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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 315, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 589, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Journal Prestige (SJR): 5.858
Citation Impact (citeScore): 7
Number of Followers: 68  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0006-8950 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2156
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • TDP-43 mutations increase HNRNP A1-7B through gain of splicing function
    • Authors: Sivakumar P; De Giorgio F, Ule A, et al.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy260
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Reply: TDP-43 mutations increase HNRNP A1-7B through gain of splicing
    • Authors: Tétreault M; Deshaies J, Semmler S, et al.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy261
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Kullmann D.
      Pages: 3279 - 3279
      Abstract: This issue brings Volume 141 of Brain to a close. During 2018, Brain featured 12 Editorials, 12 Reviews, three Updates, 46 Scientific Commentaries, one Clinical Trial, 11 Reports, 203 Articles, four Book Reviews, seven ‘Grey Matters’, one ‘From the Archives’, two ‘Evoked Responses’, 67 Letters to the Editor, 15 Corrigenda and one Erratum. The Editorial office processed over 2300 submissions, with an acceptance rate for unsolicited material around 12%. That 88% of original papers submitted were rejected gives some cause for concern. Despite the efforts of the Editorial team to provide a fair evaluation of all manuscripts, some authors are justifiably unhappy that their papers could not be accommodated. Some submissions will inevitably fall just the wrong side of the cut-off with respect to perceived potential impact for the field. Raising the acceptance rate without increasing the total number of pages printed would necessitate cutting down on the length of accepted articles. Although authors are encouraged to make use of online Supplementary material, the format of articles in Brain is intended to allow authors to provide a sufficient account of their discoveries that they can be appreciated in the journal without having to refer to the website. The publishing contract, which limits the total size of the journal, reflects Brain’s evolution since 1878, when three issues were published, and four the following year. Individual issues gradually increased in length until 1986 when six issues appeared, and a further fission event occurred in 1997, when the current format of 12 issues per volume took hold. Since then Brain has only developed a mild embonpoint, and it is still possible to read a paper copy without risk of injury. More relevant to the majority of readers who access the journal electronically, it is possible to appreciate a selection of important advances across the breadth of translational neuroscience without two novel variants of anxiety disorder, Information Overload (IO) and Fear of Missing Out (FOMO). The business model that has sustained Brain for the first 141 years of its existence provides a natural incentive to keep the journal at a manageable size, in contrast to the Open Access online-only format, which favours high-volume publication and consequent risks of IO and FOMO.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy295
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • That's right! Language comprehension beyond the left hemisphere
    • Authors: Sheppard S; Hillis A.
      Pages: 3280 - 3289
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘How right hemisphere damage after stroke can impair speech comprehension', by Gajardo-Vidal et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awy270).
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy291
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • In search of lost trafficking
    • Authors: Bechek S; Gitler A.
      Pages: 3282 - 3285
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Frontotemporal dementia causative CHMP2B impairs neuronal endolysosomal traffic-rescue by TMEM106B knockdown’, by Clayton et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awy284).
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy294
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Exploring Alzheimer's disease subtypes at the prodromal stage
    • Authors: Kolanko M; Malhotra P.
      Pages: 3285 - 3287
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Atrophy subtypes in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease are associated with cognitive decline', by ten Kate et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awy264).
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy282
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Brain connections and social connections in autism spectrum disorders
    • Authors: Eyler L.
      Pages: 3287 - 3289
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Local structural connectivity is associated with social cognition in autism spectrum disorder’, by d’Albis et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awy275).
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy293
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • The search for pain biomarkers in the human brain
    • Authors: Mouraux A; Iannetti G.
      Pages: 3290 - 3307
      Abstract: Non-invasive functional brain imaging is used more than ever to investigate pain in health and disease, with the prospect of finding new means to alleviate pain and improve patient wellbeing. The observation that several brain areas are activated by transient painful stimuli, and that the magnitude of this activity is often graded with pain intensity, has prompted researchers to extract features of brain activity that could serve as biomarkers to measure pain objectively. However, most of the brain responses observed when pain is present can also be observed when pain is absent. For example, similar brain responses can be elicited by salient but non-painful auditory, tactile and visual stimuli, and such responses can even be recorded in patients with congenital analgesia. Thus, as argued in this review, there is still disagreement on the degree to which current measures of brain activity exactly relate to pain. Furthermore, whether more recent analysis techniques can be used to identify distributed patterns of brain activity specific for pain can be only warranted using carefully designed control conditions. On a more general level, the clinical utility of current pain biomarkers derived from human functional neuroimaging appears to be overstated, and evidence for their efficacy in real-life clinical conditions is scarce. Rather than searching for biomarkers of pain perception, several researchers are developing biomarkers to achieve mechanism-based stratification of pain conditions, predict response to medication and offer personalized treatments. Initial results with promising clinical perspectives need to be further tested for replicability and generalizability.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy281
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • A novel ATP1A2 mutation in a patient with hypokalaemic periodic paralysis
           and CNS symptoms
    • Authors: Sampedro Castañeda M; Zanoteli E, Scalco R, et al.
      Pages: 3308 - 3318
      Abstract: Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis is a rare genetic neuromuscular disease characterized by episodes of skeletal muscle paralysis associated with low serum potassium. Muscle fibre inexcitability during attacks of paralysis is due to an aberrant depolarizing leak current through mutant voltage sensing domains of either the sarcolemmal voltage-gated calcium or sodium channel. We report a child with hypokalaemic periodic paralysis and CNS involvement, including seizures, but without mutations in the known periodic paralysis genes. We identified a novel heterozygous de novo missense mutation in the ATP1A2 gene encoding the α2 subunit of the Na+/K+-ATPase that is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle and in brain astrocytes. Pump activity is crucial for Na+ and K+ homeostasis following sustained muscle or neuronal activity and its dysfunction is linked to the CNS disorders hemiplegic migraine and alternating hemiplegia of childhood, but muscle dysfunction has not been reported. Electrophysiological measurements of mutant pump activity in Xenopus oocytes revealed lower turnover rates in physiological extracellular K+ and an anomalous inward leak current in hypokalaemic conditions, predicted to lead to muscle depolarization. Our data provide important evidence supporting a leak current as the major pathomechanism underlying hypokalaemic periodic paralysis and indicate ATP1A2 as a new hypokalaemic periodic paralysis gene.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy283
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Development and validation of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Infant Scale
    • Authors: Mandarakas M; Menezes M, Rose K, et al.
      Pages: 3319 - 3330
      Abstract: Many genetic subtypes of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) show signs of symptomatic disease during the earliest years of life. This might be the ideal time to intervene before progression of clinical sequelae due to demyelination and axonal loss. In the absence of disease-specific clinical trial outcome measures for CMT during infancy and early childhood the aim of this study was to develop and validate a functional measure of disease severity, known as the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Infant Scale (CMTInfS). Development projects involved identification of a preliminary pool of 31 items representing the range of disability in affected patients aged 0–4 years from a systematic review of the literature, peer review by 12 expert clinicians and researchers in the field, design of a scoring algorithm and pilot testing in 22 participants. Subsequently, a series of validation projects were conducted based on 128 assessments of: 26 confirmed cases of inherited neuropathy (17 CMT1A, one CMT1B, one CMT1D, one CMT2C, one CMT2S, two CMT4C, one CMTX3, one Riboflavin Transporter Deficiency Type 2, and one unidentified mutation); seven ‘at risk’ cases and 95 unaffected healthy controls recruited through the NIH-funded Inherited Neuropathies Consortium. Validation projects included: Item, Factor and Rasch analysis, intra- and inter-rater reliability, discriminant ability and convergent validity with the CMT Pediatric Scale (CMTPedS) for children aged 3–4 years. Development and validation projects produced a psychometrically robust 15-item scale. Rasch analysis supported the viability of the CMTInfS as a unidimensional measure of disease severity and showed good overall model fit, no evidence of misfitting items or persons and was well targeted for affected children. The CMTInfS demonstrated high intra-rater reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)3,1 0.999, 95% confidence interval 0.996–1.000) and inter-rater reliability (ICC2,1 0.997, 95% confidence interval 0.992–0.999). The CMTInfS was able to discriminate between the CMT group and controls (P = 0.006), and convergent validity demonstrated good agreement between CMTInfS and CMTPedS scores (r = 0.76, P = 0.01). The final version of the CMTInfS requires 20 min to administer and is a reliable and sensitive functional outcome measure for early onset CMT and related neuropathies.10.1093/brain/awy280_video1awy280media15970672819001
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy280
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Spastic paraplegia due to SPAST mutations is modified by the underlying
           mutation and sex
    • Authors: Parodi L; Fenu S, Barbier M, et al.
      Pages: 3331 - 3342
      Abstract: Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are rare neurological disorders caused by progressive distal degeneration of the corticospinal tracts. Among the 79 loci and 65 spastic paraplegia genes (SPGs) involved in HSPs, mutations in SPAST, which encodes spastin, responsible for SPG4, are the most frequent cause of both familial and sporadic HSP. SPG4 is characterized by a clinically pure phenotype associated with restricted involvement of the corticospinal tracts and posterior columns of the spinal cord. It is rarely associated with additional neurological signs. However, both age of onset and severity of the disorder are extremely variable. Such variability is both intra- and inter-familial and may suggest incomplete penetrance, with some patients carrying mutations remaining asymptomatic for their entire life. We analysed a cohort of 842 patients with SPG4-HSP to assess genotype–phenotype correlations. Most patients were French (89%) and had a family history of SPG4-HSP (75%). Age at onset was characterized by a bimodal distribution, with high inter-familial and intra-familial variability, especially concerning first-degree relatives. Penetrance of the disorder was 0.9, complete after 70 years of age. Penetrance was lower in females (0.88 versus 0.94 in males, P = 0.01), despite a more diffuse phenotype with more frequent upper limb involvement. Seventy-seven per cent of pathogenic mutations (missense, frameshift, splice site, nonsense, and deletions) were located in the AAA cassette of spastin, impairing its microtubule-severing activity. A comparison of the missense and truncating mutations revealed a significantly lower age at onset for patients carrying missense mutations than those carrying truncating mutations, explaining the bimodal distribution of the age at onset. The age at onset for patients carrying missense mutations was often before 10 years, sometimes associated with intellectual deficiency. Neuropathological examination of a single case showed degeneration of the spinocerebellar and spinocortical tracts, as well as the posterior columns. However, there were numerous small-diameter processes among unusually large myelinated fibres in the corticospinal tract, suggesting marked regeneration. In conclusion, this large cohort of 842 individuals allowed us to identify a significantly younger age at onset in missense mutation carriers and lower penetrance in females, despite a more severe disorder. Neuropathology in one case showed numerous small fibres suggesting regeneration.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy285
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Microglial phenotypes in the human epileptic temporal lobe
    • Authors: Morin-Brureau M; Milior G, Royer J, et al.
      Pages: 3343 - 3360
      Abstract: Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are highly plastic and possess multiple functional phenotypes. Differences in phenotype in different regions and different states of epileptic human brain have been little studied. Here we use transcriptomics, anatomy, imaging of living cells and ELISA measurements of cytokine release to examine microglia from patients with temporal lobe epilepsies. Two distinct microglial phenotypes were explored. First we asked how microglial phenotype differs between regions of high and low neuronal loss in the same brain. Second, we asked how microglial phenotype is changed by a recent seizure. In sclerotic areas with few neurons, microglia have an amoeboid rather than ramified shape, express activation markers and respond faster to purinergic stimuli. The repairing interleukin, IL-10, regulates the basal phenotype of microglia in the CA1 and CA3 regions with neuronal loss and gliosis. To understand changes in phenotype induced by a seizure, we estimated the delay from the last seizure until tissue collection from changes in reads for immediate early gene transcripts. Pseudotime ordering of these data was validated by comparison with results from kainate-treated mice. It revealed a local and transient phenotype in which microglia secrete the human interleukin CXCL8, IL-1B and other cytokines. This secretory response is mediated in part via the NRLP3 inflammasome.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy276
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Cognitive control involves theta power within trials and beta power across
           trials in the prefrontal-subthalamic network
    • Authors: Zavala B; Jang A, Trotta M, et al.
      Pages: 3361 - 3376
      Abstract: There is increasing evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex participates in conflict and feedback monitoring while the subthalamic nucleus adjusts actions. Yet how these two structures coordinate their activity during cognitive control remains poorly understood. We recorded from the human prefrontal cortex and the subthalamic nucleus simultaneously while participants (n = 22) performed a novel task involving high conflict trials, complete response inhibition trials, and trial-to-trial behavioural adaptations to conflict and errors. Overall, we found that within-trial adaptions to both conflict and complete response inhibition involved changes in the theta band while across-trial behavioural adaptations to both conflict and errors involved changes in the beta band (P < 0.05). Yet the role each region’s theta and beta oscillations played during the task differed significantly between the two sites. Trials that involved either within-trial conflict or complete response inhibition were associated with increased theta phase synchrony between the medial prefrontal cortex and the subthalamic nucleus (P < 0.05). Despite increased synchrony, however, increases in prefrontal theta power were associated with response inhibition, while increases in subthalamic theta power were associated with response execution (P < 0.05). In the beta band, post-response increases in prefrontal beta power were suppressed when the completed trial contained either conflict or an erroneous response (P < 0.05). Subthalamic beta power, on the other hand, was only modified during the subsequent trial that followed a conflict or error trial. Notably, these adaptation trials exhibited slower response times (P < 0.05), suggesting that both brain regions contribute to across-trial adaptations but do so at different stages of the adaptation process. Taken together, our data shed light on the mechanisms underlying within-trial and across-trial cognitive control and how disruption of this network can negatively impact cognition. More broadly, however, our data also demonstrate that the specific role of a brain region, rather than the frequency being utilized, governs the behavioural correlates of oscillatory activity.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy266
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Angiopoietin like-4 as a novel vascular mediator in capillary cerebral
           amyloid angiopathy
    • Authors: Chakraborty A; Kamermans A, van het Hof B, et al.
      Pages: 3377 - 3388
      Abstract: Increasing evidence suggests that vascular dysfunction in the brain is associated with early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid-β deposition in the microvasculature of the brain, a process referred to as capillary cerebral amyloid angiopathy (capillary CAA), propagates vascular remodelling, which results in impaired function of the blood–brain barrier, reduced cerebral perfusion and increased hypoxia. While improving vascular function may be an attractive new way to fight capillary CAA, the underlying factors that mediate vascular alterations in Alzheimer’s disease and capillary CAA pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here we provide first evidence that angiopoietin like-4 (ANGPTL4), a hypoxia-induced factor, is highly expressed by reactive astrocytes in well characterized post-mortem tissues of patients with capillary CAA. Our in vitro studies reveal that ANGPTL4 is upregulated and secreted by human cortical astrocytes under hypoxic conditions and in turn stimulates endothelial cell migration and sprouting in a 3D spheroid model of human brain endothelial cells. Interestingly, plasma levels of ANGPTL4 are significantly increased in patients with vascular dementia compared to patients with subjective memory complaints. Overall, our data suggest that ANGPTL4 contributes to pathological vascular remodelling in capillary CAA and that detection of ANGPTL4 levels may improve current diagnostics. Ways of counteracting the detrimental effects of ANGPTL4 and thus promoting cerebral vascular function may provide novel treatment regimens to halt the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy274
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • How right hemisphere damage after stroke can impair speech comprehension
    • Authors: Gajardo-Vidal A; Lorca-Puls D, Hope T, et al.
      Pages: 3389 - 3404
      Abstract: Acquired language disorders after stroke are strongly associated with left hemisphere damage. When language difficulties are observed in the context of right hemisphere strokes, patients are usually considered to have atypical functional anatomy. By systematically integrating behavioural and lesion data from brain damaged patients with functional MRI data from neurologically normal participants, we investigated when and why right hemisphere strokes cause language disorders. Experiment 1 studied right-handed patients with unilateral strokes that damaged the right (n = 109) or left (n = 369) hemispheres. The most frequently impaired language task was: auditory sentence-to-picture matching after right hemisphere strokes; and spoken picture description after left hemisphere strokes. For those with auditory sentence-to-picture matching impairments after right hemisphere strokes, the majority (n = 9) had normal performance on tests of perceptual (visual or auditory) and linguistic (semantic, phonological or syntactic) processing. Experiment 2 found that these nine patients had significantly more damage to dorsal parts of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and the right inferior frontal sulcus compared to 75 other patients who also had right hemisphere strokes but were not impaired on the auditory sentence-to-picture matching task. Damage to these right hemisphere regions caused long-term speech comprehension difficulties in 67% of patients. Experiments 3 and 4 used functional MRI in two groups of 25 neurologically normal individuals to show that within the regions identified by Experiment 2, the right inferior frontal sulcus was normally activated by (i) auditory sentence-to-picture matching; and (ii) one-back matching when the demands on linguistic and non-linguistic working memory were high. Together, these experiments demonstrate that the right inferior frontal cortex contributes to linguistic and non-linguistic working memory capacity (executive function) that is needed for normal speech comprehension. Our results link previously unrelated literatures on the role of the right inferior frontal cortex in executive processing and the role of executive processing in sentence comprehension; which in turn helps to explain why right inferior frontal activity has previously been reported to increase during recovery of language function after left hemisphere stroke. The clinical relevance of our findings is that the detrimental effect of right hemisphere strokes on language is (i) much greater than expected; (ii) frequently observed after damage to the right inferior frontal sulcus; (iii) task dependent; (iv) different to the type of impairments observed after left hemisphere strokes; and (v) can result in long-lasting deficits that are (vi) not the consequence of atypical language lateralization.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy270
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Focused ultrasound thalamotomy location determines clinical benefits in
           patients with essential tremor
    • Authors: Boutet A; Ranjan M, Zhong J, et al.
      Pages: 3405 - 3414
      Abstract: Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy is a novel and minimally invasive ablative treatment for essential tremor. The size and location of therapeutic lesions producing the optimal clinical benefits while minimizing adverse effects are not known. We examined these relationships in patients with essential tremor undergoing MRgFUS. We studied 66 patients with essential tremor who underwent MRgFUS between 2012 and 2017. We assessed the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST) scores at 3 months after the procedure and tracked the adverse effects (sensory, motor, speech, gait, and dysmetria) 1 day (acute) and 3 months after the procedure. Clinical data associated with the postoperative Day 1 lesions were used to correlate the size and location of lesions with tremor benefit and acute adverse effects. Diffusion-weighted imaging was used to assess whether acute adverse effects were related to lesions encroaching on nearby major white matter tracts (medial lemniscus, pyramidal, and dentato-rubro-thalamic). The area of optimal tremor response at 3 months after the procedure was identified at the posterior portion of the ventral intermediate nucleus. Lesions extending beyond the posterior region of the ventral intermediate nucleus and lateral to the lateral thalamic border were associated with increased risk of acute adverse sensory and motor effects, respectively. Acute adverse effects on gait and dysmetria occurred with lesions inferolateral to the thalamus. Lesions inferolateral to the thalamus or medial to the ventral intermediate nucleus were also associated with acute adverse speech effects. Diffusion-weighted imaging revealed that lesions associated with adverse sensory and gait/dysmetria effects compromised the medial lemniscus and dentato-rubro-thalamic tracts, respectively. Lesions associated with adverse motor and speech effects encroached on the pyramidal tract. Lesions larger than 170 mm3 were associated with an increased risk of acute adverse effects. Tremor improvement and acute adverse effects of MRgFUS for essential tremor are highly dependent on the location and size of lesions. These novel findings could refine current MRgFUS treatment planning and targeting, thereby improving clinical outcomes in patients.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy278
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Early microglial activation and peripheral inflammation in dementia with
           Lewy bodies
    • Authors: Surendranathan A; Su L, Mak E, et al.
      Pages: 3415 - 3427
      Abstract: Inflammation is increasingly recognized as part of the pathology of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, but its role in dementia with Lewy bodies remains unclear. Using multimodal imaging and peripheral cytokine analysis, we therefore investigated central and peripheral inflammation in this common form of dementia. Nineteen participants with probable dementia with Lewy bodies and 16 similarly aged controls underwent 3 T MRI and PET imaging with 11C-PK11195, a marker of microglial activation in vivo. Peripheral blood inflammatory cytokines were also measured in all subjects, as well as in an additional 10 controls, using the Mesoscale Human Cytokine 36 plex panel and additional assays for high sensitivity c-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor receptor 1, IL-34, YKL-40 (chitinase-3-like protein 1) and colony stimulating factor 1. To test for the presence of in vivo amyloid, 11C-Pittsburgh compound B PET imaging was also performed in 16 of the dementia with Lewy body participants. Microglial activation was elevated in dementia with Lewy bodies subjects with mild disease when compared to those with moderate/severe impairment, where disease severity was indexed by cognitive performance on the revised Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination. In patients, strong correlations were found between cognitive performance and 11C-PK11195 non-displaceable binding potential in several regions including the caudate nucleus (R = 0.83, P = 0.00008) and cuneus (R = 0.77, P = 0.0005). Several inflammatory cytokines were altered in the patients compared to controls, with elevated macrophage inflammatory protein-3 (P = 0.001), IL-17A (P = 0.008) and IL-2 (P = 0.046) and reduced IL-8 (P = 0.024). There was no correlation between cortical 11C-Pittsburgh compound B standardized uptake value ratio and clinical features, regional 11C-PK11195 binding or peripheral cytokine levels. Nor was there any regional correlation between 11C-PK11195 non-displaceable binding potentials and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B standardized uptake value ratios. Our findings provide evidence for both central and peripheral inflammatory changes in dementia with Lewy bodies, with microglial activation occurring early in the disease in key regions known to be associated with pathology, before declining as cognition declines. Raised peripheral cytokines associated with T cell function further suggest a role for the adaptive immune system in the pathogenesis of the disease.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy265
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Frontotemporal dementia causative CHMP2B impairs neuronal endolysosomal
           traffic-rescue by TMEM106B knockdown
    • Authors: Clayton E; Milioto C, Muralidharan B, et al.
      Pages: 3428 - 3442
      Abstract: Mutations in the endosome-associated protein CHMP2B cause frontotemporal dementia and lead to lysosomal storage pathology in neurons. We here report that physiological levels of mutant CHMP2B causes reduced numbers and significantly impaired trafficking of endolysosomes within neuronal dendrites, accompanied by increased dendritic branching. Mechanistically, this is due to the stable incorporation of mutant CHMP2B onto neuronal endolysosomes, which we show renders them unable to traffic within dendrites. This defect is due to the inability of mutant CHMP2B to recruit the ATPase VPS4, which is required for release of CHMP2B from endosomal membranes. Strikingly, both impaired trafficking and the increased dendritic branching were rescued by treatment with antisense oligonucleotides targeting the well validated frontotemporal dementia risk factor TMEM106B, which encodes an endolysosomal protein. This indicates that reducing TMEM106B levels can restore endosomal health in frontotemporal dementia. As TMEM106B is a risk factor for frontotemporal dementia caused by both C9orf72 and progranulin mutations, and antisense oligonucleotides are showing promise as therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases, our data suggests a potential new strategy for treating the wide range of frontotemporal dementias associated with endolysosomal dysfunction.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy284
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Atrophy subtypes in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease are associated
           with cognitive decline
    • Authors: ten Kate M; Dicks E, Visser P, et al.
      Pages: 3443 - 3456
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease is a heterogeneous disorder. Understanding the biological basis for this heterogeneity is key for developing personalized medicine. We identified atrophy subtypes in Alzheimer’s disease dementia and tested whether these subtypes are already present in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease and could explain interindividual differences in cognitive decline. First we retrospectively identified atrophy subtypes from structural MRI with a data-driven cluster analysis in three datasets of patients with Alzheimer’s disease dementia: discovery data (dataset 1: n = 299, age = 67 ± 8, 50% female), and two independent external validation datasets (dataset 2: n = 181, age = 66 ± 7, 52% female; dataset 3: n = 227, age = 74 ± 8, 44% female). Subtypes were compared on clinical, cognitive and biological characteristics. Next, we classified prodromal Alzheimer’s disease participants (n = 603, age = 72 ± 8, 43% female) according to the best matching subtype to their atrophy pattern, and we tested whether subtypes showed cognitive decline in specific domains. In all Alzheimer’s disease dementia datasets we consistently identified four atrophy subtypes: (i) medial-temporal predominant atrophy with worst memory and language function, older age, lowest CSF tau levels and highest amount of vascular lesions; (ii) parieto-occipital atrophy with poor executive/attention and visuospatial functioning and high CSF tau; (iii) mild atrophy with best cognitive performance, young age, but highest CSF tau levels; and (iv) diffuse cortical atrophy with intermediate clinical, cognitive and biological features. Prodromal Alzheimer’s disease participants classified into one of these subtypes showed similar subtype characteristics at baseline as Alzheimer’s disease dementia subtypes. Compared across subtypes in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease, the medial-temporal subtype showed fastest decline in memory and language over time; the parieto-occipital subtype declined fastest on executive/attention domain; the diffuse subtype in visuospatial functioning; and the mild subtype showed intermediate decline in all domains. Robust atrophy subtypes exist in Alzheimer’s disease with distinct clinical and biological disease expression. Here we observe that these subtypes can already be detected in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease, and that these may inform on expected trajectories of cognitive decline.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy264
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Neurobiological substrates underlying the effect of genomic risk for
           depression on the conversion of amnestic mild cognitive impairment
    • Authors: Xu J; Li Q, Qin W, et al.
      Pages: 3457 - 3471
      Abstract: Depression increases the conversion risk from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease with unknown mechanisms. We hypothesize that the cumulative genomic risk for major depressive disorder may be a candidate cause for the increased conversion risk. Here, we aimed to investigate the predictive effect of the polygenic risk scores of major depressive disorder-specific genetic variants (PRSsMDD) on the conversion from non-depressed amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease, and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms. The PRSsMDD could predict the conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease, and amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients with high risk scores showed 16.25% higher conversion rate than those with low risk. The PRSsMDD was correlated with the left hippocampal volume, which was found to mediate the predictive effect of the PRSsMDD on the conversion of amnestic mild cognitive impairment. The major depressive disorder-specific genetic variants were mapped into genes using different strategies, and then enrichment analyses and protein–protein interaction network analysis revealed that these genes were involved in developmental process and amyloid-beta binding. They showed temporal-specific expression in the hippocampus in middle and late foetal developmental periods. Cell type-specific expression analysis of these genes demonstrated significant over-representation in the pyramidal neurons and interneurons in the hippocampus. These cross-scale neurobiological analyses and functional annotations indicate that major depressive disorder-specific genetic variants may increase the conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease by modulating the early hippocampal development and amyloid-beta binding. The PRSsMDD could be used as a complementary measure to select patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment with high conversion risk to Alzheimer’s disease.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy277
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • Local structural connectivity is associated with social cognition in
           autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: d’Albis M; Guevara P, Guevara M, et al.
      Pages: 3472 - 3481
      Abstract: The current theory implying local, short-range overconnectivity in autism spectrum disorder, contrasting with long-range underconnectivity, is based on heterogeneous results, on limited data involving functional connectivity studies, on heterogeneous paediatric populations and non-specific methodologies. In this work, we studied short-distance structural connectivity in a homogeneous population of males with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and used a novel methodology specifically suited for assessing U-shaped short-distance tracts, including a recently developed tractography-based atlas of the superficial white matter fibres. We acquired diffusion-weighted MRI for 58 males (27 subjects with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and 31 control subjects) and extracted the mean generalized fractional anisotropy of 63 short-distance tracts. Neuropsychological evaluation included Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (WAIS-IV), Communication Checklist-Adult, Empathy Quotient, Social Responsiveness Scale and Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult (BRIEF-A). In contradiction with the models of short-range over-connectivity in autism spectrum disorder, we found that patients with autism spectrum disorder had a significantly decreased anatomical connectivity in a component comprising 13 short tracts compared to controls. Specific short-tract atypicalities in temporal lobe and insula were significantly associated with clinical manifestations of autism spectrum disorder such as social awareness, language structure, pragmatic skills and empathy, emphasizing their importance in social dysfunction. Short-range decreased anatomical connectivity may thus be an important substrate of social deficits in autism spectrum disorder, in contrast with current models.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy275
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
  • One hundred and fifty years ago Charcot reported multiple sclerosis as a
           new neurological disease
    • Authors: Zalc B.
      Pages: 3482 - 3488
      Abstract: Figure 1
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awy287
      Issue No: Vol. 141, No. 12 (2018)
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