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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 300, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 517, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Genome Biology and Evolution
  [SJR: 3.22]   [H-I: 39]   [10 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 1759-6653
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • The Genomic Impact of Gene Retrocopies: What Have We Learned from
           Comparative Genomics, Population Genomics, and Transcriptomic
           Analyses'

    • Authors: Casola C; Betrán E.
      Pages: 1351 - 1373
      Abstract: Gene duplication is a major driver of organismal evolution. Gene retroposition is a mechanism of gene duplication whereby a gene’s transcript is used as a template to generate retroposed gene copies, or retrocopies. Intriguingly, the formation of retrocopies depends upon the enzymatic machinery encoded by retrotransposable elements, genomic parasites occurring in the majority of eukaryotes. Most retrocopies are depleted of the regulatory regions found upstream of their parental genes; therefore, they were initially considered transcriptionally incompetent gene copies, or retropseudogenes. However, examples of functional retrocopies, or retrogenes, have accumulated since the 1980s. Here, we review what we have learned about retrocopies in animals, plants and other eukaryotic organisms, with a particular emphasis on comparative and population genomic analyses complemented with transcriptomic datasets. In addition, these data have provided information about the dynamics of the different “life cycle” stages of retrocopies (i.e., polymorphic retrocopy number variants, fixed retropseudogenes and retrogenes) and have provided key insights into the retroduplication mechanisms, the patterns and evolutionary forces at work during the fixation process and the biological function of retrogenes. Functional genomic and transcriptomic data have also revealed that many retropseudogenes are transcriptionally active and a biological role has been experimentally determined for many. Finally, we have learned that not only non-long terminal repeat retroelements but also long terminal repeat retroelements play a role in the emergence of retrocopies across eukaryotes. This body of work has shown that mRNA-mediated duplication represents a widespread phenomenon that produces an array of new genes that contribute to organismal diversity and adaptation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evx081
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Extreme Mitogenomic Variation in Natural Populations of Chaetognaths

    • Authors: Marlétaz F; Le Parco Y, Liu S, et al.
      Pages: 1374 - 1384
      Abstract: The extent of within-species genetic variation across the diversity of animal life is an underexplored problem in ecology and evolution. Although neutral genetic variation should scale positively with population size, mitochondrial diversity levels are believed to show little variation across animal species. Here, we report an unprecedented case of extreme mitochondrial diversity within natural populations of two morphospecies of chaetognaths (arrow worms). We determine that this diversity is composed of deep sympatric mitochondrial lineages, which are in some cases as divergent as human and platypus. Additionally, based on 54 complete mitogenomes, we observed mitochondrial gene order differences between several of these lineages. We examined nuclear divergence patterns (18S, 28S, and an intron) to determine the possible origin of these lineages, but did not find congruent patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear markers. We also show that extreme mitochondrial divergence in chaetognaths is not driven by positive selection. Hence, we propose that the extreme levels of mitochondrial variation could be the result of either a complex scenario of reproductive isolation, or a combination of large population size and accelerated mitochondrial mutation rate. These findings emphasize the importance of characterizing genome-wide levels of nuclear variation in these species and promote chaetognaths as a remarkable model to study mitochondrial evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evx090
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Unraveling the Population History of Indian Siddis

    • Authors: Das R; Upadhyai P.
      Pages: 1385 - 1392
      Abstract: The Siddis are a unique Indian tribe of African, South Asian, and European ancestry. While previous investigations have traced their ancestral origins to the Bantu populations from subSaharan Africa, the geographic localization of their ancestry has remained elusive. Here, we performed biogeographical analysis to delineate the ancestral origin of the Siddis employing an admixture based algorithm, Geographical Population Structure (GPS). We evaluated the Siddi genomes in reference to five African populations from the 1000 Genomes project, two Bantu groups from the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP) and five South Indian populations. The Geographic Population Structure analysis localized the ancestral Siddis to Botsawana and its present-day northeastern border with Zimbabwe, overlapping with one of the principal areas of secondary Bantu settlement in southeast Africa. Our results further indicated that while the Siddi genomes are significantly diverged from that of the Bantus, they manifested the highest genomic proximity to the North-East Bantus and the Luhyas from Kenya. Our findings resonate with evidences supporting secondary Bantu dispersal routes that progressed southward from the east African Bantu center, in the interlacustrine region and likely brought the ancestral Siddis to settlement sites in south and southeastern Africa from where they were disseminated to India, by the Portuguese. We evaluated our results in the light of existing historical, linguistic and genetic evidences, to glean an improved resolution into the reconstruction of the distinctive population history of the Siddis, and advance our knowledge of the demographic factors that likely contributed to the contemporary Siddi genomes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evx095
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • The Mitonuclear Dimension of Neanderthal and Denisovan Ancestry in Modern
           Human Genomes

    • Authors: Sharbrough J; Havird JC, Noe GR, et al.
      Abstract: Some human populations interbred with Neanderthals and Denisovans, resulting in substantial contributions to modern-human genomes. Therefore, it is now possible to use genomic data to investigate mechanisms that shaped historical gene flow between humans and our closest hominin relatives. More generally, in eukaryotes, mitonuclear interactions have been argued to play a disproportionate role in generating reproductive isolation. There is no evidence of mtDNA introgression into modern human populations, which means that all introgressed nuclear alleles from archaic hominins must function on a modern-human mitochondrial background. Therefore, mitonuclear interactions are also potentially relevant to hominin evolution. We performed a detailed accounting of mtDNA divergence among hominin lineages and used population-genomic data to test the hypothesis that mitonuclear incompatibilities have preferentially restricted the introgression of nuclear genes with mitochondrial functions. We found a small but significant underrepresentation of introgressed Neanderthal alleles at such nuclear loci. Structural analyses of mitochondrial enzyme complexes revealed that these effects are unlikely to be mediated by physically interacting sites in mitochondrial and nuclear gene products. We did not detect any underrepresentation of introgressed Denisovan alleles at mitochondrial-targeted loci, but this may reflect reduced power because locus-specific estimates of Denisovan introgression are more conservative. Overall, we conclude that genes involved in mitochondrial function may have been subject to distinct selection pressures during the history of introgression from archaic hominins but that mitonuclear incompatibilities have had, at most, a small role in shaping genome-wide introgression patterns, perhaps because of limited functional divergence in mtDNA and interacting nuclear genes.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
       
  • Domestication of Lambda Phage Genes into a Putative Third Type of
           Replicative Helicase Matchmaker

    • Authors: Brézellec P; Petit M, Pasek S, et al.
      Abstract: At the onset of the initiation of chromosome replication, bacterial replicative helicases are recruited and loaded on the DnaA-oriC nucleoprotein platform, assisted by proteins like DnaC/DnaI or DciA. Two orders of bacteria appear, however, to lack either of these factors, raising the question of the essentiality of these factors in bacteria. Through a phylogenomic approach, we identified a pair of genes that could have substituted for dciA. The two domesticated genes are specific of the dnaC/dnaI- and dciA-lacking organisms and apparently domesticated from lambdoid phage genes. They derive from λO and λP and were renamed dopC and dopE, respectively. DopE is expected to bring the replicative helicase to the bacterial origin of replication, while DopC might assist DopE in this function. The confirmation of the implication of DopCE in the handling of the replicative helicase at the onset of replication in these organisms would generalize to all bacteria and therefore to all living organisms the need for specific factors dedicated to this function.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27
       
  • Comparative Genomics of All Three Campylobacter sputorum Biovars and a
           Novel Cattle-Associated C. sputorum Clade

    • Authors: Miller WG; Yee E, Chapman MH, et al.
      Abstract: Campylobacter sputorum is a nonthermotolerant campylobacter that is primarily isolated from food animals such as cattle and sheep. C. sputorum is also infrequently associated with human illness. Based on catalase and urease activity, three biovars are currently recognized within C. sputorum: bv. sputorum (catalase negative, urease negative), bv. fecalis (catalase positive, urease negative), and bv. paraureolyticus (catalase negative, urease positive). A multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) method was recently constructed for C. sputorum. MLST typing of several cattle-associated C. sputorum isolates suggested that they are members of a divergent C. sputorum clade. Although catalase positive, and thus technically bv. fecalis, the taxonomic position of these strains could not be determined solely by MLST. To further characterize C. sputorum, the genomes of four strains, representing all three biovars and the divergent clade, were sequenced to completion. Here we present a comparative genomic analysis of the four C. sputorum genomes. This analysis indicates that the three biovars and the cattle-associated strains are highly related at the genome level with similarities in gene content. Furthermore, the four genomes are strongly syntenic with one or two minor inversions. However, substantial differences in gene content were observed among the three biovars. Finally, although the strain representing the cattle-associated isolates was shown to be C. sputorum, it is possible that this strain is a member of a novel C. sputorum subspecies; thus, these cattle-associated strains may form a second taxon within C. sputorum.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
       
  • Further Simulations and Analyses Demonstrate Open Problems of
           Phylostratigraphy

    • Authors: Moyers BA; Zhang J.
      Abstract: Phylostratigraphy, originally designed for gene age estimation by BLAST-based protein homology searches of sequenced genomes, has been widely used for studying patterns and inferring mechanisms of gene origination and evolution. We previously showed by computer simulation that phylostratigraphy underestimates gene age for a nonnegligible fraction of genes and that the underestimation is severer for genes with certain properties such as fast evolution and short protein sequences. Consequently, many previously reported age distributions of gene properties may have been methodological artifacts rather than biological realities. Domazet-Lošo and colleagues recently argued that our simulations were flawed and that phylostratigraphic bias does not impact inferences about gene emergence and evolution. Here we discuss conceptual difficulties of phylostratigraphy, identify numerous problems in Domazet-Lošo et al.’s argument, reconfirm phylostratigraphic error using simulations suggested by Domazet-Lošo and colleagues, and demonstrate that a phylostratigraphic trend claimed to be robust to error disappears when genes likely to be error-resistant are analyzed. We conclude that extreme caution is needed in interpreting phylostratigraphic results because of the inherent biases of the method and that reanalysis using genes exhibiting no error in realistic simulations may help reduce spurious findings.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
       
  • Evolution of miRNA Tailing by 3′ Terminal Uridylyl Transferases in
           Metazoa

    • Authors: Modepalli V; Moran Y.
      Abstract: In bilaterian animals the 3′ ends of microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently modified by tailing and trimming. These modifications affect miRNA-mediated gene regulation by modulating miRNA stability. Here, we analyzed data from three nonbilaterian animals: two cnidarians (Nematostella vectensis and Hydra magnipapillata) and one poriferan (Amphimedon queenslandica). Our analysis revealed that nonbilaterian miRNAs frequently undergo modifications like the bilaterian counterparts: the majority are expressed as different length isoforms and frequent modifications of the 3′ end by mono U or mono A tailing are observed. Moreover, as the factors regulating miRNA modifications are largely uncharacterized in nonbilaterian animal phyla, in present study, we investigated the evolution of 3′ terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTases) that are known to involved in miRNA 3′ nontemplated modifications in Bilateria. Phylogenetic analysis on TUTases showed that TUTase1 and TUTase6 are a result of duplication in bilaterians and that TUTase7 and TUTase4 are the result of a vertebrate-specific duplication. We also find an unexpected number of Drosophila-specific gene duplications and domain losses in most of the investigated gene families. Overall, our findings shed new light on the evolutionary history of TUTases in Metazoa, as they reveal that this core set of enzymes already existed in the last common ancestor of all animals and was probably involved in modifying small RNAs in a similar fashion to its present activity in bilaterians.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
       
  • Analysis of Copy Number Variation in the Abp Gene Regions of Two House
           Mouse Subspecies Suggests Divergence during the Gene Family Expansions

    • Authors: Pezer Ž; Chung AG, Karn RC, et al.
      Abstract: The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) gene region of the mouse genome contains 64 genes, some encoding pheromones that influence assortative mating between mice from different subspecies. Using CNVnator and quantitative PCR, we explored copy number variation in this gene family in natural populations of Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd) and Mus musculus musculus (Mmm), two subspecies of house mice that form a narrow hybrid zone in Central Europe. We found that copy number variation in the center of the Abp gene region is very common in wild Mmd, primarily representing the presence/absence of the final duplications described for the mouse genome. Clustering of Mmd individuals based on this variation did not reflect their geographical origin, suggesting no population divergence in the Abp gene cluster. However, copy number variation patterns differ substantially between Mmd and other mouse taxa. Large blocks of Abp genes are absent in Mmm, Mus musculus castaneus and an outgroup, Mus spretus, although with differences in variation and breakpoint locations. Our analysis calls into question the reliance on a reference genome for interpreting the detailed organization of genes in taxa more distant from the Mmd reference genome. The polymorphic nature of the gene family expansion in all four taxa suggests that the number of Abp genes, especially in the central gene region, is not critical to the survival and reproduction of the mouse. However, Abp haplotypes of variable length may serve as a source of raw genetic material for new signals influencing reproductive communication and thus speciation of mice.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29
       
  • Selfing in Haploid Plants and Efficacy of Selection: Codon Usage Bias in
           the Model Moss Physcomitrella patens

    • Authors: Szövényi P; Ullrich KK, Rensing SA, et al.
      Abstract: A long-term reduction in effective population size will lead to major shift in genome evolution. In particular, when effective population size is small, genetic drift becomes dominant over natural selection. The onset of self-fertilization is one evolutionary event considerably reducing effective size of populations. Theory predicts that this reduction should be more dramatic in organisms capable for haploid than for diploid selfing. Although theoretically well-grounded, this assertion received mixed experimental support. Here, we test this hypothesis by analyzing synonymous codon usage bias of genes in the model moss Physcomitrella patens frequently undergoing haploid selfing. In line with population genetic theory, we found that the effect of natural selection on synonymous codon usage bias is very weak. Our conclusion is supported by four independent lines of evidence: 1) Very weak or nonsignificant correlation between gene expression and codon usage bias, 2) no increased codon usage bias in more broadly expressed genes, 3) no evidence that codon usage bias would constrain synonymous and nonsynonymous divergence, and 4) predominant role of genetic drift on synonymous codon usage predicted by a model-based analysis. These findings show striking similarity to those observed in AT-rich genomes with weak selection for optimal codon usage and GC content overall. Our finding is in contrast to a previous study reporting adaptive codon usage bias in the moss P. patens.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26
       
  • Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of DIVARICATA-
           and RADIALIS- Like Genes of the Mediterranean Orchid Orchis italica

    • Authors: Valoroso M; De Paolo S, Iazzetti G, et al.
      Abstract: Bilateral symmetry of flowers is a relevant novelty that has occurred many times throughout the evolution of flowering plants. In Antirrhinum majus, establishment of flower dorso-ventral asymmetry is mainly due to interaction of TCP (CYC and DICH) and MYB (DIV, RAD, and DRIF) transcription factors. In the present study, we characterized 8 DIV-, 4 RAD-, and 2 DRIF-like genes from the transcriptome of Orchis italica, an orchid species with bilaterally symmetric and resupinate flowers. We found a similar number of DIV- and RAD-like genes within the genomes of Phalaenopsis equestris and Dendrobium catenatum orchids. Orchid DIV- and RAD-like proteins share conserved motifs whose distribution reflects their phylogeny and analysis of the genomic organization revealed a single intron containing many traces of transposable elements. Evolutionary analysis has shown that purifying selection acts on the DIV- and RAD-like coding regions in orchids, with relaxation of selective constraints in a branch of the DIV-like genes. Analysis of the expression patterns of DIV- and RAD-like genes in O. italica revealed possible redundant functions for some of them. In the perianth of O. italica, the ortholog of DIV and DRIF of A. majus are expressed in all tissues, whereas RAD is mainly expressed in the outer tepals and lip. These data allow for proposal of an evolutionary conserved model in which the expression of the orthologs of the DIV, RAD, and DRIF genes might be related to establishment of flower bilateral symmetry in the nonmodel orchid species O. italica.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
       
  • The Evolutionary Landscape of Dbl-Like RhoGEF Families: Adapting
           Eukaryotic Cells to Environmental Signals

    • Authors: Fort P; Blangy A.
      Abstract: The dynamics of cell morphology in eukaryotes is largely controlled by small GTPases of the Rho family. Rho GTPases are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), of which diffuse B-cell lymphoma (Dbl)-like members form the largest family. Here, we surveyed Dbl-like sequences from 175 eukaryotic genomes and illuminate how the Dbl family evolved in all eukaryotic supergroups. By combining probabilistic phylogenetic approaches and functional domain analysis, we show that the human Dbl-like family is made of 71 members, structured into 20 subfamilies. The 71 members were already present in ancestral jawed vertebrates, but several members were subsequently lost in specific clades, up to 12% in birds. The jawed vertebrate repertoire was established from two rounds of duplications that occurred between tunicates, cyclostomes, and jawed vertebrates. Duplicated members showed distinct tissue distributions, conserved at least in Amniotes. All 20 subfamilies have members in Deuterostomes and Protostomes. Nineteen subfamilies are present in Porifera, the first phylum that diverged in Metazoa, 14 in Choanoflagellida and Filasterea, single-celled organisms closely related to Metazoa and three in Fungi, the sister clade to Metazoa. Other eukaryotic supergroups show an extraordinary variability of Dbl-like repertoires as a result of repeated and independent gain and loss events. Last, we observed that in Metazoa, the number of Dbl-like RhoGEFs varies in proportion of cell signaling complexity. Overall, our analysis supports the conclusion that Dbl-like RhoGEFs were present at the origin of eukaryotes and evolved as highly adaptive cell signaling mediators.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
       
  • Genome Size in North American Fireflies: Substantial Variation Likely
           Driven by Neutral Processes

    • Authors: Lower S; Johnston J, Stanger-Hall KF, et al.
      Abstract: Eukaryotic genomes show tremendous size variation across taxa. Proximate explanations for genome size variation include differences in ploidy and amounts of noncoding DNA, especially repetitive DNA. Ultimate explanations include selection on physiological correlates of genome size such as cell size, which in turn influence body size, resulting in the often-observed correlation between body size and genome size. In this study, we examined body size and repetitive DNA elements in relationship to the evolution of genome size in North American representatives of a single beetle family, the Lampyridae (fireflies). The 23 species considered represent an excellent study system because of the greater than 5-fold range of genome sizes, documented here using flow cytometry, and the 3-fold range in body size, measured using pronotum width. We also identified common genomic repetitive elements using low-coverage sequencing. We found a positive relationship between genome size and repetitive DNA, particularly retrotransposons. Both genome size and these elements were evolving as expected given phylogenetic relatedness. We also tested whether genome size varied with body size and found no relationship. Together, our results suggest that genome size is evolving neutrally in fireflies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
       
  • One Year Genome Evolution of Lausannevirus in Allopatric versus Sympatric
           Conditions

    • Authors: Mueller L; Bertelli C, Pillonel T, et al.
      Abstract: Amoeba-resisting microorganisms raised a great interest during the last decade. Among them, some large DNA viruses present huge genomes up to 2.5 Mb long, exceeding the size of small bacterial genomes. The rate of genome evolution in terms of mutation, deletion, and gene acquisition in these genomes is yet unknown. Given the suspected high plasticity of viral genomes, the microevolution of the 346 kb genome of Lausannevirus, a member of Megavirales, was studied. Hence, Lausannevirus was co-cultured within the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii over one year. Despite a low number of mutations, the virus showed a genome reduction of 3.7% after 12 months. Lausannevirus genome evolution in sympatric conditions was investigated by its co-culture with Estrella lausannensis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, in the amoeba A. castellanii during one year. Cultures were split every 3 months. Genome sequencing revealed that in these conditions both, Lausannevirus and E. lausannensis, show stable genome, presenting no major rearrangement. In fact, after one year they acquired from 2 to 7 and from 4 to 10 mutations per culture for Lausannevirus and E. lausannensis, respectively. Interestingly, different mutations in the endonuclease encoding genes of Lausannevirus were observed in different subcultures, highlighting the importance of this gene product in the replication of Lausannevirus. Conversely, mutations in E. lausannensis were mainly located in a gene encoding for a phosphoenolpyruvate–protein phosphotransferase (PtsI), implicated in sugar metabolism. Moreover, in our conditions and with our analyses we detected no horizontal gene transfer during one year of co-culture.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
       
  • Evolution of Two Short Interspersed Elements in Callorhinchus milii
           (Chondrichthyes, Holocephali) and Related Elements in Sharks and the
           Coelacanth

    • Authors: Luchetti A; Plazzi F, Mantovani B.
      Abstract: Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons. Although they usually show fast evolutionary rates, in some instances highly conserved domains (HCDs) have been observed in elements with otherwise divergent sequences and from distantly related species. Here, we document the life history of two HCD-SINE families in the elephant shark Callorhinchus milii, one specific to the holocephalan lineage (CmiSINEs) and another one (SacSINE1-CM) with homologous elements in sharks and the coelacanth (SacSINE1s, LmeSINE1s). The analyses of their relationships indicated that these elements share the same 3′-tail, which would have allowed both elements to rise to high copy number by exploiting the C. milii L2-2_CM long interspersed element (LINE) enzymes. Molecular clock analysis on SINE activity in C. milii genome evidenced two replication bursts occurring right after two major events in the holocephalan evolution: the end-Permian mass extinction and the radiation of modern Holocephali. Accordingly, the same analysis on the coelacanth homologous elements, LmeSINE1, identified a replication wave close to the split age of the two extant Latimeria species. The genomic distribution of the studied SINEs pointed out contrasting results: some elements were preferentially sorted out from gene regions, but accumulated in flanking regions, while others appear more conserved within genes. Moreover, data from the C. milii transcriptome suggest that these SINEs could be involved in miRNA biogenesis and may be targets for miRNA-based regulation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
       
  • The Whole-Genome and Transcriptome of the Manila Clam ( Ruditapes
           philippinarum )

    • Authors: Mun S; Kim Y, Markkandan K, et al.
      Abstract: The manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is an important bivalve species in worldwide aquaculture including Korea. The aquaculture production of R. philippinarum is under threat from diverse environmental factors including viruses, microorganisms, parasites, and water conditions with subsequently declining production. In spite of its importance as a marine resource, the reference genome of R. philippinarum for comprehensive genetic studies is largely unexplored. Here, we report the de novo whole-genome and transcriptome assembly of R. philippinarum across three different tissues (foot, gill, and adductor muscle), and provide the basic data for advanced studies in selective breeding and disease control in order to obtain successful aquaculture systems. An approximately 2.56 Gb high quality whole-genome was assembled with various library construction methods. A total of 108,034 protein coding gene models were predicted and repetitive elements including simple sequence repeats and noncoding RNAs were identified to further understanding of the genetic background of R. philippinarum for genomics-assisted breeding. Comparative analysis with the bivalve marine invertebrates uncover that the gene family related to complement C1q was enriched. Furthermore, we performed transcriptome analysis with three different tissues in order to support genome annotation and then identified 41,275 transcripts which were annotated. The R. philippinarum genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of potential genetic studies, a reference genome for comparative analysis of bivalve species and unraveling mechanisms of biological processes in molluscs. We believe that the R. philippinarum genome will serve as an initial platform for breeding better-quality clams using a genomic approach.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
       
  • Transposable Element Misregulation Is Linked to the Divergence between
           Parental piRNA Pathways in Drosophila Hybrids

    • Authors: Romero-Soriano V; Modolo L, Lopez-Maestre H, et al.
      Abstract: Interspecific hybridization is a genomic stress condition that leads to the activation of transposable elements (TEs) in both animals and plants. In hybrids between Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae, mobilization of at least 28 TEs has been described. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this TE release remain poorly understood. To give insight on the causes of this TE activation, we performed a TE transcriptomic analysis in ovaries (notorious for playing a major role in TE silencing) of parental species and their F1 and backcrossed (BC) hybrids. We find that 15.2% and 10.6% of the expressed TEs are deregulated in F1 and BC1 ovaries, respectively, with a bias toward overexpression in both cases. Although differences between parental piRNA (Piwi-interacting RNA) populations explain only partially these results, we demonstrate that piRNA pathway proteins have divergent sequences and are differentially expressed between parental species. Thus, a functional divergence of the piRNA pathway between parental species, together with some differences between their piRNA pools, might be at the origin of hybrid instabilities and ultimately cause TE misregulation in ovaries. These analyses were complemented with the study of F1 testes, where TEs tend to be less expressed than in D. buzzatii. This can be explained by an increase in piRNA production, which probably acts as a defence mechanism against TE instability in the male germline. Hence, we describe a differential impact of interspecific hybridization in testes and ovaries, which reveals that TE expression and regulation are sex-biased.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
       
 
 
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