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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 406 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 605, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.438
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 178  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-9165 - ISSN (Online) 1938-3207
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [406 journals]
  • The pregnancy and birth to 24 months project: a series of systematic
           reviews on diet and health
    • Authors: Sauer P.
      Pages: 1027 - 1028
      Abstract: Many studies over the past 25 years have shown that factors before and during pregnancy, as well as during the first years of life, can have effects until adulthood or become evident only in adulthood. One of these factors is nutrition of the mother before or during pregnancy, and of the infant in the first years of life. The exact mechanisms by which nutrition, and also other factors, cause these effects is not yet completely clear. Epigenetics is one of the potential mechanisms in the so-called programming in later life. In order to obtain more insight into the role of nutrition in both normal development and the occurrence of diseases, the USDA initiated a series of systematic reviews, which are published as a supplement to the April 2019 issue of the journal, "The Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project: a series of systematic review on diet and health."
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy375
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Salivary α-amylase copy number is not associated with weight trajectories
           and glycemic improvements following clinical weight loss: results from a
           2-phase dietary intervention study
    • Authors: Valsesia A; Kulkarni S, Marquis J, et al.
      Pages: 1029 - 1037
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundSeveral studies recently reported contradicting results regarding the link between amylase 1 (AMY1) copy numbers (CNs), obesity, and type 2 diabetes.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to assess the impact of AMY1 CN on anthropometrics and glycemic outcomes in obese individuals following a 2-phase dietary weight loss intervention.MethodsUsing the paralog ratio test, AMY1 CNs were accurately measured in 761 obese individuals from the DiOGenes study. Subjects first underwent an 8-wk low-calorie diet (LCD, at 800 kcal/d) and then were randomly assigned to a 6-mo weight maintenance dietary (WMD) intervention with arms having different glycemic loads.ResultsAt baseline, a modest association between AMY1 CN and BMI (P = 0.04) was observed. AMY1 CN was not associated with baseline glycemic variables. In addition, AMY1 CN was not associated with anthropometric or glycemic outcomes following either LCD or WMD. Interaction analyses between AMY1 CN and nutrient intake did not reveal any significant association with clinical parameters (at baseline and following LCD or WMD) or when testing gene × WMD interactions during the WMD phase.ConclusionIn the absence of association with weight trajectories or glycemic improvements, the AMY1 CN cannot be considered as an important biomarker for response to a clinical weight loss and weight maintenance programs in overweight/obese subjects. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00390637.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy363
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Fish oil–based injectable lipid emulsions containing medium-chain
           triglycerides or added α-tocopherol offer anti-inflammatory benefits in a
           murine model of parenteral nutrition–induced liver injury
    • Authors: Baker M; Cho B, Anez-Bustillos L, et al.
      Pages: 1038 - 1050
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundFish oil (FO) intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) are used as a monotherapy to treat parenteral nutrition (PN)-associated liver disease and provide essential fatty acids (EFAs) needed to sustain growth and prevent EFA deficiency (EFAD). Studies have suggested that medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and α-tocopherol have anti-inflammatory properties.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to test whether FO-ILEs containing MCTs and/or additional α-tocopherol decrease the inflammatory response to an endotoxin challenge compared with FO-ILE alone and preserve the ability to prevent PN-induced liver injury in mice.MethodsA murine model of PN-induced hepatosteatosis was used to compare the effects of ILEs formulated in the laboratory containing varying ratios of FO and MCTs, and subsequently FO- and 50:50 FO:MCT-ILE plus 500 mg/L α-tocopherol (FO + AT and 50:50 + AT, respectively). C57BL/6 mice receiving unpurified diet (UPD), PN-equivalent diet (PN) + saline, and PN + soybean oil (SO)-ILE served as controls. After 19 d, mice received an intraperitoneal saline or endotoxin challenge 4 h before being killed. Serum and livers were harvested for histologic analysis, fatty acid profiling, and measurement of systemic inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6).ResultsAll ILEs were well tolerated and prevented biochemical EFAD. Livers of mice that received saline and SO developed steatosis. Mice that received 30:70 FO:MCT developed mild hepatosteatosis. All other FO-containing ILEs preserved normal hepatic architecture. Mice that received FO- or SO-ILE had significantly elevated systemic inflammatory markers after endotoxin challenge compared with UPD-fed controls, whereas 50:50 FO:MCT, 30:70 FO:MCT, FO + AT, and 50:50 + AT groups had significantly lower inflammatory markers similar to those seen in UPD-fed controls.ConclusionsMixed FO/MCT and the addition of α-tocopherol to FO improved the inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge compared with FO-ILE alone while still preventing PN-induced liver injury and EFAD in mice. There was no synergistic relation between α-tocopherol and MCTs.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy370
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Effect of acute Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration on subjective and
           metabolic hormone responses to food stimuli and food intake in healthy
           humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled study
    • Authors: Weltens N; Depoortere I, Tack J, et al.
      Pages: 1051 - 1063
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe endocannabinoid system (ECS) is considered a key player in the neurophysiology of food reward. Animal studies suggest that the ECS stimulates the sensory perception of food, thereby increasing its incentive-motivational and/or hedonic properties and driving consumption, possibly via interactions with metabolic hormones. However, it remains unclear to what extent this can be extrapolated to humans.ObjectiveWe aimed to investigate the effect of oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on subjective and metabolic hormone responses to visual food stimuli and food intake.MethodsSeventeen healthy subjects participated in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 crossover trial. In each of the 4 visits, subjective “liking” and “wanting” ratings of high- and low-calorie food images were acquired after oral THC or placebo administration. The effect on food intake was quantified in 2 ways: via ad libitum oral intake (half of the visits) and intragastric infusion (other half) of chocolate milkshake. Appetite-related sensations and metabolic hormones were measured at set time points throughout each visit.ResultsTHC increased “liking” (P = 0.031) and “wanting” ratings (P = 0.0096) of the high-calorie, but not the low-calorie images, compared with placebo. Participants consumed significantly more milkshake after THC than after placebo during oral intake (P = 0.0005), but not intragastric infusion, of milkshake. Prospective food consumption ratings during the food image paradigm were higher after THC than after placebo (P = 0.0039). THC also increased plasma motilin (P = 0.0021) and decreased octanoylated ghrelin (P = 0.023) concentrations before milkshake consumption (i.e., in both oral intake and intragastric infusion test sessions), whereas glucagon-like peptide 1 responses to milkshake intake were attenuated by THC during both oral (P = 0.0002) and intragastric (P = 0.0055) administration.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that the ECS drives food intake by interfering with anticipatory, cephalic phase, and metabolic hormone responses. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02310347.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz007
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Estimation of protein requirements in Indian pregnant women using a
           whole-body potassium counter
    • Authors: Kuriyan R; Naqvi S, Bhat K, et al.
      Pages: 1064 - 1070
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe 2007 World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/United Nations University (WHO/FAO/UNU) recommendation for the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of additional protein during pregnancy for a gestational weight gain (GWG) of 12 kg (recalculated from a GWG of 13.8 kg) is 6.7 and 21.7 g/d in the second and the third trimester, respectively. This EAR is based on measurements of potassium accretion in high-income country (HIC) pregnant women. It is not known if low- to middle-income country, but well-nourished, pregnant women have comparable requirements.ObjectiveWe aimed to estimate total body potassium (TBK) accretion during pregnancy in Indian pregnant women, using a whole-body potassium counter (WBKC), to measure their additional protein EAR.MethodsWell-nourished pregnant women (20–40 y, n = 38, middle socioeconomic stratum) were recruited in the first trimester of pregnancy. Anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity measurements, and measurements of TBK using a WBKC, were performed at each trimester and at birth.ResultsThe mid-trimester weight gain was 2.7 kg and 8.0 kg in the second and the third trimester, respectively, for an average 37-wk GWG of 10.7 kg and a mean birth weight of 3.0 kg. Protein accretion was 2.7 and 5.7 g/d, for an EAR of 8.2 and 18.9 g/d in the second and the third trimester, respectively. The additional protein EAR, calculated for a GWG of 12 kg, was 9.1 and 21.2 g/d in the second and the third trimester, respectively.ConclusionThe additional protein requirements of well-nourished Indian pregnant women for a GWG of 12 kg in the second and third trimesters were similar to the recalculated 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU requirements for 12 kg.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz011
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • The Behavioral Wellness in Pregnancy study: a randomized controlled trial
           of a multi-component intervention to promote appropriate weight gain
    • Authors: Buckingham-Schutt L; Ellingson L, Vazou S, et al.
      Pages: 1071 - 1079
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAdequate weight gain during pregnancy is important to both maternal and fetal outcomes. To date, randomized controlled trials have not been effective at increasing the proportion of women meeting gestational weight-gain guidelines.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine whether a multi-component behavioral intervention with a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist significantly improves the proportion of women who adhere to the 2009 Institute of Medicine weight-gain guidelines.MethodsParticipants were randomly assigned to usual care (UC; n = 24) or intervention (n = 23) between 8 and 14 weeks of gestation. The intervention included a minimum of 6 one-on-one counseling sessions over ∼30 wk focusing on healthy diet and physical activity (PA) goals. In addition to the face-to-face visits, weekly communication via email supported healthy eating, PA, and appropriate weight gain. Gestational weight gain, PA, and diet were assessed at 8–14, 26–28, and 34–36 weeks of gestation; weight retention was measured 2 mo postpartum.ResultsThe proportion of women meeting the guidelines was significantly greater in those receiving the intervention than UC (60.8% compared with 25.0%, OR: 4.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 16.2; P = 0.019). Furthermore, 36.4% of the intervention women were at or below their prepregnancy weight at 2 mo postpartum compared with 12.5% in the UC group (P = 0.05).ConclusionsA multi-component behavioral intervention improved adherence to the 2009 Institute of Medicine weight-gain guidelines. This trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02168647.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy359
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Iodine deficiency among Italian children and adolescents assessed through
           24-hour urinary iodine excretion
    • Authors: Campanozzi A; Rutigliano I, Macchia P, et al.
      Pages: 1080 - 1087
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundIodine is an essential micronutrient for intellectual development in children. Information on iodine intakes based on 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE) is scant, because iodine status is only assessed by the measurement of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in spot urine samples.ObjectivesThe aim of our study was to evaluate the iodine intake of school-age children and adolescents, using UIE measurement in 24-h urine collections.MethodsThe study population included 1270 healthy subjects (677 boys, 593 girls) aged 6–18 y (mean age ± SD: 10.3 ± 2.9) from 10 Italian regions. Daily iodine intake was estimated as UIE/0.92, based on the notion that $\sim$92% of the dietary iodine intake is absorbed. The adequacy of intakes was assessed according to the Dietary Reference Values for iodine of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Body mass index (BMI) and UIC were also measured for each subject.ResultsBased on the scientific opinion of EFSA, 600 of 1270 subjects (47.2%) had a lower than adequate iodine intake, with a higher prevalence among girls (54.6%) compared with boys (40.2%) (P < 0.001). Although UIE and 24-h urinary volumes increased with age (P < 0.001), a progressive decrease in the percentage of subjects with iodine excretion <100 µg/24 h (P < 0.001) was observed, without any significant difference in the percentage of subjects with UIC <100 µg/L. No significant association was detected between BMI z-score and UIE (P = 0.603) or UIC (P = 0.869).ConclusionsA sizable proportion of our population, especially girls, appeared to be at risk of iodine inadequacy. The simple measurement of UIC could lead to underestimation of the occurrence of iodine deficiency in younger children, because of the age-related smaller urine volumes producing spuriously higher iodine concentrations.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy393
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Improved feeding tolerance and growth are linked to increased gut
           microbial community diversity in very-low-birth-weight infants fed
           mother's own milk compared with donor breast milk
    • Authors: Ford S; Lohmann P, Preidis G, et al.
      Pages: 1088 - 1097
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundMother's own milk (MOM) is protective against gut microbiota alterations associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and feeding intolerance among preterm infants. It is unclear whether this benefit is preserved with donor milk (DM) feeding.ObjectiveWe aimed to compare microbiota development, growth, and feeding tolerance in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants fed an exclusively human milk diet of primarily MOM or DM.MethodsOne hundred and twenty-five VLBW infants born at Texas Children's Hospital were enrolled and grouped into cohorts based on percentage of MOM and DM in enteral feeds. Feeds were fortified with DM-derived fortifier per unit protocol. Weekly stool samples were collected for 6 wk for microbiota analysis [16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing]. A research nurse obtained weekly anthropometrics. Clinical outcomes were compared via Wilcoxon's rank-sum test and Fisher's exact test, as well as multivariate analysis.ResultsThe DM cohort (n = 43) received on average 14% mothers’ milk compared with 91% for the MOM cohort (n = 74). Diversity of gut microbiota across all time points (n = 546) combined was increased in MOM infants (P < 0.001). By 4 and 6 wk of life, microbiota in MOM infants contained increased abundance of Bifidobacterium (P = 0.02) and Bacteroides (P = 0.04), whereas DM-fed infants had increased abundance of Staphylococcus (P = 0.02). MOM-fed infants experienced a 60% reduction in feeding intolerance (P = 0.03 by multivariate analysis) compared with DM-fed infants. MOM-fed infants had greater weight gain than DM-fed infants.ConclusionsCompared with DM-fed infants, MOM-fed infants have increased gut microbial community diversity at the phylum and genus levels by 4 and 6 wk of life, as well as better feeding tolerance. MOM-fed infants had superior growth. The incidence of NEC and other gastrointestinal morbidity is low among VLBW infants fed an exclusively human milk diet including DM-derived fortifier. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02573779.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz006
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Prebiotics in irritable bowel syndrome and other functional bowel
           disorders in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized
           controlled trials
    • Authors: Wilson B; Rossi M, Dimidi E, et al.
      Pages: 1098 - 1111
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundIrritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional bowel disorders (FBDs) are prevalent disorders with altered microbiota. Prebiotics positively augment gut microbiota and may offer therapeutic potential.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prebiotics compared with placebo on global response, gastrointestinal symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and gut microbiota, via systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with IBS and other FBDs.MethodsStudies were identified using electronic databases, back-searching reference lists, and hand-searching abstracts. RCTs that compared prebiotics to placebo in adults with IBS or other FBDs were included. Two reviewers independently performed screening, data extraction, and bias assessment. Outcome data were synthesized as ORs, weighted mean differences (WMDs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with the use of a random-effects model. Subanalyses were performed for type of FBD and dose, type, and duration of prebiotic.ResultsSearches identified 2332 records, and 11 RCTs were eligible (729 patients). The numbers responding were 52/97 (54%) for prebiotic and 59/94 (63%) for placebo, with no difference between groups (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.07, 5.69; P = 0.67). Similarly, no differences were found for severity of abdominal pain, bloating and flatulence, and QoL score between prebiotics and placebo. However, flatulence severity was improved by prebiotics at doses ≤6 g/d (SMD: –0.35; 95% CI: –0.71, 0.00; P = 0.05) and by non-inulin-type fructan prebiotics (SMD: –0.34; 95% CI: –0.66, –0.01; P = 0.04), while inulin-type fructans worsened flatulence (SMD: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.23, 1.47; P = 0.007). Prebiotics increased absolute abundance of bifidobacteria (WMD: 1.16 log10 copies of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene; 95% CI: 0.06, 2.26; P = 0.04). No studies were at low risk of bias across all bias categories.ConclusionsPrebiotics do not improve gastrointestinal symptoms or QoL in patients with IBS or other FBDs, but they do increase bifidobacteria. Variations in prebiotic type and dose impacted symptom improvement or exacerbation. This review was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42017074072.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy376
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • The colon as an energy salvage organ for children with short bowel
           syndrome
    • Authors: Norsa L; Lambe C, Abi Abboud S, et al.
      Pages: 1112 - 1118
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe main cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome (SBS). The management goal for children with SBS is to promote intestinal adaptation while preserving growth and development with the use of parenteral nutrition (PN).ObjectivesThis study evaluated the intestinal absorption rate in children with SBS, focusing on the role of the remnant colon. In addition, the relation between intestinal absorption rate, citrulline concentration, and small bowel length was studied.MethodsThirty-two children with SBS on PN were included. They were divided into 3 groups according to the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) anatomical classification system: type 1 SBS (n = 9), type 2 (n = 13), and type 3 (n = 10). Intestinal absorption rate was assessed by a stool balance analysis of a 3-d collection of stools. Plasma citrulline concentrations were measured and the level of PN dependency was calculated.ResultsThe total energy absorption rate did not differ significantly between the 3 groups: 68% (61–79% ) for type 1, 60% (40–77%) for type 2, and 60% (40–77%) for type 3 ( P = 0.45). Children with type 2 or 3 SBS had significantly shorter small bowel length than children with type 1: 28 cm (19–36 cm) and 16 cm (2–29 cm), respectively, compared with 60 cm (45–78 cm) ( P = 0.04). Plasma citrulline concentrations were lower in type 3 SBS but not significantly different: 15 µmol/L (11–25 µmol/L) in type 1, 14 µmol/L (7–21 µmol/L) in type 2 , and 9 µmol/L (6–14 µmol/L) in type 3 ( P = 0.141). A multivariate analysis confirmed the role of the remnant colon in providing additional energy absorption.ConclusionThis study demonstrated the importance of the colon as a salvage organ in children with SBS. Plasma citrulline concentrations should be interpreted according to the type of SBS. Efforts should focus on conservative surgery, early re-establishment of a colon in continuity, and preserving the intestinal microbiota.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy367
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and its impact on skeletal muscle mass and
           physical function in clinical practice: a systematic review and
           meta-analysis
    • Authors: Bear D; Langan A, Dimidi E, et al.
      Pages: 1119 - 1132
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundLoss of skeletal muscle mass and muscle weakness are common in a variety of clinical conditions with both wasting and weakness associated with an impairment of physical function. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a nutrition supplement that has been shown to favorably influence muscle protein turnover and thus potentially plays a role in ameliorating skeletal muscle wasting and weakness.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of HMB alone, or supplements containing HMB, on skeletal muscle mass and physical function in a variety of clinical conditions characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass and weakness.MethodsA systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials reporting outcomes of muscle mass, strength, and physical function was performed. Two reviewers independently performed screening, data extraction, and risk-of-bias assessment. Outcome data were synthesized through meta-analysis with the use of a random-effects model and data presented as standardized mean differences (SMDs).ResultsFifteen randomized controlled trials were included, involving 2137 patients. Meta-analysis revealed some evidence to support the effect of HMB alone, or supplements containing HMB, on increasing skeletal muscle mass (SMD = 0.25; 95% CI: –0.00, 0.50; z = 1.93; P = 0.05; I2 = 58%) and strong evidence to support improving muscle strength (SMD = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.50; z = 3.25; P = 0.001; I2 = 0%). Effect sizes were small. No effect on bodyweight (SMD = 0.16; 95% CI: –0.08, 0.41; z = 1.34; P = 0.18; I2 = 67%) or any other outcome was found. No study was considered to have low risk of bias in all categories.ConclusionHMB, and supplements containing HMB, increased muscle mass and strength in a variety of clinical conditions, although the effect size was small. Given the bias associated with many of the included studies, further high-quality studies should be undertaken to enable interpretation and translation into clinical practice. The trial was registered on PROSPERO as CRD42017058517.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy373
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Transcriptional changes in prostate of men on active surveillance after a
           12-mo glucoraphanin-rich broccoli intervention—results from the Effect
           of Sulforaphane on prostate CAncer PrEvention (ESCAPE) randomized
           controlled trial
    • Authors: Traka M; Melchini A, Coode-Bate J, et al.
      Pages: 1133 - 1144
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEpidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer progression, largely attributed to the biological activity of glucosinolate degradation products, such as sulforaphane derived from glucoraphanin. Because there are few therapeutic interventions for men on active surveillance for prostate cancer to reduce the risk of cancer progression, dietary approaches are an appealing option for patients.ObjectiveWe evaluated whether consumption of a glucoraphanin-rich broccoli soup for 1 y leads to changes in gene expression in prostate tissue of men with localized prostate cancer.MethodsForty-nine men on active surveillance completed a 3-arm parallel randomized double-blinded intervention study for 12 mo and underwent transperineal template biopsy procedures and dietary assessment at the start and end of the study. Patients received a weekly 300 mL portion of soup made from a standard broccoli (control) or from 1 of 2 experimental broccoli genotypes with enhanced concentrations of glucoraphanin, delivering 3 and 7 times that of the control, respectively. Gene expression in tissues from each patient obtained before and after the dietary intervention was quantified by RNA sequencing followed by gene set enrichment analyses.ResultsIn the control arm, there were several hundred changes in gene expression in nonneoplastic tissue during the 12 mo. These were associated with an increase in expression of potentially oncogenic pathways including inflammation processes and epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Changes in gene expression and associated oncogenic pathways were attenuated in men on the glucoraphanin-rich broccoli soup in a dose-dependent manner. Although the study was not powered to assess clinical progression, an inverse association between consumption of cruciferous vegetables and cancer progression was observed.ConclusionConsuming glucoraphanin-rich broccoli soup affected gene expression in the prostate of men on active surveillance, consistent with a reduction in the risk of cancer progression. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01950143.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz012
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Within-person compensation for snack energy by US adults, NHANES
           2007–2014
    • Authors: Kant A; Graubard B.
      Pages: 1145 - 1153
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundMost Americans snack and some snack several times a day; however, compensatory dietary and eating behaviors associated with snacking in free-living individuals are poorly understood.ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to examine within-person differences in reported energy intake and eating patterns on a snack day relative to a no-snack day.MethodsWe used 2 d of dietary recall data from the NHANES 2007–2014 to replicate the crossover nutrition study paradigm in a natural setting. Respondents reporting a snack episode in only one of two available dietary recalls were eligible for inclusion in the study (n = 1,917 men and 1,860 women). We used multivariable regression methods to compare within-person differences in quantitative, qualitative, and eating pattern outcomes between the snack and no-snack recall days.ResultsOn the snack day, snack episodes provided (mean difference and 95% CI) 493 (454, 532) kcal of energy in men and 360 (328, 392) kcal in women. The 24-h energy intake on snack day was higher by 239 (140, 337) kcal in men and 219 (164, 273) kcal in women (P < 0.0001). On the snack day, both men and women were more likely to skip main meals and reported lower energy intake from main meals (P < 0.0001); however, the energy density of foods or beverages reported on the snack compared with no-snack days were not different. Fruit servings were higher on the snack day (P ≤ 0.0004), but intakes of vegetables and key micronutrients did not differ. The 24-h ingestive period was longer on the snack day (P < 0.0001).ConclusionsFree-living men and women partially compensated for snack energy by decreasing energy intake from main meals without adverse associations with qualitative dietary characteristics or time of meal consumption. Women compensated to a smaller extent than men. Thus, over the long term, snack episodes may contribute to positive energy balance, and the risk may be higher in women.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy349
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Associations of protein intake in early childhood with body composition,
           height, and insulin-like growth factor I in mid-childhood and early
           adolescence
    • Authors: Switkowski K; Jacques P, Must A, et al.
      Pages: 1154 - 1163
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEarly protein intake may program later body composition and height growth, perhaps mediated by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). In infancy, higher protein intake is consistently associated with higher IGF-I concentrations and more rapid growth, but associations of protein intake after infancy with later growth and IGF-I are less clear.ObjectivesOur objective was to examine associations of protein intake in early childhood (median 3.2 y) with height, IGF-I, and measures of adiposity and lean mass in mid-childhood (median 7.7 y) and early adolescence (median 13.0 y), and with changes in these outcomes over time. We hypothesized that early childhood protein intake programs later growth.MethodsWe studied 1165 children in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort. Mothers reported children's diet using food-frequency questionnaires. We stratified by child sex and examined associations of early childhood protein intake with mid-childhood and early adolescent BMI z score, skinfold thicknesses, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) fat mass, DXA lean mass, height z score, and IGF-I concentration. We adjusted linear regression models for race/ethnicity, family sociodemographics, parental and birth anthropometrics, breastfeeding status, physical activity, and fast food intake.ResultsMean protein intake in early childhood was 58.3 g/d. There were no associations of protein intake in early childhood with any of the mid-childhood outcomes. Among boys, however, each 10-g increase in early childhood total protein intake was associated with several markers of early adolescent size, namely BMI z score (0.12 higher; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.23), DXA lean mass index (1.34% higher; 95% CI: −0.07%, 2.78%), and circulating IGF-I (5.67% higher; 95% CI: 0.30%, 11.3%). There were no associations with fat mass and no associations with any adolescent outcomes among girls.ConclusionsEarly childhood protein intake may contribute to programming lean mass and IGF-I around the time of puberty in boys, but not to adiposity development. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02820402.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy354
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Comparing demographic and health characteristics of new and existing SNAP
           recipients: application of a machine learning algorithm
    • Authors: Hamad R; Templeton Z, Schoemaker L, et al.
      Pages: 1164 - 1172
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) expanded significantly after the Great Recession of 2008–2009, but no studies have characterized this new group of recipients. Few data sets provide details on whether an individual is a new or established recipient of SNAP.ObjectiveWe sought to identify new and existing SNAP recipients, and to examine differences in sociodemographic characteristics, health, nutritional status, and food purchasing behavior between new and existing recipients of SNAP after the recession.MethodsWe created a probabilistic algorithm to identify new and existing SNAP recipients using the 1999–2013 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We applied this algorithm to the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS), fielded during 2012–2013, to predict which individuals were likely to be new SNAP recipients. We then compared health and nutrition characteristics between new, existing, and never recipients of SNAP in FoodAPS.ResultsNew adult SNAP recipients had higher socioeconomic status, better self-reported health, and greater food security relative to existing recipients, and were more likely to smoke relative to never recipients. New child SNAP recipients were less likely to eat all meals and had lower BMI relative to existing recipients. New SNAP households exhibited differences in food access and expenditures, although dietary quality was similar to that of existing SNAP households.ConclusionWe developed a novel algorithm for predicting new and existing SNAP recipiency that can be applied to other data sets, and subsequently demonstrated differences in health characteristics between new and existing recipients. The expansion of SNAP since the Great Recession enrolled a population that differed from the existing SNAP population and that may benefit from different types of nutritional and health services than those traditionally offered.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy355
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Improvement of diet sustainability with increased level of organic food in
           the diet: findings from the BioNutriNet cohort
    • Authors: Baudry J; Pointereau P, Seconda L, et al.
      Pages: 1173 - 1188
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundOrganic food consumption has steadily increased over the past decade in westernized countries.ObjectiveThe aim of this study, based on observational data, was to compare some sustainability features of diets from consumers with varying levels of organic food.MethodsThe diet sustainability among 29,210 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study was estimated using databases developed within the BioNutriNet project. Four dimensions (nutrition, environment, economy, and toxicology) of diet sustainability were assessed using: 1) nutritional indicators through dietary intakes and dietary scores, and BMI; 2) environmental indicators (greenhouse gas emissions, cumulative energy demand, and land occupation); 3) economic indicators via diet monetary costs; and 4) estimated daily food exposures to 15 pesticides. Adjusted means (95% CI) across weighted quintiles of organic food consumption in the diet were estimated via ANCOVA. Breakdown methods were used to disentangle the contribution of the production system (organic compared with conventional) from the dietary pattern in the variation of diet-related environmental impacts, monetary costs, and pesticide exposure, between the 2 extreme quintiles.ResultsHigher organic food consumption was associated with higher plant-food and lower animal-food consumption, overall nutritional quality (higher dietary scores), and lower BMI. Diet-related greenhouse-gas emissions, cumulative energy demand, and land occupation gradually decreased with increasing organic food consumption, whereas total diet monetary cost increased. Diet exposure to most pesticides decreased across quintiles.ConclusionsDiets of high organic food consumers were generally characterized by strong nutritional and environmental benefits. The latter were mostly driven by the low consumption of animal-based foods, whereas the production system was responsible for the higher diet monetary costs, and the overall reduced dietary pesticide exposure.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy361
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Application of blood concentration biomarkers in nutritional epidemiology:
           example of carotenoid and tocopherol intake in relation to chronic disease
           risk
    • Authors: Prentice R; Pettinger M, Neuhouser M, et al.
      Pages: 1189 - 1196
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundBiomarkers provide potential to objectively measure the intake of nutrients and foods, and thereby to strengthen nutritional epidemiology association studies. However, there are only a few established intake biomarkers, mostly based on recovery of nutrients or their metabolites in urine. Blood concentration measures provide a potential biomarker source for many additional nutritional variables, but their use in disease-association studies requires further development.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to apply recently proposed serum-based carotenoid and tocopherol intake biomarkers and to examine their association with the incidence of major cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes in a subset of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohorts.MethodsSerum concentrations of α- and β-carotene, lutein plus zeaxanthin (L + Z), and α-tocopherol were routinely measured at baseline in a subset of 5488 enrollees in WHI cohorts. Intake biomarkers for these 4 micronutrients, obtained by combining serum concentrations with participant characteristics, were recently proposed using a 153-woman feeding study within WHI. These biomarker equations are augmented here to include pertinent disease risk factors and are associated with subsequent chronic disease incidence in this WHI subset.ResultsHRs for a doubling of micronutrient intake differed only moderately from the null for the outcomes considered. However, somewhat lower risks of specific cardiovascular outcomes, breast cancer, and diabetes were associated with a higher intake of α- and β-carotene, lower risk of diabetes was associated with higher L + Z intake, and elevated risks of certain cardiovascular outcomes were associated with a higher intake of α-tocopherol. These patterns remained following the exclusion of baseline users of dietary supplements.ConclusionsConcentration biomarkers can be calculated from blood specimens obtained in large epidemiologic cohorts and applied directly in disease-association analyses, without relying on self-reported dietary data. Observed associations between carotenoid and tocopherol biomarkers and chronic disease risk could be usefully evaluated further using stored serum specimens on the entire WHI cohort. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy360
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Effect of glutamate and aspartate on ischemic heart disease, blood
           pressure, and diabetes: a Mendelian randomization study
    • Authors: Zhao J; Kwok M, Schooling C.
      Pages: 1197 - 1206
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEvolutionary biology suggests reproduction trades off against longevity. Genetic selection in favor of fertility and ischemic heart disease (IHD) exists in humans. Observationally, soy protects against IHD. Soy amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, may lower androgens. No large randomized controlled trials testing their health effects exist.ObjectiveUsing Mendelian randomization, we assessed how genetically predicted glutamate and aspartate affected IHD, blood pressure, and diabetes.MethodsA separate sample instrumental variable analysis with genetic instruments was used to obtain unconfounded estimates using genetic variants strongly (P < 5 × 10−8) and solely associated with glutamate or aspartate applied to an IHD case (n ≤76,014)–control (n ≤ 264,785) study (based on a meta-analysis of CARDIoGRAMplusC4D 1000 Genomes, UK Biobank CAD SOFT GWAS and Myocardial Infarction Genetics and CARDIoGRAM Exome), blood pressure from the UK Biobank (n ≤ 361,194), and the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis diabetes case (n = 26,676)–control (n = 132,532) study. A weighted median and MR-Egger were used for a sensitivity analysis.ResultsGlutamate was not associated with IHD, blood pressure, or diabetes after correction for multiple comparisons. Aspartate was inversely associated with IHD (odds ratio (OR) 0.92 per log-transformed standard deviation (SD); 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88, 0.96) and diastolic blood pressure (−0.03; 95% CI −0.04, −0.02) using inverse variance weighting, but not diabetes (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.91, 1.09). Associations were robust to the sensitivity analysis.ConclusionsOur findings suggest aspartate may play a role in IHD and blood pressure, potentially underlying cardiovascular benefits of soy. Clarifying the mechanisms would be valuable for IHD prevention and for defining a healthy diet.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy362
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Malnutrition among women and children in India: limited evidence of
           clustering of underweight, anemia, overweight, and stunting within
           individuals and households at both state and district levels
    • Authors: Varghese J; Stein A.
      Pages: 1207 - 1215
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundIn India, the prevalences of stunting and anemia have declined in the last decade, but continue to remain high in many regions, whereas those of overweight and obesity have increased in all age and socioeconomic groups. Determining whether these forms of malnutrition cluster is important for the development of appropriate interventions.ObjectivesOur objective was to describe the prevalence of a comprehensive list of dual burdens of malnutrition in individuals and households across the 36 states and 640 districts of India.MethodsWe analyzed data from the National Family Health Survey-4, 2015–2016, including 655,156 women aged 15–49 y and 145,653 children aged 6–59 mo in India. We measured the coexistence of 19 combinations of women's anemia, underweight, and overweight and children's stunting, underweight, overweight, and anemia at the individual and household levels. We aggregated this information to the state (n = 36) and district (n = 640) levels. We examined whether the observed dual burden prevalence exceeded the expected prevalence, and whether any such excess was related to household wealth.ResultsOf the 19 dual burdens examined, 8 had significant excess prevalence at the state level and 5 had significant excess prevalence at the district level. All but 1 of these instances reflected an excess dual burden of undernutrition as opposed to clustering of overweight with a form of undernutrition. Household wealth was not positively associated with any clustering of burdens.ConclusionsWhile dual burdens of anemia, stunting, and underweight are prevalent, there is no evidence of clustering of overweight with other forms of malnutrition in India.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy374
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Associations of circulating very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and
           
    • Authors: Fretts A; Imamura F, Marklund M, et al.
      Pages: 1216 - 1223
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundSaturated fatty acids (SFAs) of different chain lengths have unique metabolic and biological effects, and a small number of recent studies suggest that higher circulating concentrations of the very-long-chain SFAs (VLSFAs) arachidic acid (20:0), behenic acid (22:0), and lignoceric acid (24:0) are associated with a lower risk of diabetes. Confirmation of these findings in a large and diverse population is needed.ObjectiveWe investigated the associations of circulating VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 with incident type 2 diabetes in prospective studies.MethodsTwelve studies that are part of the Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium participated in the analysis. Using Cox or logistic regression within studies and an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis across studies, we examined the associations of VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 with incident diabetes among 51,431 participants.ResultsThere were 14,276 cases of incident diabetes across participating studies. Higher circulating concentrations of 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 were each associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes. Pooling across cohorts, the RR (95% CI) for incident diabetes comparing the 90th percentile to the 10th percentile was 0.78 (0.70, 0.87) for 20:0, 0.84 (0.77, 0.91) for 22:0, and 0.75 (0.69, 0.83) for 24:0 after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, adiposity, and other health factors. Results were fully attenuated in exploratory models that adjusted for circulating 16:0 and triglycerides.ConclusionsResults from this pooled analysis indicate that higher concentrations of circulating VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 are each associated with a lower risk of diabetes.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz005
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Exposure to a slightly sweet lipid-based nutrient supplement during early
           life does not increase the level of sweet taste most preferred among 4- to
           6-year-old Ghanaian children: follow-up of a randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Okronipa H; Arimond M, Arnold C, et al.
      Pages: 1224 - 1232
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe impact of feeding a slightly sweet nutrient supplement early in life on later sweet taste preference is unknown.ObjectiveWe tested the hypothesis that the level of sucrose most preferred by 4–6-y-old children exposed to a slightly sweet lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) early in life would not be higher than that of children never exposed to LNS.DesignWe followed up children born to women (n = 1,320) who participated in a randomized trial in Ghana. In one group, LNS was provided to women on a daily basis during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum and to their infants from age 6 to 18 mo (LNS group). The control groups received daily iron and folic acid or multiple micronutrients during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum, with no infant supplementation (non-LNS group). At age 4–6 y, we randomly selected a subsample of children (n = 775) to assess the concentration of sucrose most preferred using the Monell 2-series, forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking procedure. We compared LNS with non-LNS group differences using a noninferiority margin of 5% weight/volume (wt/vol).ResultsOf the 624 children tested, most (61%) provided reliable responses. Among all children, the mean ± SD sucrose solution most preferred (% wt/vol) was 14.6 ± 8.6 (LNS group 14.9 ± 8.7; non-LNS group 14.2 ± 8.4). However, among children with reliable responses, it was 17.0 ± 10.2 (LNS group 17.5 ± 10.4; non-LNS group 16.5 ± 10.0). The upper level of the 95% CI of the difference between groups did not exceed the noninferiority margin in either the full sample or those with reliable responses, indicating that the LNS group did not have a higher sweet preference than the non-LNS group.ConclusionExposure to a slightly sweet nutrient supplement early in life did not increase the level of sweet taste most preferred during childhood. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00970866.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy352
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Effect of folate supplementation on insulin sensitivity and type 2
           diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    • Authors: Bidhendi Yarandi R.
      Pages: 1233 - 1233
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz021
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Reply to RB Yarandi
    • Authors: Lind M; Lauritzen L, Kristensen M, et al.
      Pages: 1233 - 1234
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz022
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Calendar of Events
    • Pages: 1235 - 1235
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz082
      Issue No: Vol. 109, No. 4 (2019)
       
 
 
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