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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 587, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.438
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 155  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-9165 - ISSN (Online) 1938-3207
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • Microbial enterotypes in personalized nutrition and obesity management
    • Authors: Christensen L; Roager H, Astrup A, et al.
      Pages: 645 - 651
      Abstract: Human gut microbiota has been suggested to play an important role in nutrition and obesity. However, formulating meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advice based on knowledge about gut microbiota remains a key challenge. A number of recent studies have found evidence that stratification of individuals according to 2 microbial enterotypes (dominance of either Prevotella or Bacteroides) may be useful in predicting responses to diets and drugs. Here, we review enterotypes in a nutritional context and discuss how enterotype stratification may be used in personalized nutrition in obesity management. Enterotypes are characterized by distinct digestive functions with preference for specific dietary substrate, resulting in short-chain fatty acids that may influence energy balance in the host. Consequently, the enterotype potentially affects the individual's ability to lose weight when following a specific diet. In short, a high-fiber diet seems to optimize weight loss among Prevotella-enterotype subjects but not among Bacteroides-enterotype subjects. In contrast, increasing bifidobacteria in the gut among Bacteroides-enterotype subjects improves metabolic parameters, suggesting that this approach can be used as an alternative weight loss strategy. Thus, enterotypes, as a pretreatment gut microbiota biomarker, have the potential to become an important tool in personalized nutrition and obesity management, although further interventions assessing their applicability are warranted.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy175
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • The complicated relation between resting energy expenditure and
           maintenance of lost weight
    • Authors: Hall K.
      Pages: 652 - 653
      Abstract: Imagine that your resting energy expenditure (REE) declined by hundreds of calories per day after losing weight. Maintaining your new lower weight requires the equivalent of eating 1 less meal/d or adding a substantial amount of physical activity. While it would be profoundly unfair if your REE was now significantly lower than someone of the same sex, age, and size who had never needed to lose weight, such a comparison does not alter the fact that it is the decrease in REE that translates to the permanent behavior change required to keep the weight off.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy259
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Food neophobia, autistic traits, and body mass index: a broader behavioral
    • Authors: Stafford L.
      Pages: 654 - 655
      Abstract: Food neophobia can be defined as the unwillingness to try new foods and, as any parent of young children can attest, is a recurring theme and potential stressor at mealtimes. It is interesting to reflect that, in terms of evolution, one can see the adaptive value of keeping to a more limited diet of relatively safe foods rather than risk ingesting novel foods that may do us harm. However, it is also clear that reliance on a limited range of, for example, fruit and vegetables and favorable climates would not have aided survival, in addition to missing out on potentially richer nutrient sources. Food neophobia therefore represents the balance of these 2 pressures and is measured on a continuum (1).
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy253
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Salivary amylase gene variations influence the physiologic response to
           starchy foods: 2 sides of the story
    • Authors: Sonestedt E.
      Pages: 656 - 657
      Abstract: The glucose response after a meal as measured by the glycemic index differs largely depending on which foods are ingested, and having a diet with a high glycemic index has been suspected to be a risk factor for metabolic diseases (1). However, the postprandial response of the same food also differs between individuals, which might indicate that genetics are involved. During the last decade, genetic research has made enormous progress in identifying genes and pathways involved in disease development and population variation in risk markers. For example, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous genetic variants (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms) associated with blood concentrations of glucose and insulin (2). However, the combined effect of these genetic variants explains only a minor fraction of the overall heritability in glucose or insulin concentrations (3). Other genetic factors not covered by GWAS, such as copy number variants (CNVs), can also contribute to heritability. CNVs are a sort of structural variation in which a large part of the genome ranging from 1 kb to several megabases are either deleted or duplicated. That is, whole genes can be repeated. In humans, the salivary α-amylase gene locus (AMY1) shows extensive variation in number of copies between individuals, ranging from 2 to 17 copies (4). Importantly, the AMY1 copy number is directly proportional to the salivary α-amylase content and activity. Salivary amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch molecules to smaller sugars; these sugars are then fully digested by pancreatic α-amylases in the gut. However, for the CNVs to become common in the population, there needs to be an advantage to having a large number of copies of the salivary amylase gene. Even if it is not clear how and when the number of copies started to vary among humans or how they have varied thereafter during human evolution (5), the remarkable variation indicates the importance of the salivary amylase in human physiology. The pancreatic AMY2A and AMY2B show much lower variation in copy numbers with a range from 0 to 4 copies and from 2 to 6 copies, respectively (6).
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy258
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • No consistent evidence of a disproportionately low resting energy
           expenditure in long-term successful weight-loss maintainers
    • Authors: Ostendorf D; Melanson E, Caldwell A, et al.
      Pages: 658 - 666
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEvidence in humans is equivocal in regards to whether resting energy expenditure (REE) decreases to a greater extent than predicted for the loss of body mass with weight loss, and whether this disproportionate decrease in REE persists with weight-loss maintenance.ObjectivesWe aimed to1) determine if a lower-than-predicted REE is present in a sample of successful weight-loss maintainers (WLMs) and 2) determine if amount of weight loss or duration of weight-loss maintenance are correlated with a lower-than-predicted REE in WLMs.DesignParticipants (18–65 y old) were recruited in 3 groups: WLMs (maintaining ≥13.6 kg weight loss for ≥1 y, n = 34), normal-weight controls [NCs, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) similar to current BMI of WLMs, n = 35], and controls with overweight/obesity (OCs, BMI similar to pre–weight-loss maximum BMI of WLMs, n = 33). REE was measured (REEm) with indirect calorimetry. Predicted REE (REEp) was determined via 1) a best-fit linear regression developed with the use of REEm, age, sex, fat-free mass, and fat mass from our control groups and 2) three standard predictive equations.ResultsREEm in WLMs was accurately predicted by equations developed from NCs and OCs (±1%) and by 3 standard predictive equations (±3%). In WLMs, individual differences between REEm and REEp ranged from −257 to +163 kcal/d. A lower REEm compared with REEp was correlated with amount of weight lost (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) but was not correlated with duration of weight-loss maintenance (r = 0.04, P = 0.81).ConclusionsWe found no consistent evidence of a significantly lower REE than predicted in a sample of long-term WLMs based on predictive equations developed from NCs and OCs as well as 3 standard predictive equations. Results suggest that sustained weight loss may not always result in a substantial, disproportionately low REE.This trial was registered at as NCT03422380.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy179
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Dairy matrix effects: response to consumption of dairy fat differs when
           eaten within the cheese matrix—a randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Feeney E; Barron R, Dible V, et al.
      Pages: 667 - 674
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundDairy fat consumed as cheese has different effects on blood lipids than that consumed as butter. It is unknown whether the effect is specific to fat interaction with other cheese nutrients (calcium, casein proteins), or to the cheese matrix itself.ObjectiveWe aimed to test the effect of 6 wk daily consumption of ∼40 g dairy fat, eaten within macronutrient-matched food matrices, on markers of metabolic health, in overweight adults aged ≥50 y.DesignThe study was a 6-wk randomized parallel intervention; 164 volunteers (75 men) received ∼40 g of dairy fat/d, in 1 of 4 treatments: (A) 120 g full-fat Irish cheddar cheese (FFCC) (n = 46); (B) 120 g reduced-fat Irish cheddar cheese + butter (21 g) (RFC + B) (n = 45); (C) butter (49 g), calcium caseinate powder (30 g), and Ca supplement (CaCO3) (500 mg) (BCC) (n = 42); or (D) 120 g FFCC, for 6 wk (as per A) (n = 31). Group D first completed a 6-wk “run-in” period, where they excluded all dietary cheese before commencing the intervention.ResultsThere was no difference in anthropometry, fasting glucose, or insulin between the groups at pre- or postintervention. However, a stepwise-matrix effect was observed between the groups for total cholesterol (TC) (P = 0.033) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.026), with significantly lower postintervention TC (mean ± SD) (5.23 ± 0.88 mmol/L) and LDL cholesterol (2.97 ± 0.67 mmol/L) when all of the fat was contained within the cheese matrix (Group A), compared with Group C when it was not (TC: 5.57 ± 0.86 mmol/L; LDL cholesterol: 3.43 ± 0.78 mmol/L).ConclusionDairy fat, eaten in the form of cheese, appears to differently affect blood lipids compared with the same constituents eaten in different matrices, with significantly lower total cholesterol observed when all nutrients are consumed within a cheese matrix This trial was registered at ISRCTN as ISRCTN86731958.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy146
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Differential effects of medium- and long-chain saturated fatty acids on
           blood lipid profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Panth N; Abbott K, Dias C, et al.
      Pages: 675 - 687
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundMedium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCFAs) may affect circulating lipids and lipoproteins differently than long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFAs), but the results from human intervention trials have been equivocal.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine whether MCFAs and LCSFAs have differential impacts on blood lipids and lipoproteins.DesignFive databases were searched (EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Scopus) until April 2018, and published clinical trials investigating the differential effects of dietary MCFAs and LCSFAs on blood lipids were included. Searches were limited to the English language and to studies with adults aged >18 y. Where possible, studies were pooled for meta-analysis using RevMan 5.2. The principle summary measure was the mean difference between groups calculated using the random-effects model.ResultsEleven eligible crossover and 1 parallel trial were identified with a total of 299 participants [weighted mean ± SD age: 38 ± 3 y; weighted mean ± SD body mass index (kg/m2): 24 ± 2]. All studies were pooled for the meta-analysis. Diets enriched with MCFAs led to significantly higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations than diets enriched with LCSFAs (0.11 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.15 mmol/L) with no effect on triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and total cholesterol concentrations. Consumption of diets rich in MCFAs significantly increased apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentrations compared with diets rich in LCSFAs (0.08 g/L; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.14 g/L). There was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity for HDL cholesterol, apoA-I, and triglyceride concentrations; however, significant heterogeneity was observed for the total cholesterol (I2 = 49%) and LDL cholesterol analysis (I2 = 58%).ConclusionThe findings of this research demonstrate a differential effect of MCFAs and LCSFAs on HDL cholesterol concentrations. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the mechanism by which the lipid profile is altered. This trial was registered at as CRD42017078277.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy167
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Impact of a (poly)phenol-rich extract from the brown algae Ascophyllum
           nodosum on DNA damage and antioxidant activity in an overweight or obese
           population: a randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Baldrick F; McFadden K, Ibars M, et al.
      Pages: 688 - 700
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEpidemiologic evidence suggests that a diet rich in (poly)phenols has beneficial effects on many chronic diseases. Brown seaweed is a rich source of (poly)phenols.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability and effect of a brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) (poly)phenol extract on DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation in vivo.DesignA randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial was conducted in 80 participants aged 30–65 y with a body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥25. The participants consumed either a 400-mg capsule containing 100 mg seaweed (poly)phenol and 300 mg maltodextrin or a 400-mg maltodextrin placebo control capsule daily for an 8-wk period. Bioactivity was assessed with a panel of blood-based markers including lymphocyte DNA damage, plasma oxidant capacity, C-reactive protein (CRP), and inflammatory cytokines. To explore the bioavailability of seaweed phenolics, an untargeted metabolomics analysis of urine and plasma samples after seaweed consumption was determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry.ResultsConsumption of the seaweed (poly)phenols resulted in a modest decrease in DNA damage but only in a subset of the total population who were obese. There were no significant changes in CRP, antioxidant status, or inflammatory cytokines. We identified phlorotannin metabolites that are considered potential biomarkers of seaweed consumption including pyrogallol/phloroglucinol-sulfate, hydroxytrifurahol A-glucuronide, dioxinodehydroeckol-glucuronide, diphlorethol sulfates, C-O-C dimer of phloroglucinol sulfate, and C-O-C dimer of phloroglucinol.ConclusionsTo the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first comprehensive study investigating the bioactivity and bioavailability of seaweed (poly)phenolics in human participants. We identified several potential biomarkers of seaweed consumption. Intriguingly, the modest improvements in DNA damage were observed only in the obese subset of the total population. The subgroup analysis should be considered exploratory because it was not preplanned; therefore, it was not powered adequately. Elucidation of the biology underpinning this observation will require participant stratification according to weight in future studies. This trial was registered at as NCT02295878.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy147
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Autism spectrum disorder and food neophobia: clinical and subclinical
    • Authors: Wallace G; Llewellyn C, Fildes A, et al.
      Pages: 701 - 707
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been linked with eating- and feeding-related atypicalities, including food neophobia (FN) (refusal to try unfamiliar foods), since its earliest description. Nevertheless, whether associations between ASD traits and FN extend subclinically into the broader population of children and their potential additive health impacts remains unexplored.ObjectiveWe examined ASD-control group differences in FN and ASD trait-FN trait associations, as well as the ability of FN and autistic traits to predict one index of later health-related outcomes [body mass index (BMI)].DesignParticipants in the present study were a large community-based sample of 8- to 11-y-olds (n = 4564), including a relatively small group of children diagnosed with ASD (n = 37). Parents of these 8- to 11-y-old children completed assessments of FN and autistic traits and provided height and weight metrics at 12 y of age.ResultsChildren with ASD were rated as more food neophobic than their same-age non-ASD peers (2.67 ± 0.83 compared with 2.22 ± 0.73; P < 0.001), and there were subclinical associations between FN and ASD traits (social, communication, and restricted/repetitive behavior) in this community-based sample of children (P < 0.05). Moreover, whereas FN alone predicted lower BMI, the interaction of FN and ASD traits predicted higher BMI (P ≤ 0.01), suggesting that elevated ASD traits in combination with FN exert opposing influences on weight compared with FN alone.ConclusionsThese findings implicate clinical and subclinical connections between ASD traits and feeding behaviors that could affect health outcomes and therefore should be further explored in future studies of shared etiology and intervention strategy.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy163
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Impact of changes in maternal body composition on birth weight and
           neonatal fat mass in dichorionic twin pregnancies
    • Authors: Gandhi M; Gandhi R, Mack L, et al.
      Pages: 716 - 721
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAlthough the impact of gestational weight gain (GWG) on birth weight in twin pregnancies has been demonstrated, the specific components of GWG have not been delineated for twin gestations. Fetal body composition has been shown to be modifiable in singleton gestations based on nutritional intervention strategies and may prove to have similar modifications in twin gestations.ObjectiveWe aimed to determine the relation of maternal body composition changes to birth weight, birth length, and neonatal fat mass (FM) in dichorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies.DesignThis is a prospective study of 20 women with twin gestations. Comparisons were made between body composition variables during each trimester and for the entire pregnancy and compared with the outcomes of birth weight, neonatal fat percentage, and birth length.ResultsGWG within or above compared with below the IOM recommendations was associated with higher birth weights (P = 0.03, P = 0.04, respectively), but also with higher postpartum weight retention (P = 0.001). Total maternal protein gain over the pregnancy was positively associated with birth weight (P = 0.03). Changes in maternal fat-free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW), and FM from the first to the third trimester were not associated with either birth weight or neonatal FM percentage. However, maternal FM change from the second to the third trimester was significantly correlated to neonatal FM percentage (P = 0.02). Third trimester GWG and total protein gain were positively correlated with neonatal birth length (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Maternal FFM over all 3 trimesters showed a positive relation with neonatal birth length (P = 0.01).ConclusionsSignificant increases in maternal protein are associated with greater birth weight and neonatal birth length. Protein accretion, in contrast to TBW and FM gains, may be the most critical component of maternal GWG in dichorionic twin gestations.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy180
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Infant breastfeeding and childhood general, visceral, liver, and
           pericardial fat measures assessed by magnetic resonance imaging
    • Authors: Vogelezang S; Santos S, van der Beek E, et al.
      Pages: 722 - 729
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAlthough a longer duration of breastfeeding has been associated with a lower risk of childhood obesity, the impact on specific organ fat depots is largely unknown.ObjectiveWe examined the associations of any breastfeeding, duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding, and of age at introduction of solid foods with measures of general, visceral, and organ adiposity at 10 y.DesignIn a population-based prospective cohort study in 4444 children, we obtained information on infant feeding by questionnaires. At the mean age of 9.8 y, we estimated body mass index from height and weight; fat mass index and fat-free mass index by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; and visceral fat index, pericardial fat index, and liver fat fraction by MRI. MRI scans were performed in a subgroup of 2646 children.ResultsAfter adjustment for age and sex, we observed associations of infant feeding with all general, visceral, and organ fat outcomes, except for pericardial fat index, at the age of 10 y. After further adjustment for family-based sociodemographic, maternal lifestyle-related, and childhood factors, only the associations of shorter breastfeeding duration and nonexclusive breastfeeding with a lower fat-free mass index remained significant (P < 0.05). The associations of infant feeding with visceral fat index and liver fat fraction were attenuated to nonsignificant. Maternal education was found to be the strongest confounder.ConclusionOur results suggest that the assoiations of any breastfeeding, duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding, and age at the introduction of solid foods with general, visceral, and organ fat measures at the age of 10 y are largely explained by family-based sociodemographic factors.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy137
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Authoritative parent feeding style is associated with better child dietary
           quality at dinner among low-income minority families
    • Authors: Arlinghaus K; Vollrath K, Hernandez D, et al.
      Pages: 730 - 736
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundParent feeding styles have been linked to child weight status across multiple studies. However, to our knowledge, the link between feeding styles and children's dietary quality, a more proximal outcome, has not been investigated.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parent feeding styles and dietary quality of Head Start preschoolers’ dinner meals.DesignThe amount of food served and consumed by children was measured by using a standardized digital photography method during 3 in-home dinner observations of low-income minority families in Houston, Texas. Trained dietitians entered food served and consumed into the Nutrient Data System for Research 2009 for nutrient analysis. Overall dietary quality of the food served and consumed at dinner was evaluated by using the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Parent feeding style was assessed with the use of the Caregiver's Feeding Style Questionnaire (CFSQ). On the basis of a parent's level of demandingness and responsiveness to his or her child during feeding, the CFSQ categorizes parent feeding into 4 styles: authoritative (high demandingness and high responsiveness), authoritarian (high demandingness and low responsiveness), indulgent (low demandingness and high responsiveness), or uninvolved (low demandingness and low responsiveness).ResultsFor the overall sample, the mean ± SD HEI score for dinner served was 44.2 ± 8.4, and the mean ± SD HEI score for dinner consumed was 43.4 ± 7.0. In the fully adjusted model, ANCOVA indicated that the authoritative parent feeding style was associated with significantly higher child dietary quality compared with the authoritarian feeding style (mean ± SEE HEI consumed—authoritative 45.5 ± 0.9; authoritarian: 41.9 ± 0.7; P = 0.001).ConclusionsParent feeding style contributes to the overall dietary quality of children, and among low-income minority preschoolers an authoritative feeding style was associated with the highest dietary quality of the 4 feeding styles. Interventions to promote feeding practices that contribute to authoritative feeding are needed to improve the dietary quality of preschool children at dinner. This trial was registered at as NCT02696278.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy142
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • The physiologic and phenotypic significance of variation in human amylase
           gene copy number
    • Authors: Atkinson F; Hancock D, Petocz P, et al.
      Pages: 737 - 748
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundSalivary α-amylase gene (AMY1) copy number (CN) correlates with the amount of salivary α-amylase, but beyond this, the physiologic significance is uncertain.ObjectiveWe hypothesized that individuals with higher AMY1 CN would digest starchy foods faster and show higher postprandial responses and lower breath hydrogen excretion compared with those with low CN.DesignFour linked studies were conducted. In Study 1, we genotyped 201 healthy subjects with the use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and determined glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, salivary α-amylase activity, body mass index (BMI), and macronutrient intake. In Study 2, a pool of 114 subjects tested 6 starchy foods, 3 sugary foods, 1 mixed meal, and 2 reference glucose solutions, containing either 50 or 25 g of available carbohydrate. In Study 3, we compared glycemic and insulin responses to starchy foods with responses to glucose in 40 individuals at extremes of high and low CN. In Study 4, we compared breath hydrogen and methane responses over 8 h in 30 individuals at extremes of CN.ResultsAMY1 CN correlated positively with salivary α-amylase activity (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001, n = 201) but not with BMI, glucose tolerance, or insulin sensitivity. However, CN was strongly correlated with normalized glycemic responses to all starchy foods (explaining 26–61% of interindividual variation), but not to sucrose or fruit. Individuals in the highest compared with the lowest decile of CN produced modestly higher glycemia (+15%, P = 0.018), but not insulinemia, after consuming 2 starchy foods. Low-CN individuals displayed >6-fold higher breath methane levels in the fasting state and after starch ingestion than high-CN individuals (P = 0.001), whereas hydrogen excretion was similar.ConclusionsStarchy foods are digested faster and produce higher postprandial glycemia in individuals with high AMY1 CN. In contrast, having low CN is associated with colonic methane production. This trial was registered at as ACTRN12617000670370.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy164
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle insulin-mediated glucose uptake in
           insulin resistance: role of blood flow and diabetes
    • Authors: Ferrannini E; Iozzo P, Virtanen K, et al.
      Pages: 749 - 758
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAdipose tissue glucose uptake is impaired in insulin-resistant states, but ex vivo studies of human adipose tissue have yielded heterogeneous results. This discrepancy may be due to different regulation of blood supply.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to test the flow dependency of in vivo insulin-mediated glucose uptake in fat tissues, and to contrast it with that of skeletal muscle.DesignWe reanalyzed data from 159 individuals in which adipose tissue depots—subcutaneous abdominal and femoral, and intraperitoneal—and femoral skeletal muscle were identified by MRI, and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake ([18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose) and blood flow ([15O]-H2O) were measured simultaneously by positron emission tomography scanning.ResultsIndividuals in the bottom tertile of whole-body glucose uptake [median (IQR) 36 (17) µmol. kg fat-free mass (kgFFM)−1 . min−1 .nM−1] displayed all features of insulin resistance compared with the rest of the group [median (IQR) 97 (71) µmol . kgFFM−1 .min−1 . nM−1]. Rates of glucose uptake were directly related to the degree of insulin resistance in all fat depots as well as in skeletal muscle. However, blood flow was inversely related to insulin sensitivity in each fat depot (all P ≤ 0.03), whereas femoral muscle blood flow was not significantly different between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive subjects, and was not related to insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, in subjects performing one-leg exercise, blood flow increased 5- to 6-fold in femoral muscle but not in the overlying adipose tissue. The presence of diabetes was associated with a modest increase in fat and muscle glucose uptake independent of insulin resistance.ConclusionsReduced blood supply is an important factor for the impairment of in vivo insulin-mediated glucose uptake in both subcutaneous and visceral fat. In contrast, the insulin resistance of glucose uptake in resting skeletal muscle is predominantly a cellular defect. Diabetes provides a modest compensatory increase in fat and muscle glucose uptake that is independent of insulin resistance.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy162
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • The effects of whole-grain compared with refined wheat, rice, and rye on
           the postprandial blood glucose response: a systematic review and
           meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    • Authors: Musa-Veloso K; Poon T, Harkness L, et al.
      Pages: 759 - 774
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundWhole grains are often referred to collectively, despite differences in their composition, physical structure, processing, and potential health benefits.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to compare the postprandial blood glucose response of whole-grain with refined wheat, rice, or rye, while controlling for the food delivery matrix and the processing of the grain (e.g., grinding, germination).DesignEleven electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies published up to and including November 2017. Randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of whole-grain wheat, rice, or rye with those of each grain's refined counterpart on postprandial blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) were included. Pooled effect sizes were computed by using the difference in the blood glucose AUC after the consumption of the whole compared with the refined grain.ResultsTwenty publications were included, with 10, 14, and 5 strata (or active-control comparisons) on whole-grain wheat, rice, and rye, respectively. The consumption of ground (wholemeal) wheat, compared with white wheat, was not associated with a significant reduction in blood glucose AUC (−6.7 mmol/L ⋅ min; 95% CI: −25.1, 11.7 mmol/L ⋅ min; P = 0.477). The consumption of wholemeal rye, compared with endosperm rye, was not associated with a significant reduction in blood glucose AUC (−5.5 mmol/L ⋅ min; 95% CI: −24.8, 13.8 mmol/L ⋅ min; P = 0.576). The consumption of intact (whole-grain) rice, compared with white rice, was associated with a significant reduction in blood glucose AUC (−40.5 mmol/L ⋅ min; 95% CI: −59.6, −21.3 mmol/L ⋅ min; P < 0.001).ConclusionsCompared with white rice, whole-grain rice significantly attenuates the postprandial blood glucose response. In most of the studies on wheat and rye, the postprandial blood glucose responses to foods formulated with wholemeal compared with refined flours were compared. Whether reductions in the blood glucose AUC can be achieved with whole-grain (as opposed to wholemeal) wheat and rye requires further investigation.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy112
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Estimated energy requirements increase across pregnancy in healthy women
           with dichorionic twins
    • Authors: Gandhi M; Gandhi R, Mack L, et al.
      Pages: 775 - 783
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEstimated energy requirement (EER) has not been defined for twin pregnancy. This study was designed to determine the EER of healthy women with dichorionic-diamniotic (DCDA) twin pregnancies.ObjectivesWe aimed to estimate energy deposition from changes in maternal body protein and fat; to measure resting energy expenditure (REE), physical activity level (PAL), and total energy expenditure (TEE) throughout pregnancy and postpartum; and to define the EER based on the sum of TEE and energy deposition for twin gestation.DesignThis is a prospective study of 20 women with DCDA twin gestations. Maternal EER, energy deposition, REE, TEE, and PAL were obtained during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy and immediately postpartum. A mixed-effects linear regression model for repeated measures with random intercept was used to test for the effects of BMI groups and time.ResultsGains in total body protein (mean ± SD: 2.1 ± 0.7 kg) and fat mass (5.9 ± 2.8 kg) resulted in total energy deposition of 67,042 ± 25,586 kcal between 0 and 30–32 weeks of gestation. REE increased 26% from 1392 ± 162 to 1752 ± 172 kcal/d across the 3 trimesters, whereas TEE increased 17% from 2141 ± 283 to 2515 ± 337 kcal/d. Physical activity decreased steadily throughout pregnancy. Reductions in physical activity did not compensate for the rise in REE and energy deposition, thus requiring an increase in dietary energy intake as pregnancy progressed. EER increased 29% from 2257 ± 325 kcal/d in the first trimester to 2941 ± 407 kcal/d in the second trimester, and stayed consistent at 2906 ± 350 kcal/d in the third trimester.ConclusionIncreased energy intake, on average ∼700 kcal/d in the second and third trimesters when compared with the first trimester, is required to support gestational weight gain and the rise in energy expenditure of DCDA twin pregnancies.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy184
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Limited appearance of apocarotenoids is observed in plasma after
           consumption of tomato juices: a randomized human clinical trial
    • Authors: Cooperstone J; Novotny J, Riedl K, et al.
      Pages: 784 - 792
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundNonvitamin A apocarotenoids occur in foods. Some function as retinoic acid receptor antagonists in vitro, though it is unclear if apocarotenoids are absorbed or accumulate to levels needed to elicit biological function.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to quantify carotenoids and apocarotenoids (β-apo-8′-, -10′-, -12′-, and -14′-carotenal, apo-6′-, -8′-, -10′-, -12′-, and -14′-lycopenal, retinal, acycloretinal, β-apo-13-carotenone, and apo-13-lycopenone) in human plasma after controlled consumption of carotenoid-rich tomato juices.DesignHealthy subjects (n = 35) consumed a low-carotenoid diet for 2 wk, then consumed 360 mL of high-β-carotene tomato juice (30.4 mg of β-carotene, 34.5 μg total β-apocarotenoids/d), high-lycopene tomato juice (42.5 mg of lycopene, 119.2 μg total apolycopenoids/d), or a carotenoid-free control (cucumber juice) per day for 4 wk. Plasma was sampled at baseline (after washout) and after 2 and 4 wk, and analyzed for carotenoids and apocarotenoids using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The methods used to analyze the apocarotenoids had limits of detection of ∼ 100 pmol/L.ResultsApocarotenoids are present in tomato juices at 0.1–0.5% of the parent carotenoids. Plasma lycopene and β-carotene increased (P < 0.001) after consuming high-lycopene and β-carotene tomato juices, respectively, while retinol remained unchanged. β-Apo-13-carotenone was found in the blood of all subjects at every visit, although elevated (P < 0.001) after consuming β-carotene tomato juice for 4 wk (1.01 ± 0.27 nmol/L) compared with both baseline (0.37 ± 0.17 nmol/L) and control (0.46 ± 0.11 nmol/L). Apo-6′-lycopenal was detected or quantifiable in 29 subjects, while β-apo-10′- and 12′-carotenal were detected in 6 and 2 subjects, respectively. No other apolycopenoids or apocarotenoids were detected.Conclusionsβ-Apo-13-carotenone was the only apocarotenoid that was quantifiable in all subjects, and was elevated in those consuming high-β-carotene tomato juice. Levels were similar to previous reports of all-trans-retinoic acid. Other apocarotenoids are either poorly absorbed or rapidly metabolized or cleared, and so are absent or limited in blood. β-Apo-13-carotenone may form from vitamin A and its presence warrants further investigation. This trial was registered at as NCT02550483.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy177
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • β-Cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin are highly bioavailable from whole-grain
           and refined biofortified orange maize in humans with optimal vitamin A
           status: a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled trial
    • Authors: Titcomb T; Sheftel J, Sowa M, et al.
      Pages: 793 - 802
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundBiofortification of staple crops with β-carotene is a strategy to reduce vitamin A deficiency, and several varieties are available in some African countries. β-Cryptoxanthin (BCX)-enhanced maize is currently in field trials. To our knowledge, maize BCX bioavailability has not been assessed in humans. Serum retinol 13C content and xanthophyll concentrations are proposed effectiveness biomarkers for biofortified maize adoption.ObjectiveWe determined the relative difference in BCX and zeaxanthin bioavailability from whole-grain and refined BCX-biofortified maize during chronic feeding compared with white maize and evaluated short-term changes in 13C-abundance in serum retinol.DesignAfter a 7-d washout, 9 adults (mean ± SD age: 23.4 ± 2.3 y; 5 men) were provided with muffins made from BCX-enhanced whole-grain orange maize (WGOM), refined orange maize (ROM), or refined white maize (RWM) for 12 d in a randomized, blinded, crossover study followed by a 7-d washout. Blood was drawn on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 19. Carotenoid areas under the curve (AUCs) were compared by using a fixed-effects model. 13C-Abundance in serum retinol was determined by using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry on days 0, 12, and 19. Vitamin A status was determined by 13C-retinol isotope dilution postintervention.ResultsThe serum BCX AUC was significantly higher for WGOM (1.70 ± 0.63 μmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ d) and ROM (1.66 ± 1.08 μmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ d) than for RWM (−0.06 ± 0.13 μmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ d; P < 0.003). A greater increase occurred in serum BCX from WGOM muffins (131%) than from ROM muffins (108%) (P ≤ 0.003). Zeaxanthin AUCs were higher for WGOM (0.94 ± 0.33) and ROM (0.96 ± 0.47) than for RWM (0.05 ± 0.12 μmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ d; P < 0.003). The intervention did not affect predose serum retinol 13C-abundance. Vitamin A status was within an optimal range (defined as 0.1–0.7 μmol/g liver).ConclusionsBCX and zeaxanthin were highly bioavailable from BCX-biofortified maize. The adoption of BCX maize could positively affect consumers’ BCX and zeaxanthin intakes and associated health benefits. This trial is registered at as NCT02800408.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy134
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Production of asymmetric oxidative metabolites of [13C]-β-carotene during
           digestion in the gastrointestinal lumen of healthy men
    • Authors: Kopec R; Caris-Veyrat C, Nowicki M, et al.
      Pages: 803 - 813
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAsymmetric β-apo-carotenoids (nonvitamin A–active metabolites) of provitamin A carotenoids have been observed in humans, but no study has investigated their formation during digestion.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to follow the formation and absorption of asymmetric β-apo-carotenoids during digestion.DesignHealthy men were intragastrically and intraduodenally intubated, and randomly assigned to consume a lipid-rich control meal (n = 3) or a lipid-rich test meal containing 20 mg [13C-10]-β-carotene (n = 7). Digesta samples were collected over 5 h, and blood collected over 7 h. The triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions of plasma were also isolated. Lipophilic extracts of digesta, plasma, and TRL were analyzed via a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method developed to identify [13C]-labeled β-apo-carotenals/carotenone, [13C]-β-apo-carotenols, and [13C]-β-apo-carotenoic acids.ResultsRelative to [13C]-β-carotene, [13C]-β-apo-carotenal levels remained ∼3 orders of magnitude lower throughout digestion (no [13C]-β-apo-carotenols, or [13C]-β-apo-carotenoic acids were observed). A mixed model determined relative influence of digesta type and time on digesta metabolite level. Increasing time significantly increased the model levels of digesta [13C]-β-apo-10′,12′,14′,15-carotenal and [13C]-β-apo-13-carotenone (P < 0.05) and trended toward decreased [13C]-β-apo-8′-carotenal (P = 0.0876). Gastric digesta were associated with a significantly higher level of [13C]-β-apo-8′-carotenal (P = 0.0289), and lower levels of [13C]-β-apo-12′,14′,15-carotenal (P < 0.05), relative to duodenal digesta. Anticipated retinoids, but no asymmetric [13C]-β-apo-carotenals, [13C]-β-apo-carotenols, or [13C]-β-apo-carotenoic acids, were observed in the blood or TRL samples.Conclusionsβ-Carotene appears to be robust to digestion, with minor amounts of β-apo-carotenals/carotenone formed. Absence of asymmetric [13C]-β-apo-carotenals in plasma and TRL suggests lack of absorption, levels below the limit of detection, lack of stability, or further conversion during the digestive process to as-yet unidentified products. Lack of asymmetric [13C]-β-apo-carotenals in plasma also suggests a lack of postprandial intestinal BCO2 activity in healthy humans. This trial was registered at as NCT03492593.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy183
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Fetal sex modifies the effect of maternal macronutrient intake on the
           incidence of small-for-gestational-age births: a prospective observational
           cohort study
    • Authors: Mukhopadhyay A; Thomas T, Bosch R, et al.
      Pages: 814 - 820
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundMaternal macronutrient intake is likely to play a pivotal role in fetoplacental growth. Male fetuses grow faster and their growth is more responsive to maternal size.ObjectiveWe assessed the role of fetal sex in modifying the effect of maternal macronutrient intake on the risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth.DesignThis was a prospective, observational cohort study of 2035 births from an urban South Asian Indian population. Maternal intakes of total energy and macronutrients were recorded by validated food-frequency questionnaires. The interaction of trimester 1 macronutrient intake with fetal sex was tested on the outcome of SGA births.ResultsThe prevalence of SGA was 28%. Trimester 1 macronutrient composition was high in carbohydrate and low in fat (means ± SDs—carbohydrate: 64.6% ± 5.1%; protein: 11.5% ± 1.1%; and fat: 23.9% ± 4.4% of energy). Higher carbohydrate and lower fat consumption were each associated with an increased risk of SGA [adjusted OR (AOR) per 5% of energy (95% CI): carbohydrate: 1.15 (1.01, 1.32); fat: 0.83 (0.71, 0.97)] specifically among male births (males: n = 1047; females: n = 988). Dietary intake of >70% of energy from carbohydrate was also associated with increased risk (AOR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.78), whereas >25% of energy from fat intake was associated with decreased risk (AOR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.90) of SGA in male births.ConclusionsHigher carbohydrate and lower fat intakes early in pregnancy were associated with increased risk of male SGA births. Therefore, we speculate that fetal sex acts as a modifier of the role of maternal periconceptional nutrition in optimal fetoplacental growth.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy161
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Exploring the concept of functional vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy:
           impact of the interaction between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid
           hormone on perinatal outcomes
    • Authors: Hemmingway A; Kenny L, Malvisi L, et al.
      Pages: 821 - 829
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAssociations of vitamin D with perinatal outcomes are inconsistent and few studies have considered the wider calcium metabolic system.ObjectivesWe aimed to explore functional vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy by investigating associations between vitamin D status, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and perinatal outcomes.DesignSCOPE (Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints) Ireland is a prospective cohort study of low-risk, nulliparous pregnant women. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and PTH at 15 wk of gestation in 1754 participants.ResultsMean ± SD 25(OH)D was 56.6 ± 25.8 nmol/L (22.7 ± 10.3 ng/mL) and geometric mean (95% CI) PTH was 7.84 pg/mL (7.7, 8.0 pg/mL) [0.86 pmol/L (0.85, 0.88 pmol/L)]. PTH was elevated in 34.3% of women who had 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L and in 13.9% of those with 25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L. Whereas 17% had 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L, 5.5% had functional vitamin D deficiency, defined as 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L with elevated PTH. Elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP), gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth were confirmed in 9.2%, 11.9%, 3.8%, and 10.6% of participants, respectively. In fully adjusted regression models, neither low 25(OH)D nor elevated PTH alone increased the risk of any individual outcome. The prevalence of elevated MAP (19.1% compared with 9.7%) and SGA (16.0% compared with 6.7%) were highest (P < 0.05) in those with functional vitamin D deficiency compared with the reference group [25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L and normal PTH]. The adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) and RR (95% CIs) for elevated MAP and SGA were 1.83 (1.02, 3.27) and 1.53 (0.80, 2.93), respectively. There was no effect of functional vitamin D deficiency on the risk of gestational hypertension (adjusted RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.60, 1.67) or pre-eclampsia (adjusted RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.32, 4.20).ConclusionThe concept of functional vitamin D deficiency, reflecting calcium metabolic stress, should be considered in studies of vitamin D in pregnancy.The SCOPE pregnancy cohort is registered at as ACTRN12607000551493.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy150
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Intermittent bolus feeding promotes greater lean growth than continuous
           feeding in a neonatal piglet model
    • Authors: El-Kadi S; Boutry C, Suryawan A, et al.
      Pages: 830 - 841
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundOrogastric tube feeding is indicated in neonates with an impaired ability to ingest food normally and can be administered with an intermittent bolus or continuous feeding schedule.ObjectivesThe objectives were to 1) compare the long-term effect of continuous with intermittent feeding on growth using the newborn pig as a model, 2) determine whether feeding frequency alters lean tissue and fat mass gain, and 3) identify the signaling mechanisms by which protein deposition is controlled in skeletal muscle in response to feeding frequency.DesignNeonatal pigs were fed the same amount of a balanced formula by orogastric tube either as an intermittent bolus meal every 4 h (INT) or as a continuous infusion (CON). Body composition was assessed at the start and end of the study by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and hormone and substrate profiles, muscle mass, protein synthesis, and indexes of nutrient and insulin signaling were measured after 21 d.ResultsBody weight, lean mass, spine length, and skeletal muscle mass were greater in the INT group than in the CON group. Skeletal muscle fractional protein synthesis rates were greater in the INT group after a meal than in the CON group and were associated with higher circulating branched-chain amino acid and insulin concentrations. Skeletal muscle protein kinase B (PKB) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase phosphorylation and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E–eIF4G complex formation were higher, whereas eIF2α phosphorylation was lower in the INT group than in the CON group, indicating enhanced activation of insulin and amino acid signaling to translation initiation.ConclusionsThese results suggest that when neonates are fed the same amounts of nutrients as intermittent meals rather than continuously there is greater lean growth. This response can be ascribed, in part, to the pulsatile pattern of amino acids, insulin, or both induced by INT, which enables the responsiveness of anabolic pathways to feeding to be sustained chronically in skeletal muscle.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy133
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable
           liking and intake: systematic review and meta-analyses of the published
    • Authors: Appleton K; Hemingway A, Rajska J, et al.
      Pages: 842 - 856
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundVegetable intakes are typically lower than recommended for health. Although repeated exposure has been advocated to increase vegetable liking and consumption, no combination of the evidence yet provides a measure of benefit from repeated exposure or alternative conditioning strategies.ObjectiveThis work aimed to identify and synthesize the current evidence for the use of repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable liking and consumption.DesignThree academic databases were searched over all years of records using prespecified search terms. Published data from all suitable articles were tabulated in relation to 3 research questions and combined via meta-analyses.ResultsForty-three articles detailing 117 comparisons investigating the use of repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing liking and intakes of vegetables were found. Our analyses demonstrate: 1) increased liking and intakes of the exposed vegetable after repeated exposure compared with no exposure; 2) increased liking for the exposed vegetable after conditioning compared with repeated exposure, increased intakes after the use of rewards, and some suggestion of decreased intakes after flavor-nutrient conditioning; and 3) increased liking and intakes of a novel vegetable after repeated exposure to a variety of other vegetables compared with no exposure or repeated exposure to one other vegetable. Effect sizes, however, are small, and limited evidence suggests long-term benefits. Our analyses, furthermore, are limited by limitations in study design, compliance, and/or reporting.ConclusionsBased on our findings, we recommend the use of repeated exposure to one and a variety of vegetables, and the use of rewards, for increasing vegetable liking and consumption. Confirmation from further large, well-conducted studies that use realistic scenarios, however, is also required.This study was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42017056919.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy143
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Effects of 3-hydroxybutyrate and free fatty acids on muscle protein
           kinetics and signaling during LPS-induced inflammation in humans:
           anticatabolic impact of ketone bodies
    • Authors: Thomsen H; Rittig N, Johannsen M, et al.
      Pages: 857 - 867
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAcute inflammation, and subsequent release of bacterial products (e.g. LPS), inflammatory cytokines, and stress hormones, is catabolic, and the loss of lean body mass predicts morbidity and mortality. Lipid intermediates may reduce protein loss, but the roles of free fatty acids (FFAs) and ketone bodies during acute inflammation are unclear.ObjectiveWe aimed to test whether infusions of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3OHB), FFAs, and saline reduce protein catabolism during exposure to LPS and Acipimox (to restrict and control endogenous lipolysis).DesignA total of 10 healthy male subjects were randomly tested 3 times, with: 1) LPS, Acipimox (Olbetam) and saline, 2) LPS, Acipimox, and nonesterified fatty acids (Intralipid), and 3) LPS, Acipimox, and 3OHB, during a 5-h basal period and a 2-h hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. Labeled phenylalanine, tyrosine, and urea tracers were used to estimate protein kinetics, and muscle biopsies were taken for Western blot analysis of protein metabolic signaling.Results3OHB infusion increased 3OHB concentrations (P < 0.0005) to 3.5 mM and decreased whole-body phenylalanine-to-tyrosine degradation. Basal and insulin-stimulated net forearm phenylalanine release decreased by >70% (P < 0.005), with both appearance and phenylalanine disappearance being profoundly decreased. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α at Ser51 was increased in skeletal muscle, and S6 kinase phosphorylation at Ser235/236 tended (P = 0.074) to be decreased with 3OHB infusion (suggesting inhibition of protein synthesis), whereas no detectable effects were seen on markers of protein breakdown. Lipid infusion did not affect phenylalanine kinetics, and insulin sensitivity was unaffected by interventions.ConclusionDuring acute inflammation, 3OHB has potent anticatabolic actions in muscle and at the whole-body level; in muscle, reduction of protein breakdown overrides inhibition of synthesis. This trial was registered at as NCT01752348.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy170
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Consumption of sugars, saturated fat, and sodium among US children from
           infancy through preschool age, NHANES 2009–2014
    • Authors: Wang Y; Guglielmo D, Welsh J.
      Pages: 868 - 877
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundExpert guidelines advise that intake of added sugars (ASs), free sugars, and saturated fats be limited to <10% total energy (TE), and that children's sodium not exceed 1500–1900 mg, yet intake among many older children and adolecents exceeds these limits. Although research suggests young children's diets influence future eating patterns, little is known about the intake of these nutrients throughout early childhood.ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to describe intake and leading sources of sugars, saturated fats, and sodium among US children from infancy through preschool age.DesignCross-sectional data from the NHANES 2009–2014 were used to estimate 1) mean intake of sugars [%TE from ASs, naturally occurring sugars (NOSs), and free sugars], saturated fats (%TE), and sodium (milligrams), 2) the proportion exceeding recommended limits, and 3) the leading sources of these nutrients in the diets of US (nonbreastfeeding) children <5 y old (n = 3345). Sampling weights and procedures to account for the complex sampling design were used to estimate intake by age and to compare across race/ethnicity, sex, and income subgroups.ResultsNonbreastfeeding children <5 y old consumed a mean ± SE %TE of 10.1% ± 0.2% from ASs, 13.9% ± 0.2% from free sugars, 12.8% ± 0.1% from saturated fats, and 1804 ± 26 mg Na . Sugary beverages (sugar-sweetened beverages + 100% juices) contributed 6.7% ± 0.2% TE, with consumption lowest among higher-income children. AS and sodium consumption rose rapidly from infancy to age 1–<2 y and gradually thereafter. Saturated fat intake was highest in infancy and decreased to a mean ± SE of 11.3% ± 0.3% TE among 4–<5-y-olds. Intake exceeded recommended limits for ASs, free sugars, saturated fats, and sodium for 45%, 63%, 72%, and 67% of all children, respectively.ConclusionThe consumption of sugars, fats, and sodium exceeds recommended guidelines before many US children reach school age.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy168
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Assessment of dietary nitrate intake in humans: a systematic review
    • Authors: Babateen A; Fornelli G, Donini L, et al.
      Pages: 878 - 888
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe nitrate content of foods and water is highly variable, which has implications for the compilation of food-composition databases and assessment of dietary nitrate intake.ObjectiveA systematic review was conducted to ascertain the dietary assessment methods used and to provide estimates of daily nitrate intake in humans.DesignRelevant articles were identified by a systematic search of 3 electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase) from inception until February 2018. Observational studies conducted in adult populations and reporting information on dietary assessment methods and daily nitrate intake were included. Ecological analyses were conducted to explore the association of nitrate intake with indexes of economic development [Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and KOF Index of Globalization].ResultsA total of 55 articles were included. Forty-two studies investigated associations between nitrate intake and disease risk; 36 (87%) of these studies examined the association between nitrate intake and cancer risk, whereas only 6 studies explored the association of nitrate intake with the risk of diabetes, glaucoma, kidney failure, hypertension, and atherosclerotic vascular disease. The majority of studies used food-frequency questionnaires to assess nitrate intake (n = 43). The median daily nitrate intakes in healthy and patient populations were 108 and 110 mg/d, respectively. We found a significant inverse correlation of nitrate intake with GDP (r = −0.46, P < 0.001) and KOF index (r = −0.31, P = 0.002).ConclusionsThe median estimated daily nitrate intakes by healthy and patient populations were similar, and these values were below the safe upper intake of daily intake (3.7 mg nitrate ion/kg body weight). However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the application of food-composition tables, which may have implications for the accuracy of estimated daily nitrate intake. The association between nitrate intake and risk of cardiometabolic diseases needs further investigation. The protocol for this systematic review has been registered in the PROSPERO database (; CRD number: 42017060354).
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy108
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Biomarkers of maternal environmental enteric dysfunction are associated
           with shorter gestation and reduced length in newborn infants in Uganda
    • Authors: Lauer J; Duggan C, Ausman L, et al.
      Pages: 889 - 896
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAdverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth and stunting at birth, have long-term health implications. The relation between adverse birth outcomes and chronic, asymptomatic gastrointestinal inflammation (environmental enteric dysfunction—EED) is poorly understood.ObjectiveWe aimed to examine the relation between maternal EED and adverse birth outcomes in a sample of pregnant Ugandan women and their newborn infants.DesignWe conducted a prospective cohort study in Mukono, Uganda. A total of 258 pregnant women were enrolled at their first prenatal visit (∼18 weeks of gestation). EED was measured by urinary lactulose:mannitol (L:M) ratio and serum concentrations of antibodies to the bacterial components flagellin and LPS. Covariates were obtained from survey data collected at 2 time points. Associations were assessed through the use of unadjusted and adjusted simple linear regression models.ResultsComplete birth outcome data were recorded for 220 infants within 48 h of delivery. Mean ± SD gestational age was 39.7 ± 2.1 wk, and 7% were born preterm. Mean ± SD length and length-for-age z score (LAZ) at birth were 48.1 ± 3.2 cm and −0.44 ± 1.07, respectively. L:M ratio was not associated with any birth outcome. In adjusted models, higher concentrations of natural log-transformed anti-flagellin immunoglobin G (IgG) and anti-LPS IgG were significantly associated with shorter length of gestation (β: −0.89 wk; 95% CI: −1.77, −0.01 wk, and β: −1.01 wk; 95% CI: −1.87, −0.17 wk, respectively) and with reduced length (β: −0.80 cm; 95% CI: −1.55, −0.05 cm, and β: −0.79 cm; 95% CI: −1.54, −0.04 cm, respectively) and LAZ at birth (β −0.44 z score; 95% CI: −0.83, −0.05, and β: −0.40 z score; 95% CI: −0.79, −0.01, respectively).ConclusionMaternal anti-flagellin and anti-LPS IgG concentrations in pregnancy, but not L:M ratio, were associated with shorter gestation and reduced infant length at birth. Further research on the relation between maternal EED and birth outcomes is warranted.
      PubDate: Sat, 22 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy176
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Vitamin D and skeletal health during growth: the functional muscle-bone
    • Authors: Sugiyama T.
      Pages: 897 - 898
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy155
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Reply to T Sugiyama
    • Authors: Brett N; Weiler H.
      Pages: 899 - 899
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy156
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Misrepresentation of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center Weight Loss
    • Authors: Thomas D; Watts K, Roginski J, et al.
      Pages: 900 - 902
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy153
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Corrigendum
    • Pages: 903 - 906
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Sep 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy149
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Reply to DM Thomas et al
    • Authors: Guo J; Brager D, Hall K.
      Pages: 903 - 904
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy154
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
  • Calendar of Events
    • Pages: 907 - 907
      PubDate: Sat, 13 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy218
      Issue No: Vol. 108, No. 4 (2018)
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