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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 372 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 372 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 289, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 592, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.713, h-index: 57)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)

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Journal Cover Brain
  [SJR: 6.097]   [H-I: 264]   [66 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0006-8950 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2156
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [372 journals]
  • Polymicrogyria and GRIN1 mutations: altered connections, altered
    • Authors: Crino P.
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘De novo mutations in GRIN1 cause extensive bilateral polymicrogyria’, by Fry et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awx358).
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Parkinson’s disease tremors and serotonin
    • Authors: Jankovic J.
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Progression of tremor in early stages of Parkinson’s disease: a clinical and neuroimaging study’, by Pasquini et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awx376).
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cognitive ageing and Alzheimer’s disease: the cholinergic system
    • Authors: Sultzer D.
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Effect of cholinergic treatment depends on cholinergic integrity in early Alzheimer’s disease’, by Richter et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awx356).
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Kullmann D.
      Abstract: In this issue of Brain David Brenner and colleagues report a hot-spot of mutations in the kinesin family gene KIF5A causing familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, adding to the existing genetic evidence implicating altered cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport in this disease. Two other papers broaden the range of manifestations of genetic disorders involving glutamate receptors. Juliette Piard, George Umanah, Frederike Harms and co-workers identify a mutation in the AAA+ family ATPase Thorase, encoded by ATAD1, which leads to lethal encephalopathy and arthrogryposis, while Andrew Fry, Katherine Fawcett and colleagues report an association between de novo mutations of GRIN1, which codes for the GluN1 subunit of NMDA receptors, and extensive bilateral polymicrogyria, with several probands presenting with developmental delay, microcephaly, visual impairment or refractory epilepsy. The association between NMDA receptors and abnormalities of cortical development is especially intriguing, because previous reports on GRIN1 mutations have only identified relatively minor structural abnormalities in association with various levels of intellectual disability, epilepsy or movement disorders. Some of the polymicrogyria-associated mutations were shown to confer a gain of function, providing a tentative link to animal studies that have used NMDA receptor agonists to induce cortical malformations.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • ‘All disease begins in the gut’: was Hippocrates right'
    • Authors: Lyon L.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cerebral pneumography and the 20th century localization of brain tumours
    • Authors: Lutters B; Koehler P.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • High-dose spaced theta-burst TMS as a rapid-acting antidepressant in
           highly refractory depression
    • Authors: Williams N; Sudheimer K, Bentzley B, et al.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Reply: High-dose spaced theta-burst TMS as a rapid-acting antidepressant
           in highly refractory depression
    • Authors: Li C Su T.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • HDAC6 is a therapeutic target in mutant GARS-induced Charcot-Marie-Tooth
    • Authors: Benoy V; Van Helleputte L, Prior R, et al.
      Abstract: Peripheral nerve axons require a well-organized axonal microtubule network for efficient transport to ensure the constant crosstalk between soma and synapse. Mutations in more than 80 different genes cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, which is the most common inherited disorder affecting peripheral nerves. This genetic heterogeneity has hampered the development of therapeutics for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. The aim of this study was to explore whether histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) can serve as a therapeutic target focusing on the mutant glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS/GARS)-induced peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglia from the C201R mutant Gars mouse model showed reduced acetylated α-tubulin levels. In primary dorsal root ganglion neurons, mutant GlyRS affected neurite length and disrupted normal mitochondrial transport. We demonstrated that GlyRS co-immunoprecipitated with HDAC6 and that this interaction was blocked by tubastatin A, a selective inhibitor of the deacetylating function of HDAC6. Moreover, HDAC6 inhibition restored mitochondrial axonal transport in mutant GlyRS-expressing neurons. Systemic delivery of a specific HDAC6 inhibitor increased α-tubulin acetylation in peripheral nerves and partially restored nerve conduction and motor behaviour in mutant Gars mice. Our study demonstrates that α-tubulin deacetylation and disrupted axonal transport may represent a common pathogenic mechanism underlying Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and it broadens the therapeutic potential of selective HDAC6 inhibition to other genetic forms of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • A method for inferring regional origins of neurodegeneration
    • Authors: Torok J; Maia P, Powell F, et al.
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, is characterized by the emergence and spread of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, causing widespread neurodegeneration. Though the progression of Alzheimer’s disease is considered to be stereotyped, the significant variability within clinical populations obscures this interpretation on the individual level. Of particular clinical importance is understanding where exactly pathology, e.g. tau, emerges in each patient and how the incipient atrophy pattern relates to future spread of disease. Here we demonstrate a newly developed graph theoretical method of inferring prior disease states in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment using an established network diffusion model and an L1-penalized optimization algorithm. Although the ‘seeds’ of origin using our inference method successfully reproduce known trends in Alzheimer’s disease staging on a population level, we observed that the high degree of heterogeneity between patients at baseline is also reflected in their seeds. Additionally, the individualized seeds are significantly more predictive of future atrophy than a single seed placed at the hippocampus. Our findings illustrate that understanding where disease originates in individuals is critical to determining how it progresses and that our method allows us to infer early stages of disease from atrophy patterns observed at diagnosis.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • MicroRNA132 associated multimodal neuroimaging patterns in unmedicated
           major depressive disorder
    • Authors: Qi S; Yang X, Zhao L, et al.
      Abstract: There is compelling evidence that epigenetic factors contribute to the manifestation of depression, in which microRNA132 (miR-132) is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and neuronal mechanisms underlying the symptoms of depression. Additionally, several depression-associated genes [MECP2, ARHGAP32 (p250GAP), CREB, and period genes] were experimentally validated as miR-132 targets. However, most studies regarding miR-132 in major depressive disorder are based on post-mortem, animal models or genetic comparisons. This work will be the first attempt to investigate how miR-132 dysregulation may impact covariation of multimodal brain imaging data in 81 unmedicated major depressive patients and 123 demographically-matched healthy controls, as well as in a medication-naïve subset of major depressive patients. MiR-132 values in blood (patients > controls) was used as a prior reference to guide fusion of three MRI features: fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations, grey matter volume, and fractional anisotropy. The multimodal components correlated with miR-132 also show significant group difference in loadings. Results indicate that (i) higher miR-132 levels in major depressive disorder are associated with both lower fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and lower grey matter volume in fronto-limbic network; and (ii) the identified brain regions linked with increased miR-132 levels were also associated with poorer cognitive performance in attention and executive function. Using a data-driven, supervised-learning method, we determined that miR-132 dysregulation in major depressive disorder is associated with multi-facets of brain function and structure in fronto-limbic network (the key network for emotional regulation and memory), which deepens our understanding of how miR-132 dysregulation in major depressive disorders contribute to the loss of specific brain areas and is linked to relevant cognitive impairments.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evidence for a subcortical origin of mirror movements after stroke: a
           longitudinal study
    • Authors: Ejaz N; Xu J, Branscheidt M, et al.
      Abstract: Following a stroke, mirror movements are unintended movements that appear in the non-paretic hand when the paretic hand voluntarily moves. Mirror movements have previously been linked to overactivation of sensorimotor areas in the non-lesioned hemisphere. In this study, we hypothesized that mirror movements might instead have a subcortical origin, and are the by-product of subcortical motor pathways upregulating their contributions to the paretic hand. To test this idea, we first characterized the time course of mirroring in 53 first-time stroke patients, and compared it to the time course of activities in sensorimotor areas of the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres (measured using functional MRI). Mirroring in the non-paretic hand was exaggerated early after stroke (Week 2), but progressively diminished over the year with a time course that parallelled individuation deficits in the paretic hand. We found no evidence of cortical overactivation that could explain the time course changes in behaviour, contrary to the cortical model of mirroring. Consistent with a subcortical origin of mirroring, we predicted that subcortical contributions should broadly recruit fingers in the non-paretic hand, reflecting the limited capacity of subcortical pathways in providing individuated finger control. We therefore characterized finger recruitment patterns in the non-paretic hand during mirroring. During mirroring, non-paretic fingers were broadly recruited, with mirrored forces in homologous fingers being only slightly larger (1.76 times) than those in non-homologous fingers. Throughout recovery, the pattern of finger recruitment during mirroring for patients looked like a scaled version of the corresponding control mirroring pattern, suggesting that the system that is responsible for mirroring in controls is upregulated after stroke. Together, our results suggest that post-stroke mirror movements in the non-paretic hand, like enslaved movements in the paretic hand, are caused by the upregulation of a bilaterally organized subcortical system.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • A homozygous ATAD1 mutation impairs postsynaptic AMPA receptor trafficking
           and causes a lethal encephalopathy
    • Authors: Piard J; Umanah G, Harms F, et al.
      Abstract: Members of the AAA+ superfamily of ATPases are involved in the unfolding of proteins and disassembly of protein complexes and aggregates. ATAD1 encoding the ATPase family, AAA+ domain containing 1-protein Thorase plays an important role in the function and integrity of mitochondria and peroxisomes. Postsynaptically, Thorase controls the internalization of excitatory, glutamatergic AMPA receptors by disassembling complexes between the AMPA receptor-binding protein, GRIP1, and the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in the last exon of ATAD1 [c.1070_1071delAT; p.(His357Argfs*15)] in three siblings who presented with a severe, lethal encephalopathy associated with stiffness and arthrogryposis. Biochemical and cellular analyses show that the C-terminal end of Thorase mutant gained a novel function that strongly impacts its oligomeric state, reduces stability or expression of a set of Golgi, peroxisomal and mitochondrial proteins and affects disassembly of GluA2 and Thorase oligomer complexes. Atad1−/− neurons expressing Thorase mutantHis357Argfs*15 display reduced amount of GluA2 at the cell surface suggesting that the Thorase mutant may inhibit the recycling back and/or reinsertion of AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane. Taken together, our molecular and functional analyses identify an activating ATAD1 mutation as a new cause of severe encephalopathy and congenital stiffness.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Stereotyped high-frequency oscillations discriminate seizure onset zones
           and critical functional cortex in focal epilepsy
    • Authors: Liu S; Gurses C, Sha Z, et al.
      Abstract: High-frequency oscillations in local field potentials recorded with intracranial EEG are putative biomarkers of seizure onset zones in epileptic brain. However, localized 80–500 Hz oscillations can also be recorded from normal and non-epileptic cerebral structures. When defined only by rate or frequency, physiological high-frequency oscillations are indistinguishable from pathological ones, which limit their application in epilepsy presurgical planning. We hypothesized that pathological high-frequency oscillations occur in a repetitive fashion with a similar waveform morphology that specifically indicates seizure onset zones. We investigated the waveform patterns of automatically detected high-frequency oscillations in 13 epilepsy patients and five control subjects, with an average of 73 subdural and intracerebral electrodes recorded per patient. The repetitive oscillatory waveforms were identified by using a pipeline of unsupervised machine learning techniques and were then correlated with independently clinician-defined seizure onset zones. Consistently in all patients, the stereotypical high-frequency oscillations with the highest degree of waveform similarity were localized within the seizure onset zones only, whereas the channels generating high-frequency oscillations embedded in random waveforms were found in the functional regions independent from the epileptogenic locations. The repetitive waveform pattern was more evident in fast ripples compared to ripples, suggesting a potential association between waveform repetition and the underlying pathological network. Our findings provided a new tool for the interpretation of pathological high-frequency oscillations that can be efficiently applied to distinguish seizure onset zones from functionally important sites, which is a critical step towards the translation of these signature events into valid clinical biomarkers.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • No evidence for rare TRAP1 mutations influencing the risk of idiopathic
           Parkinson’s disease
    • Authors: Gaare J; Nido G, Sztromwasser P, et al.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Reply: No evidence for rare TRAP1 mutations influencing the risk of
           idiopathic Parkinson’s disease
    • Authors: Fitzgerald J; Zimprich A, Reddy Bobbili D, et al.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • A novel metabolism-based phenotypic drug discovery platform in zebrafish
           uncovers HDACs 1 and 3 as a potential combined anti-seizure drug target
    • Authors: Ibhazehiebo K; Gavrilovici C, de la Hoz C, et al.
      Abstract: Despite the development of newer anti-seizure medications over the past 50 years, 30–40% of patients with epilepsy remain refractory to treatment. One explanation for this lack of progress is that the current screening process is largely biased towards transmembrane channels and receptors, and ignores intracellular proteins and enzymes that might serve as efficacious molecular targets. Here, we report the development of a novel drug screening platform that harnesses the power of zebrafish genetics and combines it with in vivo bioenergetics screening assays to uncover therapeutic agents that improve mitochondrial health in diseased animals. By screening commercially available chemical libraries of approved drugs, for which the molecular targets and pathways are well characterized, we were able to reverse-identify the proteins targeted by efficacious compounds and confirm the physiological roles that they play by utilizing other pharmacological ligands. Indeed, using an 870-compound screen in kcna1-morpholino epileptic zebrafish larvae, we uncovered vorinostat (Zolinza™; suberanilohydroxamic acid, SAHA) as a potent anti-seizure agent. We further demonstrated that vorinostat decreased average daily seizures by ∼60% in epileptic Kcna1-null mice using video-EEG recordings. Given that vorinostat is a broad histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, we then delineated a specific subset of HDACs, namely HDACs 1 and 3, as potential drug targets for future screening. In summary, we have developed a novel phenotypic, metabolism-based experimental therapeutics platform that can be used to identify new molecular targets for future drug discovery in epilepsy.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Characteristics and mechanism of apogeotropic central positional nystagmus
    • Authors: Choi J; Glasauer S, Kim J, et al.
      Abstract: Here we characterize persistent apogeotropic type of central positional nystagmus, and compare it with the apogeotropic nystagmus of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo involving the lateral canal. Nystagmus was recorded in 27 patients with apogeotropic type of central positional nystagmus (22 with unilateral and five with diffuse cerebellar lesions) and 20 patients with apogeotropic nystagmus of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. They were tested while sitting, while supine with the head straight back, and in the right and left ear-down positions. The intensity of spontaneous nystagmus was similar while sitting and supine in apogeotropic type of central positional nystagmus, but greater when supine in apogeotropic nystagmus of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. In central positional nystagmus, when due to a focal pathology, the lesions mostly overlapped in the vestibulocerebellum (nodulus, uvula, and tonsil). We suggest a mechanism for apogeotropic type of central positional nystagmus based on the location of lesions and a model that uses the velocity-storage mechanism. During both tilt and translation, the otolith organs can relay the same gravito-inertial acceleration signal. This inherent ambiguity can be resolved by a ‘tilt-estimator circuit’ in which information from the semicircular canals about head rotation is combined with otolith information about linear acceleration through the velocity-storage mechanism. An example of how this mechanism works in normal subjects is the sustained horizontal nystagmus that is produced when a normal subject is rotated at a constant speed around an axis that is tilted away from the true vertical (off-vertical axis rotation). We propose that when the tilt-estimator circuit malfunctions, for example, with lesions in the vestibulocerebellum, the estimate of the direction of gravity is erroneously biased away from true vertical. If the bias is toward the nose, when the head is turned to the side while supine, there will be sustained, unwanted, horizontal positional nystagmus (apogeotropic type of central positional nystagmus) because of an inappropriate feedback signal indicating that the head is rotating when it is not.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • De novo mutations in GRIN1 cause extensive bilateral polymicrogyria
    • Authors: Fry A; Fawcett K, Zelnik N, et al.
      Abstract: See Crino (doi:10.1093/brain/awy047) for a scientific commentary on this article.Polymicrogyria is a malformation of cortical development. The aetiology of polymicrogyria remains poorly understood. Using whole-exome sequencing we found de novo heterozygous missense GRIN1 mutations in 2 of 57 parent-offspring trios with polymicrogyria. We found nine further de novo missense GRIN1 mutations in additional cortical malformation patients. Shared features in the patients were extensive bilateral polymicrogyria associated with severe developmental delay, postnatal microcephaly, cortical visual impairment and intractable epilepsy. GRIN1 encodes GluN1, the essential subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. The polymicrogyria-associated GRIN1 mutations tended to cluster in the S2 region (part of the ligand-binding domain of GluN1) or the adjacent M3 helix. These regions are rarely mutated in the normal population or in GRIN1 patients without polymicrogyria. Using two-electrode and whole-cell voltage-clamp analysis, we showed that the polymicrogyria-associated GRIN1 mutations significantly alter the in vitro activity of the receptor. Three of the mutations increased agonist potency while one reduced proton inhibition of the receptor. These results are striking because previous GRIN1 mutations have generally caused loss of function, and because N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonists have been used for many years to generate animal models of polymicrogyria. Overall, our results expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with GRIN1 mutations and highlight the important role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor signalling in the pathogenesis of polymicrogyria.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Progression of tremor in early stages of Parkinson’s disease: a clinical
           and neuroimaging study
    • Authors: Pasquini J; Ceravolo R, Qamhawi Z, et al.
      Abstract: See Jankovic (doi:10.1093/brain/awx361) for a scientific commentary on this article.Rest tremor is one of the cardinal signs of Parkinson’s disease. Kinetic and postural tremors may also occur. The coexistence of these three types of tremor at disease onset and their subsequent progression could have important clinical and therapeutic implications but remain to be fully elucidated. We aimed to: (i) evaluate prevalence and progression of these three types of tremor in early stages of the disease; and (ii) investigate longitudinally the relationship between dopaminergic and serotonergic terminal dysfunction, rest tremor severity and its response to dopaminergic therapy. The Parkinson’s Progressive Markers Initiative database provided the baseline and 2-year follow-up clinical ratings and 123ioflupane-fluoropropyl-carbomethoxy-3-beta-4-iodophenyltropane (123I-FP-CIT) single photon emission computed tomography images for this study. 123I-FP-CIT measured putamen dopamine transporter and median raphe serotonin transporter availability. A raphe/putamen uptake ratio was calculated for each patient as an index of relative involvement of these structures. Clinical analysis of tremor was conducted on 378 patients: 87.8% presented with tremor at baseline; rest tremor occurred in 69.6% of patients at baseline; and 67.9% at follow-up. Postural and kinetic tremors occurred in about 50% of patients at both baseline and follow-up. Over 20% of patients presenting with tremor did not exhibit a rest component at baseline. The number of patients with isolated rest tremor was halved at follow-up. In tremor predominant patients, rest tremor severity was inversely correlated with raphe serotonin transporter availability both at baseline and follow-up (baseline: constancy P < 0.05, tremor index P < 0.05; follow-up: amplitude P < 0.05, constancy P < 0.05, tremor index P < 0.05). In the entire cohort, more severe tremor scores correlated with lower raphe/putamen uptake ratio values, indicative of more severe raphe dysfunction (baseline: constancy P < 0.01, tremor index P < 0.05; follow-up: amplitude P < 0.01, constancy P < 0.001, tremor index P < 0.001). The percentage of improvement in rest tremor amplitude after acute dopaminergic therapy was smaller in patients with lower raphe/putamen uptake ratio values (P < 0.01). Rest tremor is the most represented type of tremor in early Parkinson’s disease. However, postural and kinetic tremor can affect approximately half of these patients and can occur in absence of resting tremor. As disease progresses, both raphe serotonergic dysfunction and putamen dopamine depletion could contribute to the occurrence of rest tremor. The former is linked to more severe tremor scores and poorer response to dopaminergic therapy. Non-dopaminergic treatments might be beneficial for patients whose tremor is associated with a raphe-predominant dysfunction.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Predicting progression from normal cognition to mild cognitive impairment
           for individuals at 5 years
    • Authors: Albert M; Zhu Y, Moghekar A, et al.
      Abstract: Recent evidence indicates that measures from cerebrospinal fluid, MRI scans and cognitive testing obtained from cognitively normal individuals can be used to predict likelihood of progression to mild cognitive impairment several years later, for groups of individuals. However, it remains unclear whether these measures are useful for predicting likelihood of progression for an individual. The increasing focus on early intervention in clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease emphasizes the importance of improving the ability to identify which cognitively normal individuals are more likely to progress over time, thus allowing researchers to efficiently screen participants, as well as determine the efficacy of any treatment intervention. The goal of this study was to determine which measures, obtained when individuals were cognitively normal, predict on an individual basis, the onset of clinical symptoms associated with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease. Cognitively normal participants (n = 224, mean baseline age = 57 years) were evaluated with a range of measures, including: cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β and phosphorylated-tau, hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volume, cognitive tests scores and APOE genotype. They were then followed to determine which individuals developed mild cognitive impairment over time (mean follow-up = 11 years). The primary outcome was progression from normal cognition to the onset of clinical symptoms of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease at 5 years post-baseline. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analyses examined the sensitivity and specificity of individual measures, and combinations of measures, as predictors of the outcome. Six measures, in combination, were the most parsimonious predictors of transition to mild cognitive impairment 5 years after baseline (area under the curve = 0.85; sensitivity = 0.80, specificity = 0.75). The addition of variables from each domain significantly improved the accuracy of prediction. The incremental accuracy of prediction achieved by adding individual measures or sets of measures successively to one another was also examined, as might be done when enrolling individuals in a clinical trial. The results indicate that biomarkers obtained when individuals are cognitively normal can be used to predict which individuals are likely to develop clinical symptoms at 5 years post-baseline. As a number of the measures included in the study could also be used as subject selection criteria in a clinical trial, the findings also provide information about measures that would be useful for screening in a clinical trial aimed at individuals with preclinical Alzheimer’s disease.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Spike-related haemodynamic responses overlap with high frequency
           oscillations in patients with focal epilepsy
    • Authors: González Otárula K; Khoo H, von Ellenrieder N, et al.
      Abstract: Simultaneous scalp EEG/functional MRI measures non-invasively haemodynamic responses to interictal epileptic discharges, which are related to the epileptogenic zone. High frequency oscillations are also an excellent indicator of this zone, but are primarily recorded from intracerebral EEG. We studied the spatial overlap of these two important markers in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy to assess if their combination could help better define the extent of the epileptogenic zone. We included patients who underwent EEG-functional MRI and later intracerebral EEG. Based on intracerebral EEG findings, we separated patients with unifocal seizures from patients with multifocal or unknown onset seizures. Haemodynamic t-maps were coregistered with the intracerebral electrode positions. Each EEG channel was classified as pertaining to one of the following categories: primary haemodynamic cluster (maximum t-value), secondary cluster (t-value > 90% of the primary cluster) or outside the primary and secondary clusters. We marked high frequency oscillations (ripples: 80–250 Hz; fast ripples: 250–500 Hz) during 1 h of slow wave sleep, and compared their rates in each haemodynamic category. After classifying channels as high- or low-rate, the proportion of high-rate channels within the primary or primary plus secondary clusters was compared to the proportion expected by chance. Twenty-five patients, 11 with unifocal and 14 with multifocal/unknown seizure onsets, were studied. We found a significantly higher median high frequency oscillation rate in the primary cluster compared to secondary cluster and outside these two clusters for the unifocal group (P < 0.0001), but not for the multifocal/unknown group. For the unifocal group, the number of high-rate channels within the primary or primary plus secondary clusters was significantly higher than expected by chance. This held only for the high-ripple-rate channels in the multifocal/unknown group. At the patient level, most patients (18/25, or 72%) had at least one high-rate channel within a primary cluster. In patients with unifocal epilepsy, the maximum haemodynamic response (primary cluster) related to scalp interictal discharges overlaps with the tissue generating high frequency oscillations at high rates. If intracranial EEG is warranted, this response should be explored. As a tentative clinical use of the combination of these techniques we propose that higher high frequency oscillation rates inside than outside the maximum response indicates that the patient has indeed a focal epileptogenic zone demarcated by this response, whereas similar rates inside and outside may indicate a widespread epileptogenic zone or an epileptogenic zone not covered by the implantation.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Migraine with visual aura associated with thicker visual cortex
    • Authors: Gaist D; Hougaard A, Garde E, et al.
      Abstract: Until recent years it was believed that migraine with aura was a disorder causing intermittent neurological symptoms, with no impact on brain structure. However, recent MRI studies have reported increased cortical thickness of visual and somatosensory areas in patients with migraine with aura, suggesting that such structural alterations were either due to increased neuronal density in the areas involved, or a result of multiple episodes of cortical spreading depression as part of aura attacks. Subsequent studies have yielded conflicting results, possibly due to methodological reasons, e.g. small number of subjects. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited females aged 30–60 years from the nationwide Danish Twin Registry. Brain MRI of females with migraine with aura (patients), their co-twins, and unrelated migraine-free twins (controls) were performed at a single centre and assessed for cortical thickness in predefined cortical areas (V1, V2, V3A, MT, somatosensory cortex), blinded to headache diagnoses. The difference in cortical thickness between patients and controls adjusted for age, and other potential confounders was assessed. Comparisons of twin pairs discordant for migraine with aura were also performed. Comparisons were based on 166 patients, 30 co-twins, and 137 controls. Compared with controls, patients had a thicker cortex in areas V2 [adjusted mean difference 0.032 mm (95% confidence interval 0.003 to 0.061), V3A [adjusted mean difference 0.037 mm (95% confidence interval 0.008 to 0.067)], while differences in the remaining areas examined were not statistically significant [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval): V1 0.022 (−0.007 to 0.052); MT: 0.018 (−0.011 to 0.047); somatosensory cortex: 0.020 (−0.009 to 0.049)]. We found no association between the regions of interest and active migraine, or number of lifetime aura attacks. Migraine with aura discordant twin pairs (n = 30) only differed in mean thickness of V2 (0.039 mm, 95% CI 0.005 to 0.074). In conclusion, females with migraine with aura have a thicker cortex corresponding to visual areas and our results indicate this may be an inherent trait rather than a result of repeated aura attacks.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Multiple sclerosis risk variants alter expression of co-stimulatory genes
           in B cells
    • Authors: Smets I; Fiddes B, Garcia-Perez J, et al.
      Abstract: The increasing evidence supporting a role for B cells in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis prompted us to investigate the influence of known susceptibility variants on the surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules in these cells. Using flow cytometry we measured surface expression of CD40 and CD86 in B cells from 68 patients and 162 healthy controls that were genotyped for the multiple sclerosis associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4810485, which maps within the CD40 gene, and rs9282641, which maps within the CD86 gene. We found that carrying the risk allele rs4810485*T lowered the cell-surface expression of CD40 in all tested B cell subtypes (in total B cells P ≤ 5.10 × 10−5 in patients and ≤4.09 × 10−6 in controls), while carrying the risk allele rs9282641*G increased the expression of CD86, with this effect primarily seen in the naïve B cell subset (P = 0.048 in patients and 5.38 × 10−5 in controls). In concordance with these results, analysis of RNA expression demonstrated that the risk allele rs4810485*T resulted in lower total CD40 expression (P = 0.057) but with an increased proportion of alternative splice-forms leading to decoy receptors (P = 4.00 × 10−7). Finally, we also observed that the risk allele rs4810485*T was associated with decreased levels of interleukin-10 (P = 0.020), which is considered to have an immunoregulatory function downstream of CD40. Given the importance of these co-stimulatory molecules in determining the immune reaction that appears in response to antigen our data suggest that B cells might have an important antigen presentation and immunoregulatory role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Dopaminergic abnormalities following traumatic brain injury
    • Authors: Jenkins P; De Simoni S, Bourke N, et al.
      Abstract: Traumatic brain injury can reduce striatal dopamine levels. The cause of this is uncertain, but is likely to be related to damage to the nigrostriatal system. We investigated the pattern of striatal dopamine abnormalities using 123I-Ioflupane single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans and their relationship to nigrostriatal damage and clinical features. We studied 42 moderate–severe traumatic brain injury patients with cognitive impairments but no motor parkinsonism signs and 20 healthy controls. 123I-Ioflupane scanning was used to assess dopamine transporter levels. Clinical scan reports were compared to quantitative dopamine transporter results. Advanced MRI methods were used to assess the nigrostriatal system, including the area through which the nigrostriatal projections pass as defined from high-resolution Human Connectome data. Detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments were performed. Around 20% of our moderate–severe patients had clear evidence of reduced specific binding ratios for the dopamine transporter in the striatum measured using 123I-Ioflupane SPECT. The caudate was affected more consistently than other striatal regions. Dopamine transporter abnormalities were associated with reduced substantia nigra volume. In addition, diffusion MRI provided evidence of damage to the regions through which the nigrostriatal tract passes, particularly the area traversed by dopaminergic projections to the caudate. Only a small percentage of patients had evidence of macroscopic lesions in the striatum and there was no relationship between presence of lesions and dopamine transporter specific binding ratio abnormalities. There was also no relationship between reduced volume in the striatal subregions and reduced dopamine transporter specific binding ratios. Patients with low caudate dopamine transporter specific binding ratios show impaired processing speed and executive dysfunction compared to patients with normal levels. Taken together, our results suggest that the dopaminergic system is affected by a moderate–severe traumatic brain injury in a significant proportion of patients, even in the absence of clinical motor parkinsonism. Reduced dopamine transporter levels are most commonly seen in the caudate and this is likely to reflect the pattern of nigrostriatal tract damage produced by axonal injury and associated midbrain damage.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Anatomy of aphasia revisited
    • Authors: Fridriksson J; den Ouden D, Hillis A, et al.
      Abstract: In most cases, aphasia is caused by strokes involving the left hemisphere, with more extensive damage typically being associated with more severe aphasia. The classical model of aphasia commonly adhered to in the Western world is the Wernicke-Lichtheim model. The model has been in existence for over a century, and classification of aphasic symptomatology continues to rely on it. However, far more detailed models of speech and language localization in the brain have been formulated. In this regard, the dual stream model of cortical brain organization proposed by Hickok and Poeppel is particularly influential. Their model describes two processing routes, a dorsal stream and a ventral stream, that roughly support speech production and speech comprehension, respectively, in normal subjects. Despite the strong influence of the dual stream model in current neuropsychological research, there has been relatively limited focus on explaining aphasic symptoms in the context of this model. Given that the dual stream model represents a more nuanced picture of cortical speech and language organization, cortical damage that causes aphasic impairment should map clearly onto the dual processing streams. Here, we present a follow-up study to our previous work that used lesion data to reveal the anatomical boundaries of the dorsal and ventral streams supporting speech and language processing. Specifically, by emphasizing clinical measures, we examine the effect of cortical damage and disconnection involving the dorsal and ventral streams on aphasic impairment. The results reveal that measures of motor speech impairment mostly involve damage to the dorsal stream, whereas measures of impaired speech comprehension are more strongly associated with ventral stream involvement. Equally important, many clinical tests that target behaviours such as naming, speech repetition, or grammatical processing rely on interactions between the two streams. This latter finding explains why patients with seemingly disparate lesion locations often experience similar impairments on given subtests. Namely, these individuals’ cortical damage, although dissimilar, affects a broad cortical network that plays a role in carrying out a given speech or language task. The current data suggest this is a more accurate characterization than ascribing specific lesion locations as responsible for specific language deficits.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Unifying control over the body: consciousness and cross-cueing in
           split-brain patients
    • Authors: Volz L; Hillyard S, Miller M, et al.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • SCO2 mutations cause early-onset axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
           associated with cellular copper deficiency
    • Authors: Rebelo A; Saade D, Pereira C, et al.
      Abstract: Recessive mutations in the mitochondrial copper-binding protein SCO2, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) assembly protein, have been reported in several cases with fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy with COX deficiency. Significantly expanding the known phenotypic spectrum, we identified compound heterozygous variants in SCO2 in two unrelated patients with axonal polyneuropathy, also known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4. Different from previously described cases, our patients developed predominantly motor neuropathy, they survived infancy, and they have not yet developed the cardiomyopathy that causes death in early infancy in reported patients. Both of our patients harbour missense mutations near the conserved copper-binding motif (CXXXC), including the common pathogenic variant E140K and a novel change D135G. In addition, each patient carries a second mutation located at the same loop region, resulting in compound heterozygote changes E140K/P169T and D135G/R171Q. Patient fibroblasts showed reduced levels of SCO2, decreased copper levels and COX deficiency. Given that another Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease gene, ATP7A, is a known copper transporter, our findings further underline the relevance of copper metabolism in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Hot-spot KIF5A mutations cause familial ALS
    • Authors: Brenner D; Yilmaz R, Müller K, et al.
      Abstract: Heterozygous missense mutations in the N-terminal motor or coiled-coil domains of the kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) gene cause monogenic spastic paraplegia (HSP10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Moreover, heterozygous de novo frame-shift mutations in the C-terminal domain of KIF5A are associated with neonatal intractable myoclonus, a neurodevelopmental syndrome. These findings, together with the observation that many of the disease genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disrupt cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport, led us to hypothesize that mutations in KIF5A are also a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using whole exome sequencing followed by rare variant analysis of 426 patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6137 control subjects, we detected an enrichment of KIF5A splice-site mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (2/426 compared to 0/6137 in controls; P = 4.2 × 10−3), both located in a hot-spot in the C-terminus of the protein and predicted to affect splicing exon 27. We additionally show co-segregation with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of two canonical splice-site mutations in two families. Investigation of lymphoblast cell lines from patients with KIF5A splice-site mutations revealed the loss of mutant RNA expression and suggested haploinsufficiency as the most probable underlying molecular mechanism. Furthermore, mRNA sequencing of a rare non-synonymous missense mutation (predicting p.Arg1007Gly) located in the C-terminus of the protein shortly upstream of the splice donor of exon 27 revealed defective KIF5A pre-mRNA splicing in respective patient-derived cell lines owing to abrogation of the donor site. Finally, the non-synonymous single nucleotide variant rs113247976 (minor allele frequency = 1.00% in controls, n = 6137), also located in the C-terminal region [p.(Pro986Leu) in exon 26], was significantly enriched in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (minor allele frequency = 3.40%; P = 1.28 × 10−7). Our study demonstrates that mutations located specifically in a C-terminal hotspot of KIF5A can cause a classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotype, and underline the involvement of intracellular transport processes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Spatial patterns of progressive brain volume loss after moderate-severe
           traumatic brain injury
    • Authors: Cole J; Jolly A, de Simoni S, et al.
      Abstract: Traumatic brain injury leads to significant loss of brain volume, which continues into the chronic stage. This can be sensitively measured using volumetric analysis of MRI. Here we: (i) investigated longitudinal patterns of brain atrophy; (ii) tested whether atrophy is greatest in sulcal cortical regions; and (iii) showed how atrophy could be used to power intervention trials aimed at slowing neurodegeneration. In 61 patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (mean age = 41.55 years ± 12.77) and 32 healthy controls (mean age = 34.22 years ± 10.29), cross-sectional and longitudinal (1-year follow-up) brain structure was assessed using voxel-based morphometry on T1-weighted scans. Longitudinal brain volume changes were characterized using a novel neuroimaging analysis pipeline that generates a Jacobian determinant metric, reflecting spatial warping between baseline and follow-up scans. Jacobian determinant values were summarized regionally and compared with clinical and neuropsychological measures. Patients with traumatic brain injury showed lower grey and white matter volume in multiple brain regions compared to controls at baseline. Atrophy over 1 year was pronounced following traumatic brain injury. Patients with traumatic brain injury lost a mean (± standard deviation) of 1.55% ± 2.19 of grey matter volume per year, 1.49% ± 2.20 of white matter volume or 1.51% ± 1.60 of whole brain volume. Healthy controls lost 0.55% ± 1.13 of grey matter volume and gained 0.26% ± 1.11 of white matter volume; equating to a 0.22% ± 0.83 reduction in whole brain volume. Atrophy was greatest in white matter, where the majority (84%) of regions were affected. This effect was independent of and substantially greater than that of ageing. Increased atrophy was also seen in cortical sulci compared to gyri. There was no relationship between atrophy and time since injury or age at baseline. Atrophy rates were related to memory performance at the end of the follow-up period, as well as to changes in memory performance, prior to multiple comparison correction. In conclusion, traumatic brain injury results in progressive loss of brain tissue volume, which continues for many years post-injury. Atrophy is most prominent in the white matter, but is also more pronounced in cortical sulci compared to gyri. These findings suggest the Jacobian determinant provides a method of quantifying brain atrophy following a traumatic brain injury and is informative in determining the long-term neurodegenerative effects after injury. Power calculations indicate that Jacobian determinant images are an efficient surrogate marker in clinical trials of neuroprotective therapeutics.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Fibre-specific white matter reductions in Alzheimer’s disease and
           mild cognitive impairment
    • Authors: Mito R; Raffelt D, Dhollander T, et al.
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease is increasingly considered a large-scale network disconnection syndrome, associated with progressive aggregation of pathological proteins, cortical atrophy, and functional disconnections between brain regions. These pathological changes are posited to arise in a stereotypical spatiotemporal manner, targeting intrinsic networks in the brain, most notably the default mode network. While this network-specific disruption has been thoroughly studied with functional neuroimaging, changes to specific white matter fibre pathways within the brain’s structural networks have not been closely investigated, largely due to the challenges of modelling complex white matter structure. Here, we applied a novel technique known as ‘fixel-based analysis’ to comprehensively investigate fibre tract-specific differences at a within-voxel level (called ‘fixels’) to assess potential axonal loss in subjects with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that patients with Alzheimer’s disease would exhibit extensive degeneration across key fibre pathways connecting default network nodes, while patients with mild cognitive impairment would exhibit selective degeneration within fibre pathways connecting regions previously identified as functionally implicated early in Alzheimer’s disease. Diffusion MRI data from Alzheimer’s disease (n = 49), mild cognitive impairment (n = 33), and healthy elderly control subjects (n = 95) were obtained from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study of ageing. We assessed microstructural differences in fibre density, and macrostructural differences in fibre bundle morphology using fixel-based analysis. Whole-brain analysis was performed to compare groups across all white matter fixels. Subsequently, we performed a tract of interest analysis comparing fibre density and cross-section across 11 selected white matter tracts, to investigate potentially subtle degeneration within fibre pathways in mild cognitive impairment, initially by clinical diagnosis alone, and then by including amyloid status (i.e. a positive or negative amyloid PET scan). Our whole-brain analysis revealed significant white matter loss manifesting both microstructurally and macrostructurally in Alzheimer’s disease patients, evident in specific fibre pathways associated with default mode network nodes. Reductions in fibre density and cross-section in mild cognitive impairment patients were only exhibited within the posterior cingulum when statistical analyses were limited to tracts of interest. Interestingly, these degenerative changes did not appear to be associated with high amyloid accumulation, given that amyloid-negative, but not positive, mild cognitive impairment subjects exhibited subtle focal left posterior cingulum deficits. The findings of this study demonstrated a stereotypical distribution of white matter degeneration in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, which was in line with canonical findings from other imaging modalities, and with a network-based conceptualization of the disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effect of cholinergic treatment depends on cholinergic integrity in early
           Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Richter N; Beckers N, Onur O, et al.
      Abstract: See Sultzer (doi:10.1093/brain/awy040) for a scientific commentary on this article.In early Alzheimer’s disease, which initially presents with progressive loss of short-term memory, neurodegeneration especially affects cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain. Pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer’s disease therefore often targets the cholinergic system. In contrast, cholinergic pharmacotherapy of mild cognitive impairment is debated since its efficacy to date remains controversial. We here investigated the relationship between cholinergic treatment effects and the integrity of the cholinergic system in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease. Fourteen patients with high likelihood of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease and 16 age-matched cognitively normal adults performed an episodic memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging under three conditions: (i) without pharmacotherapy; (ii) with placebo; and (iii) with a single dose of rivastigmine (3 mg). Cortical acetylcholinesterase activity was measured using PET with the tracer 11C-N-methyl-4-piperidyl acetate (MP4A). Cortical acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly decreased in patients relative to controls, especially in the lateral temporal lobes. Without pharmacotherapy, mild cognitive impairment was associated with less memory-related neural activation in the fusiform gyrus and impaired deactivation in the posterior cingulate cortex, relative to controls. These differences were attenuated under cholinergic stimulation with rivastigmine: patients showed increased neural activation in the right fusiform gyrus but enhanced deactivation of the posterior cingulate cortex under rivastigmine, compared to placebo. Conversely, controls showed reduced activation of the fusiform gyrus and reduced deactivation of the posterior cingulate under rivastigmine, compared to placebo. In both groups, the change in neural activation in response to rivastigmine was negatively associated with local acetylcholinesterase activity. At the behavioural level, an analysis of covariance revealed a significant group × treatment interaction in episodic memory performance when accounting for hippocampal grey matter atrophy and function. Our results indicate that rivastigmine differentially affects memory-related neural activity in patients with mild cognitive impairment and cognitively normal, age-matched adults, depending on acetylcholinesterase activity as a marker for the integrity of the cortical cholinergic system. Furthermore, hippocampal integrity showed an independent association with the response of memory performance to acetylcholinesterase inhibition.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: Martina Minnerop, Delia Kurzwelly, Holger Wagner, Anne S. Soehn, Jennifer Reichbauer, Feifei Tao, et al. Hypomorphic mutations in POLR3A are a frequent cause of sporadic and recessive spastic ataxia. Brain 2017; 140: 1561–1578,
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Why not try harder' Computational approach to motivation deficits in
           neuro-psychiatric diseases
    • Authors: Pessiglione M; Vinckier F, Bouret S, et al.
      Abstract: Motivation deficits, such as apathy, are pervasive in both neurological and psychiatric diseases. Even when they are not the core symptom, they reduce quality of life, compromise functional outcome and increase the burden for caregivers. They are currently assessed with clinical scales that do not give any mechanistic insight susceptible to guide therapeutic intervention. Here, we present another approach that consists of phenotyping the behaviour of patients in motivation tests, using computational models. These formal models impose a precise and operational definition of motivation that is embedded in decision theory. Motivation can be defined as the function that orients and activates the behaviour according to two attributes: a content (the goal) and a quantity (the goal value). Decision theory offers a way to quantify motivation, as the cost that patients would accept to endure in order to get the benefit of achieving their goal. We then review basic and clinical studies that have investigated the trade-off between the expected cost entailed by potential actions and the expected benefit associated with potential rewards. These studies have shown that the trade-off between effort and reward involves specific cortical, subcortical and neuromodulatory systems, such that it may be shifted in particular clinical conditions, and reinstated by appropriate treatments. Finally, we emphasize the promises of computational phenotyping for clinical purposes. Ideally, there would be a one-to-one mapping between specific neural components and distinct computational variables and processes of the decision model. Thus, fitting computational models to patients’ behaviour would allow inferring of the dysfunctional mechanism in both cognitive terms (e.g. hyposensitivity to reward) and neural terms (e.g. lack of dopamine). This computational approach may therefore not only give insight into the motivation deficit but also help personalize treatment.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
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