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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 368 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 368 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 489, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Mathematics Research Surveys - advance access     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)
J. of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Brain
  [SJR: 6.097]   [H-I: 264]   [61 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0006-8950 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2156
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [368 journals]
  • Computers, causality and cure in epilepsy
    • Authors: Lytton WW.
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Individual brain structure and modelling predict seizure propagation’, by Proix et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awx004).
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
  • Penumbral salvage and thrombolysis outcome: a drop of brain, a week of
    • Authors: Saver JL.
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Perfusion computed tomography in patients with stroke thrombolysis’, by Kawano et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/aww338).
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
  • Towards a multi-function mapping of the cerebellar cortex
    • Authors: King M; Hernandez-Castillo C, Diedrichsen J.
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Structural cerebellar correlates of cognitive and motor dysfunctions in cerebellar degeneration’, by Kansal et al. (doi:10.1093/aww327).
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
  • Refining Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis with MRI
    • Authors: Coulthard E; Knight M.
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Heterogeneity of neuroanatomical patterns in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease: links to cognition, progression and biomarkers’, by Dong et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/aww319).
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
  • A long-awaited biography of W. H. Wollaston
    • Authors: Plant GT.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
  • Corrigendum
    • Abstract: Hiroatsu Murakami, Zhong I. Wang, Ahmad Marashly, Balu Krishnan, Richard A. Prayson, Yosuke Kakisaka, John C. Mosher, Juan Bulacio, Jorge A. Gonzalez-Martinez, William E. Bingaman, Imad M. Najm, Richard C. Burgess, Andreas V. Alexopoulos. Correlating magnetoencephalography to stereo-electroencephalography in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. Brain 2016; 139: 2935–47; 10.1093/brain/aww215
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Kullmann DM.
      Abstract: In this issue Andrew Lees looks back 200 years to the publication of An Essay on the Shaking Palsy by James Parkinson, surgeon, apothecary, palaeontologist and pamphleteer. The disease named after him is probably the oldest eponymous neurological disorder after Sydenham’s chorea. It goes by the same name in almost all languages, thanks in large part to Jean-Marie Charcot who preferred the eponym to paralysis agitans. James Parkinson is also credited, together with his son John, with the first description of appendicitis in the English language. Less well known is a passable description of meningitis in a publication entitled Town and Country Friend and Physician, Or an Affectionate Address on the Preservation of Health, and on the Removal of Disease at its First Appearance (Philadelphia, 1803): ‘Know then, that in the head is contained THE BRAIN, from which proceed the nerves, which are distributed over the body, and on which every sense, and all power of motion depend. If pain in the head, lightheadedness, fever, redness of the eyes, and impatience at viewing much light, or hearing loud noises, succeed to shiverings, inflammation of the brain or it’s membranes may be feared to exist. This must be followed with death in a very few days, if not opposed by the exertions of some skilful person.’ These exertions, sadly, are no more than ‘Bleeding profusely, blisters, the strictest regimen and proper medicines’. Parkinson does not specify what medicines count as proper, although stresses that they should be ‘employed, with that degree of firmness and decision, as cannot be hoped for, but where they are directed by a person of real skill, and where the attendants are impressed with the danger of the smallest deviation from orders’.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation as a biomarker for epilepsy
    • Authors: Bauer PR; de Goede AA, ter Braack EM, et al.
      Abstract: Sir, We read with interest the report by Badawy et al. (2013a) highlighting changes in cortical excitability in subjects with epilepsy and their siblings. It adds to the body of work of this group consistently showing that cortical excitability, measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may have potential as an epilepsy biomarker (Badawy and Jackson, 2012; Badawy et al., 2013b, 2014, 2015). Responses to TMS were shown to have a relatively large interindividual variability (see for example Valls-Solé et al., 1992; Du et al., 2014). Badawy et al.rsquo;s. reports do not provide clear information on interindividual variability. To estimate the variability across these reports, we extracted the data from some of their figures and compared these.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
  • Reply: Transcranial magnetic stimulation as a biomarker for epilepsy
    • Authors: Badawy RB; Macdonell RL, Berkovic SF, et al.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
  • Deleterious variants in TRAK1 disrupt mitochondrial movement and cause
           fatal encephalopathy
    • Authors: Barel O; Christine V. Malicdan M, Ben-Zeev B, et al.
      Abstract: Cellular distribution and dynamics of mitochondria are regulated by several motor proteins and a microtubule network. In neurons, mitochondrial trafficking is crucial because of high energy needs and calcium ion buffering along axons to synapses during neurotransmission. The trafficking kinesin proteins (TRAKs) are well characterized for their role in lysosomal and mitochondrial trafficking in cells, especially neurons. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified homozygous truncating variants in TRAK1 (NM_001042646:c.287-2A > C), in six lethal encephalopathic patients from three unrelated families. The pathogenic variant results in aberrant splicing and significantly reduced gene expression at the RNA and protein levels. In comparison with normal cells, TRAK1-deficient fibroblasts showed irregular mitochondrial distribution, altered mitochondrial motility, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, and diminished mitochondrial respiration. This study confirms the role of TRAK1 in mitochondrial dynamics and constitutes the first report of this gene in association with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
  • Distinct brain imaging characteristics of autoantibody-mediated CNS
           conditions and multiple sclerosis
    • Authors: Jurynczyk M; Geraldes R, Probert F, et al.
      Abstract: Brain imaging characteristics of MOG antibody disease are largely unknown and it is unclear whether they differ from those of multiple sclerosis and AQP4 antibody disease. The aim of this study was to identify brain imaging discriminators between those three inflammatory central nervous system diseases in adults and children to support diagnostic decisions, drive antibody testing and generate disease mechanism hypotheses. Clinical brain scans of 83 patients with brain lesions (67 in the training and 16 in the validation cohort, 65 adults and 18 children) with MOG antibody (n = 26), AQP4 antibody disease (n = 26) and multiple sclerosis (n = 31) recruited from Oxford neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis clinical services were retrospectively and anonymously scored on a set of 29 predefined magnetic resonance imaging features by two independent raters. Principal component analysis was used to perform an overview of patients without a priori knowledge of the diagnosis. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to build models separating diagnostic groups and identify best classifiers, which were then tested on an independent cohort set. Adults and children with MOG antibody disease frequently had fluffy brainstem lesions, often located in pons and/or adjacent to fourth ventricle. Children across all conditions showed more frequent bilateral, large, brainstem and deep grey matter lesions. MOG antibody disease spontaneously separated from multiple sclerosis but overlapped with AQP4 antibody disease. Multiple sclerosis was discriminated from MOG antibody disease and from AQP4 antibody disease with high predictive values, while MOG antibody disease could not be accurately discriminated from AQP4 antibody disease. Best classifiers between MOG antibody disease and multiple sclerosis were similar in adults and children, and included ovoid lesions adjacent to the body of lateral ventricles, Dawson’s fingers, T1 hypointense lesions (multiple sclerosis), fluffy lesions and three lesions or less (MOG antibody). In the validation cohort patients with antibody-mediated conditions were differentiated from multiple sclerosis with high accuracy. Both antibody-mediated conditions can be clearly separated from multiple sclerosis on conventional brain imaging, both in adults and children. The overlap between MOG antibody oligodendrocytopathy and AQP4 antibody astrocytopathy suggests that the primary immune target is not the main substrate for brain lesion characteristics. This is also supported by the clear distinction between multiple sclerosis and MOG antibody disease both considered primary demyelinating conditions. We identify discriminatory features, which may be useful in classifying atypical multiple sclerosis, seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and characterizing cohorts for antibody discovery.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
  • Stable functional networks exhibit consistent timing in the human brain
    • Authors: Chapeton JI; Inati SK, Zaghloul KA.
      Abstract: Despite many advances in the study of large-scale human functional networks, the question of timing, stability, and direction of communication between cortical regions has not been fully addressed. At the cellular level, neuronal communication occurs through axons and dendrites, and the time required for such communication is well defined and preserved. At larger spatial scales, however, the relationship between timing, direction, and communication between brain regions is less clear. Here, we use a measure of effective connectivity to identify connections between brain regions that exhibit communication with consistent timing. We hypothesized that if two brain regions are communicating, then knowledge of the activity in one region should allow an external observer to better predict activity in the other region, and that such communication involves a consistent time delay. We examine this question using intracranial electroencephalography captured from nine human participants with medically refractory epilepsy. We use a coupling measure based on time-lagged mutual information to identify effective connections between brain regions that exhibit a statistically significant increase in average mutual information at a consistent time delay. These identified connections result in sparse, directed functional networks that are stable over minutes, hours, and days. Notably, the time delays associated with these connections are also highly preserved over multiple time scales. We characterize the anatomic locations of these connections, and find that the propagation of activity exhibits a preferred posterior to anterior temporal lobe direction, consistent across participants. Moreover, networks constructed from connections that reliably exhibit consistent timing between anatomic regions demonstrate features of a small-world architecture, with many reliable connections between anatomically neighbouring regions and few long range connections. Together, our results demonstrate that cortical regions exhibit functional relationships with well-defined and consistent timing, and the stability of these relationships over multiple time scales suggests that these stable pathways may be reliably and repeatedly used for large-scale cortical communication.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
  • An essay on the shaking palsy
    • Authors: Lees A.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
  • Individual brain structure and modelling predict seizure propagation
    • Authors: Proix T; Bartolomei F, Guye M, et al.
      Abstract: See Lytton (doi:10.1093/awx018) for a scientific commentary on this article.Neural network oscillations are a fundamental mechanism for cognition, perception and consciousness. Consequently, perturbations of network activity play an important role in the pathophysiology of brain disorders. When structural information from non-invasive brain imaging is merged with mathematical modelling, then generative brain network models constitute personalized in silico platforms for the exploration of causal mechanisms of brain function and clinical hypothesis testing. We here demonstrate with the example of drug-resistant epilepsy that patient-specific virtual brain models derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging have sufficient predictive power to improve diagnosis and surgery outcome. In partial epilepsy, seizures originate in a local network, the so-called epileptogenic zone, before recruiting other close or distant brain regions. We create personalized large-scale brain networks for 15 patients and simulate the individual seizure propagation patterns. Model validation is performed against the presurgical stereotactic electroencephalography data and the standard-of-care clinical evaluation. We demonstrate that the individual brain models account for the patient seizure propagation patterns, explain the variability in postsurgical success, but do not reliably augment with the use of patient-specific connectivity. Our results show that connectome-based brain network models have the capacity to explain changes in the organization of brain activity as observed in some brain disorders, thus opening up avenues towards discovery of novel clinical interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
  • Molecular analyses of neurogenic defects in a human pluripotent stem cell
           model of fragile X syndrome
    • Authors: Boland MJ; Nazor KL, Tran HT, et al.
      Abstract: New research suggests that common pathways are altered in many neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder; however, little is known about early molecular events that contribute to the pathology of these diseases. The study of monogenic, neurodevelopmental disorders with a high incidence of autistic behaviours, such as fragile X syndrome, has the potential to identify genes and pathways that are dysregulated in autism spectrum disorder as well as fragile X syndrome. In vitro generation of human disease-relevant cell types provides the ability to investigate aspects of disease that are impossible to study in patients or animal models. Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells recapitulates development of the neocortex, an area affected in both fragile X syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. We have generated induced human pluripotent stem cells from several individuals clinically diagnosed with fragile X syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. When differentiated to dorsal forebrain cell fates, our fragile X syndrome human pluripotent stem cell lines exhibited reproducible aberrant neurogenic phenotypes. Using global gene expression and DNA methylation profiling, we have analysed the early stages of neurogenesis in fragile X syndrome human pluripotent stem cells. We discovered aberrant DNA methylation patterns at specific genomic regions in fragile X syndrome cells, and identified dysregulated gene- and network-level correlates of fragile X syndrome that are associated with developmental signalling, cell migration, and neuronal maturation. Integration of our gene expression and epigenetic analysis identified altered epigenetic-mediated transcriptional regulation of a distinct set of genes in fragile X syndrome. These fragile X syndrome-aberrant networks are significantly enriched for genes associated with autism spectrum disorder, giving support to the idea that underlying similarities exist among these neurodevelopmental diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-01-29
  • 18 F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography in Alzheimer’s disease and
           progressive supranuclear palsy
    • Authors: Passamonti L; Vázquez Rodríguez P, Hong YT, et al.
      Abstract: The ability to assess the distribution and extent of tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy in vivo would help to develop biomarkers for these tauopathies and clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies. New radioligands for positron emission tomography have generated considerable interest, and controversy, in their potential as tau biomarkers. We assessed the radiotracer 18F-AV-1451 with positron emission tomography imaging to compare the distribution and intensity of tau pathology in 15 patients with Alzheimer’s pathology (including amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment), 19 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Regional analysis of variance and a support vector machine were used to compare and discriminate the clinical groups, respectively. We also examined the 18F-AV-1451 autoradiographic binding in post-mortem tissue from patients with Alzheimer’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and a control case to assess the 18F-AV-1451 binding specificity to Alzheimer’s and non-Alzheimer’s tau pathology. There was increased 18F-AV-1451 binding in multiple regions in living patients with Alzheimer’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy relative to controls [main effect of group, F(2,41) = 17.5, P < 0.0001; region of interest × group interaction, F(2,68) = 7.5, P < 0.00001]. More specifically, 18F-AV-1451 binding was significantly increased in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, relative to patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and with control subjects, in the hippocampus and in occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal cortices (t’s > 2.2, P’s < 0.04). Conversely, in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, relative to patients with Alzheimer’s disease, 18F-AV-1451 binding was elevated in the midbrain (t = 2.1, P < 0.04); while patients with progressive supranuclear palsy showed, relative to controls, increased 18F-AV-1451 uptake in the putamen, pallidum, thalamus, midbrain, and in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum (t’s > 2.7, P’s < 0.02). The support vector machine assigned patients’ diagnoses with 94% accuracy. The post-mortem autoradiographic data showed that 18F-AV-1451 strongly bound to Alzheimer-related tau pathology, but less specifically in progressive supranuclear palsy. 18F-AV-1451 binding to the basal ganglia was strong in all groups in vivo. Postmortem histochemical staining showed absence of neuromelanin-containing cells in the basal ganglia, indicating that off-target binding to neuromelanin is an insufficient explanation of 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography data in vivo, at least in the basal ganglia. Overall, we confirm the potential of 18F-AV-1451 as a heuristic biomarker, but caution is indicated in the neuropathological interpretation of its binding. Off-target binding may contribute to disease profiles of 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography, especially in primary tauopathies such as progressive supranuclear palsy. We suggest that 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography is a useful biomarker to assess tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease and to distinguish it from other tauopathies with distinct clinical and pathological characteristics such as progressive supranuclear palsy.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
  • An early and late peak in microglial activation in Alzheimer’s
           disease trajectory
    • Authors: Fan Z; Brooks DJ, Okello A, et al.
      Abstract: Amyloid-β deposition, neuroinflammation and tau tangle formation all play a significant role in Alzheimer’s disease. We hypothesized that there is microglial activation early on in Alzheimer’s disease trajectory, where in the initial phase, microglia may be trying to repair the damage, while later on in the disease these microglia could be ineffective and produce proinflammatory cytokines leading to progressive neuronal damage. In this longitudinal study, we have evaluated the temporal profile of microglial activation and its relationship between fibrillar amyloid load at baseline and follow-up in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and this was compared with subjects with Alzheimer’s disease. Thirty subjects (eight mild cognitive impairment, eight Alzheimer’s disease and 14 controls) aged between 54 and 77 years underwent 11C-(R)PK11195, 11C-PIB positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. Patients were followed-up after 14 ± 4 months. Region of interest and Statistical Parametric Mapping analysis were used to determine longitudinal alterations. Single subject analysis was performed to evaluate the individualized pathological changes over time. Correlations between levels of microglial activation and amyloid deposition at a voxel level were assessed using Biological Parametric Mapping. We demonstrated that both baseline and follow-up microglial activation in the mild cognitive impairment cohort compared to controls were increased by 41% and 21%, respectively. There was a longitudinal reduction of 18% in microglial activation in mild cognitive impairment cohort over 14 months, which was associated with a mild elevation in fibrillar amyloid load. Cortical clusters of microglial activation and amyloid deposition spatially overlapped in the subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Baseline microglial activation was increased by 36% in Alzheimer’s disease subjects compared with controls. Longitudinally, Alzheimer’s disease subjects showed an increase in microglial activation. In conclusion, this is one of the first longitudinal positron emission tomography studies evaluating longitudinal changes in microglial activation in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease subjects. We found there is an initial longitudinal reduction in microglial activation in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, while subjects with Alzheimer’s disease showed an increase in microglial activation. This could reflect that activated microglia in mild cognitive impairment initially may adopt a protective activation phenotype, which later change to a cidal pro-inflammatory phenotype as disease progresses and amyloid clearance fails. Thus, we speculate that there might be two peaks of microglial activation in the Alzheimer’s disease trajectory; an early protective peak and a later pro-inflammatory peak. If so, anti-microglial agents targeting the pro-inflammatory phenotype would be most beneficial in the later stages of the disease.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
  • Synaptic inputs from stroke-injured brain to grafted human stem
           cell-derived neurons activated by sensory stimuli
    • Authors: Tornero D; Tsupykov O, Granmo M, et al.
      Abstract: Transplanted neurons derived from stem cells have been proposed to improve function in animal models of human disease by various mechanisms such as neuronal replacement. However, whether the grafted neurons receive functional synaptic inputs from the recipient’s brain and integrate into host neural circuitry is unknown. Here we studied the synaptic inputs from the host brain to grafted cortical neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells after transplantation into stroke-injured rat cerebral cortex. Using the rabies virus-based trans-synaptic tracing method and immunoelectron microscopy, we demonstrate that the grafted neurons receive direct synaptic inputs from neurons in different host brain areas located in a pattern similar to that of neurons projecting to the corresponding endogenous cortical neurons in the intact brain. Electrophysiological in vivo recordings from the cortical implants show that physiological sensory stimuli, i.e. cutaneous stimulation of nose and paw, can activate or inhibit spontaneous activity in grafted neurons, indicating that at least some of the afferent inputs are functional. In agreement, we find using patch-clamp recordings that a portion of grafted neurons respond to photostimulation of virally transfected, channelrhodopsin-2-expressing thalamo-cortical axons in acute brain slices. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that the host brain regulates the activity of grafted neurons, providing strong evidence that transplanted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons can become incorporated into injured cortical circuitry. Our findings support the idea that these neurons could contribute to functional recovery in stroke and other conditions causing neuronal loss in cerebral cortex.
      PubDate: 2017-01-22
  • Gene therapy targeting oligodendrocytes provides therapeutic benefit in a
           leukodystrophy model
    • Authors: Georgiou E; Sidiropoulou K, Richter J, et al.
      Abstract: Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease or hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-2 is an autosomal recessively inherited leukodystrophy with childhood onset resulting from mutations in the gene encoding the gap junction protein connexin 47 (Cx47, encoded by GJC2). Cx47 is expressed specifically in oligodendrocytes and is crucial for gap junctional communication throughout the central nervous system. Previous studies confirmed that a cell autonomous loss-of-function mechanism underlies hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-2 and that transgenic oligodendrocyte-specific expression of another connexin, Cx32 (GJB1), can restore gap junctions in oligodendrocytes to achieve correction of the pathology in a disease model. To develop an oligodendrocyte-targeted gene therapy, we cloned the GJC2/Cx47 gene under the myelin basic protein promoter and used an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV.MBP.Cx47myc) to deliver the gene to postnatal Day 10 mice via a single intracerebral injection in the internal capsule area. Lasting Cx47 expression specifically in oligodendrocytes was detected in Cx47 single knockout and Cx32/Cx47 double knockout mice up to 12 weeks post-injection, including the corpus callosum and the internal capsule but also in more distant areas of the cerebrum and in the spinal cord. Application of this oligodendrocyte-targeted somatic gene therapy at postnatal Day 10 in groups of double knockout mice, a well characterized model of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-2, resulted in significant improvement in motor performance and coordination at 1 month of age in treated compared to mock-treated mice, as well as prolonged survival. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and morphological analysis revealed improvement in demyelination, oligodendrocyte apoptosis, inflammation, and astrogliosis, all typical features of this leukodystrophy model in both brain and spinal cord. Functional dye transfer analysis confirmed the re-establishment of oligodendrocyte gap junctional connectivity in treated as opposed to untreated mice. These results provide a significant advance in the development of oligodendrocyte-cell specific gene therapy. Adeno-associated viral vectors can be used to target therapeutic expression of a myelin gene to oligodendrocytes. We show evidence for the first somatic gene therapy approach to treat hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-2 preclinically, providing a potential treatment for this and similar forms of leukodystrophies.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18
  • Distinct binding of PET ligands PBB3 and AV-1451 to tau fibril strains in
           neurodegenerative tauopathies
    • Authors: Ono M; Sahara N, Kumata K, et al.
      Abstract: Diverse neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by deposition of tau fibrils composed of conformers (i.e. strains) unique to each illness. The development of tau imaging agents has enabled visualization of tau lesions in tauopathy patients, but the modes of their binding to different tau strains remain elusive. Here we compared binding of tau positron emission tomography ligands, PBB3 and AV-1451, by fluorescence, autoradiography and homogenate binding assays with homologous and heterologous blockades using tauopathy brain samples. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated intense labelling of non-ghost and ghost tangles with PBB3 and AV-1451, while dystrophic neurites were more clearly detected by PBB3 in brains of Alzheimer’s disease and diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification, characterized by accumulation of all six tau isoforms. Correspondingly, partially distinct distributions of autoradiographic labelling of Alzheimer’s disease slices with 11C-PBB3 and 18F-AV-1451 were noted. Neuronal and glial tau lesions comprised of 4-repeat isoforms in brains of progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and familial tauopathy due to N279K tau mutation and 3-repeat isoforms in brains of Pick’s disease and familial tauopathy due to G272V tau mutation were sensitively detected by PBB3 fluorescence in contrast to very weak AV-1451 signals. This was in line with moderate 11C-PBB3 versus faint 18F-AV-1451 autoradiographic labelling of these tissues. Radioligand binding to brain homogenates revealed multiple binding components with differential affinities for 11C-PBB3 and 18F-AV-1451, and higher availability of binding sites on progressive supranuclear palsy tau deposits for 11C-PBB3 than 18F-AV-1451. Our data indicate distinct selectivity of PBB3 compared to AV-1451 for diverse tau fibril strains. This highlights the more robust ability of PBB3 to capture wide-range tau pathologies.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12
  • Varied effects of age-related neuropathologies on the trajectory of late
           life cognitive decline
    • Authors: Boyle PA; Yang J, Yu L, et al.
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine whether the effects of age-related neuropathologies on cognition change over time. Participants were 1096 deceased persons from two clinical-pathologic studies. All were without dementia at baseline, completed a detailed battery of cognitive tests annually over up to 21 years, died, and underwent detailed neuropathologic examinations to identify Alzheimer’s disease pathology, vascular pathologies (i.e. macro- and microscopic infarcts, atherosclerosis, arteriolar sclerosis, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy), Lewy bodies, transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) pathology, and hippocampal sclerosis. A time-varying effects model was used to flexibly characterize the trajectory of global cognition and assess whether the effects of demographics and each neuropathologic index on cognition changed over time. Results indicated that the mean trajectory of global cognition was characterized by gradual cognitive decline beginning ∼15 years before death and accelerated decline in the last few years. With the exception of microinfarcts and arteriolar sclerosis, all neuropathologies were associated with the cognitive trajectory. However, the nature of their associations varied. Alzheimer’s disease pathology, macroscopic infarcts, Lewy bodies, TDP-43 pathology, and hippocampal sclerosis were associated with progressive cognitive decline, with their deleterious effects increasing over time. By contrast, atherosclerosis and cerebral amyloid angiopathy pathology were associated with a lower level of cognition but their effects were relatively stable over time. These results suggest that age-related neuropathologies are differentially related to late life cognitive trajectories. Whereas some contribute to progressive cognitive deterioration, others lower the level of cognition but exert relatively stable effects over time.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12
  • Relationships between flortaucipir PET tau binding and amyloid burden,
           clinical diagnosis, age and cognition
    • Authors: Pontecorvo MJ; Devous Sr MD, Navitsky M, et al.
      Abstract: The advent of tau-targeted positron emission tomography tracers such as flortaucipir (18F-AV-1451, also known as 18F-T807) have made it possible to investigate the sequence of development of tau and amyloid-β in relationship to age, and to the development of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, flortaucipir tau and florbetapir amyloid positron emission tomography were obtained for 217 subjects including 16 young and 58 older cognitively normal subjects, 95 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination 24–30) and 48 subjects with clinically-defined possible or probable Alzheimer’s disease (Mini-Mental State Examination >10). Images were evaluated visually and quantitatively by regional and voxel-based cortical to cerebellar standard uptake value ratios. For amyloid positron emission tomography positive (Aβ+) subjects, flortaucipir neocortical standard uptake value ratio was significantly higher with more advanced clinical stage (Alzheimer’s disease > mild cognitive impairment > older cognitively normal) and was significantly elevated for Aβ+ mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease subjects relative to the respective Aβ− subjects. In contrast, florbetapir Aβ− older cognitively normal subjects showed an increase in flortaucipir standard uptake value ratios in mesial temporal lobe regions (amygdala, hippocampus/choroid plexus region of interest) compared to younger cognitively normal subjects, but no increased standard uptake value ratios in neocortical regions. Analysis of covariance with planned contrasts showed no differences in regional or composite posterior neocortical flortaucipir standard uptake value ratio as a function of diagnostic group among Aβ− older cognitively normal or clinically diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment subjects. The pattern of flortaucipir distribution among Aβ+ subjects was reminiscent of the cross-sectional distribution of tau reported in post-mortem pathology studies, in that the most commonly affected regions were the inferior and lateral temporal lobes, the same regions where the first signs of increased retention appeared in Aβ+ cognitively normal subjects. However, there was large variability in extent/density of flortaucipir tau binding among Aβ+ subjects. Although high neocortical flortaucipir retention was consistently associated with an Aβ+ florbetapir positron emission tomography scan, not all Aβ+ subjects had elevated flortaucipir standard uptake value ratios. Finally, within the Aβ+ group, increasing levels of flortaucipir tau binding were associated with increased cognitive impairment, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination and Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale. These results suggest development of tau beyond the mesial temporal lobe is associated with, and may be dependent on, amyloid accumulation. Further, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that cortical tau is associated with cognitive impairment.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
  • Mild traumatic brain injury is associated with reduced cortical thickness
           in those at risk for Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Hayes JP; Logue MW, Sadeh N, et al.
      Abstract: Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury is one of the strongest environmental risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, although it is unclear whether mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, also confers risk. This study examined mild traumatic brain injury and genetic risk as predictors of reduced cortical thickness in brain regions previously associated with early Alzheimer’s disease, and their relationship with episodic memory. Participants were 160 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans between the ages of 19 and 58, many of whom carried mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder diagnoses. Whole-genome polygenic risk scores for the development of Alzheimer’s disease were calculated using summary statistics from the largest Alzheimer’s disease genome-wide association study to date. Results showed that mild traumatic brain injury moderated the relationship between genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease and cortical thickness, such that individuals with mild traumatic brain injury and high genetic risk showed reduced cortical thickness in Alzheimer’s disease-vulnerable regions. Among males with mild traumatic brain injury, high genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease was associated with cortical thinning as a function of time since injury. A moderated mediation analysis showed that mild traumatic brain injury and high genetic risk indirectly influenced episodic memory performance through cortical thickness, suggesting that cortical thinning in Alzheimer’s disease-vulnerable brain regions is a mechanism for reduced memory performance. Finally, analyses that examined the apolipoprotein E4 allele, post-traumatic stress disorder, and genetic risk for schizophrenia and depression confirmed the specificity of the Alzheimer’s disease polygenic risk finding. These results provide evidence that mild traumatic brain injury is associated with greater neurodegeneration and reduced memory performance in individuals at genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease, with the caveat that the order of causal effects cannot be inferred from cross-sectional studies. These results underscore the importance of documenting head injuries even within the mild range as they may interact with genetic risk to produce negative long-term health consequences such as neurodegenerative disease.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
  • COL6A5 variants in familial neuropathic chronic itch
    • Authors: Martinelli-Boneschi F; Colombi M, Castori M, et al.
      Abstract: Itch is thought to represent the peculiar response to stimuli conveyed by somatosensory pathways shared with pain through the activation of specific neurons and receptors. It can occur in association with dermatological, systemic and neurological diseases, or be the side effect of certain drugs. However, some patients suffer from chronic idiopathic itch that is frequently ascribed to psychological distress and for which no biomarker is available to date. We investigated three multigenerational families, one of which diagnosed with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), characterized by idiopathic chronic itch with predominantly proximal distribution. Skin biopsy was performed in all eight affected members and revealed in six of them reduced intraepidermal nerve fibre density consistent with small fibre neuropathy. Whole exome sequencing identified two COL6A5 rare variants co-segregating with chronic itch in eight affected members and absent in non-affected members, and in one unrelated sporadic patient with type 1 painless diabetic neuropathy and chronic itch. Two families and the diabetic patient carried the nonsense c.6814G>T (p.Glu2272*) variant and another family carried the missense c.6486G>C (p.Arg2162Ser) variant. Both variants were predicted as likely pathogenic by in silico analyses. The two variants were rare (minor allele frequency < 0.1%) in 6271 healthy controls and absent in 77 small fibre neuropathy and 167 JHS/EDS-HT patients without itch. Null-allele test on cDNA from patients’ fibroblasts of both families carrying the nonsense variant demonstrated functional haploinsufficiency due to activation of nonsense mediated RNA decay. Immunofluorescence microscopy and western blotting revealed marked disorganization and reduced COL6A5 synthesis, respectively. Indirect immunofluorescence showed reduced COL6A5 expression in the skin of patients carrying the nonsense variant. Treatment with gabapentinoids provided satisfactory itch relief in the patients carrying the mutations. Our findings first revealed an association between COL6A5 gene and familiar chronic itch, suggesting a new contributor to the pathogenesis of neuropathic itch and identifying a new candidate therapeutic target.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
  • Dynamics of convulsive seizure termination and postictal generalized EEG
    • Authors: Bauer PR; Thijs RD, Lamberts RJ, et al.
      Abstract: It is not fully understood how seizures terminate and why some seizures are followed by a period of complete brain activity suppression, postictal generalized EEG suppression. This is clinically relevant as there is a potential association between postictal generalized EEG suppression, cardiorespiratory arrest and sudden death following a seizure. We combined human encephalographic seizure data with data of a computational model of seizures to elucidate the neuronal network dynamics underlying seizure termination and the postictal generalized EEG suppression state. A multi-unit computational neural mass model of epileptic seizure termination and postictal recovery was developed. The model provided three predictions that were validated in EEG recordings of 48 convulsive seizures from 48 subjects with refractory focal epilepsy (20 females, age range 15–61 years). The duration of ictal and postictal generalized EEG suppression periods in human EEG followed a gamma probability distribution indicative of a deterministic process (shape parameter 2.6 and 1.5, respectively) as predicted by the model. In the model and in humans, the time between two clonic bursts increased exponentially from the start of the clonic phase of the seizure. The terminal interclonic interval, calculated using the projected terminal value of the log-linear fit of the clonic frequency decrease was correlated with the presence and duration of postictal suppression. The projected terminal interclonic interval explained 41% of the variation in postictal generalized EEG suppression duration (P < 0.02). Conversely, postictal generalized EEG suppression duration explained 34% of the variation in the last interclonic interval duration. Our findings suggest that postictal generalized EEG suppression is a separate brain state and that seizure termination is a plastic and autonomous process, reflected in increased duration of interclonic intervals that determine the duration of postictal generalized EEG suppression.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
  • Clemizole and modulators of serotonin signalling suppress seizures in
           Dravet syndrome
    • Authors: Griffin A; Hamling KR, Knupp K, et al.
      Abstract: Dravet syndrome is a catastrophic childhood epilepsy with early-onset seizures, delayed language and motor development, sleep disturbances, anxiety-like behaviour, severe cognitive deficit and an increased risk of fatality. It is primarily caused by de novo mutations of the SCN1A gene encoding a neuronal voltage-activated sodium channel. Zebrafish with a mutation in the SCN1A homologue recapitulate spontaneous seizure activity and mimic the convulsive behavioural movements observed in Dravet syndrome. Here, we show that phenotypic screening of drug libraries in zebrafish scn1 mutants rapidly and successfully identifies new therapeutics. We demonstrate that clemizole binds to serotonin receptors and its antiepileptic activity can be mimicked by drugs acting on serotonin signalling pathways e.g. trazodone and lorcaserin. Coincident with these zebrafish findings, we treated five medically intractable Dravet syndrome patients with a clinically-approved serotonin receptor agonist (lorcaserin, Belviq®) and observed some promising results in terms of reductions in seizure frequency and/or severity. Our findings demonstrate a rapid path from preclinical discovery in zebrafish, through target identification, to potential clinical treatments for Dravet syndrome.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
  • Dopamine controls Parkinson’s tremor by inhibiting the cerebellar
    • Authors: Dirkx MF; den Ouden HM, Aarts E, et al.
      Abstract: Parkinson’s resting tremor is related to altered cerebral activity in the basal ganglia and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit. Although Parkinson’s disease is characterized by dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic basis of resting tremor remains unclear: dopaminergic medication reduces tremor in some patients, but many patients have a dopamine-resistant tremor. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging, we test how a dopaminergic intervention influences the cerebral circuit involved in Parkinson’s tremor. From a sample of 40 patients with Parkinson’s disease, we selected 15 patients with a clearly tremor-dominant phenotype. We compared tremor-related activity and effective connectivity (using combined electromyography-functional magnetic resonance imaging) on two occasions: ON and OFF dopaminergic medication. Building on a recently developed cerebral model of Parkinson’s tremor, we tested the effect of dopamine on cerebral activity associated with the onset of tremor episodes (in the basal ganglia) and with tremor amplitude (in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit). Dopaminergic medication reduced clinical resting tremor scores (mean 28%, range −12 to 68%). Furthermore, dopaminergic medication reduced tremor onset-related activity in the globus pallidus and tremor amplitude-related activity in the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus. Network analyses using dynamic causal modelling showed that dopamine directly increased self-inhibition of the ventral intermediate nucleus, rather than indirectly influencing the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit through the basal ganglia. Crucially, the magnitude of thalamic self-inhibition predicted the clinical dopamine response of tremor. Dopamine reduces resting tremor by potentiating inhibitory mechanisms in a cerebellar nucleus of the thalamus (ventral intermediate nucleus). This suggests that altered dopaminergic projections to the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit have a role in Parkinson’s tremor.aww331media15307619934001
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
  • A mutation of EPT1 ( SELENOI ) underlies a new disorder of Kennedy pathway
           phospholipid biosynthesis
    • Authors: Ahmed MY; Al-Khayat A, Al-Murshedi F, et al.
      Abstract: Mutations in genes involved in lipid metabolism have increasingly been associated with various subtypes of hereditary spastic paraplegia, a highly heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative motor neuron disorders characterized by spastic paraparesis. Here, we report an unusual autosomal recessive neurodegenerative condition, best classified as a complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia, associated with mutation in the ethanolaminephosphotransferase 1 (EPT1) gene (now known as SELENOI), responsible for the final step in Kennedy pathway forming phosphatidylethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine. Phosphatidylethanolamine is a glycerophospholipid that, together with phosphatidylcholine, constitutes more than half of the total phospholipids in eukaryotic cell membranes. We determined that the mutation defined dramatically reduces the enzymatic activity of EPT1, thereby hindering the final step in phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis. Additionally, due to central nervous system inaccessibility we undertook quantification of phosphatidylethanolamine levels and species in patient and control blood samples as an indication of liver phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis. Although this revealed alteration to levels of specific phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl species in patients, overall phosphatidylethanolamine levels were broadly unaffected indicating that in blood EPT1 inactivity may be compensated for, in part, via alternate biochemical pathways. These studies define the first human disorder arising due to defective CDP-ethanolamine biosynthesis and provide new insight into the role of Kennedy pathway components in human neurological function.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04
  • Perfusion computed tomography in patients with stroke thrombolysis
    • Authors: Kawano H; Bivard A, Lin L, et al.
      Abstract: See Saver (doi:10.1093/awx020) for a scientific commentary on this article.Stroke shortens an individual’s disability-free life. We aimed to assess the relative prognostic influence of pre- and post-treatment perfusion computed tomography imaging variables (e.g. ischaemic core and penumbral volumes) compared to standard clinical predictors (such as onset-to-treatment time) on long-term stroke disability in patients undergoing thrombolysis. We used data from a prospectively collected international, multicentre, observational registry of acute ischaemic stroke patients who had perfusion computed tomography and computed tomography angiography before treatment with intravenous alteplase. Baseline perfusion computed tomography and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging were analysed to derive the baseline penumbra volume, baseline ischaemic core volume, and penumbra salvaged from infarction. The primary outcome measure was the effect of imaging and clinical variables on Disability-Adjusted Life Year. Clinical variables were age, sex, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and onset-to-treatment time. Age, sex, country, and 3-month modified Rankin Scale were extracted from the registry to calculate disability-adjusted life-year due to stroke, such that 1 year of disability-adjusted life-year equates to 1 year of healthy life lost due to stroke. There were 772 patients receiving alteplase therapy. The number of disability-adjusted life-year days lost per 1 ml of baseline ischaemic core volume was 17.5 (95% confidence interval, 13.2–21.9 days, P < 0.001). For every millilitre of penumbra salvaged, 7.2 days of disability-adjusted life-year days were saved (β = −7.2, 95% confidence interval, −10.4 to −4.1 days, P < 0.001). Each minute of earlier onset-to-treatment time resulted in a saving of 4.4 disability-free days after stroke (1.3–7.5 days, P = 0.006). However, after adjustment for imaging variables, onset-to-treatment time was not significantly associated with savings in disability-adjusted life-year days. Pretreatment perfusion computed tomography can (independently of clinical variables) predict significant gains, or loss, of disability-free life in patients undergoing reperfusion therapy for stroke. The effect of earlier treatment on disability-free life appears explained by salvage of penumbra, particularly when the ischaemic core is not too large.
      PubDate: 2016-12-31
  • Structural cerebellar correlates of cognitive and motor dysfunctions in
           cerebellar degeneration
    • Authors: Kansal K; Yang Z, Fishman AM, et al.
      Abstract: See King et al. (doi:10.1093/aww348) for a scientific commentary on this article.Detailed mapping of clinical dysfunctions to the cerebellar lobules in disease populations is necessary to establish the functional significance of lobules implicated in cognitive and motor functions in normal subjects. This study constitutes the first quantitative examination of the lobular correlates of a broad range of cognitive and motor phenomena in cerebellar disease. We analysed cross-sectional data from 72 cases with cerebellar disease and 36 controls without cerebellar disease. Cerebellar lobule volumes were derived from a graph-cut based segmentation algorithm. Sparse partial least squares, a variable selection approach, was used to identify lobules associated with motor function, language, executive function, memory, verbal learning, perceptual organization and visuomotor coordination. Motor dysfunctions were chiefly associated with the anterior lobe and posterior lobule HVI. Confrontation naming, noun fluency, recognition, and perceptual organization did not have cerebellar associations. Verb and phonemic fluency, working memory, cognitive flexibility, immediate and delayed recall, verbal learning, and visuomotor coordination were variably associated with HVI, Crus I, Crus II, HVII B and/or HIX. Immediate and delayed recall also showed associations with the anterior lobe. These findings provide preliminary anatomical evidence for a functional topography of the cerebellum first defined in task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of normal subjects and support the hypotheses that (i) cerebellar efferents target frontal lobe neurons involved in forming action representations and new search strategies; (ii) there is greater involvement of the cerebellum when immediate recall tasks involve more complex verbal stimuli (e.g. longer words versus digits); and (iii) it is involved in spontaneous retrieval of long-term memory. More generally, they provide an anatomical background for studies that seek the mechanisms by which cognitive and motor dysfunctions arise from cerebellar degeneration. Beyond replicating these findings, future research should employ experimental tasks to probe the integrity of specific functions in cerebellar disease, and new imaging methods to quantitatively map atrophy across the cerebellum.
      PubDate: 2016-12-31
  • Corticosteroids compromise survival in glioblastoma in part through their
           elevation of blood glucose levels
    • Authors: Klement RJ; Champ CE.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: 2016-12-30
  • Reply: Corticosteroids compromise survival in glioblastoma in part through
           their elevation of blood glucose levels
    • Authors: Weller M; Holland EC, Hambardzumyan D.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: 2016-12-30
  • Heterogeneity of neuroanatomical patterns in prodromal Alzheimer’s
           disease: links to cognition, progression and biomarkers
    • Authors: Dong A; Toledo JB, Honnorat N, et al.
      Abstract: See Coulthard and Knight (doi:10.1093/aww335) for a scientific commentary on this article.Individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease clinical diagnoses can display significant phenotypic heterogeneity. This variability likely reflects underlying genetic, environmental and neuropathological differences. Characterizing this heterogeneity is important for precision diagnostics, personalized predictions, and recruitment of relatively homogeneous sets of patients into clinical trials. In this study, we apply state-of-the-art semi-supervised machine learning methods to the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging cohort (ADNI) to elucidate the heterogeneity of neuroanatomical differences between subjects with mild cognitive impairment (n = 530) and Alzheimer’s disease (n = 314) and cognitively normal individuals (n = 399), thereby adding to an increasing literature aiming to establish neuroanatomical and neuropathological (e.g. amyloid and tau deposition) dimensions in Alzheimer’s disease and its prodromal stages. These dimensional approaches aim to provide surrogate measures of heterogeneous underlying pathologic processes leading to cognitive impairment. We relate these neuroimaging patterns to cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, white matter hyperintensities, cognitive and clinical measures, and longitudinal trajectories. We identified four such atrophy patterns: (i) individuals with largely normal neuroanatomical profiles, who also turned out to have the least abnormal cognitive and cerebrospinal fluid biomarker profiles and the slowest clinical progression during follow-up; (ii) individuals with classical Alzheimer’s disease neuroanatomical, cognitive, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and clinical profile, who presented the fastest clinical progression; (iii) individuals with a diffuse pattern of atrophy with relatively less pronounced involvement of the medial temporal lobe, abnormal cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 values, and proportionally greater executive impairment; and (iv) individuals with notably focal involvement of the medial temporal lobe and a slow steady progression, likely representing in early Alzheimer’s disease stages. These four atrophy patterns effectively define a 4-dimensional categorization of neuroanatomical alterations in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease that can complement existing dimensional approaches for staging Alzheimer’s disease using a variety of biomarkers, which offer the potential for enabling precision diagnostics and prognostics, as well as targeted patient recruitment of relatively homogeneous subgroups of subjects for clinical trials.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
  • Interleukin-2 improves amyloid pathology, synaptic failure and memory in
           Alzheimer’s disease mice
    • Authors: Alves S; Churlaud G, Audrain M, et al.
      Abstract: Interleukin-2 (IL-2)-deficient mice have cytoarchitectural hippocampal modifications and impaired learning and memory ability reminiscent of Alzheimer’s disease. IL-2 stimulates regulatory T cells whose role is to control inflammation. As neuroinflammation contributes to neurodegeneration, we investigated IL-2 in Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, we investigated IL-2 levels in hippocampal biopsies of patients with Alzheimer’s disease relative to age-matched control individuals. We then treated APP/PS1ΔE9 mice having established Alzheimer’s disease with IL-2 for 5 months using single administration of an AAV-IL-2 vector. We first found decreased IL-2 levels in hippocampal biopsies of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. In mice, IL-2-induced systemic and brain regulatory T cells expansion and activation. In the hippocampus, IL-2 induced astrocytic activation and recruitment of astrocytes around amyloid plaques, decreased amyloid-β42/40 ratio and amyloid plaque load, improved synaptic plasticity and significantly rescued spine density. Of note, this tissue remodelling was associated with recovery of memory deficits, as assessed in the Morris water maze task. Altogether, our data strongly suggest that IL-2 can alleviate Alzheimer’s disease hallmarks in APP/PS1ΔE9 mice with established pathology. Therefore, this should prompt the investigation of low-dose IL-2 in Alzheimer’s disease and other neuroinflammatory/neurodegenerative disorders.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
  • Towards a neurocomputational account of social dysfunction in
           neurodegenerative disease
    • Authors: O’Callaghan C; Hornberger M.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: 2016-12-16
  • Reply: Towards a neurocomputational account of social dysfunction in
           neurodegenerative disease
    • Authors: Ibáñez A; Billeke P, de la Fuente L, et al.
      Abstract: Sir, We have read the insightful letter by O’Callaghan and Hornberger (2016), wherein they propose a neurocomputational model for recent reports (Melloni et al., 2016; O’Callaghan et al., 2016) of social decision-making impairments in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). To follow up, here we outline a predictive, context-sensitive account of relevant mechanisms in bvFTD and other frontal disorders. First, we reanalyse our data (Melloni et al., 2016) to characterize the neuroanatomical foundation of short-term strategies during social bargaining. Second, we propose a neurocognitive model addressing extant results and motivating predictions for further research on social negotiation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16
  • Progressive multiple sclerosis: from pathogenic mechanisms to treatment
    • Authors: Correale J; Gaitán MI, Ysrraelit MC, et al.
      Abstract: During the past decades, better understanding of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis disease mechanisms have led to the development of several disease-modifying therapies, reducing relapse rates and severity, through immune system modulation or suppression. In contrast, current therapeutic options for progressive multiple sclerosis remain comparatively disappointing and challenging. One possible explanation is a lack of understanding of pathogenic mechanisms driving progressive multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, diagnosis is usually retrospective, based on history of gradual neurological worsening with or without occasional relapses, minor remissions or plateaus. In addition, imaging methods as well as biomarkers are not well established. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in progressive multiple sclerosis show decreased blood–brain barrier permeability, probably reflecting compartmentalization of inflammation behind a relatively intact blood–brain barrier. Interestingly, a spectrum of inflammatory cell types infiltrates the leptomeninges during subpial cortical demyelination. Indeed, recent magnetic resonance imaging studies show leptomeningeal contrast enhancement in subjects with progressive multiple sclerosis, possibly representing an in vivo marker of inflammation associated to subpial demyelination. Treatments for progressive disease depend on underlying mechanisms causing central nervous system damage. Immunity sheltered behind an intact blood–brain barrier, energy failure, and membrane channel dysfunction may be key processes in progressive disease. Interfering with these mechanisms may provide neuroprotection and prevent disability progression, while potentially restoring activity and conduction along damaged axons by repairing myelin. Although most previous clinical trials in progressive multiple sclerosis have yielded disappointing results, important lessons have been learnt, improving the design of novel ones. This review discusses mechanisms involved in progressive multiple sclerosis, correlations between histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging studies, along with possible new therapeutic approaches.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28
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