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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 406 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 333, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 597, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 106, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)

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Journal Cover
Journal Prestige (SJR): 5.858
Citation Impact (citeScore): 7
Number of Followers: 68  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0006-8950 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2156
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [406 journals]
  • Janus kinase 1/2 inhibition with baricitinib in the treatment of juvenile
    • Authors: Papadopoulou C; Hong Y, Omoyinmi E, et al.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz005
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Reply: Janus kinase 1/2 inhibition with baricitinib in the treatment of
           juvenile dermatomyositis
    • Authors: Allenbach Y; Bolko L, Toquet S, et al.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz006
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Kullmann D.
      Pages: 489 - 489
      Abstract: For over 141 years Brain has existed as a stand-alone journal, independent of a professional society and published under contract, currently with Oxford University Press. This status has allowed the journal to maintain its standing as a definitive repository of advances in translational neuroscience, whilst supporting the charitable activities of the Guarantors of Brain. Changes in the way some research funders perceive the role of subscription journals are however threatening this arrangement. According to ‘Plan S’ put forward by cOAlition S, a group of European national funding agencies joined by Wellcome and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), all research output supported by these funders will have to be published in fully Open Access journals from 2020. Subscription journals, including Brain and similar ‘hybrid’ journals that offer individual articles to be published under the Open Access model upon payment of an article processing charge, are seen as the bogeyman, presumably because some commercial publishers have given conventional journals a bad name. Apart from the BMGF, funding agencies in the USA and other parts of the world have remained silent, leading to the peculiar situation where most European authors could be forbidden from publishing in the overwhelming majority of established printed journals including Brain, whilst no such restrictions would be placed on authors from the rest of the world unless they were funded by BMGF.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz028
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Immune dysbalance in childhood multiple sclerosis: a ‘chicken or the
           egg’ conundrum
    • Authors: Hohlfeld R.
      Pages: 490 - 492
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Abnormal effector and regulatory T cell subsets in paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis’, by Mexhitaj et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awz017).
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz008
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • How to help cerebellar patients make the most of their remaining learning
    • Authors: Donchin O; Timmann D.
      Pages: 492 - 495
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Can patients with cerebellar disease switch learning mechanisms to reduce their adaptation deficits'’, by Wong et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awy334).
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz020
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Mesolimbic dopamine and anterior cingulate cortex connectivity changes
           lead to impulsive behaviour in Parkinson’s disease
    • Authors: Strafella A.
      Pages: 496 - 498
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Dopamine metabolism of the nucleus accumbens and fronto-striatal connectivity modulate impulse control’, by Hammes et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awz007).
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz010
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • REM sleep behaviour disorder: an early window for prevention in
    • Authors: Weil R; Morris H.
      Pages: 498 - 501
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Risk and predictors of dementia and parkinsonism in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder: a multicentre study’ by Postuma et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awz030).
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz014
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Blood–brain barrier pericytes as a target for HIV-1 infection
    • Authors: Bertrand L; Cho H, Toborek M.
      Pages: 502 - 511
      Abstract: Pericytes are multifunctional cells wrapped around endothelial cells via cytoplasmic processes that extend along the abluminal surface of the endothelium. The interactions between endothelial cells and pericytes of the blood–brain barrier are necessary for proper formation, development, stabilization, and maintenance of the blood–brain barrier. Blood–brain barrier pericytes regulate paracellular flow between cells, transendothelial fluid transport, maintain optimal chemical composition of the surrounding microenvironment, and protect endothelial cells from potential harmful substances. Thus, dysfunction or loss of blood–brain barrier pericytes is an important factor in the pathogenesis of several diseases that are associated with microvascular instability. Importantly, recent research indicates that blood–brain barrier pericytes can be a target of HIV-1 infection able to support productive HIV-1 replication. In addition, blood–brain barrier pericytes are prone to establish a latent infection, which can be reactivated by a mixture of histone deacetylase inhibitors in combination with TNF. HIV-1 infection of blood–brain barrier pericytes has been confirmed in a mouse model of HIV-1 infection and in human post-mortem samples of HIV-1-infected brains. Overall, recent evidence indicates that blood–brain barrier pericytes can be a previously unrecognized HIV-1 target and reservoir in the brain.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy339
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Randomized trial of intermittent intraputamenal glial cell line-derived
           neurotrophic factor in Parkinson’s disease
    • Authors: Whone A; Luz M, Boca M, et al.
      Pages: 512 - 525
      Abstract: We investigated the effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in Parkinson’s disease, using intermittent intraputamenal convection-enhanced delivery via a skull-mounted transcutaneous port as a novel administration paradigm to potentially afford putamen-wide therapeutic delivery. This was a single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were 35–75 years old, had motor symptoms for 5 or more years, and presented with moderate disease severity in the OFF state [Hoehn and Yahr stage 2–3 and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor score (part III) (UPDRS-III) between 25 and 45] and motor fluctuations. Drug delivery devices were implanted and putamenal volume coverage was required to exceed a predefined threshold at a test infusion prior to randomization. Six pilot stage patients (randomization 2:1) and 35 primary stage patients (randomization 1:1) received bilateral intraputamenal infusions of GDNF (120 µg per putamen) or placebo every 4 weeks for 40 weeks. Efficacy analyses were based on the intention-to-treat principle and included all patients randomized. The primary outcome was the percentage change from baseline to Week 40 in the OFF state (UPDRS-III). The primary analysis was limited to primary stage patients, while further analyses included all patients from both study stages. The mean OFF state UPDRS motor score decreased by 17.3 ± 17.6% in the active group and 11.8 ± 15.8% in the placebo group (least squares mean difference: −4.9%, 95% CI: −16.9, 7.1, P = 0.41). Secondary endpoints did not show significant differences between the groups either. A post hoc analysis found nine (43%) patients in the active group but no placebo patients with a large clinically important motor improvement (≥10 points) in the OFF state (P = 0.0008). 18F-DOPA PET imaging demonstrated a significantly increased uptake throughout the putamen only in the active group, ranging from 25% (left anterior putamen; P = 0.0009) to 100% (both posterior putamina; P < 0.0001). GDNF appeared to be well tolerated and safe, and no drug-related serious adverse events were reported. The study did not meet its primary endpoint. 18F-DOPA imaging, however, suggested that intermittent convection-enhanced delivery of GDNF produced a putamen-wide tissue engagement effect, overcoming prior delivery limitations. Potential reasons for not proving clinical benefit at 40 weeks are discussed.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz023
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Maturation of feedforward toe walking motor program is impaired in
           children with cerebral palsy
    • Authors: Lorentzen J; Willerslev-Olsen M, Hüche Larsen H, et al.
      Pages: 526 - 541
      Abstract: Voluntary toe walking in adults is characterized by feedforward control of ankle muscles in order to ensure optimal stability of the ankle joint at ground impact. Toe walking is frequently observed in children with cerebral palsy, but the mechanisms involved have not been clarified. Here, we investigated maturation of voluntary toe walking in typically-developing children and typically-developed adults and compared it to involuntary toe walking in children with cerebral palsy. Twenty-eight children with cerebral palsy (age 3–14 years), 24 typically-developing children (age 2–14 years) and 15 adults (mean age 30.7 years) participated in the study. EMG activity was measured from the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles together with knee and ankle joint position during treadmill walking. In typically-developed adults, low step-to-step variability of the drop of the heel after ground impact was correlated with low tibialis anterior and high soleus EMG with no significant coupling between the antagonist muscle EMGs. Typically-developing children showed a significant age-related decline in EMG amplitude reaching an adult level at 10–12 years of age. The youngest typically-developing children showed a broad peak EMG-EMG synchronization (>100 ms) associated with large 5–15 Hz coherence between antagonist muscle activities. EMG coherence declined with age and at the age of 10–12 years no correlation was observed similar to adults. This reduction in coherence was closely related to improved step-to-step stability of the ankle joint position. Children with cerebral palsy generally showed lower EMG levels than typically-developing children and larger step-to-step variability in ankle joint position. In contrast to typically-developing children, children with cerebral palsy showed no age-related decline in tibialis anterior EMG amplitude. Motor unit synchronization and 5–15 Hz coherence between antagonist EMGs was observed more frequently in children with cerebral palsy when compared to typically-developing children and in contrast to typically-developing participants there was no age-related decline. We conclude that typically-developing children develop mature feedforward control of ankle muscle activity as they age, such that at age 10–12 years there is little agonist–antagonist muscle co-contraction around the time of foot-ground contact during toe walking. Children with cerebral palsy, in contrast, continue to co-contract agonist and antagonist ankle muscles when toe walking. We speculate that children with cerebral palsy maintain a co-contraction activation pattern when toe walking due to weak muscles and insufficient motor and sensory signalling necessary for optimization of feedforward motor programs. These findings are important for understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of toe walking.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz002
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • PLPHP deficiency: clinical, genetic, biochemical, and mechanistic insights
    • Authors: Johnstone D; Al-Shekaili H, Tarailo-Graovac M, et al.
      Pages: 542 - 559
      Abstract: Biallelic pathogenic variants in PLPBP (formerly called PROSC) have recently been shown to cause a novel form of vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy, the pathophysiological basis of which is poorly understood. When left untreated, the disease can progress to status epilepticus and death in infancy. Here we present 12 previously undescribed patients and six novel pathogenic variants in PLPBP. Suspected clinical diagnoses prior to identification of PLPBP variants included mitochondrial encephalopathy (two patients), folinic acid-responsive epilepsy (one patient) and a movement disorder compatible with AADC deficiency (one patient). The encoded protein, PLPHP is believed to be crucial for B6 homeostasis. We modelled the pathogenicity of the variants and developed a clinical severity scoring system. The most severe phenotypes were associated with variants leading to loss of function of PLPBP or significantly affecting protein stability/PLP-binding. To explore the pathophysiology of this disease further, we developed the first zebrafish model of PLPHP deficiency using CRISPR/Cas9. Our model recapitulates the disease, with plpbp−/− larvae showing behavioural, biochemical, and electrophysiological signs of seizure activity by 10 days post-fertilization and early death by 16 days post-fertilization. Treatment with pyridoxine significantly improved the epileptic phenotype and extended lifespan in plpbp−/− animals. Larvae had disruptions in amino acid metabolism as well as GABA and catecholamine biosynthesis, indicating impairment of PLP-dependent enzymatic activities. Using mass spectrometry, we observed significant B6 vitamer level changes in plpbp−/− zebrafish, patient fibroblasts and PLPHP-deficient HEK293 cells. Additional studies in human cells and yeast provide the first empirical evidence that PLPHP is localized in mitochondria and may play a role in mitochondrial metabolism. These models provide new insights into disease mechanisms and can serve as a platform for drug discovery.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy346
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Biallelic KARS pathogenic variants cause an early-onset progressive
    • Authors: Itoh M; Dai H, Horike S, et al.
      Pages: 560 - 573
      Abstract: The leukodystrophies cause severe neurodevelopmental defects from birth and follow an incurable and progressive course that often leads to premature death. It has recently been reported that abnormalities in aminoacyl t-RNA synthetase (ARS) genes are linked to various unique leukodystrophies and leukoencephalopathies. Aminoacyl t-RNA synthetase proteins are fundamentally known as the first enzymes of translation, catalysing the conjugation of amino acids to cognate tRNAs for protein synthesis. It is known that certain aminoacyl t-RNA synthetase have multiple non-canonical roles in both transcription and translation, and their disruption results in varied and complicated phenotypes. We clinically and genetically studied seven patients (six male and one female; aged 2 to 12 years) from five unrelated families who all showed the same phenotypes of severe developmental delay or arrest (7/7), hypotonia (6/7), deafness (7/7) and inability to speak (6/7). The subjects further developed intractable epilepsy (7/7) and nystagmus (6/6) with increasing age. They demonstrated characteristic laboratory data, including increased lactate and/or pyruvate levels (7/7), and imaging findings (7/7), including calcification and abnormal signals in the white matter and pathological involvement (2/2) of the corticospinal tracts. Through whole-exome sequencing, we discovered genetic abnormalities in lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KARS). All patients harboured the variant [c.1786C>T, p.Leu596Phe] KARS isoform 1 ([c.1702C>T, p.Leu568Phe] of KARS isoform 2) either in the homozygous state or compound heterozygous state with the following KARS variants, [c.879+1G>A; c.1786C>T, p.Glu252_Glu293del; p.Leu596Phe] ([c.795+1G>A; c.1702C>T, p.Glu224_Glu255del; p.Leu568Phe]) and [c.650G>A; c.1786C>T, p.Gly217Asp; p.Leu596Phe] ([c.566G>A; c.1702C>T, p.Gly189Asp; p.Leu568Phe]). Moreover, similarly disrupted lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) proteins showed reduced enzymatic activities and abnormal CNSs in Xenopus embryos. Additionally, LysRS acts as a non-canonical inducer of the immune response and has transcriptional activity. We speculated that the complex functions of the abnormal LysRS proteins led to the severe phenotypes in our patients. These KARS pathological variants are novel, including the variant [c.1786C>T; p.Leu596Phe] (c.1702C>T; p.Leu568Phe) shared by all patients in the homozygous or compound-heterozygous state. This common position may play an important role in the development of severe progressive leukodystrophy. Further research is warranted to further elucidate this relationship and to investigate how specific mutated LysRS proteins function to understand the broad spectrum of KARS-related diseases.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz001
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Mutations in the microtubule-associated protein MAP11 (C7orf43) cause
           microcephaly in humans and zebrafish
    • Authors: Perez Y; Bar-Yaacov R, Kadir R, et al.
      Pages: 574 - 585
      Abstract: Microtubule associated protein 11 (MAP11, previously termed C7orf43) encodes a highly conserved protein whose function is unknown. Through genome-wide linkage analysis combined with whole exome sequencing, we demonstrate that human autosomal recessive primary microcephaly is caused by a truncating mutation in MAP11. Moreover, homozygous MAP11-orthologue CRISPR/Cas9 knock-out zebrafish presented with microcephaly and decreased neuronal proliferation, recapitulating the human phenotype. We demonstrate that MAP11 is ubiquitously transcribed with high levels in brain and cerebellum. Immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation studies in SH-SY5Y cells showed that MAP11 associates with mitotic spindles, co-localizing and physically associating with α-tubulin during mitosis. MAP11 expression precedes α-tubulin in gap formation of cell abscission at the midbody and is co-localized with PLK1, a key regulator of cytokinesis, at the edges of microtubule extensions of daughter cells post cytokinesis abscission, implicating a role in mitotic spindle dynamics and in regulation of cell abscission during cytokinesis. Finally, lentiviral-mediated silencing of MAP11 diminished SH-SY5Y cell viability, reducing proliferation rather than affecting apoptosis. Thus, MAP11 encodes a microtubule-associated protein that plays a role in spindle dynamics and cell division, in which mutations cause microcephaly in humans and zebrafish.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz004
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Astrocyte adenosine deaminase loss increases motor neuron toxicity in
           amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    • Authors: Allen S; Hall B, Castelli L, et al.
      Pages: 586 - 605
      Abstract: As clinical evidence supports a negative impact of dysfunctional energy metabolism on the disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, it is vital to understand how the energy metabolic pathways are altered and whether they can be restored to slow disease progression. Possible approaches include increasing or rerouting catabolism of alternative fuel sources to supplement the glycolytic and mitochondrial pathways such as glycogen, ketone bodies and nucleosides. To analyse the basis of the catabolic defect in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis we used a novel phenotypic metabolic array. We profiled fibroblasts and induced neuronal progenitor-derived human induced astrocytes from C9orf72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients compared to normal controls, measuring the rates of production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides from 91 potential energy substrates. This approach shows for the first time that C9orf72 human induced astrocytes and fibroblasts have an adenosine to inosine deamination defect caused by reduction of adenosine deaminase, which is also observed in induced astrocytes from sporadic patients. Patient-derived induced astrocyte lines were more susceptible to adenosine-induced toxicity, which could be mimicked by inhibiting adenosine deaminase in control lines. Furthermore, adenosine deaminase inhibition in control induced astrocytes led to increased motor neuron toxicity in co-cultures, similar to the levels observed with patient derived induced astrocytes. Bypassing metabolically the adenosine deaminase defect by inosine supplementation was beneficial bioenergetically in vitro, increasing glycolytic energy output and leading to an increase in motor neuron survival in co-cultures with induced astrocytes. Inosine supplementation, in combination with modulation of the level of adenosine deaminase may represent a beneficial therapeutic approach to evaluate in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy353
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Abnormal visuo-vestibular interactions in vestibular migraine: a cross
           sectional study
    • Authors: Bednarczuk N; Bonsu A, Ortega M, et al.
      Pages: 606 - 616
      Abstract: Vestibular migraine is among the commonest causes of episodic vertigo. Chronically, patients with vestibular migraine develop abnormal responsiveness to both vestibular and visual stimuli characterized by heightened self-motion sensitivity and visually-induced dizziness. Yet, the neural mechanisms mediating such symptoms remain unknown. We postulate that such symptoms are attributable to impaired visuo-vestibular cortical interactions, which in turn disrupts normal vestibular function. To assess this, we investigated whether prolonged, full-field visual motion exposure, which has been previously shown to modulate visual cortical excitability in both healthy individuals and avestibular patients, could disrupt vestibular ocular reflex and vestibular-perceptual thresholds of self-motion during rotations. Our findings reveal that vestibular migraine patients exhibited abnormally elevated reflexive and perceptual vestibular thresholds at baseline. Following visual motion exposure, both reflex and perceptual thresholds were significantly further increased in vestibular migraine patients relative to healthy controls, migraineurs without vestibular symptoms and patients with episodic vertigo due to a peripheral inner-ear disorder. Our results provide support for the notion of altered visuo-vestibular cortical interactions in vestibular migraine, as evidenced by vestibular threshold elevation following visual motion exposure.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy355
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Abnormal effector and regulatory T cell subsets in paediatric-onset
           multiple sclerosis
    • Authors: Mexhitaj I; Nyirenda M, Li R, et al.
      Pages: 617 - 632
      Abstract: Elucidation of distinct T-cell subsets involved in multiple sclerosis immune-pathophysiology continues to be of considerable interest since an ultimate goal is to more selectively target the aberrant immune response operating in individual patients. While abnormalities of both effector (Teff) and regulatory (Treg) T cells have been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis, prior studies have mostly assessed average abnormalities in either limb of the immune response, rather than both at the same time, which limits the ability to evaluate the balance between effectors and regulators operating in the same patient. Assessing both phenotypic and functional responses of Teffs and Tregs has also proven important. In studies of adults with multiple sclerosis, in whom biological disease onset likely started many years prior to the immune assessments, an added challenge for any reported abnormality is whether the abnormality indeed contributes to the disease (and hence of interest to target therapeutically) or merely develops consequent to inflammatory injury (in which case efforts to develop targeted therapies are unlikely to be beneficial). Paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis, though rare, offers a unique window into early disease mechanisms. Here, we carried out a comprehensive integrated study, simultaneously assessing phenotype and functional responses of both effector and regulatory T cells in the same children with multiple sclerosis, monophasic inflammatory CNS disorders, and healthy controls, recruited as part of the multicentre prospective Canadian Pediatric Demyelinating Disease Study (CPDDS). Stringent standard operating procedures were developed and uniformly applied to procure, process and subsequently analyse peripheral blood cells using rigorously applied multi-parametric flow cytometry panels and miniaturized functional assays validated for use with cryopreserved cells. We found abnormally increased frequencies and exaggerated pro-inflammatory responses of CD8+CD161highTCR-Vα7.2+ MAIT T cells and CD4+CCR2+CCR5+ Teffs in paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis, compared to both control groups. CD4+CD25hiCD127lowFOXP3+ Tregs of children with multiple sclerosis exhibited deficient suppressive capacity, including diminished capacity to suppress disease-implicated Teffs. In turn, the implicated Teffs of multiple sclerosis patients were relatively resistant to suppression by normal Tregs. An abnormal Teff/Treg ratio at the individual child level best distinguished multiple sclerosis children from controls. We implicate abnormalities in both frequencies and functional responses of distinct pro-inflammatory CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets, as well as Treg function, in paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis, and suggest that mechanisms contributing to early multiple sclerosis development differ across individuals, reflecting an excess abnormality in either Teff or Treg limbs of the T cell response, or a combination of lesser abnormalities in both limbs.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz017
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Spatial distribution of multiple sclerosis lesions in the cervical spinal
    • Authors: Eden D; Gros C, Badji A, et al.
      Pages: 633 - 646
      Abstract: Spinal cord lesions detected on MRI hold important diagnostic and prognostic value for multiple sclerosis. Previous attempts to correlate lesion burden with clinical status have had limited success, however, suggesting that lesion location may be a contributor. Our aim was to explore the spatial distribution of multiple sclerosis lesions in the cervical spinal cord, with respect to clinical status. We included 642 suspected or confirmed multiple sclerosis patients (31 clinically isolated syndrome, and 416 relapsing-remitting, 84 secondary progressive, and 73 primary progressive multiple sclerosis) from 13 clinical sites. Cervical spine lesions were manually delineated on T2- and T2*-weighted axial and sagittal MRI scans acquired at 3 or 7 T. With an automatic publicly-available analysis pipeline we produced voxelwise lesion frequency maps to identify predilection sites in various patient groups characterized by clinical subtype, Expanded Disability Status Scale score and disease duration. We also measured absolute and normalized lesion volumes in several regions of interest using an atlas-based approach, and evaluated differences within and between groups. The lateral funiculi were more frequently affected by lesions in progressive subtypes than in relapsing in voxelwise analysis (P < 0.001), which was further confirmed by absolute and normalized lesion volumes (P < 0.01). The central cord area was more often affected by lesions in primary progressive than relapse-remitting patients (P < 0.001). Between white and grey matter, the absolute lesion volume in the white matter was greater than in the grey matter in all phenotypes (P < 0.001); however when normalizing by each region, normalized lesion volumes were comparable between white and grey matter in primary progressive patients. Lesions appearing in the lateral funiculi and central cord area were significantly correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score (P < 0.001). High lesion frequencies were observed in patients with a more aggressive disease course, rather than long disease duration. Lesions located in the lateral funiculi and central cord area of the cervical spine may influence clinical status in multiple sclerosis. This work shows the added value of cervical spine lesions, and provides an avenue for evaluating the distribution of spinal cord lesions in various patient groups.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy352
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Fumarates target the metabolic-epigenetic interplay of brain-homing T
           cells in multiple sclerosis
    • Authors: Ntranos A; Ntranos V, Bonnefil V, et al.
      Pages: 647 - 661
      Abstract: Cell-permeable formulations of metabolites, such as fumaric acid esters, have been used as highly effective immunomodulators in patients with multiple sclerosis and yet their mechanism of action remains elusive. Since fumaric acid esters are metabolites, and cell metabolism is highly intertwined with the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, we investigated whether this metabolic-epigenetic interplay could be leveraged for therapeutic purposes. To this end we recruited 47 treatment-naïve and 35 fumaric acid ester-treated patients with multiple sclerosis, as well as 16 glatiramer acetate-treated patients as a non-metabolite treatment control. Here we identify a significant immunomodulatory effect of fumaric acid esters on the expression of the brain-homing chemokine receptor CCR6 in CD4 and CD8 T cells of patients with multiple sclerosis, which include T helper-17 and T cytotoxic-17 cells. We report differences in DNA methylation of CD4 T cells isolated from untreated and treated patients with multiple sclerosis, using the Illumina EPIC 850K BeadChip. We first demonstrate that Krebs cycle intermediates, such as fumaric acid esters, have a significantly higher impact on epigenome-wide DNA methylation changes in CD4 T cells compared to amino-acid polymers such as glatiramer acetate. We then define a fumaric acid ester treatment-specific hypermethylation effect on microRNA MIR-21, which is critical for the differentiation of T helper-17 cells. This hypermethylation effect was attributed to the subpopulation of T helper-17 cells using a decomposition analysis and was further validated in an independent prospective cohort of seven patients before and after treatment with fumaric acid esters. In vitro treatment of CD4 and CD8 T cells with fumaric acid esters supported a direct and dose-dependent effect on DNA methylation at the MIR-21 promoter. Finally, the upregulation of miR-21 transcripts and CCR6 expression was inhibited if CD4 or CD8 T cells stimulated under T helper-17 or T cytotoxic-17 polarizing conditions were treated with fumaric acid esters in vitro. These data collectively define a direct link between fumaric acid ester treatment and hypermethylation of the MIR-21 locus in both CD4 and CD8 T cells and suggest that the immunomodulatory effect of fumaric acid esters in multiple sclerosis is at least in part due to the epigenetic regulation of the brain-homing CCR6+ CD4 and CD8 T cells.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy344
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Can patients with cerebellar disease switch learning mechanisms to reduce
           their adaptation deficits'
    • Authors: Wong A; Marvel C, Taylor J, et al.
      Pages: 662 - 673
      Abstract: Systematic perturbations in motor adaptation tasks are primarily countered by learning from sensory-prediction errors, with secondary contributions from other learning processes. Despite the availability of these additional processes, particularly the use of explicit re-aiming to counteract observed target errors, patients with cerebellar degeneration are surprisingly unable to compensate for their sensory-prediction error deficits by spontaneously switching to another learning mechanism. We hypothesized that if the nature of the task was changed—by allowing vision of the hand, which eliminates sensory-prediction errors—patients could be induced to preferentially adopt aiming strategies to solve visuomotor rotations. To test this, we first developed a novel visuomotor rotation paradigm that provides participants with vision of their hand in addition to the cursor, effectively setting the sensory-prediction error signal to zero. We demonstrated in younger healthy control subjects that this promotes a switch to strategic re-aiming based on target errors. We then showed that with vision of the hand, patients with cerebellar degeneration could also switch to an aiming strategy in response to visuomotor rotations, performing similarly to age-matched participants (older controls). Moreover, patients could retrieve their learned aiming solution after vision of the hand was removed (although they could not improve beyond what they retrieved), and retain it for at least 1 year. Both patients and older controls, however, exhibited impaired overall adaptation performance compared to younger healthy controls (age 18–33 years), likely due to age-related reductions in spatial and working memory. Patients also failed to generalize, i.e. they were unable to adopt analogous aiming strategies in response to novel rotations. Hence, there appears to be an inescapable obligatory dependence on sensory-prediction error-based learning—even when this system is impaired in patients with cerebellar disease. The persistence of sensory-prediction error-based learning effectively suppresses a switch to target error-based learning, which perhaps explains the unexpectedly poor performance by patients with cerebellar degeneration in visuomotor adaptation tasks.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy334
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Brain white matter damage and its association with neuronal synchrony
           during sleep
    • Authors: Sanchez E; El-Khatib H, Arbour C, et al.
      Pages: 674 - 687
      Abstract: The restorative function of sleep partly relies on its ability to deeply synchronize cerebral networks to create large slow oscillations observable with EEG. However, whether a brain can properly synchronize and produce a restorative sleep when it undergoes massive and widespread white matter damage is unknown. Here, we answer this question by testing 23 patients with various levels of white matter damage secondary to moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (ages 18–56; 17 males, six females, 11–39 months post-injury) and compared them to 27 healthy subjects of similar age and sex. We used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging metrics (e.g. fractional anisotropy as well as mean, axial and radial diffusivities) to characterize voxel-wise white matter damage. We measured the following slow wave characteristics for all slow waves detected in N2 and N3 sleep stages: peak-to-peak amplitude, negative-to-positive slope, negative and positive phase durations, oscillation frequency, and slow wave density. Correlation analyses were performed in traumatic brain injury and control participants separately, with age as a covariate. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found that greater white matter damage mainly over the frontal and temporal brain regions was strongly correlated with a pattern of higher neuronal synchrony characterized by slow waves of larger amplitudes and steeper negative-to-positive slopes during non-rapid eye movement sleep. The same pattern of associations with white matter damage was also observed with markers of high homeostatic sleep pressure. More specifically, higher white matter damage was associated with higher slow-wave activity power, as well as with more severe complaints of cognitive fatigue. These associations between white matter damage and sleep were found only in our traumatic brain injured participants, with no such correlation in controls. Our results suggest that, contrary to previous observations in healthy controls, white matter damage does not prevent the expected high cerebral synchrony during sleep. Moreover, our observations challenge the current line of hypotheses that white matter microstructure deterioration reduces cerebral synchrony during sleep. Our results showed that the relationship between white matter and the brain’s ability to synchronize during sleep is neither linear nor simple.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy348
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • A connectome-based mechanistic model of focal cortical dysplasia
    • Authors: Hong S; Lee H, Gill R, et al.
      Pages: 688 - 699
      Abstract: Neuroimaging studies have consistently shown distributed brain anomalies in epilepsy syndromes associated with a focal structural lesion, particularly mesiotemporal sclerosis. Conversely, a system-level approach to focal cortical dysplasia has been rarely considered, likely due to methodological difficulties in addressing variable location and topography. Given the known heterogeneity in focal cortical dysplasia histopathology, we hypothesized that lesional connectivity consists of subtypes with distinct structural signatures. Furthermore, in light of mounting evidence for focal anomalies impacting whole-brain systems, we postulated that patterns of focal cortical dysplasia connectivity may exert differential downstream effects on global network topology. We studied a cohort of patients with histologically verified focal cortical dysplasia type II (n = 27), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 34). We subdivided each lesion into similarly sized parcels and computed their connectivity to large-scale canonical functional networks (or communities). We then dichotomized connectivity profiles of lesional parcels into those belonging to the same functional community as the focal cortical dysplasia (intra-community) and those adhering to other communities (inter-community). Applying hierarchical clustering to community-reconfigured connectome profiles identified three lesional classes with distinct patterns of functional connectivity: decreased intra- and inter-community connectivity, a selective decrease in intra-community connectivity, and increased intra- as well as inter-community connectivity. Hypo-connectivity classes were mainly composed of focal cortical dysplasia type IIB, while the hyperconnected lesions were type IIA. With respect to whole-brain networks, patients with hypoconnected focal cortical dysplasia and marked structural damage showed only mild imbalances, while those with hyperconnected subtle lesions had more pronounced topological alterations. Correcting for interictal epileptic discharges did not impact connectivity patterns. Multivariate structural equation analysis provided a mechanistic model of such complex, diverging interactions, whereby the focal cortical dysplasia structural makeup shapes its functional connectivity, which in turn modulates whole-brain network topology.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz009
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • CD73-derived adenosine controls inflammation and neurodegeneration by
           modulating dopamine signalling
    • Authors: Meng F; Guo Z, Hu Y, et al.
      Pages: 700 - 718
      Abstract: Ectonucleotidase-mediated ATP catabolism provides a powerful mechanism to control the levels of extracellular adenosine. While increased adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling has been well-documented in both Parkinson’s disease models and patients, the source of this enhanced adenosine signalling remains unclear. Here, we show that the ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73)-mediated adenosine formation provides an important input to activate A2AR, and upregulated CD73 and A2AR in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson’s disease models coordinatively contribute to the elevated adenosine signalling. Importantly, we demonstrate that CD73-derived adenosine-A2AR signalling modulates microglial immunoresponses and morphological dynamics. CD73 inactivation significantly attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory responses in microglia, but enhanced microglia process extension, movement and morphological transformation in the laser injury and acute MPTP-induced Parkinson’s disease models. Limiting CD73-derived adenosine substantially suppressed microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and improved the viability of dopaminergic neurons and motor behaviours in Parkinson’s disease models. Moreover, CD73 inactivation suppressed A2AR induction and A2AR-mediated pro-inflammatory responses, whereas replenishment of adenosine analogues restored these effects, suggesting that CD73 produces a self-regulating feed-forward adenosine formation to activate A2AR and promote neuroinflammation. We further provide the first evidence that A2A enhanced inflammation by antagonizing dopamine-mediated anti-inflammation, suggesting that the homeostatic balance between adenosine and dopamine signalling is key to microglia immunoresponses. Our study thus reveals a novel role for CD73-mediated nucleotide metabolism in regulating neuroinflammation and provides the proof-of-principle that targeting nucleotide metabolic pathways to limit adenosine production and neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s disease might be a promising therapeutic strategy.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy351
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Dopamine restores cognitive motivation in Parkinson’s disease
    • Authors: McGuigan S; Zhou S, Brosnan M, et al.
      Pages: 719 - 732
      Abstract: Disorders of motivation, such as apathy, are common in Parkinson’s disease, and a key feature of such disorders is a greater aversion to effort. In humans, the experience of cognitive effort is ubiquitous, and cognitive apathy has traditionally been considered distinct and separable from other subtypes. Surprisingly, however, the neurobiology of cognitive motivation is poorly understood. In particular, although dopamine has a well-characterized role in incentivizing physically effortful behaviour, a critical, unresolved issue is whether its facilitatory role generalizes to other domains. Here, we asked how dopamine modulates the willingness of patients with Parkinson’s disease to invest cognitive effort in return for reward. We tested 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease across two counterbalanced sessions—ON and OFF their usual dopaminergic medication—and compared their performance to 20 healthy age-matched controls. We applied a novel task in which we manipulated cognitive effort as the number of rapid serial visual presentation streams to which participants had to attend. After training participants to ceiling performance, we then asked them to choose between a low-effort/low-reward baseline option, and a higher-effort/higher-reward offer. Computational models of choice behaviour revealed four key results. First, patients OFF medication were significantly less cognitively motivated than controls, as manifest by steeper cognitive effort discounting functions in the former group. Second, dopaminergic therapy improved this deficit, such that choices in patients ON medication were indistinguishable from controls. Third, differences in motivation were also accompanied by independent changes in the stochasticity of individuals’ decisions, such that dopamine reduced the variability in choice behaviour. Finally, choices on our task correlated uniquely with the subscale of the Dimensional Apathy Scale that specifically indexes cognitive motivation, which suggests a close relationship between our laboratory measure of cognitive effort discounting and subjective reports of day-to-day cognitive apathy. Importantly, participants’ choices were not confounded by temporal discounting, probability discounting, physical demand, or varying task performance. These results are the first to reveal the central role of dopamine in overcoming cognitive effort costs. They provide an insight into the computational mechanisms underlying cognitive apathy in Parkinson’s disease, and demonstrate its amenability to dopaminergic therapy. More broadly, they offer important empirical support for prominent frameworks proposing a domain-general role for dopamine in value-based decision-making, and provide a critical link between dopamine and multidimensional theories of apathy.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy341
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Dopamine metabolism of the nucleus accumbens and fronto-striatal
           connectivity modulate impulse control
    • Authors: Hammes J; Theis H, Giehl K, et al.
      Pages: 733 - 743
      Abstract: Impulsive-compulsive behaviours like pathological gambling or hypersexuality are a frequent side effect of dopamine replacement therapy in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Multiple imaging studies suggest a significant reduction of presynaptic dopamine transporters in the nucleus accumbens to be a predisposing factor, reflecting either a reduction of mesolimbic projections or, alternatively, a lower presynaptic dopamine transporter expression per se. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis of fewer mesolimbic projections as a risk factor by using dopamine synthesis capacity as a proxy of dopaminergic terminal density. Furthermore, previous studies have demonstrated a reduction of fronto-striatal connectivity to be associated with increased risk of impulsive-compulsive behaviour in Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, another aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between severity of impulsive-compulsive behaviour, dopamine synthesis capacity and fronto-striatal connectivity. Eighty participants underwent resting state functional MRI and anatomical T1-weighted images [mean age: 68 ± 9.9 years, 67% male (patients)]. In 59 participants, 18F-DOPA-PET was obtained and voxel-wise Patlak slopes indicating dopamine synthesis capacity were calculated. All participants completed the QUIP-RS questionnaire, a well validated test to quantify severity of impulsive-compulsive behaviour in Parkinson’s disease. A voxel-wise correlation analysis between dopamine synthesis capacity and QUIP-RS score was calculated for striatal regions. To investigate the relationship between symptom severity and functional connectivity, voxel-wise correlations were performed. A negative correlation was found between dopamine synthesis capacity and QUIP-RS score in the nucleus accumbens (r = −0.57, P = 0.001), a region functionally connected to the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. The connectivity strength was modulated by QUIP-RS, i.e. patients with more severe impulsive-compulsive behaviours had a weaker functional connectivity between rostral anterior cingulate cortex and the nucleus accumbens. In addition, cortical thickness and severity of impulsive-compulsive behaviour were positively correlated in the subgenual rostral anterior cingulate cortex. We found three factors to be associated with severity of impulsive-compulsive behaviour: (i) decreased dopamine synthesis capacity in the nucleus accumbens; (ii) decreased functional connectivity of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex with the nucleus accumbens; and (iii) increased cortical thickness of the subgenual rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Rather than a downregulation of dopamine transporters, a reduction of mesolimbic dopaminergic projections in conjunction with a dysfunctional rostral anterior cingulate cortex—a region known to play a key role in impulse control—could be the most crucial neurobiological risk factor for the development of impulsive-compulsive behaviours in patients with Parkinson’s disease under dopamine replacement therapy.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz007
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Risk and predictors of dementia and parkinsonism in idiopathic REM sleep
           behaviour disorder: a multicentre study
    • Authors: Postuma R; Iranzo A, Hu M, et al.
      Pages: 744 - 759
      Abstract: Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD) is a powerful early sign of Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. This provides an unprecedented opportunity to directly observe prodromal neurodegenerative states, and potentially intervene with neuroprotective therapy. For future neuroprotective trials, it is essential to accurately estimate phenoconversion rate and identify potential predictors of phenoconversion. This study assessed the neurodegenerative disease risk and predictors of neurodegeneration in a large multicentre cohort of iRBD. We combined prospective follow-up data from 24 centres of the International RBD Study Group. At baseline, patients with polysomnographically-confirmed iRBD without parkinsonism or dementia underwent sleep, motor, cognitive, autonomic and special sensory testing. Patients were then prospectively followed, during which risk of dementia and parkinsonsim were assessed. The risk of dementia and parkinsonism was estimated with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Predictors of phenoconversion were assessed with Cox proportional hazards analysis, adjusting for age, sex, and centre. Sample size estimates for disease-modifying trials were calculated using a time-to-event analysis. Overall, 1280 patients were recruited. The average age was 66.3 ± 8.4 and 82.5% were male. Average follow-up was 4.6 years (range = 1–19 years). The overall conversion rate from iRBD to an overt neurodegenerative syndrome was 6.3% per year, with 73.5% converting after 12-year follow-up. The rate of phenoconversion was significantly increased with abnormal quantitative motor testing [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.16], objective motor examination (HR = 3.03), olfactory deficit (HR = 2.62), mild cognitive impairment (HR = 1.91–2.37), erectile dysfunction (HR = 2.13), motor symptoms (HR = 2.11), an abnormal DAT scan (HR = 1.98), colour vision abnormalities (HR = 1.69), constipation (HR = 1.67), REM atonia loss (HR = 1.54), and age (HR = 1.54). There was no significant predictive value of sex, daytime somnolence, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, sleep apnoea, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic symptoms, depression, anxiety, or hyperechogenicity on substantia nigra ultrasound. Among predictive markers, only cognitive variables were different at baseline between those converting to primary dementia versus parkinsonism. Sample size estimates for definitive neuroprotective trials ranged from 142 to 366 patients per arm. This large multicentre study documents the high phenoconversion rate from iRBD to an overt neurodegenerative syndrome. Our findings provide estimates of the relative predictive value of prodromal markers, which can be used to stratify patients for neuroprotective trials.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz030
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Early neurophysiological biomarkers and spinal cord pathology in inherited
           prion disease
    • Authors: Rudge P; Jaunmuktane Z, Hyare H, et al.
      Pages: 760 - 770
      Abstract: A common presentation of inherited prion disease is Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, typically presenting with gait ataxia and painful dysaesthesiae in the legs evolving over 2–5 years. The most frequent molecular genetic diagnosis is a P102L mutation of the prion protein gene (PRNP). There is no explanation for why this clinical syndrome is so distinct from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and biomarkers of the early stages of disease have not been developed. Here we aimed, first, at determining if quantitative neurophysiological assessments could predict clinical diagnosis or disability and monitor progression and, second, to determine the neuropathological basis of the initial clinical and neurophysiological findings. We investigated subjects known to carry the P102L mutation in the longitudinal observational UK National Prion Monitoring Cohort study, with serial assessments of clinical features, peripheral nerve conduction, H and F components, threshold tracking and histamine flare and itch response and neuropathological examination in some of those who died. Twenty-three subjects were studied over a period of up to 12 years, including 65 neurophysiological assessments at the same department. Six were symptomatic throughout and six became symptomatic during the study. Neurophysiological abnormalities were restricted to the lower limbs. In symptomatic patients around the time of, or shortly after, symptom onset the H-reflex was lost. Lower limb thermal thresholds were at floor/ceiling in some at presentation, in others thresholds progressively deteriorated. Itch sensation to histamine injection was lost in most symptomatic patients. In six patients with initial assessments in the asymptomatic stage of the disease, a progressive deterioration in the ability to detect warm temperatures in the feet was observed prior to clinical diagnosis and the onset of disability. All of these six patients developed objective abnormalities of either warm or cold sensation prior to the onset of significant symptoms or clinical diagnosis. Autopsy examination in five patients (including two not followed clinically) showed prion protein in the substantia gelatinosa, spinothalamic tracts, posterior columns and nuclei and in the neuropil surrounding anterior horn cells. In conclusion, sensory symptoms and loss of reflexes in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome can be explained by neuropathological changes in the spinal cord. We conclude that the sensory symptoms and loss of lower limb reflexes in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome is due to pathology in the caudal spinal cord. Neuro-physiological measures become abnormal around the time of symptom onset, prior to diagnosis, and may be of value for improved early diagnosis and for recruitment and monitoring of progression in clinical trials.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy358
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Plasma tau/amyloid-β1–42 ratio predicts brain tau deposition and
           neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Park J; Han S, Yi D, et al.
      Pages: 771 - 786
      Abstract: One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease is abnormal deposition of tau proteins in the brain. Although plasma tau has been proposed as a potential biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease, a direct link to brain deposition of tau is limited. Here, we estimated the amount of in vivo tau deposition in the brain by PET imaging and measured plasma levels of total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau (p-tau, T181) and amyloid-β1–42. We found significant correlations of plasma p-tau, t-tau, p-tau/amyloid-β1–42, and t-tau/amyloid-β1–42 with brain tau deposition in cross-sectional and longitudinal manners. In particular, t-tau/amyloid-β1–42 in plasma was highly predictive of brain tau deposition, exhibiting 80% sensitivity and 91% specificity. Interestingly, the brain regions where plasma t-tau/amyloid-β1–42 correlated with brain tau were similar to the typical deposition sites of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, the longitudinal changes in cerebral amyloid deposition, brain glucose metabolism, and hippocampal volume change were also highly associated with plasma t-tau/amyloid-β1–42. These results indicate that combination of plasma tau and amyloid-β1–42 levels might be potential biomarkers for predicting brain tau pathology and neurodegeneration.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy347
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Inhibition of EHMT1/2 rescues synaptic and cognitive functions for
           Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Zheng Y; Liu A, Wang Z, et al.
      Pages: 787 - 807
      Abstract: Epigenetic dysregulation, which leads to the alteration of gene expression in the brain, is suggested as one of the key pathophysiological bases of ageing and neurodegeneration. Here we found that, in the late-stage familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD) mouse model, repressive histone H3 dimethylation at lysine 9 (H3K9me2) and euchromatic histone methyltransferases EHMT1 and EHMT2 were significantly elevated in the prefrontal cortex, a key cognitive region affected in Alzheimer’s disease. Elevated levels of H3K9me2 were also detected in the prefrontal cortex region of post-mortem tissues from human patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Concomitantly, H3K9me2 at glutamate receptors was increased in prefrontal cortex of aged FAD mice, which was linked to the diminished transcription, expression and function of AMPA and NMDA receptors. Treatment of FAD mice with specific EHMT1/2 inhibitors reversed histone hyper-methylation and led to the recovery of glutamate receptor expression and excitatory synaptic function in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) data indicated that FAD mice exhibited genome-wide increase of H3K9me2 enrichment at genes involved in neuronal signalling (including glutamate receptors), which was reversed by EHMT1/2 inhibition. Moreover, the impaired recognition memory, working memory, and spatial memory in aged FAD mice were rescued by the treatment with EHMT1/2 inhibitors. These results suggest that disrupted epigenetic regulation of glutamate receptor transcription underlies the synaptic and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease, and targeting histone methylation enzymes may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for this prevalent neurodegenerative disorder.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy354
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Overt social interaction and resting state in young adult males with
           autism: core and contextual neural features
    • Authors: Jasmin K; Gotts S, Xu Y, et al.
      Pages: 808 - 822
      Abstract: Conversation is an important and ubiquitous social behaviour. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (autism) without intellectual disability often have normal structural language abilities but deficits in social aspects of communication like pragmatics, prosody, and eye contact. Previous studies of resting state activity suggest that intrinsic connections among neural circuits involved with social processing are disrupted in autism, but to date no neuroimaging study has examined neural activity during the most commonplace yet challenging social task: spontaneous conversation. Here we used functional MRI to scan autistic males (n = 19) without intellectual disability and age- and IQ-matched typically developing control subjects (n = 20) while they engaged in a total of 193 face-to-face interactions. Participants completed two kinds of tasks: conversation, which had high social demand, and repetition, which had low social demand. Autistic individuals showed abnormally increased task-driven interregional temporal correlation relative to controls, especially among social processing regions and during high social demand. Furthermore, these increased correlations were associated with parent ratings of participants’ social impairments. These results were then compared with previously-acquired resting state data (56 autism, 62 control subjects). While some interregional correlation levels varied by task or rest context, others were strikingly similar across both task and rest, namely increased correlation among the thalamus, dorsal and ventral striatum, somatomotor, temporal and prefrontal cortex in the autistic individuals, relative to the control groups. These results suggest a basic distinction. Autistic cortico-cortical interactions vary by context, tending to increase relative to controls during task and decrease during test. In contrast, striato- and thalamocortical relationships with socially engaged brain regions are increased in both task and rest, and may be core to the condition of autism.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz003
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Parkinsonism-dementia complex, and endemic disease on the island of Guam.
           I. - Clinical features. By Asao Hirano, Leonard T. Kurland, Robert S.
           Krooth and Simmons Lessell. Brain 1961; 84: 642–661; with
           Parkinsonism-dementia complex, and endemic disease on the island of Guam.
           II. - Pathological features. By Asao Hirano, Nathan Malamud and Leonard
           Kurland. Brain 1961; 84: 662–679.
    • Authors: Compston A.
      Pages: 823 - 829
      Abstract: Figure 1
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz027
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Brain on fire
    • Authors: Dantzer R.
      Pages: 830 - 831
      Abstract: Figure 1
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy336
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2019)
  • Corrigendum
    • Abstract: Shannon M. Sheppard, Argye E. Hillis. That's right! Language comprehension beyond the left hemisphere. Brain 2018; 141: 3280–3289; doi:10.1093/brain/awy291.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy333
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2018)
  • Corrigendum
    • Abstract: Philip Seibler, Lena F. Burbulla, Marija Dulovic, Simone Zittel, Johanne Heine, Thomas Schmidt, Franziska Rudolph, Ana Westenberger, Aleksandar Rakovic, Alexander Münchau, Dimitri Krainc, Christine Klein. Iron overload is accompanied by mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction in WDR45 mutant cells. Brain 2018; 141: 3052–3064. doi:10.1093/brain/awy230.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy316
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 3 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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