ischemic stroke.MethodsA hospital-based case-control study was conducted between March 2011 and May 2016. Cases (n = 990) with first ischemic stroke were matched to controls (n = 990) by sex and age. Concentrations of plasma DHPPA were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. We calculated ORs for the association of plasma DHPPA concentrations with ischemic stroke risk through the use of logistic regression.ResultsPlasma DHPPA was inversely associated with ischemic stroke risk. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the ORs for ischemic stroke across increasing quartiles of plasma DHPPA concentrations were 1 (referent), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.99), 0.71 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.92), and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.77), respectively (P-trend = 0.001). The inverse association was also observed in all subgroups of participants according to sex, age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, history of hypertension, and history of diabetes.ConclusionsOur study showed that higher plasma DHPPA concentrations were associated with lower risk of ischemic stroke. This finding provides further evidence to support the health benefits of whole-grain consumption.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy323
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Onward and upward
    • Authors: Duggan C; Editor-in-Chief.
      Pages: 245 - 246
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz003
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Measure for measure'
    • Authors: Hellerstein M.
      Pages: 247 - 248
      Abstract: The capacity to synthesize fatty acids (FAs) de novo from acetyl-CoA, and thereby from nonlipid precursors of acetyl-CoA, is almost universally present in cells. Functions of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) remain uncertain, particularly in human biology, but in recent years new functions have been discovered and new pathogenic roles have been identified in human disease—particularly in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy365
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Balancing the benefits of maternal nutritional interventions; time to put
           women first!
    • Authors: Bhutta Z.
      Pages: 249 - 250
      Abstract: Maternal malnutrition (both undernutrition and obesity) is a major determinant of adverse outcomes for mothers and offspring globally (1). A range of preventive and therapeutic nutrition-specific interventions can potentially address these risks, ranging from nutrition education to fortification strategies at the population level and targeted supplementation among at-risk populations (2). Of the potential interventions, balanced energy protein supplements in food-insecure households or poorly nourished women during pregnancy have been shown to reduce the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) births by 21% (95% CI: 10–31%) (3). Comparable reductions in low birth weight have been reported after the use of multiple micronutrients in pregnancy (4). More recently, a meta-analysis of trials providing small-quantity lipid nutrient supplements in pregnancy has shown improved birth weight compared with iron folic acid supplements (birth weight difference: 53.3 g; 95% CI: 28.2–78.3 g) as well as a modest increase in birth length (0.24 cm; 95% CI: 0.11–0.36 cm) (5).
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy336
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • A report of activities related to the Dietary Reference Intakes from the
           Joint Canada-US Dietary Reference Intakes Working Group
    • Authors: MacFarlane A; Cogswell M, de Jesus J, et al.
      Pages: 251 - 259
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe governments of the United States and Canada have jointly undertaken the development of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) since the mid-1990s. The Federal DRI committees from each country work collaboratively to identify DRI needs, prioritize nutrient reviews, advance work to resolve methodological issues that is necessary for new reviews, and sponsor DRI-related committees through the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. In recent years, the Joint Canada-US DRI Working Group, consisting of members from both Federal DRI committees, developed an open and transparent nomination process for prioritizing nutrients for DRI review, by which sodium, the omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids, vitamin E, and magnesium were identified. In addition, discussions during the nutrient nomination process prompted the Federal DRI committees to address previously identified issues related to the use of chronic disease endpoints when setting DRIs. The development of guiding principles for setting DRIs based on chronic disease risk reduction will be applied for the first time during the DRI review of sodium and potassium. In summary, the US and Canadian governments have worked collaboratively to adapt our approach to prioritizing nutrients for DRI review and to broaden the scope of the DRIs to better incorporate the concept of chronic disease risk reduction in order to improve public health.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy293
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Fasting hepatic de novo lipogenesis is not reliably assessed using
           circulating fatty acid markers
    • Authors: Rosqvist F; McNeil C, Pramfalk C, et al.
      Pages: 260 - 268
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundObservational studies often infer hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) by measuring circulating fatty acid (FA) markers; however, it remains to be elucidated whether these markers accurately reflect hepatic DNL.ObjectivesWe investigated associations between fasting hepatic DNL and proposed FA markers of DNL in subjects consuming their habitual diet.MethodsFasting hepatic DNL was assessed using 2H2O (deuterated water) in 149 nondiabetic men and women and measuring the synthesis of very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) palmitate. FA markers of blood lipid fractions were determined by gas chromatography.ResultsNeither the lipogenic index (16:0/18:2n–6) nor the SCD index (16:1n–7/16:0) in VLDL-TG was associated with isotopically assessed DNL (r = 0.13, P = 0.1 and r = −0.08, P = 0.35, respectively). The relative abundances (mol%) of 14:0, 16:0, and 18:0 in VLDL-TG were weakly (r ≤ 0.35) associated with DNL, whereas the abundances of 16:1n–7, 18:1n–7, and 18:1n–9 were not associated. When the cohort was split by median DNL, only the abundances of 14:0 and 18:0 in VLDL-TG could discriminate between subjects having high (11.5%) and low (3.8%) fasting hepatic DNL. Based on a subgroup, FA markers in total plasma TG, plasma cholesteryl esters, plasma phospholipids, and red blood cell phospholipids were generally not associated with DNL.ConclusionsThe usefulness of circulating FAs as markers of hepatic DNL in healthy individuals consuming their habitual diet is limited due to their inability to discriminate clearly between individuals with low and high fasting hepatic DNL.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy304
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Consumption of cashew nuts does not influence blood lipids or other
           markers of cardiovascular disease in humans: a randomized controlled trial
           
    • Authors: Baer D; Novotny J.
      Pages: 269 - 275
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a qualified health claim for tree nuts and reduction of cardiovascular disease. However, cashews are excluded from that claim due to their content of saturated fats, which is predominantly stearic acid. Because stearic acid is neutral with respect to blood lipids, several studies have been conducted to test the effect of cashew nuts on blood lipids, and these studies have produced conflicting results.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to conduct a highly controlled intervention to determine the effect of cashews fed at the amount specified in the health claim on risk factors for cardiovascular disease.MethodsA total of 42 adults participated in a controlled-feeding study conducted as a randomized crossover trial with 2 treatment phases. The volunteers were provided the same base diet in both treatment phases, with no additions during the control phase and with the addition of 1.5 servings (42 g) of cashews/d for the cashew nut phase. During the cashew nut phase, the amount of all foods was decreased proportionally to achieve isocaloric overall diets in the 2 phases. After 4 wk of intervention, assessments included blood lipids, blood pressure, central (aortic) pressure, augmentation index, blood glucose, endothelin, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), adhesion molecules, and clotting and inflammatory factors.ResultsThere were no significant differences in blood lipids, blood pressure, augmentation index, blood glucose, endothelin, adhesion molecules, or clotting factors in this weight-stable cohort. PCSK9 was significantly decreased after cashew consumption, although there was no change in LDL cholesterol.ConclusionsConsumption of 1.5 servings of cashew nuts/d, the amount associated with the FDA qualified health claim for tree nuts and cardiovascular disease, did not positively or adversely affect any of the primary risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02628171.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy242
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Disentangling the genetics of lean mass
    • Authors: Karasik D; Zillikens M, Hsu Y, et al.
      Pages: 276 - 287
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundLean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass.ObjectivesTo determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci.MethodsWe performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms).ResultsSeven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as “sumo wrestler” loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed “body builder” loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in “body builder” loci were associated with metabolic protection.ConclusionsIn conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy272
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Potential effects of reduced red meat compared with increased fiber intake
           on glucose metabolism and liver fat content: a randomized and controlled
           dietary intervention study
    • Authors: Willmann C; Heni M, Linder K, et al.
      Pages: 288 - 296
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEpidemiological studies suggest that an increased red meat intake is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas an increased fiber intake is associated with a lower risk.ObjectivesWe conducted an intervention study to investigate the effects of these nutritional factors on glucose and lipid metabolism, body-fat distribution, and liver fat content in subjects at increased risk of type 2 diabetes.MethodsThis prospective, randomized, and controlled dietary intervention study was performed over 6 mo. All groups decreased their daily caloric intake by 400 kcal. The “control” group (N = 40) only had this requirement. The “no red meat” group (N = 48) in addition aimed to avoid the intake of red meat, and the “fiber” group (N = 44) increased intake of fibers to 40 g/d. Anthropometric parameters and frequently sampled oral glucose tolerance tests were performed before and after intervention. Body-fat mass and distribution, liver fat, and liver iron content were assessed by MRI and single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.ResultsParticipants in all groups lost weight (mean 3.3 ± 0.5 kg, P < 0.0001). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity improved (P < 0.001), and body and visceral fat mass decreased in all groups (P < 0.001). These changes did not differ between groups. Liver fat content decreased significantly (P < 0.001) with no differences between the groups. The decrease in liver fat correlated with the decrease in ferritin during intervention (r2 = 0.08, P = 0.0021). This association was confirmed in an independent lifestyle intervention study (Tuebingen Lifestyle Intervention Program, N = 229, P = 0.0084).ConclusionsOur data indicate that caloric restriction leads to a marked improvement in glucose metabolism and body-fat composition, including liver-fat content. The marked reduction in liver fat might be mediated via changes in ferritin levels. In the context of caloric restriction, there seems to be no additional beneficial impact of reduced red meat intake and increased fiber intake on the improvement in cardiometabolic risk parameters. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03231839.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy307
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • The effect of nuts on markers of glycemic control: a systematic review and
           meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    • Authors: Tindall A; Johnston E, Kris-Etherton P, et al.
      Pages: 297 - 314
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundObservational evidence suggests higher nut consumption is associated with better glycemic control; however, it is unclear if this association is causal.ObjectivesWe aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to examine the effect of tree nuts and peanuts on markers of glycemic control in adults.MethodsA systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted. A total of 1063 potentially eligible articles were screened in duplicate. From these articles, 40 were eligible for inclusion and data from these articles were extracted in duplicate. The weighted mean difference (WMD) between the nut intervention and control arms was determined for fasting glucose, fasting insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects method. For outcomes where a limited number of studies were published, a qualitative synthesis was presented.ResultsA total of 40 randomized controlled trials including 2832 unique participants, with a median duration of 3 mo (range: 1–12 mo), were included. Overall consumption of tree nuts or peanuts had a favorable effect on HOMA-IR (WMD: −0.23; 95% CI: −0.40, −0.06; I2 = 51.7%) and fasting insulin (WMD: −0.40 μIU/mL; 95% CI: −0.73, −0.07 μIU/mL; I2 = 49.4%). There was no significant effect of nut consumption on fasting blood glucose (WMD: −0.52 mg/dL; 95% CI: −1.43, 0.38 mg/dL; I2 = 53.4%) or HbA1c (WMD: 0.02%; 95% CI: −0.01%, 0.04%; I2 = 51.0%).ConclusionsConsumption of peanuts or tree nuts significantly decreased HOMA-IR and fasting insulin; there was no effect of nut consumption on HbA1c or fasting glucose. The results suggest that nut consumption may improve insulin sensitivity. In the future, well-designed clinical trials are required to elucidate the mechanisms that account for these observed effects.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy236
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Prenatal and postnatal lipid-based nutrient supplementation and cognitive,
           social-emotional, and motor function in preschool-aged children in Ghana:
           a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Ocansey M; Adu-Afarwuah S, Kumordzie S, et al.
      Pages: 322 - 334
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAdequate nutrition is necessary for brain development during pregnancy and infancy. Few randomized controlled trials of supplementation during these periods have measured later developmental outcomes.ObjectiveOur objective was to investigate the effects of provision of prenatal and postnatal lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on child development at preschool age.MethodsWe conducted a follow-up study of 966 children aged 4–6 y in 2016, born to women who participated in the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements-DYAD trial conducted in Ghana in 2009–2014, representing 79% of eligible children. Women ≤20 weeks of gestation were randomized to daily LNS or multiple micronutrient (MMN) capsules during pregnancy through 6 mo postpartum or iron and folic acid (IFA) capsules during pregnancy and calcium placebo capsules during 6 mo postpartum. Children in the LNS group received LNS from 6 to 18 mo. Primary outcomes of this follow-up study were (1) a cognitive factor score based on a test battery adapted from several standard tests, 2) fine motor score (9-hole pegboard test), and (3) social-emotional difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; SDQ). Eight secondary outcomes were calculated in specific domains (e.g., language, SDQ prosocial). Analysis was by a complete case intention to treat in a 2-group comparison: LNS compared with non-LNS (MMN + IFA).ResultsChildren in the LNS group had significantly lower social-emotional difficulties z-scores than children in the non-LNS group (adjusted for child age β = −0.12, 95% CI: −0.25, 0.02, P = 0.087; fully adjusted β = −0.16, 95% CI: −0.29, −0.03, P = 0.013). The effect of LNS on social-emotional difficulties score was larger among children living in households with lower home environment scores (P-interaction = 0.081). No other outcomes differed between the 2 intervention groups.ConclusionsProvision of LNS during the first 1000 d of development improved behavioral function, particularly for children from low nurturing and stimulation households, but did not affect cognition at preschool age in this setting. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier NCT00970866.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy303
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Attenuation of satiety gut hormones increases appetitive behavior after
           curative esophagectomy for esophageal cancer
    • Authors: Elliott J; Docherty N, Haag J, et al.
      Pages: 335 - 344
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundReduced appetite and weight loss are common after esophagectomy (ES), and this cohort demonstrates an exaggerated postprandial satiety gut hormone response. Satiety gut hormones modulate food reward, resulting in reduced energy intake.ObjectivesThis study aimed to determine the effect of satiety gut hormone modulation by measuring the effect of the somatostatin analog octreotide on appetitive behavior among patients after ES.MethodsIn this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, patients ≥1 y after ES and matched controls received either 1 mL 0.9% saline or 1 mL (100 μg) octreotide subcutaneously before completing a progressive ratio task. A measure of appetitive behavior, this task requires subjects to undertake progressively increasing amounts of work to obtain a sweet-fat reinforcer; the final completed increment (breakpoint) represents reinforcer reward value. Separate cohorts were studied in the fasted or 1-h postprandial states.ResultsThirty-six subjects (ES, n = 18; matched controls, n = 18) were studied. The ES subjects were 2.5 ± 0.3 y postoperation and had a weight loss of 14.6% ± 2.6% and elevated postprandial glucagon-like peptide 1 compared with controls (49.2 ± 13.4 compared with 20.2 ± 2.3 pM; P = 0.04). Octreotide did not alter the breakpoint among ES or control subjects when tested in a fasting condition (ES: 980 ± 371 compared with 1700 ± 584 clicks; P = 0.16; controls: 1056 ± 274 compared with 1124 ± 273 clicks; P = 0.81). When tested 1 h postprandially, octreotide was associated with an increased breakpoint compared with placebo among ES subjects (322 ± 143 compared with 246 ± 149 clicks; P = 0.04) but not controls (248 ± 119 compared with 247 ± 120 clicks; P = 0.97).ConclusionsAttenuation of the exaggerated postprandial satiety gut hormone response is associated with increased appetitive behavior toward a sweet-fat stimulus among patients post-ES. Suppression of satiety gut hormones may be a novel target to increase appetite, food intake, and body weight among patients after ES. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02381249.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy324
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Grape or grain but never the twain' A randomized controlled multiarm
           matched-triplet crossover trial of beer and wine
    • Authors: Köchling J; Geis B, Wirth S, et al.
      Pages: 345 - 352
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAlcohol-induced hangover constitutes a significant, yet understudied, global hazard and a large socio-economic burden. Old folk wisdoms such as “Beer before wine and you'll feel fine; wine before beer and you'll feel queer” exist in many languages. However, whether these concepts in fact reduce hangover severity is unclear.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the combination and order of beer and wine consumption on hangover intensity.MethodsIn this multiarm, parallel randomized controlled matched-triplet crossover open-label interventional trial, participants were matched into triplets and randomly assigned according to age, gender, body composition, alcohol drinking habits, and hangover frequency. Study group 1 consumed beer up to a breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) ≥0.05% and then wine to BrAC ≥0.11% (vice versa for study group 2). Control group subjects consumed either only beer or only wine. On a second intervention day (crossover) ≥1 wk later, study-group subjects were switched to the opposite drinking order. Control-group subjects who drank only beer on the first intervention received only wine on the second study day (and vice versa). Primary endpoint was hangover severity assessed by Acute Hangover Scale rating on the day following each intervention. Secondary endpoints were factors associated with hangover intensity.ResultsNinety participants aged 19–40 y (mean age 23.9), 50% female, were included (study group 1 n = 31, study group 2 n = 31, controls n = 28). Neither type nor order of consumed alcoholic beverages significantly affected hangover intensity (P > 0.05). Multivariate regression analyses revealed perceived drunkenness and vomiting as the strongest predictors for hangover intensity.ConclusionsOur findings dispel the traditional myths “Grape or grain but never the twain” and “Beer before wine and you'll feel fine; wine before beer and you'll feel queer” regarding moderate-to-severe alcohol intoxication, whereas subjective signs of progressive intoxication were confirmed as accurate predictors of hangover severity. This trial was prospectively registered at the Witten/Herdecke University Ethics Committee as 140/2016 and retrospectively registered at the German Clinical Trials Register as DRKS00015285.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy309
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Combined effects of lactotripeptide and aerobic exercise on cognitive
           function and cerebral oxygenation in middle-aged and older adults
    • Authors: Hamasaki A; Akazawa N, Yoshikawa T, et al.
      Pages: 353 - 360
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAge-related declines in cognitive function and cerebral perfusion increase the risk of dementia. Although nutrition and exercise may be effective in reducing cognitive decline, the effect of lactotripeptide (LTP) on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics remains unclear.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LTP ingestion on cerebral oxygenation, cognitive function, and vascular function in middle-aged and older adults with or without an exercise intervention.MethodsWe recruited 2 separate groups of participants, one with and one without an exercise intervention. Each group was then randomly assigned into a placebo group and an LTP group. The participants ingested a placebo or LTP every day. The exercise group performed aerobic exercises 4–6 d/wk. Before and after the 8-wk intervention, we measured oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration (oxy-Hb change) in the prefrontal cortex during the Stroop task (primary outcome), Stroop interference time, and carotid artery β-stiffness (both secondary outcomes).ResultsSixty-four participants completed the study. Changes in oxy-Hb signal in the prefrontal cortex were greater in the LTP group than in the placebo group under both the exercise and nonexercise conditions (P < 0.05). In addition, the magnitude of improvement in the oxy-Hb change in the left prefrontal cortex was correlated with Stroop interference (r = −0.39, P < 0.05) and carotid β-stiffness (r = −0.41, P < 0.05).ConclusionsAn 8-wk intake of LTP increased cerebral oxygenation in the prefrontal cortex region in middle-aged and older adults, with and without exercise. The intervention-induced improvements in brain neural activation were associated with cognitive and vascular function. This trial was registered at www.umin.ac.jp as UMIN000022313.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy235
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Associations of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive and neuroimaging
           phenotypes of dementia in healthy older adults
    • Authors: Karstens A; Tussing-Humphreys L, Zhan L, et al.
      Pages: 361 - 368
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAccumulating evidence suggests that higher Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) adherence is associated with higher global cognitive performance and brain structural integrity as well as decreased risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD).ObjectivesWe directly examined cross-sectional associations between the MedDiet and cognitive and neuroimaging phenotypes associated with AD and VaD (separately) in a cohort of nondemented, nondepressed older adults.MethodsCommunity-dwelling older adults (n = 82; aged ∼68.8 y; 50% female, 50% minority) underwent dietary (Block Food Frequency Questionnaire 2005) and neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging. MedDiet scores were quantified with the use of published criteria, and participants were divided into High and Low (median split) adherence groups. We focused our neuropsychological investigation on cognitive phenotypes primarily associated with AD [i.e., learning and memory (L&M)] and VaD (i.e., information processing and executive functioning). AD neuroimaging phenotypes consisted of hippocampal and dentate gyrus volumes quantified using T1-weighted images and the FreeSurfer 6.0 segmentation pipeline (http://surfer.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu). The VaD neuroimaging phenotype consisted of total white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes quantified using combined T1-weighted and T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Neuroimaging metrics were adjusted for total intracranial volume. Separate multivariable linear regression models controlling for age, sex, education, body mass index, and caloric intake examined the associations between MedDiet groups (High compared with Low) and cognitive and neuroimaging outcomes.ResultsWhen compared with the Low MedDiet group, the High MedDiet group was associated with better L&M performance and larger dentate gyri. MedDiet adherence was not associated with information processing, executive functioning, or WMH.ConclusionResults highlight the association between increasing MedDiet adherence and specific cognitive and neuroimaging phenotypes that, when altered, are associated with AD.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy275
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • The effect of vitamin D supplementation on lower-extremity power and
           function in older adults: a randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Shea M; Fielding R, Dawson-Hughes B.
      Pages: 369 - 379
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle function in older adults has been tested in randomized trials with mixed results, which may be due to differences in the study participant characteristics, including baseline vitamin D status. The results of 2 meta-analyses of randomized trials suggested a beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle function in older adults with low baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D].ObjectivesWe aimed to test the effect of 12 mo of vitamin D supplementation on lower-extremity power and function in older community-dwelling adults screened for low serum 25(OH)D.MethodsThis was a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that included 100 community-dwelling men and women ≥60 y old who had serum 25(OH)D ≤20 ng/mL at screening and a mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D of 20.2 ± 6.7 ng/mL at baseline. Participants were randomly assigned to 800 IU vitamin D3/d (intervention) or placebo. Those in the intervention group whose serum 25(OH)D was <28 ng/mL after 4 mo were given an additional 800 IU vitamin D3/d, whereas all other participants received placebo as an additional pill.ResultsAfter 12 mo, the mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D was 32.5 ± 5.1 ng/mL in the intervention group and 19.8 ± 7.3 ng/mL in the control group (treatment × time P < 0.001). The change in leg press power, function, and strength did not differ between the 2 groups over 12 mo (all treatment × time P ≥ 0.60), nor did the change in lean mass (treatment × time P ≥ 0.89).ConclusionIncreasing serum 25(OH)D to >32 ng/mL (on average) over 12 mo did not affect lower-extremity power, strength, or lean mass in older community-dwelling adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02293187.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy290
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Vitamin K intake and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung,
           Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial
    • Authors: Hoyt M; Reger M, Marley A, et al.
      Pages: 392 - 401
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundVitamin K inhibits prostate cancer cells, and an altered expression of vitamin K–dependent proteins in prostate tumors has been linked to their aggressiveness and progression. However, little is known about the effect of vitamin K intake on prostate cancer in human populations.ObjectivesWe evaluated the associations of dietary intake of phylloquinone (vitamin K-1), menaquinones (vitamin K-2), and total vitamin K with the development of prostate cancer among participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial.DesignDietary intake of vitamin K was assessed with the Dietary Questionnaire (DQX) at baseline and the Dietary History Questionnaire (DHQ) at the third anniversary of randomization by using high-performance liquid chromatography–based food-composition data obtained from the USDA and published studies. During a median follow-up of 11.8 y, 2978 cases of prostate cancer (including 490 advanced cases) were identified from the 28,356 men who completed DQX. Similarly, 2973 cases of prostate cancer (including 647 advanced cases) were documented from the 48,090 men who completed DHQ. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate prostate cancer risk in relation to the dietary intake of vitamin K.ResultsAfter adjustment for confounders, dietary intakes of phylloquinone, menaquinones, and total vitamin K, assessed with either the DQX or DHQ, were not significantly associated with the risk of advanced, nonadvanced, and total prostate cancer. These results remained virtually the same when vitamin K intake was modeled as a categorical (divided into quintiles) or continuous (per IQR increase) variable or after outliers of total vitamin K intake (defined as a value that falls above the sum of third quartile and twice the IQR) were excluded.ConclusionsThe present study does not suggest that vitamin K intake influences the occurrence of total and advanced prostate cancer in the general US population.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy251
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Urinary excretion of sex steroid hormone metabolites after consumption of
           cow milk: a randomized crossover intervention trial
    • Authors: Michels K; Binder N, Courant F, et al.
      Pages: 402 - 410
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundCurrent cow milk production practices introduce considerable levels of pregnancy hormones into the milk. Humans are exposed to these hormones when cow milk is consumed, and this may explain the observed association between cow milk consumption and several hormone-sensitive cancers.ObjectivesThe aim of the study was to evaluate whether cow milk consumption is associated with an increase in urinary excretion of sex steroid hormones and their metabolites in humans.MethodsWe conducted a randomized crossover intervention feeding experiment. A total of 109 postmenopausal women consumed 1 L of semiskimmed milk (1.5% fat) per day for 4 d and 1 L of whole milk (3.5% fat) per day for 4 d, intersected by 4-d wash-out periods. Sex steroid hormone levels were measured in 24-h urine samples collected at the end of each intervention and wash-out period.ResultsEstrogens, androgens, and progesterone were detected in the examined milk samples used for our intervention. Although a very high proportion of the estrogens were conjugated, only small proportions of the androgens and progesterone were conjugated. Milk consumption resulted in a significant increase in urinary estrone (E1) excretion, whereas estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and 16ketoE2 excretion only increased after semiskimmed milk consumption. Urinary pregnanediol glucuronide excretion was not significantly affected.ConclusionCow milk consumption increases urinary excretion of E1 in humans. Ingestion of semiskimmed milk appears also to raise E2, E3, and 16ketoE2 excretion, but future studies need to confirm these associations. This trial was registered at https://www.drks.de as DRKS00003377.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy279
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption, cigarette smoke, and leukocyte
           mitochondrial DNA copy number
    • Authors: Wu S; Li X, Meng S, et al.
      Pages: 424 - 432
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundMitochondrial dysfunction is an important component of the aging process and has been implicated in the development of many human diseases. Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), an indirect biomarker of mitochondrial function, is sensitive to oxidative damage. Few population-based studies have investigated the impact of fruit and vegetable consumption and cigarette smoke (2 major sources of exogenous antioxidants and oxidants) on leukocyte mtDNAcn.ObjectivesWe investigated the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, cigarette smoke, and leukocyte mtDNAcn based on data from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS).MethodsData from 2769 disease-free women in the NHS were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary sources of antioxidants, cigarette smoke, and leukocyte mtDNAcn. In vitro cell-based experiments were conducted to support the findings from the population-based study.ResultsIn the multivariable-adjusted model, both whole-fruit consumption and intake of flavanones (a group of antioxidants abundant in fruit) were positively associated with leukocyte mtDNAcn (P-trend = 0.005 and 0.02, respectively), whereas pack-years of smoking and smoking duration were inversely associated with leukocyte mtDNAcn (P-trend = 0.01 and 0.007, respectively). These findings are supported by in vitro cell-based experiments showing that the administration of naringin, a major flavanone in fruit, led to a substantial increase in mtDNAcn in human leukocytes, whereas exposure to nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone, a key carcinogenic ingredient of cigarette smoke, resulted in a significant decrease in mtDNAcn of cells (all P < 0.05). Further in vitro studies showed that alterations in leukocyte mtDNAcn were functionally linked to the modulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function.ConclusionsFruit consumption and intake of dietary flavanones were associated with increased leukocyte mtDNAcn, whereas cigarette smoking was associated with decreased leukocyte mtDNAcn, which is a promising biomarker for oxidative stress–related health outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy286
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Changes in blood lipid concentrations associated with changes in intake of
           dietary saturated fat in the context of a healthy low-carbohydrate
           weight-loss diet: a secondary analysis of the Diet Intervention Examining
           The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success (DIETFITS) trial
    • Authors: Shih C; Hauser M, Aronica L, et al.
      Pages: 433 - 441
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundFor low-carbohydrate diets, a public health approach has focused on the replacement of carbohydrates with unsaturated fats. However, little research exists on the impacts of saturated fat intake on the lipid profile in the context of whole-food-based low-carbohydrate weight-loss diets.ObjectivesThe primary aim of this secondary analysis of the DIETFITS weight loss trial was to evaluate the associations between changes in percentage of dietary saturated fatty acid intake (%SFA) and changes in low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, and triglyceride concentrations for those following a healthy low-carbohydrate (HLC) diet. The secondary aim was to examine these associations specifically for HLC dieters who had the highest 12-month increases in %SFA.MethodsIn the DIETFITS trial, 609 generally healthy adults, aged 18–50 years, with body mass indices of 28–40 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to a healthy low-fat (HLF) or HLC diet for 12 months. In this analysis, linear regression, both without and with adjustment for potential confounders, was used to measure the association between 12-month change in %SFA and blood lipids in 208 HLC participants with complete diet and blood lipid data.ResultsParticipants consumed an average of 12–18% of calories from SFA. An increase of %SFA, without significant changes in absolute saturated fat intake, over 12 months was associated with a statistically significant decrease in triglycerides in the context of a weight-loss study in which participants simultaneously decreased carbohydrate intake. The association between increase in %SFA and decrease in triglycerides was no longer significant when adjusting for 12-month change in carbohydrate intake, suggesting carbohydrate intake may be a mediator of this relationship.ConclusionsThose on a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet who increase their percentage intake of dietary saturated fat may improve their overall lipid profile provided they focus on a high-quality diet and lower their intakes of both calories and refined carbohydrates. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01826591.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy305
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Plasma retinol and the risk of first stroke in hypertensive adults: a
           nested case-control study
    • Authors: Yu Y; Zhang H, Song Y, et al.
      Pages: 449 - 456
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundIdentification of novel risk factors is needed to further lower stroke risk. Data concerning the association between plasma retinol concentrations and the risk of stroke are limited.ObjectivesWe aimed to evaluate the effect of plasma retinol on the risk of first stroke and to examine any possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients.MethodsThe study sample population was drawn from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), using a nested case-control design, including 620 cases with first stroke and 620 matched controls. In the CSPPT, a total of 20,702 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to a double-blind, daily treatment with either 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid or 10 mg enalapril alone. The median treatment duration was 4.5 y.ResultsThere was a significant inverse association between plasma retinol and the risk of first stroke (per 10-μg/dL increment; OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.97) and first ischemic stroke (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.98). When retinol was assessed as quartiles, significantly lower risks of first stroke (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.88) and first ischemic stroke (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.96) were found in participants in quartiles 2–4 compared with those in quartile 1. Furthermore, a stronger inverse association between plasma retinol and first stroke was observed in participants with baseline total homocysteine (<10 compared with ≥10 μmol/L; P-interaction = 0.049). However, plasma retinol had no significant effect on first hemorrhagic stroke (per 10-μg/dL increment; OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.18).ConclusionsOur data showed a significant inverse association between plasma retinol and the risk of first stroke among Chinese hypertensive adults. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00794885.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy320
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • A multicountry randomized controlled trial of comprehensive maternal
           nutrition supplementation initiated before conception: the Women First
           trial
    • Authors: Hambidge K; Westcott J, Garcés A, et al.
      Pages: 457 - 469
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundReported benefits of maternal nutrition supplements commenced during pregnancy in low-resource populations have typically been quite limited.ObjectivesThis study tested the effects on newborn size, especially length, of commencing nutrition supplements for women in low-resource populations ≥3 mo before conception (Arm 1), compared with the same supplement commenced late in the first trimester of pregnancy (Arm 2) or not at all (control Arm 3).MethodsWomen First was a 3-arm individualized randomized controlled trial (RCT). The intervention was a lipid-based micronutrient supplement; a protein-energy supplement was also provided if maternal body mass index (kg/m2) was <20 or gestational weight gain was less than recommendations. Study sites were in rural locations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Guatemala, India, and Pakistan. The primary outcome was length-for-age z score (LAZ), with all anthropometry obtained <48 h post delivery. Because gestational ages were unavailable in DRC, outcomes were determined for all 4 sites from WHO newborn standards (non-gestational-age-adjusted, NGAA) as well as INTERGROWTH-21st fetal standards (3 sites, gestational age-adjusted, GAA).ResultsA total of 7387 nonpregnant women were randomly assigned, yielding 2451 births with NGAA primary outcomes and 1465 with GAA outcomes. Mean LAZ and other outcomes did not differ between Arm 1 and Arm 2 using either NGAA or GAA. Mean LAZ (NGAA) for Arm 1 was greater than for Arm 3 (effect size: +0.19; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.30, P = 0.0008). For GAA outcomes, rates of stunting and small-for-gestational-age were lower in Arm 1 than in Arm 3 (RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.98, P = 0.0361 and RR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.88, P < 0.001, respectively). Rates of preterm birth did not differ among arms.ConclusionsIn low-resource populations, benefits on fetal growth–related birth outcomes were derived from nutrition supplements commenced before conception or late in the first trimester.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01883193.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy228
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Assessment of lactase activity in humans by measurement of galactitol and
           galactonate in serum and urine after milk intake
    • Authors: Vionnet N; Münger L, Freiburghaus C, et al.
      Pages: 470 - 477
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundLactase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose into glucose and galactose in the small intestine, where they are absorbed. Hypolactasia is a common condition, primarily caused by genetic programming, that leads to lactose maldigestion and, in certain cases, lactose intolerance. Galactitol and galactonate are 2 products of hepatic galactose metabolism that are candidate markers for the intake of lactose-containing foods.ObjectivesThe primary objective of the study was to explore the changes in serum and urine metabolomes during postprandial dairy product tests through the association between lactase persistence genotype and the postprandial dynamics of lactose-derived metabolites.MethodsWe characterized the 6-h postprandial serum kinetics and urinary excretion of lactose, galactose, galactitol, and galactonate in 14 healthy men who had consumed a single dose of acidified milk (800 g) which contained 38.8 g lactose. Genotyping of LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235) was performed to assess primary lactase persistence.ResultsThere were 2 distinct postprandial responses, classified as high and low metabolite responses, observed for galactose, and its metabolites galactitol and galactonate, in serum and urine. In all but 1 subject, there was a concordance between the high metabolite responses and genetic lactase persistence and between the low metabolite responses and genetic lactase nonpersistence (accuracy 0.92), galactitol and galactonate being more discriminative than galactose.ConclusionsPostprandial galactitol and galactonate after lactose overload appear to be good proxies for genetically determined lactase activity. The development of a noninvasive lactose digestion test based on the measurement of these metabolites in urine could be clinically useful. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02230345.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy296
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Effect of a hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan
           on bone density and quality in older adults with obesity: a randomized
           trial
    • Authors: Weaver A; Houston D, Shapses S, et al.
      Pages: 478 - 486
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundDietary protein and micronutrients are important to the maintenance of bone health and may be an effective countermeasure to weight-loss–associated bone loss.ObjectivesWe aimed to determine the effect of a 6-mo hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan on change in bone density and quality as compared with weight stability in older adults using a randomized post-test design. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to this meal plan would maintain similar bone density and quality to weight-stable controls, despite significant reductions in body mass.MethodsNinety-six older adults (aged 70.3 ± 3.7 y, 74% women, 27% African American) with obesity [body mass index (kg/m2): 35.4 ± 3.3] were randomly assigned to a 6-mo hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan targeting ≥1.0 g protein · kg body weight–1 · d–1 [weight-loss (WL) group; n = 47] or to a weight-stability (WS) group targeting 0.8 g protein · kg body weight–1 · d–1, the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (n = 49). The primary outcome was total hip bone mineral density (BMD), with femoral neck BMD, lumbar spine BMD, and lumbar spine trabecular bone score (TBS) as secondary outcomes, all assessed at baseline and 3 and 6 mo with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.ResultsBaseline total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine BMDs were 1.016 ± 0.160, 0.941 ± 0.142, and 1.287 ± 0.246 g/cm2, respectively; lumbar TBS was 1.398 ± 0.109. Despite significant weight loss achieved in the WL group (6.6 ± 0.4 kg; 8.6% ± 0.4% of baseline weight), 6-mo regional BMD estimates were similar to those in the WS group (all P > 0.05). Lumbar spine TBS significantly increased at 6 mo in the WL group (mean: 1.421; 95% CI: 1.401, 1.441) compared with the WS group (1.390: 95% CI: 1.370, 1.409; P = 0.02).ConclusionsOlder adults following a hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan maintained similar bone density and quality to weight-stable controls. Our data suggest that adherence to this diet does not produce loss of hip and spine bone density in older adults and may improve bone quality. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02730988.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy237
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Calendar of Events
    • Pages: 487 - 487
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy387
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Insulin resistance, weight, and behavioral variables as determinants of
           brain reactivity to food cues: a Prevention of Diabetes through Lifestyle
           Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and around the World – a
           PREVIEW study
    • Authors: Drummen M; Dorenbos E, Vreugdenhil A, et al.
      Pages: 315 - 321
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundObesity and type 2 diabetes have been linked to alterations in food reward processing, which may be linked to insulin resistance.ObjectivesIn this clinical study, we investigated the respective contribution of insulin resistance, anthropometric measurements, and behavioral factors to brain reward activation in response to visual stimuli.DesignFood reward–related brain reward activation was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 39 overweight or obese individuals with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or both [22 women, 17 men; mean ± SD insulin sensitivity index (ISI): 2.7 ± 1.3; body mass index (BMI; kg/m2): 32.3 ± 3.7; body fat percentage: 40.5% ± 7.9%; fasting glucose: 6.3 ± 0.6 mmol/L]. Food and nonfood images were shown in a randomized block design. Brain activation (food compared with nonfood images) was correlated with anthropometric and behavioral variables. Behavioral variables included eating behavior [Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ)] and habitual physical activity (Baecke). Glucose and insulin concentrations, determined during an oral-glucose challenge, were used to assess the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda ISI.ResultsFood compared with nonfood brain activation was positively associated with HOMA-IR in the nucleus accumbens, right and left insula, and right cingulate gyrus (P < 0.005, corrected for multiple comparisons). TFEQ factor 2 was positively related to food compared with nonfood brain activation in the supramarginal gyrus (P < 0.005, corrected for multiple comparisons). Habitual physical activity during leisure time was negatively associated with food compared with nonfood brain activation in multiple regions associated with the attention and reward network (P < 0.005, corrected for multiple comparisons).ConclusionsIndividuals with increased insulin resistance and emotional eating or disinhibition showed higher brain reactivity to food cues, which may imply changes in food preference and hyperphagia. Individuals with higher habitual physical activity showed less food reward–related brain activation.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy252
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Folic acid supplementation enhances arsenic methylation: results from a
           folic acid and creatine supplementation randomized controlled trial in
           Bangladesh
    • Authors: Bozack A; Hall M, Liu X, et al.
      Pages: 380 - 391
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundArsenic exposure through drinking water persists in many regions. Inorganic As (InAs) is methylated to monomethyl-arsenical species (MMAs) and dimethyl-arsenical species (DMAs), facilitating urinary excretion. Arsenic methylation is dependent on one-carbon metabolism, which is influenced by nutritional factors such as folate and creatine.ObjectiveThis study investigated the effects of folic acid (FA) and/or creatine supplementation on the proportion of As metabolites in urine.DesignIn a 24-wk randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 622 participants were assigned to receive FA (400 or 800 μg per day), 3 g creatine per day, 400 μg FA + 3 g creatine per day, or placebo. The majority of participants were folate sufficient; all received As-removal water filters. From wk 12–24, half of the participants receiving FA received placebo.ResultsAmong groups receiving FA, the mean decrease in ln(%InAs) and %MMAs and increase in %DMAs exceeded those of the placebo group at wk 6 and 12 (P < 0.05). In the creatine group, the mean decrease in %MMAs exceeded that of the placebo group at wk 6 and 12 (P < 0.05); creatine supplementation did not affect change in %InAs or %DMAs. The decrease in %MMAs at wk 6 and 12 was larger in the 800 µg FA than in the 400 µg FA group (P = 0.034). There were no differences in treatment effects between the 400 µg FA and creatine + FA groups. Data suggest a rebound in As metabolite proportions after FA cessation; at wk 24, log(%InAs) and %DMAs were not significantly different than baseline levels among participants who discontinued FA supplementation.ConclusionsThe results of this study confirm that FA supplementation rapidly and significantly increases methylation of InAs to DMAs. Further research is needed to understand the strong cross-sectional associations between urinary creatinine and As methylation in previous studies. This trial was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01050556.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy148
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Association between added sugar intake and mortality is nonlinear and
           dependent on sugar source in 2 Swedish population–based prospective
           cohorts
    • Authors: Ramne S; Alves Dias J, González-Padilla E, et al.
      Pages: 411 - 423
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAlthough sugar consumption has been associated with several risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases, evidence for harmful long-term effects is lacking. In addition, most studies have focused on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), not sugar per se.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to examine the associations between added and free sugar intake, intake of different sugar sources, and mortality risk.MethodsTwo prospective population-based cohorts were examined: the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS; n = 24,272), which collected dietary data by combining a food diary, interview, and food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and the Northern Swedish Health and Disease Study (NSHDS; n = 24,475), which assessed diet with an FFQ. Sugar intakes defined as both added and free sugar and different sugar sources were examined. The associations with mortality were examined using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression.ResultsHigher sugar consumption was associated with a less favorable lifestyle in general. The lowest mortality risk was found with added sugar intakes between 7.5% and 10% of energy (E%) intake in both cohorts. Intakes >20E% were associated with a 30% increased mortality risk, but increased risks were also found at intakes <5E% [23% in the MDCS and 9% (nonsignificant) in the NSHDS]. Similar U-shaped associations were found for both cardiovascular and cancer mortality in the MDCS. By separately analyzing the different sugar sources, the intake of SSBs was positively associated with mortality, whereas the intake of treats was inversely associated.ConclusionsOur findings indicate that a high sugar intake is associated with an increased mortality risk. However, the risk is also increased among low sugar consumers, although they have a more favorable lifestyle in general. In addition, the associations are dependent on the type of sugar source.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy268
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 2 (2018)
       
 
 
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