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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 406 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 350, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 602, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 117, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal Prestige (SJR): 5.858
Citation Impact (citeScore): 7
Number of Followers: 70  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0006-8950 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2156
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [406 journals]
  • Collateral scoring in acute stroke patients with low ASPECTS: an
           unnecessary or underestimated tool for treatment selection'
    • Authors: Broocks G; Fiehler J, Kemmling A.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz159
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Reply: P300 amplitudes after concussions are usually decreased not
    • Authors: Fickling S; Smith A, Ghosh Hajra S, et al.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz147
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • P300 amplitudes after concussions are usually decreased not increased
    • Authors: Rosburg T; Mager R.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz145
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Net water uptake: a new tool for the assessment of ischaemic stroke oedema
    • Authors: Zhao W; Zhang J, Chen J, et al.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz146
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Reply: Net water uptake: a new tool for the assessment of ischaemic stroke
    • Authors: Broocks G; Fiehler J, Kemmling A.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz148
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • De novo SPAST mutations may cause a complex SPG4 phenotype
    • Authors: Schieving J; de Bot S, van de Pol L, et al.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz140
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: Peter T. Nelson, Dennis W. Dickson, John Q. Trojanowski, Clifford R. Jack Jr, Patricia A. Boyle, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Rosa Rademakers, Irina Alafuzoff, Johannes Attems, Carol Brayne, Ian T.S. Coyle-Gilchrist, Helena C. Chui, David W. Fardo, Margaret E. Flanagan, Glenda Halliday, Suvi R.K. Hokkanen, Sally Hunter, Gregory A. Jicha, Yuriko Katsumata, Claudia H. Kawas, C. Dirk Keene, Gabor G. Kovacs, Walter A. Kukull, Allan I. Levey, Nazanin Makkinejad, Thomas J. Montine, Shigeo Murayama, Melissa E. Murray, Sukriti Nag, Robert A. Rissman, William W. Seeley, Reisa A. Sperling, Charles L. White III, Lei Yu and Julie A. Schneider. Limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE): consensus working group report. Brain 2019; 142: 1503–1527,
      PubDate: Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz163
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Targeting oxidative stress improves disease outcomes in a rat model of
           acquired epilepsy
    • Authors: Pauletti A; Terrone G, Shekh-Ahmad T, et al.
      Abstract: Epilepsy therapy is based on antiseizure drugs that treat the symptom, seizures, rather than the disease and are ineffective in up to 30% of patients. There are no treatments for modifying the disease—preventing seizure onset, reducing severity or improving prognosis. Among the potential molecular targets for attaining these unmet therapeutic needs, we focused on oxidative stress since it is a pathophysiological process commonly occurring in experimental epileptogenesis and observed in human epilepsy. Using a rat model of acquired epilepsy induced by electrical status epilepticus, we show that oxidative stress occurs in both neurons and astrocytes during epileptogenesis, as assessed by measuring biochemical and histological markers. This evidence was validated in the hippocampus of humans who died following status epilepticus. Oxidative stress was reduced in animals undergoing epileptogenesis by a transient treatment with N-acetylcysteine and sulforaphane, which act to increase glutathione levels through complementary mechanisms. These antioxidant drugs are already used in humans for other therapeutic indications. This drug combination transiently administered for 2 weeks during epileptogenesis inhibited oxidative stress more efficiently than either drug alone. The drug combination significantly delayed the onset of epilepsy, blocked disease progression between 2 and 5 months post-status epilepticus and drastically reduced the frequency of spontaneous seizures measured at 5 months without modifying the average seizure duration or the incidence of epilepsy in animals. Treatment also decreased hippocampal neuron loss and rescued cognitive deficits. Oxidative stress during epileptogenesis was associated with de novo brain and blood generation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a neuroinflammatory molecule implicated in seizure mechanisms. Drug-induced reduction of oxidative stress prevented HMGB1 generation, thus highlighting a potential novel mechanism contributing to therapeutic effects. Our data show that targeting oxidative stress with clinically used drugs for a limited time window starting early after injury significantly improves long-term disease outcomes. This intervention may be considered for patients exposed to potential epileptogenic insults.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz130
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Notice of retraction
    • Abstract: Alberto Pauletti, Gaetano Terrone, Tawfeeq Shekh-Ahmad, Alessia Salamone, Teresa Ravizza, Massimo Rizzi, Anna Pastore, Rosaria Pascente, Li-Ping Liang, Bianca R. Villa, Silvia Balosso, Andrey Y. Abramov, Erwin A. van Vliet, Ennio Del Giudice, Eleonora Aronica, Manisha Patel, Matthew C. Walker, Annamaria Vezzani. Targeting oxidative stress improves disease outcomes in a rat model of acquired epilepsy. Brain 2017; 140: 1885–1899. doi:10.1093/brain/awx117.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz128
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Kullmann D.
      Pages: 1847 - 1847
      Abstract: This issue of Brain contains a retraction notice relating to an article published in 2017, prompted by the discovery that data supplied by one of the authors could not be traced back to the original experiments. In accordance with recommendations from the Committee on Publication Ethics and considering that the main conclusions of the article were unchanged, the retracted paper has been replaced with a corrected version. Retractions of papers published in Brain are rare, and the last such event, in 2014, related to an article published in 2008.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz173
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Quantification of cortical damage in multiple sclerosis using DTI remains
           a challenge
    • Authors: Ropele S; Fazekas F.
      Pages: 1848 - 1850
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Axonal degeneration as substrate of fractional anisotropy abnormalities in multiple sclerosis cortex’, by Preziosa et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awz143).
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz160
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • From dreams to parkinsonism: tracking the journey
    • Authors: Hu M.
      Pages: 1850 - 1852
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Evolution of prodromal Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies: a prospective study’ by Fereshtehnejad et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awz111)
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz155
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Could changing the course of Alzheimer’s disease pathology with
           immunotherapy prevent dementia'
    • Authors: Overk C; Masliah E.
      Pages: 1853 - 1855
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Persistent neuropathological effects 14 years following amyloid-β immunization in Alzheimer’s disease’ by Nicoll et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awz142).
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz165
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Functional neurological disorder: an ethical turning point for
    • Authors: Edwards M.
      Pages: 1855 - 1857
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘The prognosis of functional limb weakness: a 14-year case-control study’, by Gelauff et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awy138).
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz194
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Assessment of lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis:
           practical guidelines
    • Authors: Filippi M; Preziosa P, Banwell B, et al.
      Pages: 1858 - 1875
      Abstract: MRI has improved the diagnostic work-up of multiple sclerosis, but inappropriate image interpretation and application of MRI diagnostic criteria contribute to misdiagnosis. Some diseases, now recognized as conditions distinct from multiple sclerosis, may satisfy the MRI criteria for multiple sclerosis (e.g. neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, Susac syndrome), thus making the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis more challenging, especially if biomarker testing (such as serum anti-AQP4 antibodies) is not informative. Improvements in MRI technology contribute and promise to better define the typical features of multiple sclerosis lesions (e.g. juxtacortical and periventricular location, cortical involvement). Greater understanding of some key aspects of multiple sclerosis pathobiology has allowed the identification of characteristics more specific to multiple sclerosis (e.g. central vein sign, subpial demyelination and lesional rims), which are not included in the current multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria. In this review, we provide the clinicians and researchers with a practical guide to enhance the proper recognition of multiple sclerosis lesions, including a thorough definition and illustration of typical MRI features, as well as a discussion of red flags suggestive of alternative diagnoses. We also discuss the possible place of emerging qualitative features of lesions which may become important in the near future.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz144
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • MSH3 modifies somatic instability and disease severity in Huntington’s
           and myotonic dystrophy type 1
    • Authors: Flower M; Lomeikaite V, Ciosi M, et al.
      Pages: 1876 - 1886
      Abstract: The mismatch repair gene MSH3 has been implicated as a genetic modifier of the CAG·CTG repeat expansion disorders Huntington’s disease and myotonic dystrophy type 1. A recent Huntington’s disease genome-wide association study found rs557874766, an imputed single nucleotide polymorphism located within a polymorphic 9 bp tandem repeat in MSH3/DHFR, as the variant most significantly associated with progression in Huntington’s disease. Using Illumina sequencing in Huntington’s disease and myotonic dystrophy type 1 subjects, we show that rs557874766 is an alignment artefact, the minor allele for which corresponds to a three-repeat allele in MSH3 exon 1 that is associated with a reduced rate of somatic CAG·CTG expansion (P = 0.004) and delayed disease onset (P = 0.003) in both Huntington’s disease and myotonic dystrophy type 1, and slower progression (P = 3.86 × 10−7) in Huntington’s disease. RNA-Seq of whole blood in the Huntington’s disease subjects found that repeat variants are associated with MSH3 and DHFR expression. A transcriptome-wide association study in the Huntington’s disease cohort found increased MSH3 and DHFR expression are associated with disease progression. These results suggest that variation in the MSH3 exon 1 repeat region influences somatic expansion and disease phenotype in Huntington’s disease and myotonic dystrophy type 1, and suggests a common DNA repair mechanism operates in both repeat expansion diseases.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz115
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Presynaptic dopamine deficit in minimally conscious state patients
           following traumatic brain injury
    • Authors: Fridman E; Osborne J, Mozley P, et al.
      Pages: 1887 - 1893
      Abstract: Dopaminergic stimulation has been proposed as a treatment strategy for post-traumatic brain injured patients in minimally conscious state based on a clinical trial using amantadine, a weak dopamine transporter blocker. However, a specific contribution of dopaminergic neuromodulation in minimally conscious state is undemonstrated. In a phase 0 clinical trial, we evaluated 13 normal volunteers and seven post-traumatic minimally conscious state patients using 11C-raclopride PET to estimate dopamine 2-like receptors occupancy in the striatum and central thalamus before and after dopamine transporter blockade with dextroamphetamine. If a presynaptic deficit was observed, a third and a fourth 11C-raclopride PET were acquired to evaluate changes in dopamine release induced by l-DOPA and l-DOPA+dextroamphetamine. Permutation analysis showed a significant reduction of dopamine release in patients, demonstrating a presynaptic deficit in the striatum and central thalamus that could not be reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter. However, administration of the dopamine precursor l-DOPA reversed the presynaptic deficit by restoring the biosynthesis of dopamine from both ventral tegmentum and substantia nigra. The advantages of alternative pharmacodynamic approaches in post-traumatic minimally conscious state patients should be tested in clinical trials, as patients currently refractory to amantadine might benefit from them.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz118
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of lasmiditan
           for acute treatment of migraine
    • Authors: Goadsby P; Wietecha L, Dennehy E, et al.
      Pages: 1894 - 1904
      Abstract: Lasmiditan, a serotonin 5-HT1F receptor agonist, was effective for acute treatment of patients with migraine in a phase 3 double-blind randomized controlled study. The current study was designed to replicate these findings in a generalizable population of patients with migraine, including those with a cardiovascular medical history. This prospective, double-blind, phase 3 multicentre study randomly assigned patients with migraine with and without aura (1:1:1:1 ratio) to oral lasmiditan 200 mg, 100 mg, 50 mg, or placebo. Patients were instructed to dose at home within 4 h of onset of migraine attack of at least moderate intensity and not improving. The primary objective was to assess the proportion of patients’ headache pain-free and most bothersome symptom-free at 2 h post-dose for each dose of lasmiditan versus placebo (NCT02605174). Patients (n = 3005) were assigned and treated (n = 2583, safety population): 1938 lasmiditan (200 mg n = 528, 100 mg n = 532, and 50 mg n = 556 included in primary analysis) and 645 placebo (540 included in primary analysis). Most patients (79.2%) had ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor at baseline, in addition to migraine. Lasmiditan was associated with significantly more pain freedom at 2 h (lasmiditan 200 mg: 38.8%, odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.8–3.1, P < 0.001; 100 mg: 31.4%, odds ratio 1.7, 1.3–2.2, P < 0.001; 50 mg: 28.6%, odds ratio 1.5, 1.1–1.9, P = 0.003 versus placebo 21.3%) and freedom from most bothersome symptom at 2 h (lasmiditan 200 mg: 48.7%, odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.4–2.4, P < 0.001; 100 mg: 44.2%, odds ratio 1.6, 1.2–2.0, P < 0.001; 50 mg: 40.8%, odds ratio 1.4, 1.1–1.8, P = 0.009 versus placebo 33.5%). Treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 253 of 649 (39.0%), 229 of 635 (36.1%), and 166 of 654 (25.4%) of patients on lasmiditan 200, 100, and 50 mg, respectively, versus 75 of 645 (11.6%) on placebo. Most adverse events were CNS-related and included dizziness, somnolence and paraesthesia. Lasmiditan was effective at 2 h post-dose for acute treatment of migraine at all oral doses tested. Efficacy and safety were consistent with the previous phase 3 study.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz134
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Allele-specific silencing as treatment for gene duplication disorders:
           proof-of-principle in autosomal dominant leukodystrophy
    • Authors: Giorgio E; Lorenzati M, Rivetti di Val Cervo P, et al.
      Pages: 1905 - 1920
      Abstract: Allele-specific silencing by RNA interference (ASP-siRNA) holds promise as a therapeutic strategy for downregulating a single mutant allele with minimal suppression of the corresponding wild-type allele. This approach has been effectively used to target autosomal dominant mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms linked with aberrantly expanded trinucleotide repeats. Here, we propose ASP-siRNA as a preferable choice to target duplicated disease genes, avoiding potentially harmful excessive downregulation. As a proof-of-concept, we studied autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD) due to lamin B1 (LMNB1) duplication, a hereditary, progressive and fatal disorder affecting myelin in the CNS. Using a reporter system, we screened the most efficient ASP-siRNAs preferentially targeting one of the alleles at rs1051644 (average minor allele frequency: 0.45) located in the 3′ untranslated region of the gene. We identified four siRNAs with a high efficacy and allele-specificity, which were tested in ADLD patient-derived fibroblasts. Three of the small interfering RNAs were highly selective for the target allele and restored both LMNB1 mRNA and protein levels close to control levels. Furthermore, small interfering RNA treatment abrogates the ADLD-specific phenotypes in fibroblasts and in two disease-relevant cellular models: murine oligodendrocytes overexpressing human LMNB1, and neurons directly reprogrammed from patients’ fibroblasts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ASP-silencing by RNA interference is a suitable and promising therapeutic option for ADLD. Moreover, our results have a broad translational value extending to several pathological conditions linked to gene-gain in copy number variations.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz139
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Axonal degeneration as substrate of fractional anisotropy abnormalities in
           multiple sclerosis cortex
    • Authors: Preziosa P; Kiljan S, Steenwijk M, et al.
      Pages: 1921 - 1937
      Abstract: Cortical microstructural abnormalities are associated with clinical and cognitive deterioration in multiple sclerosis. Using diffusion tensor MRI, a higher fractional anisotropy has been found in cortical lesions versus normal-appearing cortex in multiple sclerosis. The pathological substrates of this finding have yet to be definitively elucidated. By performing a combined post-mortem diffusion tensor MRI and histopathology study, we aimed to define the histopathological substrates of diffusivity abnormalities in multiple sclerosis cortex. Sixteen subjects with multiple sclerosis and 10 age- and sex-matched non-neurological control donors underwent post-mortem in situ at 3 T MRI, followed by brain dissection. One hundred and ten paraffin-embedded tissue blocks (54 from multiple sclerosis patients, 56 from non-neurological controls) were matched to the diffusion tensor sequence to obtain regional diffusivity measures. Using immunohistochemistry and silver staining, cortical density of myelin, microglia, astrocytes and axons, and density and volume of neurons and glial cells were evaluated. Correlates of diffusivity abnormalities with histological markers were assessed through linear mixed-effects models. Cortical lesions (77% subpial) were found in 27/54 (50%) multiple sclerosis cortical regions. Multiple sclerosis normal-appearing cortex had a significantly lower fractional anisotropy compared to cortex from non-neurological controls (P = 0.047), whereas fractional anisotropy in demyelinated cortex was significantly higher than in multiple sclerosis normal-appearing cortex (P = 0.012) but not different from non-neurological control cortex (P = 0.420). Compared to non-neurological control cortex, both multiple sclerosis normal-appearing and demyelinated cortices showed a lower density of axons perpendicular to the cortical surface (P = 0.012 for both) and of total axons (parallel and perpendicular to cortical surface) (P = 0.028 and 0.012). In multiple sclerosis, demyelinated cortex had a lower density of myelin (P = 0.004), parallel (P = 0.018) and total axons (P = 0.029) versus normal-appearing cortex. Regarding the pathological substrate, in non-neurological controls, cortical fractional anisotropy was positively associated with density of perpendicular, parallel, and total axons (P = 0.031 for all). In multiple sclerosis, normal-appearing cortex fractional anisotropy was positively associated with perpendicular and total axon density (P = 0.031 for both), while associations with myelin, glial and total cells and parallel axons did not survive multiple comparison correction. Demyelinated cortex fractional anisotropy was positively associated with density of neurons, and total cells and negatively with microglia density, without surviving multiple comparison correction. Our results suggest that a reduction of perpendicular axons in normal-appearing cortex and of both perpendicular and parallel axons in demyelinated cortex may underlie the substrate influencing cortical microstructural coherence and being responsible for the different patterns of fractional anisotropy changes occurring in multiple sclerosis cortex.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz143
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Altered inhibitory synapses in de novo GABRA5 and GABRA1 mutations
           associated with early onset epileptic encephalopathies
    • Authors: Hernandez C; XiangWei W, Hu N, et al.
      Pages: 1938 - 1954
      Abstract: We performed next generation sequencing on 1696 patients with epilepsy and intellectual disability using a gene panel with 480 epilepsy-related genes including all GABAA receptor subunit genes (GABRs), and we identified six de novo GABR mutations, two novel GABRA5 mutations (c.880G>T, p.V294F and c.1238C>T, p.S413F), two novel GABRA1 mutations (c.778C>T, p.P260S and c.887T>C, p.L296S/c.944G>T, p.W315L) and two known GABRA1 mutations (c.335G>A, p.R112Q and c.343A>G, p.N115D) in six patients with intractable early onset epileptic encephalopathy. The α5(V294F and S413F) and α1(P260S and L296S/W315L) subunit residue substitutions were all in transmembrane domains, while the α1(R112Q and N115R) subunit residue substitutions were in the N-terminal GABA binding domain. Using multidisciplinary approaches, we compared effects of mutant GABAA receptor α5 and α1 subunits on the properties of recombinant α5β3γ2 and α1β3γ2 GABAA receptors in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells and characterized their effects on receptor clustering, biogenesis and channel function. GABAA receptors containing mutant α5 and α1 subunits all had reduced cell surface and total cell expression with altered endoplasmic reticulum processing, impaired synaptic clustering, reduced GABAA receptor function and decreased GABA binding potency. Our study identified GABRA5 as a causative gene for early onset epileptic encephalopathy and expands the mutant GABRA1 phenotypic spectrum, supporting growing evidence that defects in GABAergic neurotransmission contribute to early onset epileptic encephalopathy phenotypes.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz123
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Characterizing the role of the structural connectome in seizure dynamics
    • Authors: Shah P; Ashourvan A, Mikhail F, et al.
      Pages: 1955 - 1972
      Abstract: How does the human brain’s structural scaffold give rise to its intricate functional dynamics' This is a central question in translational neuroscience that is particularly relevant to epilepsy, a disorder affecting over 50 million subjects worldwide. Treatment for medication-resistant focal epilepsy is often structural—through surgery or laser ablation—but structural targets, particularly in patients without clear lesions, are largely based on functional mapping via intracranial EEG. Unfortunately, the relationship between structural and functional connectivity in the seizing brain is poorly understood. In this study, we quantify structure-function coupling, specifically between white matter connections and intracranial EEG, across pre-ictal and ictal periods in 45 seizures from nine patients with unilateral drug-resistant focal epilepsy. We use high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) tractography to construct structural connectivity networks and correlate these networks with time-varying broadband and frequency-specific functional networks derived from coregistered intracranial EEG. Across all frequency bands, we find significant increases in structure-function coupling from pre-ictal to ictal periods. We demonstrate that short-range structural connections are primarily responsible for this increase in coupling. Finally, we find that spatiotemporal patterns of structure-function coupling are highly stereotyped for each patient. These results suggest that seizures harness the underlying structural connectome as they propagate. Mapping the relationship between structural and functional connectivity in epilepsy may inform new therapies to halt seizure spread, and pave the way for targeted patient-specific interventions.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz125
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Music training is neuroprotective for verbal cognition in focal epilepsy
    • Authors: Bird L; Jackson G, Wilson S.
      Pages: 1973 - 1987
      Abstract: Focal epilepsy is a unilateral brain network disorder, providing an ideal neuropathological model with which to study the effects of focal neural disruption on a range of cognitive processes. While language and memory functions have been extensively investigated in focal epilepsy, music cognition has received less attention, particularly in patients with music training or expertise. This represents a critical gap in the literature. A better understanding of the effects of epilepsy on music cognition may provide greater insight into the mechanisms behind disease- and training-related neuroplasticity, which may have implications for clinical practice. In this cross-sectional study, we comprehensively profiled music and non-music cognition in 107 participants; musicians with focal epilepsy (n = 35), non-musicians with focal epilepsy (n = 39), and healthy control musicians and non-musicians (n = 33). Parametric group comparisons revealed a specific impairment in verbal cognition in non-musicians with epilepsy but not musicians with epilepsy, compared to healthy musicians and non-musicians (P = 0.029). This suggests a possible neuroprotective effect of music training against the cognitive sequelae of focal epilepsy, and implicates potential training-related cognitive transfer that may be underpinned by enhancement of auditory processes primarily supported by temporo-frontal networks. Furthermore, our results showed that musicians with an earlier age of onset of music training performed better on a composite score of melodic learning and memory compared to non-musicians (P = 0.037), while late-onset musicians did not differ from non-musicians. For most composite scores of music cognition, although no significant group differences were observed, a similar trend was apparent. We discuss these key findings in the context of a proposed model of three interacting dimensions (disease status, music expertise, and cognitive domain), and their implications for clinical practice, music education, and music neuroscience research.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz124
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Increased creative thinking in narcolepsy
    • Authors: Lacaux C; Izabelle C, Santantonio G, et al.
      Pages: 1988 - 1999
      Abstract: Some studies suggest a link between creativity and rapid eye movement sleep. Narcolepsy is characterized by falling asleep directly into rapid eye movement sleep, states of dissociated wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep (cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and lucid dreaming) and a high dream recall frequency. Lucid dreaming (the awareness of dreaming while dreaming) has been correlated with creativity. Given their life-long privileged access to rapid eye movement sleep and dreams, we hypothesized that subjects with narcolepsy may have developed high creative abilities. To test this assumption, 185 subjects with narcolepsy and 126 healthy controls were evaluated for their level of creativity with two questionnaires, the Test of Creative Profile and the Creativity Achievement Questionnaire. Creativity was also objectively tested in 30 controls and 30 subjects with narcolepsy using the Evaluation of Potential Creativity test battery, which measures divergent and convergent modes of creative thinking in the graphic and verbal domains, using concrete and abstract problems. Subjects with narcolepsy obtained higher scores than controls on the Test of Creative Profile (mean ± standard deviation: 58.9 ± 9.6 versus 55.1 ± 10, P = 0.001), in the three creative profiles (Innovative, Imaginative and Researcher) and on the Creative Achievement Questionnaire (10.4 ± 25.7 versus 6.4 ± 7.6, P = 0.047). They also performed better than controls on the objective test of creative performance (4.3 ± 1.5 versus 3.7 ± 1.4; P = 0.009). Most symptoms of narcolepsy (including sleepiness, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, lucid dreaming, and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, but not cataplexy) were associated with higher scores on the Test of Creative Profile. These results highlight a higher creative potential in subjects with narcolepsy and further support a role of rapid eye movement sleep in creativity.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz137
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Behaviour and neuropathology in mice injected with human
           contactin-associated protein 2 antibodies
    • Authors: Giannoccaro M; Menassa D, Jacobson L, et al.
      Pages: 2000 - 2012
      Abstract: Serum antibodies that bind to the surface of neurons or glia are associated with a wide range of rare but treatable CNS diseases. In many, if not most instances, the serum levels are higher than CSF levels yet most of the reported attempts to reproduce the human disease in mice have used infusion of antibodies into the mouse cerebral ventricle(s) or intrathecal space. We used the intraperitoneal route and injected purified plasma IgG from either a CASPR2-antibody-positive patient (n = 10 mice) or healthy individual (n = 9 mice) daily for 8 days. Lipopolysaccharide was injected intraperitoneally on Day 3 to cause a temporary breach in the blood brain barrier. A wide range of baseline behaviours, including tests of locomotion, coordination, memory, anxiety and social interactions, were established before the injections and tested from Day 5 until Day 11. At termination, brain tissue was analysed for human IgG, CASPR2 and c-fos expression, lymphocyte infiltration, and neuronal, astrocytic and microglial markers. Mice exposed to CASPR2-IgG, compared with control-IgG injected mice, displayed reduced working memory during the continuous spontaneous alternation test with trends towards reduced short-term and long-term memories. In the open field tests, activities were not different from controls, but in the reciprocal social interaction test, CASPR2-IgG injected mice showed longer latency to start interacting, associated with more freezing behaviour and reduced non-social activities of rearing and grooming. At termination, neuropathology showed more IgG deposited in the brains of CASPR2-IgG injected mice, but a trend towards increased CASPR2 expression; these results were mirrored in short-term in vitro experiments where CASPR2-IgG binding to hippocampal neurons and to CASPR2-transfected HEK cells led to some internalization of the IgG, but with a trend towards higher surface CASPR2 expression. Despite these limited results, in the CASPR2-IgG injected mouse brains there was increased c-fos expression in the piriform-entorhinal cortex and hypothalamus, and a modest loss of Purkinje cells. There was also increased microglia density, morphological changes in both microglia and astrocytes and raised complement C3 expression on astrocytes, all consistent with glial activation. Patients with CASPR2 antibodies can present with a range of clinical features reflecting central, autonomic and peripheral dysfunction. Although the behavioural changes in mice were limited to social interactions and mild working-memory defects, the neuropathological features indicate potentially widespread effects of the antibodies on different brain regions.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz119
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Sleep and risk of parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease: a
           population-based study
    • Authors: Lysen T; Darweesh S, Ikram M, et al.
      Pages: 2013 - 2022
      Abstract: Sleep disturbances may signal presence of prodromal parkinsonism, including Parkinson’s disease. Whether general sleep quality or duration in otherwise healthy subjects is related to the risk of parkinsonism remains unclear. We hypothesized that both worse self-reported sleep quality and duration, as well as a longitudinal deterioration in these measures, are associated with the risk of parkinsonism, including Parkinson’s disease. In the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, we assessed sleep quality and duration with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in 7726 subjects (mean age 65 years, 57% female) between 2002 and 2008, and again in 5450 subjects between 2009 and 2014. Participants were followed until 2015 for a diagnosis of parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease. Outcomes were assessed using multiple modalities: interviews, physical examination, and continuous monitoring of pharmacy records and medical records of general practitioners. We used Cox regression to associate sleep, and changes in sleep over time, with incident parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease, adjusting for age, sex, education and smoking status. Over 64 855 person-years in 13 years of follow-up (mean: 8.4 years), 75 participants developed parkinsonism, of whom 47 developed Parkinson’s disease. We showed that within the first 2 years of follow-up, worse sleep quality {hazard ratio (HR) 2.38 per standard deviation increase [95% confidence interval (CI 0.91–6.23)]} and shorter sleep duration [HR 0.61 per standard deviation increase (95% CI 0.31–1.21)] related to a higher risk of parkinsonism. Associations of worse sleep quality [HR 3.86 (95% CI 1.19–12.47)] and shorter sleep duration [HR 0.48 (95% CI 0.23–0.99)] with Parkinson’s disease were more pronounced, and statistically significant, compared to parkinsonism. This increased risk disappeared with longer follow-up duration. Worsening of sleep quality [HR 1.76 per standard deviation increase (95% CI 1.12–2.78)], as well as shortening of sleep duration [HR 1.72 per standard deviation decrease (95% CI 1.08–2.72)], were related to Parkinson’s disease risk in the subsequent 6 years. Therefore, we argue that in the general population, deterioration of sleep quality and duration are markers of the prodromal phase of parkinsonism, including Parkinson’s disease.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz113
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Relationship between neuromelanin and dopamine terminals within the
           Parkinson’s nigrostriatal system
    • Authors: Martín-Bastida A; Lao-Kaim N, Roussakis A, et al.
      Pages: 2023 - 2036
      Abstract: Parkinson’s disease is characterized by the progressive loss of pigmented dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and associated striatal deafferentation. Neuromelanin content is thought to reflect the loss of pigmented neurons, but available data characterizing its relationship with striatal dopaminergic integrity are not comprehensive or consistent, and predominantly involve heterogeneous samples. In this cross-sectional study, we used neuromelanin-sensitive MRI and the highly specific dopamine transporter PET radioligand, 11C-PE2I, to assess the association between neuromelanin-containing cell levels in the substantia nigra pars compacta and nigrostriatal terminal density in vivo, in 30 patients with bilateral Parkinson’s disease. Fifteen healthy control subjects also underwent neuromelanin-sensitive imaging. We used a novel approach taking into account the anatomical and functional subdivision of substantia nigra into dorsal and ventral tiers and striatal nuclei into pre- and post-commissural subregions, in accordance with previous animal and post-mortem studies, and consider the clinically asymmetric disease presentation. In vivo, Parkinson’s disease subjects displayed reduced neuromelanin levels in the ventral (−30 ± 28%) and dorsal tiers (−21 ± 24%) as compared to the control group [F(1,43) = 11.95, P = 0.001]. Within the Parkinson’s disease group, nigral pigmentation was lower in the ventral tier as compared to the dorsal tier [F(1,29) = 36.19, P < 0.001] and lower in the clinically-defined most affected side [F(1,29) = 4.85, P = 0.036]. Similarly, lower dopamine transporter density was observed in the ventral tier [F(1,29) = 76.39, P < 0.001] and clinically-defined most affected side [F(1,29) = 4.21, P = 0.049]. Despite similar patterns, regression analysis showed no significant association between nigral pigmentation and nigral dopamine transporter density. However, for the clinically-defined most affected side, significant relationships were observed between pigmentation of the ventral nigral tier with striatal dopamine transporter binding in pre-commissural and post-commissural striatal subregions known to receive nigrostriatal projections from this tier, while the dorsal tier correlated with striatal projection sites in the pre-commissural striatum (P < 0.05, Benjamini-Hochberg corrected). In contrast, there were no statistically significant relationships between these two measures in the clinically-defined least affected side. These findings provide important insights into the topography of nigrostriatal neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease, indicating that the characteristics of disease progression may fundamentally differ across hemispheres and support post-mortem data showing asynchrony in the loss of neuromelanin-containing versus tyrosine hydroxylase positive nigral cells.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz120
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease reflects a sudden derangement of
           locomotor network dynamics
    • Authors: Pozzi N; Canessa A, Palmisano C, et al.
      Pages: 2037 - 2050
      Abstract: Freezing of gait is a disabling symptom of Parkinson’s disease that causes a paroxysmal inability to generate effective stepping. The underlying pathophysiology has recently migrated towards a dysfunctional supraspinal locomotor network, but the actual network derangements during ongoing gait freezing are unknown. We investigated the communication between the cortex and the subthalamic nucleus, two main nodes of the locomotor network, in seven freely-moving subjects with Parkinson’s disease with a novel deep brain stimulation device, which allows on-demand recording of subthalamic neural activity from the chronically-implanted electrodes months after the surgical procedure. Multisite neurophysiological recordings during (effective) walking and ongoing gait freezing were combined with kinematic measurements and individual molecular brain imaging studies. Patients walked in a supervised environment closely resembling everyday life challenges. We found that during (effective) walking, the cortex and subthalamic nucleus were synchronized in a low frequency band (4–13 Hz). In contrast, gait freezing was characterized in every patient by low frequency cortical-subthalamic decoupling in the hemisphere with less striatal dopaminergic innervation. Of relevance, this decoupling was already evident at the transition from normal (effective) walking into gait freezing, was maintained during the freezing episode, and resolved with recovery of the effective walking pattern. This is the first evidence for a decoding of the networked processing of locomotion in Parkinson’s disease and suggests that freezing of gait is a ‘circuitopathy’ related to a dysfunctional cortical-subcortical communication. A successful therapeutic approach for gait freezing in Parkinson’s disease should aim at directly targeting derangements of neural network dynamics.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz141
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Evolution of prodromal Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy
           bodies: a prospective study
    • Authors: Fereshtehnejad S; Yao C, Pelletier A, et al.
      Pages: 2051 - 2067
      Abstract: Parkinson’s disease has a long prodromal stage with various subclinical motor and non-motor manifestations; however, their evolution in the years before Parkinson’s disease is diagnosed is unclear. We traced the evolution of early motor and non-motor manifestations of synucleinopathy from the stage of idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder until defined neurodegenerative disease. During 2004–16, we recruited and then annually followed 154 polysomnography-proven patients with idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, of whom 55 phenoconverted to defined parkinsonism or dementia. Longitudinal data on multiple prodromal features, including the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale parts I–III, quantitative motor tests, olfaction, colour vision, cognition, and autonomic functions were gathered annually (average = five follow-up visits, range: 2–12 years). The same measures were also assessed in 102 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. By looking backward from the time of dementia or parkinsonism diagnosis, we examined trajectories of each prodromal feature using mixed effect models. Based on analysis, olfactory loss was first to develop, with predicted onset >20 years before phenoconversion. This was followed by impaired colour vision, constipation, and erectile dysfunction, starting 10–16 years prior to phenoconversion. At 7–9 years before phenoconversion, slight urinary dysfunction and subtle cognitive decline could be detected. Among motor symptoms altered handwriting, turning in bed, walking, salivation, speech, and facial expression began to be disrupted starting 7–11 years prior to parkinsonism diagnosis, but remained mild until soon before phenoconversion. Motor examination abnormalities began 5–7 years before phenoconversion, with the alternate tap test having the longest interval (8 years before phenoconversion). Among cardinal motor phenotypes, bradykinesia appeared first, ∼5–6 years prior to phenoconversion, followed by rigidity (Year −3) and tremor (Year −2). With direct prospective evaluation of an idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder cohort during phenoconversion, we documented an evolution of prodromal manifestations similar to that predicted by pathological staging models, with predicted prodromal intervals as long as 20 years.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz111
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Neuropathological correlates of structural and functional imaging
           biomarkers in 4-repeat tauopathies
    • Authors: Spina S; Brown J, Deng J, et al.
      Pages: 2068 - 2081
      Abstract: Neurodegenerative dementia syndromes are characterized by spreading of pathological protein deposition along syndrome-specific neural networks. Structural and functional MRI measures can assess the integrity of these networks and have been proposed as biomarkers of disease progression for clinical trials. The relationship between in vivo imaging measures and pathological features, at the single subject level, remains largely unknown. Patient-specific maps of atrophy and seed-based intrinsic connectivity disruption, as compared to normal controls, were obtained for 27 patients subsequently diagnosed with progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 16, seven males, age at death 68.9 ± 6.0 years, imaging-to-pathology interval = 670.2 ± 425.1 days) or corticobasal degeneration (n = 11, two males, age at death 66.7 ± 5.4 years, imaging-to-pathology interval = 696.2 ± 482.2 days). A linear mixed effect model with crossed random effects was used to test regional and single-subject level associations between post-mortem regional measures of neurodegeneration and tau inclusion burden, on the one hand, and regional volume loss and seed-based intrinsic connectivity reduction, on the other. A significant association was found between tau inclusion burden and in vivo volume loss, at the regional level and independent of neurodegeneration severity, in both progressive supranuclear palsy [n = 340 regions; beta 0.036; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.001, 0.072; P = 0.046] and corticobasal degeneration (n = 215 regions; beta 0.044; 95% CI: 0.009, 0.079; P = 0.013). We also found a significant association between post-mortem neurodegeneration and in vivo volume loss in both progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 340 regions; beta 0.155; 95% CI: 0.061, 0.248; P = 0.001) and corticobasal degeneration (n = 215 regions; beta 0.277; 95% CI: 0.104, 0.450; P = 0.002). We found a significant association between regional neurodegeneration and intrinsic connectivity dysfunction in corticobasal degeneration (n = 215 regions; beta 0.074; 95% CI: 0.005, 0.143; P = 0.035), but no other associations between post-mortem measures of tauopathy and intrinsic connectivity dysfunction reached statistical significance. Our data suggest that in vivo structural imaging measures reflect independent contributions from neurodegeneration and tau burden in progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration. Seed-based measures of intrinsic connectivity dysfunction showed less reliable predictive value when used as in vivo biomarkers of tauopathy. The findings provide important guidance for the use of imaging biomarkers as indirect in vivo assays of microscopic pathology.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz122
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Longitudinal neuroanatomical and cognitive progression of posterior
           cortical atrophy
    • Authors: Firth N; Primativo S, Marinescu R, et al.
      Pages: 2082 - 2095
      Abstract: Posterior cortical atrophy is a clinico-radiological syndrome characterized by progressive decline in visual processing and atrophy of posterior brain regions. With the majority of cases attributable to Alzheimer’s disease and recent evidence for genetic risk factors specifically related to posterior cortical atrophy, the syndrome can provide important insights into selective vulnerability and phenotypic diversity. The present study describes the first major longitudinal investigation of posterior cortical atrophy disease progression. Three hundred and sixty-one individuals (117 posterior cortical atrophy, 106 typical Alzheimer’s disease, 138 controls) fulfilling consensus criteria for posterior cortical atrophy-pure and typical Alzheimer’s disease were recruited from three centres in the UK, Spain and USA. Participants underwent up to six annual assessments involving MRI scans and neuropsychological testing. We constructed longitudinal trajectories of regional brain volumes within posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer’s disease using differential equation models. We compared and contrasted the order in which regional brain volumes become abnormal within posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer’s disease using event-based models. We also examined trajectories of cognitive decline and the order in which different cognitive tests show abnormality using the same models. Temporally aligned trajectories for eight regions of interest revealed distinct (P < 0.002) patterns of progression in posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer’s disease. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy showed early occipital and parietal atrophy, with subsequent higher rates of temporal atrophy and ventricular expansion leading to tissue loss of comparable extent later. Hippocampal, entorhinal and frontal regions underwent a lower rate of change and never approached the extent of posterior cortical involvement. Patients with typical Alzheimer’s disease showed early hippocampal atrophy, with subsequent higher rates of temporal atrophy and ventricular expansion. Cognitive models showed tests sensitive to visuospatial dysfunction declined earlier in posterior cortical atrophy than typical Alzheimer’s disease whilst tests sensitive to working memory impairment declined earlier in typical Alzheimer’s disease than posterior cortical atrophy. These findings indicate that posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer’s disease have distinct sites of onset and different profiles of spatial and temporal progression. The ordering of disease events both motivates investigation of biological factors underpinning phenotypic heterogeneity, and informs the selection of measures for clinical trials in posterior cortical atrophy.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz136
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • EEG evidence of compensatory mechanisms in preclinical Alzheimer’s
    • Authors: Gaubert S; Raimondo F, Houot M, et al.
      Pages: 2096 - 2112
      Abstract: Early biomarkers are needed to identify individuals at high risk of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease and to better understand the pathophysiological processes of disease progression. Preclinical Alzheimer’s disease EEG changes would be non-invasive and cheap screening tools and could also help to predict future progression to clinical Alzheimer’s disease. However, the impact of amyloid-β deposition and neurodegeneration on EEG biomarkers needs to be elucidated. We included participants from the INSIGHT-preAD cohort, which is an ongoing single-centre multimodal observational study that was designed to identify risk factors and markers of progression to clinical Alzheimer’s disease in 318 cognitively normal individuals aged 70–85 years with a subjective memory complaint. We divided the subjects into four groups, according to their amyloid status (based on 18F-florbetapir PET) and neurodegeneration status (evidenced by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET brain metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease signature regions). The first group was amyloid-positive and neurodegeneration-positive, which corresponds to stage 2 of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. The second group was amyloid-positive and neurodegeneration-negative, which corresponds to stage 1 of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. The third group was amyloid-negative and neurodegeneration-positive, which corresponds to ‘suspected non-Alzheimer’s pathophysiology’. The last group was the control group, defined by amyloid-negative and neurodegeneration-negative subjects. We analysed 314 baseline 256-channel high-density eyes closed 1-min resting state EEG recordings. EEG biomarkers included spectral measures, algorithmic complexity and functional connectivity assessed with a novel information-theoretic measure, weighted symbolic mutual information. The most prominent effects of neurodegeneration on EEG metrics were localized in frontocentral regions with an increase in high frequency oscillations (higher beta and gamma power) and a decrease in low frequency oscillations (lower delta power), higher spectral entropy, higher complexity and increased functional connectivity measured by weighted symbolic mutual information in theta band. Neurodegeneration was associated with a widespread increase of median spectral frequency. We found a non-linear relationship between amyloid burden and EEG metrics in neurodegeneration-positive subjects, either following a U-shape curve for delta power or an inverted U-shape curve for the other metrics, meaning that EEG patterns are modulated differently depending on the degree of amyloid burden. This finding suggests initial compensatory mechanisms that are overwhelmed for the highest amyloid load. Together, these results indicate that EEG metrics are useful biomarkers for the preclinical stage of Alzheimer’s disease.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz150
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Persistent neuropathological effects 14 years following amyloid-β
           immunization in Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Nicoll J; Buckland G, Harrison C, et al.
      Pages: 2113 - 2126
      Abstract: We performed a 15-year post-mortem neuropathological follow-up of patients in the first trial of amyloid-β immunotherapy for Alzheimer’s disease. Twenty-two participants of a clinical trial of active amyloid-β42 immunization (AN1792, Elan Pharmaceuticals) or placebo were studied. Comprehensive post-mortem neuropathological assessments were performed from 4 months to 15 years after the trial. We analysed the relationships between the topographical distribution of amyloid-β removal from the cerebral cortex and tau pathology, cerebrovascular territories, plasma anti-AN1792 antibody titres and late cognitive status. Seventeen of 22 (77%) participants had Alzheimer’s neuropathological change, whereas 5 of 22 (23%) had alternative causes for dementia (progressive supranuclear palsy = 1, Lewy body disease = 1, vascular brain injury = 1, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration = 2). Nineteen of the 22 participants had received the active agent, three the placebo. Fourteen of 16 (88%) patients with Alzheimer’s disease receiving the active agent had evidence of plaque removal (very extensive removal = 5, intermediate = 4, very limited = 5, no removal = 2). Of particular note, two Alzheimer’s patients who died 14 years after immunization had only very sparse or no detectable plaques in all regions examined. There was a significant inverse correlation between post-vaccination peripheral blood anti-AN1792 antibody titres and post-mortem plaque scores (ρ = − 0.664, P = 0.005). Cortical foci cleared of plaques contained less tau than did cortex with remaining plaques, but the overall distribution of tangles was extensive (Braak V/VI). In conclusion, patients with Alzheimer’s disease actively immunized against amyloid-β can remain virtually plaque-free for 14 years. The extent of plaque removal is related to the immune response. This long duration of efficacy is important in support of active immunization protocols as therapy for, or potentially prevention of, neurodegeneration-associated protein accumulations. Inclusion of patients without Alzheimer’s disease in Alzheimer’s therapy trials is a problem for assessing the efficacy of treatment. Despite modification of Alzheimer’s pathology, most patients had progressed to severe dementia, notably including the five with very extensive plaque removal, possibly due to continued tau propagation. Neuropathology follow-up of patients in therapeutic trials provides valuable information on the causes of dementia and effects of treatment.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz142
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Quantitative facial expression analysis revealed the efficacy and time
           course of oxytocin in autism
    • Authors: Owada K; Okada T, Munesue T, et al.
      Pages: 2127 - 2136
      Abstract: Discrepancies in efficacy between single-dose and repeated administration of oxytocin for autism spectrum disorder have led researchers to hypothesize that time-course changes in efficacy are induced by repeated administrations of the peptide hormone. However, repeatable, objective, and quantitative measurement of autism spectrum disorder’s core symptoms are lacking, making it difficult to examine potential time-course changes in efficacy. We tested this hypothesis using repeatable, objective, and quantitative measurement of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. We examined videos recorded during semi-structured social interaction administered as the primary outcome in single-site exploratory (n = 18, crossover within-subjects design) and multisite confirmatory (n = 106, parallel-group design), double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-week trials of repeated intranasal administrations of oxytocin (48 IU/day) in adult males with autism spectrum disorder. The main outcomes were statistical representative values of objectively quantified facial expression intensity in a repeatable part of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: the maximum probability (i.e. mode) and the natural logarithm of mode on the probability density function of neutral facial expression and the natural logarithm of mode on the probability density function of happy expression. Our recent study revealed that increases in these indices characterize autistic facial expression, compared with neurotypical individuals. The current results revealed that oxytocin consistently and significantly decreased the increased natural logarithm of mode on the probability density function of neutral facial expression compared with placebo in exploratory (effect-size, −0.57; 95% CI, −1.27 to 0.13; P = 0.023) and confirmatory trials (−0.41; −0.62 to −0.20; P < 0.001). A significant interaction between time-course (at baseline, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks) and the efficacy of oxytocin on the natural logarithm of mode on the probability density function of neutral facial expression was found in confirmatory trial (P < 0.001). Post hoc analyses revealed maximum efficacy at 2 weeks (P < 0.001, Cohen’s d = −0.78; 95% CI, −1.21 to −0.35) and deterioration of efficacy at 4 weeks (P = 0.042, Cohen’s d = −0.46; 95% CI, −0.90 to −0.01) and 6 weeks (P = 0.10, Cohen’s d = −0.35; 95% CI, −0.77 to 0.08), while efficacy was preserved at 2 weeks post-treatment (i.e. 8 weeks) (P < 0.001, Cohen’s d = −1.24; 95% CI, −1.71 to −0.78). Quantitative facial expression analyses successfully verified the positive effects of repeated oxytocin on autistic individuals’ facial expressions and demonstrated a time-course change in efficacy. The current findings support further development of an optimized regimen of oxytocin treatment.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz126
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • The prognosis of functional limb weakness: a 14-year case-control study
    • Authors: Gelauff J; Carson A, Ludwig L, et al.
      Pages: 2137 - 2148
      Abstract: Reliable data on the prognosis of functional motor disorder are scarce, as existing studies of the prognosis of functional motor disorder are nearly all retrospective, small and uncontrolled. In this study we used a prospectively recruited, controlled cohort design to assess misdiagnosis, mortality and symptomatic and health outcome in patients with functional limb weakness compared to neurological disease and healthy control subjects. We also carried out an exploratory analysis for baseline factors predicting outcome. One hundred and seven patients with functional limb weakness, 46 neurological and 38 healthy control subjects from our previously studied prospective cohort were traced for follow-up after an average of 14 years. Misdiagnosis was determined in a consensus meeting using information from records, patients and their GPs. Numbers and causes of death were collected via death certificates. Outcome of limb weakness, physical and psychiatric symptoms, disability/quality of life and illness perception were recorded with self-rated questionnaires. Outcome measures were compared within and between groups. Seventy-six patients (71%) with functional limb weakness, 31 (67%) neurological and 23 (61%) healthy controls were included in follow-up. Misdiagnosis was found in one patient in the functional limb weakness group (1%) and in one neurological control (2%). Eleven patients with functional limb weakness, eight neurological control subjects and one healthy control subject had died. Weakness had completely remitted in 20% of patients in the functional limb weakness group and in 18% of the neurological controls (P = 0.785) and improved in a larger proportion of functional limb weakness patients (P = 0.011). Outcomes were comparable between patient groups, and worse than the healthy control group. No baseline factors were independent predictors of outcome, although somatization disorder, general health, pain and total symptoms at baseline were univariably correlated to outcome. This study is the largest and longest follow-up study of functional limb weakness. Misdiagnosis in functional limb weakness is rare after long-term follow-up. The disorder is associated with a higher mortality rate than expected, and symptoms are persistent and disabling. It appears difficult to predict outcome based on common baseline variables. These data should help inform clinicians to provide a more realistic outlook of the outcome and emphasize the importance of active and targeted therapy.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz138
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Impaired attentional modulation of sensorimotor control and cortical
           excitability in schizophrenia
    • Authors: Carment L; Dupin L, Guedj L, et al.
      Pages: 2149 - 2164
      Abstract: Impairments in attentional, working memory and sensorimotor processing have been consistently reported in schizophrenia. However, the interaction between cognitive and sensorimotor impairments and the underlying neural mechanisms remains largely uncharted. We hypothesized that altered attentional processing in patients with schizophrenia, probed through saccadic inhibition, would partly explain impaired sensorimotor control and would be reflected as altered task-dependent modulation of cortical excitability and inhibition. Twenty-five stabilized patients with schizophrenia, 17 unaffected siblings and 25 healthy control subjects were recruited. Subjects performed visuomotor grip force-tracking alone (single-task condition) and with increased cognitive load (dual-task condition). In the dual-task condition, two types of trials were randomly presented: trials with visual distractors (requiring inhibition of saccades) or trials with addition of numbers (requiring saccades and addition). Both dual-task trial types required divided visual attention to the force-tracking target and to the distractor or number. Gaze was measured during force-tracking tasks, and task-dependent modulation of cortical excitability and inhibition were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation. In the single-task, patients with schizophrenia showed increased force-tracking error. In dual-task distraction trials, force-tracking error increased further in patients, but not in the other two groups. Patients inhibited fewer saccades to distractors, and the capacity to inhibit saccades explained group differences in force-tracking performance. Cortical excitability at rest was not different between groups and increased for all groups during single-task force-tracking, although, to a greater extent in patients (80%) compared to controls (40%). Compared to single-task force-tracking, the dual-task increased cortical excitability in control subjects, whereas patients showed decreased excitability. Again, the group differences in cortical excitability were no longer significant when failure to inhibit saccades was included as a covariate. Cortical inhibition was reduced in patients in all conditions, and only healthy controls increased inhibition in the dual-task. Siblings had similar force-tracking and gaze performance as controls but showed altered task-related modulation of cortical excitability and inhibition in dual-task conditions. In patients, neuropsychological scores of attention correlated with visuomotor performance and with task-dependant modulation of cortical excitability. Disorganization symptoms were greatest in patients with weakest task-dependent modulation of cortical excitability. This study provides insights into neurobiological mechanisms of impaired sensorimotor control in schizophrenia showing that deficient divided visual attention contributes to impaired visuomotor performance and is reflected in impaired modulation of cortical excitability and inhibition. In siblings, altered modulation of cortical excitability and inhibition is consistent with a genetic risk for cortical abnormality.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz127
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
  • Book Review His last bow
    • Authors: Lees A.
      Pages: 2165 - 2167
      Abstract: Sometimes odds and ends deserve exhumation. An idea is born, an argument takes shape, and a period of protracted research ensues. The resulting composition may then be published in a literary periodical or a learned journal where it reaches a narrow audience before rapidly fading into oblivion. This is the fate of most essays, even if the author happens to be as popular as Oliver Sacks. Everything in its Place: First Loves and Last Tales showcases a motley collection of his shorter essays. ‘Anybody Out There'’ in which he wonders about the feasibility of extraterrestrial life first appeared in Astrobiology; ‘The Aging Brain’, one of three original articles in the book on dementia, first came out in Archives of Neurology, and ‘Cold Storage’, a sad tale about Richard Asher’s patient, Uncle Toby, whom Sacks had encountered as a medical student, first appeared in Granta. Omnivore is acknowledged as the source of ‘The Elephant’s Gait’, The Threepenny Review for ‘Libraries’ and Discover for ‘Remembering South Kensington’. Only six of the essays are previously unpublished (‘Hiccups and other Curious Behaviours’, ‘Travels with Lowell’, ‘Tea and Toast’, ‘Telling’, ‘Orangutan’, ‘Why We Need Gardens’ and ‘Life Continues’) but the diverse sources of the other 27 more than justifies an anthology. On turning the pages of this final volume many of Sacks’ readers will have a feeling of familiarity as they revisit stories told slightly differently, encounter characters and patients met in his earlier books, and learn more details about some of his all-consuming passions.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awz180
      Issue No: Vol. 142, No. 7 (2019)
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