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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 406 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 338, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 604, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
British Medical Bulletin
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.355
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0007-1420 - ISSN (Online) 1471-8391
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [406 journals]
  • The end of sexual reproduction: artificial gametes and their implications
           for society and If electric cars are the answer, what was the
           question'
    • Authors: Vetter N.
      Pages: 1 - 3
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldz007
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • The end of sexual reproduction: artificial gametes and their implications
           for society and If electric cars are the answer, what was the
           question'
    • Authors: Vetter N.
      Pages: 1 - 3
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldz007
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • An alternative to sexual reproduction: artificial gametes and their
           implications for society
    • Authors: Smajdor A.
      Pages: 5 - 11
      Abstract: IntroductionArtificial gametes (AGs) are cells that have been ‘reprogrammed’ to function as sperm or eggs. Such cells may in the future enable people who cannot produce gametes, to have genetically-related offspring. In this paper, I consider the prospect of AGs in the context of declining birthrates and postponed parenthood across the Western world.Sources of dataThe data quoted in this paper is gathered from a range of sources, encompassing both scientific, demographic and philosophical work.Areas of agreementFertility decline in Western democracies is a widely recognised phenomenon, and postponement of parenthood is regarded as a significant contributing factor in this phenomenon.Areas of controversyIt is not clear at what point, if ever, AGs might come into clinical use. There is dispute as to what is the best approach to declining fertility rates in developed countries.Growing pointsTechnologically-assisted reproduction is becoming a more common phenomenon as fertility rates fall and maternal age increases. AGs could offer new ways in which to prolong fertility.Areas timely for developing researchMore research into the development of AGs is required. There is a need for close analysis of the possible causes of declining fertility and the ways in which societies might respond to these challenges.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldz001
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • An alternative to sexual reproduction: artificial gametes and their
           implications for society
    • Authors: Smajdor A.
      Pages: 5 - 11
      Abstract: IntroductionArtificial gametes (AGs) are cells that have been ‘reprogrammed’ to function as sperm or eggs. Such cells may in the future enable people who cannot produce gametes, to have genetically-related offspring. In this paper, I consider the prospect of AGs in the context of declining birthrates and postponed parenthood across the Western world.Sources of dataThe data quoted in this paper is gathered from a range of sources, encompassing both scientific, demographic and philosophical work.Areas of agreementFertility decline in Western democracies is a widely recognised phenomenon, and postponement of parenthood is regarded as a significant contributing factor in this phenomenon.Areas of controversyIt is not clear at what point, if ever, AGs might come into clinical use. There is dispute as to what is the best approach to declining fertility rates in developed countries.Growing pointsTechnologically-assisted reproduction is becoming a more common phenomenon as fertility rates fall and maternal age increases. AGs could offer new ways in which to prolong fertility.Areas timely for developing researchMore research into the development of AGs is required. There is a need for close analysis of the possible causes of declining fertility and the ways in which societies might respond to these challenges.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldz001
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • If electric cars are the answer, what was the question'
    • Authors: Jones S.
      Pages: 13 - 23
      Abstract: IntroductionRoads facilitate trade, development and communication, as well as spread illness and disease, but since mass car use began, the disbenefits, including injuries, pollution and physical inactivity have been significantly magnified. Electric cars are now being seen by many as the solution to the problems associated with internal combustion engine cars.Sources of dataThis article reviews existing literature to determine the extent to which a switch to electrification can solve many of the problems that cars have wrought.Areas of agreementIt concludes that there may be some benefits in rural areas, where public transport is poor.Areas of controversyHowever, it also argues that even in rural areas it may be better to invest in public transport for many, rather than electric car infrastructure for some. It is clear that even for air quality, where electric cars are suggested to offer benefits these are unlikely to be as great as has been suggested. Overall, the negative health consequences of electric cars seem likely to be at least those of internal combustion engine cars.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldy044
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • If electric cars are the answer, what was the question'
    • Authors: Jones S.
      Pages: 13 - 23
      Abstract: IntroductionRoads facilitate trade, development and communication, as well as spread illness and disease, but since mass car use began, the disbenefits, including injuries, pollution and physical inactivity have been significantly magnified. Electric cars are now being seen by many as the solution to the problems associated with internal combustion engine cars.Sources of dataThis article reviews existing literature to determine the extent to which a switch to electrification can solve many of the problems that cars have wrought.Areas of agreementIt concludes that there may be some benefits in rural areas, where public transport is poor.Areas of controversyHowever, it also argues that even in rural areas it may be better to invest in public transport for many, rather than electric car infrastructure for some. It is clear that even for air quality, where electric cars are suggested to offer benefits these are unlikely to be as great as has been suggested. Overall, the negative health consequences of electric cars seem likely to be at least those of internal combustion engine cars.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldy044
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Sickness presenteeism at work: prevalence, costs and management
    • Authors: Kinman G.
      Pages: 69 - 78
      Abstract: IntroductionPresenteeism is defined as continuing to attend work during illness. As a growing health concern, awareness of the factors that encourage presenteeism and the risks of this behaviour is needed.Sources of dataA narrative review of research obtained via several databases, including Medline and Psycinfo, was conducted.Areas of agreementA range of contextual and individual factors is associated with presenteeism. Workers in some sectors, such as healthcare, appear to be at greater risk. Presenteeism may facilitate rehabilitation and recovery but it can exacerbate existing health problems and increase the risk of subsequent illness and absence as well as impair workability.Areas of controversyThe incidence of sickness presenteeism is rising, alongside reductions in absenteeism. The growing awareness of the costs of presenteeism, especially in safety-critical environments, suggests that it should be considered a risk-taking behaviour and carefully measured and managed.Growing points and areas for developing researchMeasuring presenteeism as well as absenteeism will provide more accurate information about employee health. Raising awareness of the risks of working while sick and the economic, moral, cultural and social pressures on employees to do so appears crucial. Systemic interventions to manage presenteeism based on research evidence are required.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldy043
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Sickness presenteeism at work: prevalence, costs and management
    • Authors: Kinman G.
      Pages: 69 - 78
      Abstract: IntroductionPresenteeism is defined as continuing to attend work during illness. As a growing health concern, awareness of the factors that encourage presenteeism and the risks of this behaviour is needed.Sources of dataA narrative review of research obtained via several databases, including Medline and Psycinfo, was conducted.Areas of agreementA range of contextual and individual factors is associated with presenteeism. Workers in some sectors, such as healthcare, appear to be at greater risk. Presenteeism may facilitate rehabilitation and recovery but it can exacerbate existing health problems and increase the risk of subsequent illness and absence as well as impair workability.Areas of controversyThe incidence of sickness presenteeism is rising, alongside reductions in absenteeism. The growing awareness of the costs of presenteeism, especially in safety-critical environments, suggests that it should be considered a risk-taking behaviour and carefully measured and managed.Growing points and areas for developing researchMeasuring presenteeism as well as absenteeism will provide more accurate information about employee health. Raising awareness of the risks of working while sick and the economic, moral, cultural and social pressures on employees to do so appears crucial. Systemic interventions to manage presenteeism based on research evidence are required.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldy043
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • The West African Ebola emergency and reconstruction; lessons from Public
           Health England
    • Authors: Johnstone P; Eder M, Newton A, et al.
      Pages: 79 - 89
      Abstract: BackgroundWest African governments, the WHO and wider international community were caught unprepared for the world’s largest Ebola outbreak of 2014–16. This was an unprecedented challenge to local services and international agencies, since the emergency required high-tech molecular diagnostic services operated by specialist staff and a coordinated emergency response in addition to humanitarian support, which was not available at the beginning of the outbreak. Public Health England (PHE), as a new national public health agency was well placed to provide support for these needs. After the outbreak, PHE supported reconstruction to ensure diagnostic and emergency planning capability remained in place in the immediate aftermath of the outbreak and build necessary public health infrastructure for the future. The article describes the role PHE played as a national public health agency supporting reconstruction and long-term development through the UK Government (Department for International Development) programme called ‘Resilient Zero’.Sources of dataPublic Health England (PHE), UK Government’s Department for International Development, WHO, US Centers for Communicable Diseases (CDC), China Centre for Communicable Diseases (China CDC).Areas of agreementThe need for reliable, sustainable, in country molecular diagnostics, together with a programme to strengthen in country Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response (EPRR).Areas of controversyProviding high tech molecular capability in a resource-poor West African country with variable provision of basic diagnostic equipment, intermittent power supply, ineffective supply chains and maintaining training capacity for emergency planning in the long term. Emergency planning models from the West needed to be adapted for the countries’ context. Short term aid projects as a model did not suite this development requirement.Growing pointsPHE had strong local and international political support to reconstruct three Government regional laboratories and deploy molecular technology. Significant learning by PHE as a national public health agency and sharing this will be of benefit to other national public health agencies. UK staff reported increased levels of satisfaction and experience relevant to public health practice. The Sierra Leonean Government and officials requested long-term levels of commitment. It is important for agencies such as PHE to constantly learn, develop long-term institutional partnerships and play a bigger role with other similar agencies internationally.Areas timely for developing researchHow best to support sustainable high-tech molecular technology in West Africa and modules for emergency planning relevant to the context; evidence for long term versus short-term support for highly complex diagnostic capabilities; relevance to maintaining individual country public health infrastructure to ensuring global health security; benefits of overseas work for employee of a national agency.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldz005
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • The West African Ebola emergency and reconstruction; lessons from Public
           Health England
    • Authors: Johnstone P; Eder M, Newton A, et al.
      Pages: 79 - 89
      Abstract: BackgroundWest African governments, the WHO and wider international community were caught unprepared for the world’s largest Ebola outbreak of 2014–16. This was an unprecedented challenge to local services and international agencies, since the emergency required high-tech molecular diagnostic services operated by specialist staff and a coordinated emergency response in addition to humanitarian support, which was not available at the beginning of the outbreak. Public Health England (PHE), as a new national public health agency was well placed to provide support for these needs. After the outbreak, PHE supported reconstruction to ensure diagnostic and emergency planning capability remained in place in the immediate aftermath of the outbreak and build necessary public health infrastructure for the future. The article describes the role PHE played as a national public health agency supporting reconstruction and long-term development through the UK Government (Department for International Development) programme called ‘Resilient Zero’.Sources of dataPublic Health England (PHE), UK Government’s Department for International Development, WHO, US Centers for Communicable Diseases (CDC), China Centre for Communicable Diseases (China CDC).Areas of agreementThe need for reliable, sustainable, in country molecular diagnostics, together with a programme to strengthen in country Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response (EPRR).Areas of controversyProviding high tech molecular capability in a resource-poor West African country with variable provision of basic diagnostic equipment, intermittent power supply, ineffective supply chains and maintaining training capacity for emergency planning in the long term. Emergency planning models from the West needed to be adapted for the countries’ context. Short term aid projects as a model did not suite this development requirement.Growing pointsPHE had strong local and international political support to reconstruct three Government regional laboratories and deploy molecular technology. Significant learning by PHE as a national public health agency and sharing this will be of benefit to other national public health agencies. UK staff reported increased levels of satisfaction and experience relevant to public health practice. The Sierra Leonean Government and officials requested long-term levels of commitment. It is important for agencies such as PHE to constantly learn, develop long-term institutional partnerships and play a bigger role with other similar agencies internationally.Areas timely for developing researchHow best to support sustainable high-tech molecular technology in West Africa and modules for emergency planning relevant to the context; evidence for long term versus short-term support for highly complex diagnostic capabilities; relevance to maintaining individual country public health infrastructure to ensuring global health security; benefits of overseas work for employee of a national agency.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldz005
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Scientific evidence on natural disasters and health emergency and disaster
           risk management in Asian rural-based area
    • Authors: Chan E; Man A, Lam H.
      Pages: 91 - 105
      Abstract: IntroductionDisaster epidemiological studies indicate that Asia has the highest frequency of natural disasters. Rural communities are heavily impacted by natural disasters and have different healthcare needs to urban ones. Referencing Asian countries, this paper’s objective is to provide an overview of health impacts and the current evidence for designing programmes and policies related to rural health emergency and disaster risk management (health-EDRM).Sources of dataThis paper uses published English-only reports and papers retrieved from PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, Medline and PsycINFO on rural disaster and emergency responses and relief, health impact and disease patterns in Asia (January 2000–January 2018).Areas of agreementEarthquakes are the most studied natural disasters in rural communities. The medical burden and health needs of rural communities were most commonly reported among populations of extreme age. Most of the existing research evidence for rural interventions was reported in China. There lacks published peer-reviewed reports of programme impacts on personal and community preparedness.Areas of controversyThere is a lack of evidence-based health-EDRM interventions to evaluate implementation effectiveness in rural areas despite vast volumes of health-related disaster literature.Growing pointsClimate change-related disasters are increasing in frequency and severity. Evidence is needed for disaster risk reduction interventions to address the health risks specific to rural populations.Areas timely for developing researchTo support global policy development, urgent evidence is needed on the intervention effectiveness, long-term health outcomes, local and cultural relevance as well as sustainability of health relief produced by Health-EDRM programmes in rural areas.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldz002
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Working together to deliver stratified medicine research effectively
    • Authors: Attar S; Poustie V, Smye S, et al.
      Pages: 107 - 116
      Abstract: Introduction or backgroundStratified medicine is an important area of research across all clinical specialties, with far reaching impact in many spheres. Despite recently formulated global policy and research programmes, major challenges for delivering stratified medicine studies persist. Across the globe, clinical research infrastructures have been setup to facilitate high quality clinical research.Sources of dataThis article reviews the literature and summarizes views collated from a workshop held by the UK Pharmacogenetics and Stratified Medicine Network and the NIHR Clinical Research Network in November 2016.Areas of agreementStratified medicine is an important area of clinical research and health policy, benefitting from substantial international, cross-sector investment and has the potential to transform patient care. However there are significant challenges to the delivery of stratified medicine studies.Areas of controversyComplex methodology and lack of consistency of definition and agreement on key approaches to the design, regulation and delivery of research contribute to these challenges and would benefit from greater focus.Growing pointsEffective partnership and development of consistent approaches to the key factors relating to stratified medicine research is required to help overcome these challenges.Areas timely for developing researchThis paper examines the critical contribution clinical research networks can make to the delivery of national (and international) initiatives in the field of stratified medicine. Importantly, it examines the position of clinical research in stratified medicine at a time when pressures on the clinical and social services are mounting.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldz003
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Working together to deliver stratified medicine research effectively
    • Authors: Attar S; Poustie V, Smye S, et al.
      Pages: 107 - 116
      Abstract: Introduction or backgroundStratified medicine is an important area of research across all clinical specialties, with far reaching impact in many spheres. Despite recently formulated global policy and research programmes, major challenges for delivering stratified medicine studies persist. Across the globe, clinical research infrastructures have been setup to facilitate high quality clinical research.Sources of dataThis article reviews the literature and summarizes views collated from a workshop held by the UK Pharmacogenetics and Stratified Medicine Network and the NIHR Clinical Research Network in November 2016.Areas of agreementStratified medicine is an important area of clinical research and health policy, benefitting from substantial international, cross-sector investment and has the potential to transform patient care. However there are significant challenges to the delivery of stratified medicine studies.Areas of controversyComplex methodology and lack of consistency of definition and agreement on key approaches to the design, regulation and delivery of research contribute to these challenges and would benefit from greater focus.Growing pointsEffective partnership and development of consistent approaches to the key factors relating to stratified medicine research is required to help overcome these challenges.Areas timely for developing researchThis paper examines the critical contribution clinical research networks can make to the delivery of national (and international) initiatives in the field of stratified medicine. Importantly, it examines the position of clinical research in stratified medicine at a time when pressures on the clinical and social services are mounting.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldz003
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Hip fractures in children and adolescents
    • Authors: Papalia R; Torre G, Maffulli N, et al.
      Pages: 117 - 128
      Abstract: BackgroundFemoral neck fractures account for <1% of the fractures in children, and are produced by high energy trauma. The most commonly accepted treatment for such fractures is gentle manual anatomical reduction and internal fixation, yielding a healing rate between 80% and 90%.Sources of dataElectronic search through major web databases (Medline, Cochrane and Google Scholar). All types of article were eligible for inclusion, except for reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and case reports. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for NOn-Randomized Studies (MINORS).Areas of agreementBoth open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and closed reduction and internal fixation (CRIF) can be used to manage hip fractures in paediatric patients. ORIF is more accurate in reducing and fixing the fracture, with better clinical and functional outcomes, and lower complication rate. Delayed fixation decreases the rate of acceptable outcome and increases the rate of complications.Areas of controversyThe methodological quality of the included studies is average-low, and the published evidence is not of sufficient quality to allow to draw final conclusion on the topic.Growing pointsGood results were reported for both ORIF and CRIF techniques, but are not supported by scientific evidence of adequate quality. More and better studies, including randomized trials, should be carried out to provide more scientifically evidence based conclusions.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldz004
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Hip fractures in children and adolescents
    • Authors: Papalia R; Torre G, Maffulli N, et al.
      Pages: 117 - 128
      Abstract: BackgroundFemoral neck fractures account for <1% of the fractures in children, and are produced by high energy trauma. The most commonly accepted treatment for such fractures is gentle manual anatomical reduction and internal fixation, yielding a healing rate between 80% and 90%.Sources of dataElectronic search through major web databases (Medline, Cochrane and Google Scholar). All types of article were eligible for inclusion, except for reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and case reports. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for NOn-Randomized Studies (MINORS).Areas of agreementBoth open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and closed reduction and internal fixation (CRIF) can be used to manage hip fractures in paediatric patients. ORIF is more accurate in reducing and fixing the fracture, with better clinical and functional outcomes, and lower complication rate. Delayed fixation decreases the rate of acceptable outcome and increases the rate of complications.Areas of controversyThe methodological quality of the included studies is average-low, and the published evidence is not of sufficient quality to allow to draw final conclusion on the topic.Growing pointsGood results were reported for both ORIF and CRIF techniques, but are not supported by scientific evidence of adequate quality. More and better studies, including randomized trials, should be carried out to provide more scientifically evidence based conclusions.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldz004
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Traumatic stress within disaster-exposed occupations: overview of the
           literature and suggestions for the management of traumatic stress in the
           workplace
    • Authors: Brooks S; Rubin G, Greenberg N.
      Pages: 25 - 34
      Abstract: BackgroundMany people who experience a disaster will do so as part of an occupational group, either by chance or due to the nature of their role.Sources of dataThis review is based on literature published in scientific journals.Areas of agreementThere are many social and occupational factors, which affect post-disaster mental health. In particular, effective social support—both during and post-disaster—appears to enhance psychological resilience.Areas of controversyThere is conflicting evidence regarding the best way to support trauma-exposed employees. Many organisations carry out post-incident debriefing despite evidence that this is unhelpful.Growing pointsEmployees who are well supported tend to have better psychological outcomes and as a result may be more likely to perform well at work.Areas timely for developing researchThe development and evaluation of workplace interventions designed to help managers facilitate psychological resilience in their workforce is a priority. Successful interventions could substantially increase resilience and reduce the risk of long-term mental health problems in trauma-exposed employees.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldy040
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Traumatic stress within disaster-exposed occupations: overview of the
           literature and suggestions for the management of traumatic stress in the
           workplace
    • Authors: Brooks S; Rubin G, Greenberg N.
      Pages: 25 - 34
      Abstract: BackgroundMany people who experience a disaster will do so as part of an occupational group, either by chance or due to the nature of their role.Sources of dataThis review is based on literature published in scientific journals.Areas of agreementThere are many social and occupational factors, which affect post-disaster mental health. In particular, effective social support—both during and post-disaster—appears to enhance psychological resilience.Areas of controversyThere is conflicting evidence regarding the best way to support trauma-exposed employees. Many organisations carry out post-incident debriefing despite evidence that this is unhelpful.Growing pointsEmployees who are well supported tend to have better psychological outcomes and as a result may be more likely to perform well at work.Areas timely for developing researchThe development and evaluation of workplace interventions designed to help managers facilitate psychological resilience in their workforce is a priority. Successful interventions could substantially increase resilience and reduce the risk of long-term mental health problems in trauma-exposed employees.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldy040
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Chest ultrasound for the diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary diseases: a
           systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy
    • Authors: Heuvelings C; Bélard S, Familusi M, et al.
      Pages: 35 - 51
      Abstract: BackgroundChest ultrasound is an emerging imaging modality, for several paediatric pulmonary diseases.Sources of dataMEDLINE and EMBASE (1946–47 to 10 March 2017) were searched to collect evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of chest ultrasound, compared to other imaging modalities, for the diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary diseases.Areas of agreementEighteen pneumonia studies, comprising 2031 children, were included for meta-analysis; the summary estimate sensitivity was 95.0% (95%CI: 90.7–97.3%) and specificity was 96.1% (95%CI: 89.1–98.7%).Areas of controversyOther pulmonary diseases also yielded high sensitivity and specificity, but a meta-analysis could not be conducted due to a limited number of studies includable, and their heterogeneity.Growing pointsChest ultrasound should be considered as a first-line imaging modality for children with suspected pneumonia.Areas timely for developing researchFurther research should focus on the diagnostic accuracy of chest ultrasound for the diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary diseases, other than pneumonia, comparing against a valid gold standard.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldy041
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Chest ultrasound for the diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary diseases: a
           systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy
    • Authors: Heuvelings C; Bélard S, Familusi M, et al.
      Pages: 35 - 51
      Abstract: BackgroundChest ultrasound is an emerging imaging modality, for several paediatric pulmonary diseases.Sources of dataMEDLINE and EMBASE (1946–47 to 10 March 2017) were searched to collect evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of chest ultrasound, compared to other imaging modalities, for the diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary diseases.Areas of agreementEighteen pneumonia studies, comprising 2031 children, were included for meta-analysis; the summary estimate sensitivity was 95.0% (95%CI: 90.7–97.3%) and specificity was 96.1% (95%CI: 89.1–98.7%).Areas of controversyOther pulmonary diseases also yielded high sensitivity and specificity, but a meta-analysis could not be conducted due to a limited number of studies includable, and their heterogeneity.Growing pointsChest ultrasound should be considered as a first-line imaging modality for children with suspected pneumonia.Areas timely for developing researchFurther research should focus on the diagnostic accuracy of chest ultrasound for the diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary diseases, other than pneumonia, comparing against a valid gold standard.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldy041
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Mild primary hyperparathyroidism—to treat or not to treat'
    • Authors: Hassan-Smith Z; Criseno S, Gittoes N.
      Pages: 53 - 67
      Abstract: IntroductionThe presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has shifted from a disease characterized by renal and skeletal complications to a mild or asymptomatic condition. Modern imaging allows localization of a surgical target in the majority of cases.Sources of dataData were collected from literature searches of online databases including PUBMED, MEDLINE and Cochrane. A narrative review was performed.Areas of agreementParathyroidectomy is the only therapy with curative potential with good outcomes and low risk of complications in experienced hands. Current guidelines advocate that surgery is offered in all symptomatic cases and in those who meet criteria depending on age, serum calcium concentration, skeletal and renal parameters. A structured monitoring approach should be offered to those who do not undergo surgery.Areas of controversyThresholds for intervention to improve skeletal and renal outcomes are debatable. In addition, controversy persists over the benefit of surgery for non-skeletal/renal outcomes.Growing pointsThe role of medical management of PHPT using agents such as bisphosphonates, denosumab and cinacalcet are discussed.Areas timely for developing researchIn summary, further data on the natural history and effects of treatment of mild and asymptomatic PHPT are required to determine thresholds for surgery. In particular, further investigations of non-skeletal and non-renal parameters, such as neurocognitive quality of life and cardiovascular disease are required. Data on normocalcaemic PHPT are lacking. Large-scale randomized controlled trials would be welcome in these areas, however in view of the cost implications a more pragmatic approach may be to develop collaborative multi-centre registries.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldy042
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Mild primary hyperparathyroidism—to treat or not to treat'
    • Authors: Hassan-Smith Z; Criseno S, Gittoes N.
      Pages: 53 - 67
      Abstract: IntroductionThe presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has shifted from a disease characterized by renal and skeletal complications to a mild or asymptomatic condition. Modern imaging allows localization of a surgical target in the majority of cases.Sources of dataData were collected from literature searches of online databases including PUBMED, MEDLINE and Cochrane. A narrative review was performed.Areas of agreementParathyroidectomy is the only therapy with curative potential with good outcomes and low risk of complications in experienced hands. Current guidelines advocate that surgery is offered in all symptomatic cases and in those who meet criteria depending on age, serum calcium concentration, skeletal and renal parameters. A structured monitoring approach should be offered to those who do not undergo surgery.Areas of controversyThresholds for intervention to improve skeletal and renal outcomes are debatable. In addition, controversy persists over the benefit of surgery for non-skeletal/renal outcomes.Growing pointsThe role of medical management of PHPT using agents such as bisphosphonates, denosumab and cinacalcet are discussed.Areas timely for developing researchIn summary, further data on the natural history and effects of treatment of mild and asymptomatic PHPT are required to determine thresholds for surgery. In particular, further investigations of non-skeletal and non-renal parameters, such as neurocognitive quality of life and cardiovascular disease are required. Data on normocalcaemic PHPT are lacking. Large-scale randomized controlled trials would be welcome in these areas, however in view of the cost implications a more pragmatic approach may be to develop collaborative multi-centre registries.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldy042
      Issue No: Vol. 129, No. 1 (2018)
       
 
 
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