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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 231, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 502, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Brain
  [SJR: 6.097]   [H-I: 264]   [61 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0006-8950 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2156
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Abnormal white matter development in children with multiple sclerosis and
           monophasic acquired demyelination
    • Authors: Hacohen Y; Ciccarelli O, Hemingway C.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><strong>This scientific commentary refers to ‘White matter changes in paediatric multiple sclerosis and monophasic demyelinating disorders’, by Longoni <span style="font-style:italic;">et al</span>. (doi:<strong><a href="article.aspx'volume=&page=">10.1093/brain/awx041<span></span></a></strong>).</strong></span>
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
  • Striatal dysfunction during dual-task performance in Parkinson’s
    • Authors: Bell PT; Gilat M, Shine JM.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><strong>This scientific commentary refers to ‘Impaired dual tasking in Parkinson’s disease is associated with reduced focusing of cortico-striatal activity’ by Nieuwhof <span style="font-style:italic;">et al.</span> (doi:<strong><a href="article.aspx'volume=&page=">10.1093/brain/awx042<span></span></a></strong>).</strong></span>
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
  • New hope for devastating neurodegenerative disease
    • Authors: Stayte S; Vissel B.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><strong>This scientific commentary refers to ‘Insulin resistance and exendin-4 treatment for multiple system atrophy’, by Bassil <span style="font-style:italic;">et al</span>., (doi:<strong><a href="article.aspx'volume=&page=">10.1093/brain/awx044<span></span></a></strong>).</strong></span>
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
  • Knowing your enemy: from post-mortem scene reconstruction to real-time
           monitoring of the spread of tau and amyloid
    • Authors: Vandenberghe R; Schaeverbeke J.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><strong>This scientific commentary refers to ‘Association between tau deposition and antecedent amyloid-β accumulation rates in normal and early symptomatic individuals’, by Tosun <span style="font-style:italic;">et al</span>. (doi:<strong><a href="article.aspx'volume=&page=">10.1093/brain/awx046<span></span></a></strong>).</strong></span>
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Kullmann DM.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">It is not every day that a <span style="font-style:italic;">Brain</span> article is picked up at prepublication stage by creationist websites, but such is the fate of a report in this issue by Yair Pinto and colleagues, who revisit the question whether subjects with complete callosal transection have united or divided consciousness. Several papers by Roger Sperry in the 1960s argued for the latter view, and one of these, co-authored by Michael Gazzaniga, appeared 50 years ago in <span style="font-style:italic;">Brain</span> (Gazzaniga and Sperry, 1967). In keeping with the classical studies, which earned Sperry a Nobel Prize, Pinto and co-workers confirm that their subjects were unable to tell whether objects simultaneously presented to both visual half-fields were the same or different. However, when a symbol or picture was briefly presented to either visual half-field in isolation, subjects were able to report reliably with either hand whether they had seen something, and to localize the image and match it to a subsequently presented picture or word, all at well above chance level. These findings are difficult to reconcile with the conventional view that the corpus callosum is absolutely necessary for the left hemisphere to access information represented in the right occipital cortex. It remains to be determined whether alternative pathways can be exploited after callosal transection, for instance involving the brainstem. However, according to some evolutionary sceptics and proponents of intelligent design, the work of Pinto and co-workers is taken as evidence that ‘one spirit can operate a split brain’ (<a href=""></a>). The same work is also mentioned at Breitbart News, accompanied by the pithy comment: ‘Next, researchers will test people with half their brains removed. I think they are narrowing in on how a liberal thinks’. It is good to know that <span style="font-style:italic;">Brain</span> articles are reaching out to a broad audience, although perhaps worrying that they can be only one click away from conspiracy theories, fake news and the alt-right.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
  • The life and legacy of Brown-Séquard
    • Authors: Aminoff MJ.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Eccentric and unorthodox, Brown-Séquard is nevertheless celebrated for his contributions to endocrinology and neurology. Michael Aminoff reviews the life and legacy of Brown-Séquard on the bicentenary of his birth, and highlights the importance of his work in later life for our understanding of the syndrome that now bears his name.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
  • Glycation potentiates α-synuclein-associated neurodegeneration in
    • Authors: Vicente Miranda H; Szegő ÉM, Oliveira LA, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">α-Synuclein misfolding and aggregation is a hallmark in Parkinson’s disease and in several other neurodegenerative diseases known as synucleinopathies. The toxic properties of α-synuclein are conserved from yeast to man, but the precise underpinnings of the cellular pathologies associated are still elusive, complicating the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Combining molecular genetics with target-based approaches, we established that glycation, an unavoidable age-associated post-translational modification, enhanced α-synuclein toxicity <span style="font-style:italic;">in vitro</span> and <span style="font-style:italic;">in vivo</span>, in <span style="font-style:italic;">Drosophila</span> and in mice. Glycation affected primarily the N-terminal region of α-synuclein, reducing membrane binding, impaired the clearance of α-synuclein, and promoted the accumulation of toxic oligomers that impaired neuronal synaptic transmission. Strikingly, using glycation inhibitors, we demonstrated that normal clearance of α-synuclein was re-established, aggregation was reduced, and motor phenotypes in <span style="font-style:italic;">Drosophila</span> were alleviated. Altogether, our study demonstrates glycation constitutes a novel drug target that can be explored in synucleinopathies as well as in other neurodegenerative conditions.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
  • Gene-based association studies report genetic links for clinical subtypes
           of frontotemporal dementia
    • Authors: Mishra A; Ferrari R, Heutink P, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Genome-wide association studies in frontotemporal dementia showed limited success in identifying associated loci. This is possibly due to small sample size, allelic heterogeneity, small effect sizes of single genetic variants, and the necessity to statistically correct for testing millions of genetic variants. To overcome these issues, we performed gene-based association studies on 3348 clinically identified frontotemporal dementia cases and 9390 controls (discovery, replication and joint-cohort analyses). We report association of <span style="font-style:italic;">APOE</span> and <span style="font-style:italic;">TOMM40</span> with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, and <span style="font-style:italic;">ARHGAP35</span> and <span style="font-style:italic;">SERPINA1</span> with progressive non-fluent aphasia. Further, we found the ɛ2 and ɛ4 alleles of <span style="font-style:italic;">APOE</span> harbouring protective and risk increasing effects, respectively, in clinical subtypes of frontotemporal dementia against neurologically normal controls. The <span style="font-style:italic;">APOE</span>-locus association with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia indicates its potential risk-increasing role across different neurodegenerative diseases, whereas the novel genetic associations of <span style="font-style:italic;">ARHGAP35</span> and <span style="font-style:italic;">SERPINA1</span> with progressive non-fluent aphasia point towards a potential role of the stress-signalling pathway in its pathophysiology.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
  • Biochemically-defined pools of amyloid-β in sporadic Alzheimer’s
           disease: correlation with amyloid PET
    • Authors: Roberts BR; Lind M, Wagen AZ, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">We fractionated frontal cortical grey matter from human Alzheimer’s disease and control subjects into four biochemically defined pools that represent four distinct compartments: soluble/cytosolic, peripheral membrane/vesicular cargo, integral lipid/membranous pools and aggregated/insoluble debris. Most of the readily extractable amyloid-β remains associated with a lipid/membranous compartment. There is an exchange of amyloid-β between the biochemical pools that was lost for the amyloid-β<sub>42</sub> species in Alzheimer’s disease, consistent with the peptide being irreversibly trapped in extracellular deposits. The quantitative amyloid-β data, combined with magnetic resonance imaging volumetric analysis of the amount of cortical grey matter in brain, allowed us to estimate the total mass of amyloid-β in Alzheimer’s disease (6.5 mg) and control (1.7 mg) brains. The threshold positron emission tomography standard uptake value ratio of 1.4 equates to 5.0 μg amyloid-β/g of grey matter and the mean Alzheimer’s disease dementia standard uptake value ratio level of 2.3 equates to 11.20 μg amyloid-β/g of grey matter. It takes 19 years to accumulate amyloid from the threshold positron emission tomography standard uptake value ratio to the mean value observed for Alzheimer’s disease dementia. This accumulation time window combined with the difference of 4.8 mg of amyloid-β between Alzheimer’s disease and control brain allows for a first approximation of amyloid-β accumulation of 28 ng/h. This equates to an estimated 2–5% of the total amyloid-β production being deposited as insoluble plaques. Understanding these rates of amyloid-β accumulation allows for a more quantitative approach in targeting the failure of amyloid-β clearance in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
  • Combined effects of scanning ultrasound and a tau-specific single chain
           antibody in a tau transgenic mouse model
    • Authors: Nisbet RM; Van der Jeugd A, Leinenga G, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β as extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau as intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Tau pathology characterizes not only Alzheimer’s disease, but also many other tauopathies, presenting tau as an attractive therapeutic target. Passive tau immunotherapy has been previously explored; however, because only a small fraction of peripherally delivered antibodies crosses the blood–brain barrier, enters the brain and engages with tau that forms intracellular aggregates, more efficient ways of antibody delivery and neuronal uptake are warranted. In the brain, tau exists as multiple isoforms. Here, we investigated the efficacy of a novel 2N tau isoform-specific single chain antibody fragment, RN2N, delivered by passive immunization in the P301L human tau transgenic pR5 mouse model. We demonstrate that, in treated mice, RN2N reduces anxiety-like behaviour and phosphorylation of tau at distinct sites. When administration of RN2N was combined with focused ultrasound in a scanning mode (scanning ultrasound), RN2N delivery into the brain and uptake by neurons were markedly increased, and efficacy was significantly enhanced. Our study provides evidence that scanning ultrasound is a viable tool to enhance the delivery of biologics across the blood–brain barrier and improve therapeutic outcomes and further presents single-chain antibodies as an alternative to full-length antibodies.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
  • Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity suggest therapeutic implications in
           SCN2A -related disorders
    • Authors: Wolff M; Johannesen KM, Hedrich US, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Mutations in <span style="font-style:italic;">SCN2A</span>, a gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Na<sub>v</sub>1.2, have been associated with a spectrum of epilepsies and neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we report the phenotypes of 71 patients and review 130 previously reported patients. We found that (i) encephalopathies with infantile/childhood onset epilepsies (≥3 months of age) occur almost as often as those with an early infantile onset (<3 months), and are thus more frequent than previously reported; (ii) distinct phenotypes can be seen within the late onset group, including myoclonic-atonic epilepsy (two patients), Lennox-Gastaut not emerging from West syndrome (two patients), and focal epilepsies with an electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep-like EEG pattern (six patients); and (iii) West syndrome constitutes a common phenotype with a major recurring mutation (p.Arg853Gln: two new and four previously reported children). Other known phenotypes include Ohtahara syndrome, epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures, and intellectual disability or autism without epilepsy. To assess the response to antiepileptic therapy, we retrospectively reviewed the treatment regimen and the course of the epilepsy in 66 patients for which well-documented medical information was available. We find that the use of sodium channel blockers was often associated with clinically relevant seizure reduction or seizure freedom in children with early infantile epilepsies (<3 months), whereas other antiepileptic drugs were less effective. In contrast, sodium channel blockers were rarely effective in epilepsies with later onset (≥3 months) and sometimes induced seizure worsening. Regarding the genetic findings, truncating mutations were exclusively seen in patients with late onset epilepsies and lack of response to sodium channel blockers. Functional characterization of four selected missense mutations using whole cell patch-clamping in tsA201 cells—together with data from the literature—suggest that mutations associated with early infantile epilepsy result in increased sodium channel activity with gain-of-function, characterized by slowing of fast inactivation, acceleration of its recovery or increased persistent sodium current. Further, a good response to sodium channel blockers clinically was found to be associated with a relatively small gain-of-function. In contrast, mutations in patients with late-onset forms and an insufficient response to sodium channel blockers were associated with loss-of-function effects, including a depolarizing shift of voltage-dependent activation or a hyperpolarizing shift of channel availability (steady-state inactivation). Our clinical and experimental data suggest a correlation between age at disease onset, response to sodium channel blockers and the functional properties of mutations in children with <span style="font-style:italic;">SCN2A-</span>related epilepsy.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
  • Restoring neuronal progranulin reverses deficits in a mouse model of
           frontotemporal dementia
    • Authors: Arrant AE; Filiano AJ, Unger DE, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (<span style="font-style:italic;">GRN</span>), a secreted glycoprotein expressed by neurons and microglia, are a common autosomal dominant cause of frontotemporal dementia, a neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by disrupted social and emotional behaviour. <span style="font-style:italic;">GRN</span> mutations are thought to cause frontotemporal dementia through progranulin haploinsufficiency, therefore, boosting progranulin expression from the intact allele is a rational treatment strategy. However, this approach has not been tested in an animal model of frontotemporal dementia and it is unclear if boosting progranulin could correct pre-existing deficits. Here, we show that adeno-associated virus-driven expression of progranulin in the medial prefrontal cortex reverses social dominance deficits in <span style="font-style:italic;">Grn+</span><sup>/</sup><span style="font-style:italic;">–</span> mice, an animal model of frontotemporal dementia due to <span style="font-style:italic;">GRN</span> mutations. Adeno-associated virus-progranulin also corrected lysosomal abnormalities in <span style="font-style:italic;">Grn+</span><sup>/</sup><span style="font-style:italic;">–</span> mice. The adeno-associated virus-progranulin vector only transduced neurons, suggesting that restoring neuronal progranulin is sufficient to correct deficits in <span style="font-style:italic;">Grn+</span><sup>/</sup><span style="font-style:italic;">–</span> mice. To further test the role of neuronal progranulin in the development of frontotemporal dementia-related deficits, we generated two neuronal progranulin-deficient mouse lines using <span style="font-style:italic;">CaMKII</span>-Cre and <span style="font-style:italic;">Nestin</span>-Cre. Measuring progranulin levels in these lines indicated that most brain progranulin is derived from neurons. Both neuronal progranulin-deficient lines developed social dominance deficits similar to those in global <span style="font-style:italic;">Grn+</span><sup>/</sup><span style="font-style:italic;">–</span> mice, showing that neuronal progranulin deficiency is sufficient to disrupt social behaviour. These data support the concept of progranulin-boosting therapies for frontotemporal dementia and highlight an important role for neuron-derived progranulin in maintaining normal social function.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-29
  • Multi-infarct dementia of Swedish type is caused by a 3’UTR mutation
           of COL4A1
    • Authors: Siitonen M; Börjesson-Hanson A, Pöyhönen M, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Sir,</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
  • Focal CA3 hippocampal subfield atrophy following LGI1 VGKC-complex
           antibody limbic encephalitis
    • Authors: Miller TD; Chong TJ, Aimola Davies AM, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Magnetic resonance imaging has linked chronic voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis with generalized hippocampal atrophy. However, autoantibodies bind to specific rodent hippocampal subfields. Here, human hippocampal subfield (subiculum, cornu ammonis 1-3, and dentate gyrus) targets of immunomodulation-treated LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis were investigated using <span style="font-style:italic;">in vivo</span> ultra-high resolution (0.39 × 0.39 × 1.0 mm<sup>3</sup>) 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging [<span style="font-style:italic;">n = </span>18 patients, 17 patients (94%) positive for LGI1 antibody and one patient negative for LGI1/CASPR2 but positive for VGKC-complex antibodies, mean age: 64.0 ± 2.55 years, median 4 years post-limbic encephalitis onset; <span style="font-style:italic;">n = </span>18 controls]. First, hippocampal subfield quantitative morphometry indicated significant volume loss confined to bilateral CA3 [F(1,34) = 16.87, P < 0.0001], despite hyperintense signal evident in 5 of 18 patients on presentation. Second, early and later intervention (<3 versus >3 months from symptom onset) were associated with CA3 atrophy. Third, whole-brain voxel-by-voxel morphometry revealed no significant grey matter loss. Fourth, CA3 subfield atrophy was associated with severe episodic but not semantic amnesia for postmorbid autobiographical events that was predicted by variability in CA3 volume. The results raise important questions about the links with histopathology, the impact of the observed focal atrophy on other CA3-mediated reconstructive and episodic mechanisms, and the role of potential antibody-mediated pathogenicity as part of the pathophysiology cascade in humans.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
  • Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa results in painful small fibre
    • Authors: von Bischhoffshausen S; Ivulic D, Alvarez P, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Small fibres in the skin are vulnerable to damage in metabolic or toxic conditions such as diabetes mellitus or chemotherapy resulting in small fibre neuropathy and associated neuropathic pain. Whether injury to the most distal portion of sensory small fibres due to a primary dermatological disorder can cause neuropathic pain is still unclear. Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a rare condition in which mutations of proteins of the dermo-epidermal junction lead to cycles of blistering followed by regeneration of the skin. Damage is exclusive to the skin and mucous membranes, with no known direct compromise of the nervous system. It is increasingly recognized that most RDEB patients experience daily pain, the aetiology of which is unclear but may include inflammation (in the wounds), musculoskeletal (due to atrophy and retraction scars limiting movement) or neuropathic pain. In this study we investigated the incidence of neuropathic pain and examined the presence of nerve dysfunction in RDEB patients. Around three quarters of patients presented with pain of neuropathic characteristics, which had a length-dependent distribution. Quantitative sensory testing of the foot revealed striking impairments in thermal detection thresholds combined with an increased mechanical pain sensitivity and wind up ratio (temporal summation of noxious mechanical stimuli). Nerve conduction studies showed normal large fibre sensory and motor nerve conduction; however, skin biopsy showed a significant decrease in intraepidermal nerve fibre density. Autonomic nervous system testing revealed no abnormalities in heart rate and blood pressure variability however the sympathetic skin response of the foot was impaired and sweat gland innervation was reduced. We conclude that chronic cutaneous injury can lead to injury and dysfunction of the most distal part of small sensory fibres in a length-dependent distribution resulting in disabling neuropathic pain. These findings also support the use of neuropathic pain screening tools in these patients and treatment algorithms designed to target neuropathic pain.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-28
  • Neuroimaging and clinical features in adults with a 22q11.2 deletion at
           risk of Parkinson’s disease
    • Authors: Butcher NJ; Marras C, Pondal M, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">The recurrent 22q11.2 deletion is a genetic risk factor for early-onset Parkinson’s disease. Adults with the associated 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) may exhibit phenotypes that could help identify those at highest risk and reveal disease trajectories. We investigated clinical and neuroimaging features relevant to Parkinson’s disease in 26 adults: 13 with 22q11.2DS at genetic risk of Parkinson’s disease (mean age = 41.5 years, standard deviation = 9.7), 12 healthy age and sex-matched controls, and a 22q11.2DS patient with <span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">l</span>-DOPA-responsive early-onset Parkinson’s disease. Neuroimaging included transcranial sonography and positron emission tomography using <sup>11</sup>C-dihydrotetrabenazine (<sup>11</sup>C-DTBZ), a radioligand that binds to the presynaptic vesicular monoamine transporter. The 22q11.2DS group without Parkinson’s disease demonstrated significant motor and olfactory deficits relative to controls. Eight (61.5%) were clinically classified with parkinsonism. Transcranial sonography showed a significantly larger mean area of substantia nigra echogenicity in the 22q11.2DS risk group compared with controls (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> = 0.03). The 22q11.2DS patient with Parkinson’s disease showed the expected pattern of severely reduced striatal <sup>11</sup>C-DTBZ binding. The 22q11.2DS group without Parkinson’s disease however showed significantly elevated striatal <sup>11</sup>C-DTBZ binding relative to controls (∼33%; <span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.01). Results were similar within the 22q11.2DS group for those with (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 7) and without (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 6) psychotic illness. These findings suggest that manifestations of parkinsonism and/or evolution to Parkinson’s disease in this genetic at-risk population may include a hyperdopaminergic mechanism. Adequately powered longitudinal studies and animal models are needed to evaluate the relevance of the observed clinical and imaging phenotypes to Parkinson’s disease and other disorders that are more prevalent in 22q11.2DS, such as schizophrenia.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
  • Not quite the last word
    • Authors: Chadwick D.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"></span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-23
  • A recurrent WARS mutation is a novel cause of autosomal dominant distal
           hereditary motor neuropathy
    • Authors: Tsai P; Soong B, Mademan I, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Distal hereditary motor neuropathy is a heterogeneous group of inherited neuropathies characterized by distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy. Although at least 15 genes have been implicated in distal hereditary motor neuropathy, the genetic causes remain elusive in many families. To identify an additional causal gene for distal hereditary motor neuropathy, we performed exome sequencing for two affected individuals and two unaffected members in a Taiwanese family with an autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy in which mutations in common distal hereditary motor neuropathy-implicated genes had been excluded. The exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation, c.770A > G (p.His257Arg), in the cytoplasmic tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) gene (<span style="font-style:italic;">WARS</span>) that co-segregates with the neuropathy in the family. Further analyses of <span style="font-style:italic;">WARS</span> in an additional 79 Taiwanese pedigrees with inherited neuropathies and 163 index cases from Australian, European, and Korean distal hereditary motor neuropathy families identified the same mutation in another Taiwanese distal hereditary motor neuropathy pedigree with different ancestries and one additional Belgian distal hereditary motor neuropathy family of Caucasian origin. Cell transfection studies demonstrated a dominant-negative effect of the p.His257Arg mutation on aminoacylation activity of TrpRS, which subsequently compromised protein synthesis and reduced cell viability. His257Arg TrpRS also inhibited neurite outgrowth and led to neurite degeneration in the neuronal cell lines and rat motor neurons. Further <span style="font-style:italic;">in vitro</span> analyses showed that the <span style="font-style:italic;">WARS</span> mutation could potentiate the angiostatic activities of TrpRS by enhancing its interaction with vascular endothelial-cadherin. Taken together, these findings establish <span style="font-style:italic;">WARS</span> as a gene whose mutations may cause distal hereditary motor neuropathy and alter canonical and non-canonical functions of TrpRS.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
  • Computer models to inform epilepsy surgery strategies: prediction of
           postoperative outcome
    • Authors: Goodfellow M; Rummel C, Abela E, et al.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
  • Reply: Computer models to inform epilepsy surgery strategies: prediction
           of postoperative outcome
    • Authors: Sinha N; Dauwels J, Kaiser M, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Sir,</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
  • Impaired dual tasking in Parkinson’s disease is associated with reduced
           focusing of cortico-striatal activity
    • Authors: Nieuwhof F; Bloem BR, Reelick MF, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><strong>See Bell <span style="font-style:italic;">et al.</span> (doi:<strong><a href="article.aspx'volume=&page=">10.1093/awx063<span></span></a></strong>) for a scientific commentary on this article</strong>.Impaired dual tasking, namely the inability to concurrently perform a cognitive and a motor task (e.g. ‘stops walking while talking’), is a largely unexplained and frequent symptom of Parkinson’s disease. Here we consider two circuit-level accounts of how striatal dopamine depletion might lead to impaired dual tasking in patients with Parkinson’s disease. First, the loss of segregation between striatal territories induced by dopamine depletion may lead to dysfunctional overlaps between the motor and cognitive processes usually implemented in parallel cortico-striatal circuits. Second, the known dorso-posterior to ventro-anterior gradient of dopamine depletion in patients with Parkinson’s disease may cause a funnelling of motor and cognitive processes into the relatively spared ventro-anterior putamen, causing a neural bottleneck. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured brain activity in 19 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 26 control subjects during performance of a motor task (auditory-cued ankle movements), a cognitive task (implementing a switch-stay rule), and both tasks simultaneously (dual task). The distribution of task-related activity respected the known segregation between motor and cognitive territories of the putamen in both groups, with motor-related responses in the dorso-posterior putamen and task switch-related responses in the ventro-anterior putamen. During dual task performance, patients made more motor and cognitive errors than control subjects. They recruited a striatal territory (ventro-posterior putamen) not engaged during either the cognitive or the motor task, nor used by controls. Relatively higher ventro-posterior putamen activity in controls was associated with worse dual task performance. These observations suggest that dual task impairments in Parkinson’s disease are related to reduced spatial focusing of striatal activity. This pattern of striatal activity may be explained by a loss of functional segregation between neighbouring striatal territories that occurs specifically in a dual task context.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
  • Association between tau deposition and antecedent amyloid-β accumulation
           rates in normal and early symptomatic individuals
    • Authors: Tosun D; Landau S, Aisen PS, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><strong>See Vandenberghe and Schaeverbeke (doi:<strong><a href="article.aspx'volume=&page=">10.1093/awx065<span></span></a></strong>) for a scientific commentary on this article</strong>.A long-term goal of our field is to determine the sequence of pathological events, which ultimately lead to cognitive decline and dementia. In this study, we first assessed the patterns of brain tau tangle accumulation (measured with the positron emission tomography tracer <sup>18</sup>F-AV-1451) associated with well-established Alzheimer’s disease factors in a cohort including cognitively healthy elderly individuals and individuals at early symptomatic stages of Alzheimer’s disease. We then explored highly associated patterns of greater <sup>18</sup>F-AV-1451 binding and increased annualized change in cortical amyloid-β plaques measured as florbetapir positron emission tomography binding antecedent to <sup>18</sup>F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography scans, and to what extent these multimodal pattern associations explained the variance in cognitive performance and clinical outcome measures, independently and jointly. We found that: (i) <sup>18</sup>F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography retention was differentially associated with age, and cross-sectional florbetapir positron emission tomography retention, but not with years of education, gender, or <span style="font-style:italic;">APOE</span> genotype; (ii) increased annualized change in florbetapir retention, antecedent to <sup>18</sup>F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography scans, in the parieto-temporal and precuneus brain regions was associated with greater <sup>18</sup>F-AV-1451 PET retention most prominently in the inferior temporal and inferior parietal regions in the full cohort, with florbetapir positive/negative-associated variability; and (iii) this <sup>18</sup>F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography retention pattern significantly explained the variance in cognitive performance and clinical outcome measures, independent of the associated antecedent increased annualized change in florbetapir positron emission tomography retention. These findings are in agreement with the pathology literature, which suggests that tau tangles but not amyloid-β plaques correlate with cognition and clinical symptoms. Furthermore, non-local associations linking increased amyloid-β accumulation rates with increased tau deposition are of great interest and support the idea that the amyloid-β pathology might have remote effects in disease pathology spread potentially via the brain’s intrinsic connectivity networks.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
  • Three- and four-dimensional mapping of speech and language in patients
           with epilepsy
    • Authors: Nakai Y; Jeong J, Brown EC, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">We have provided 3-D and 4D mapping of speech and language function based upon the results of direct cortical stimulation and event-related modulation of electrocorticography signals. Patients estimated to have right-hemispheric language dominance were excluded. Thus, 100 patients who underwent two-stage epilepsy surgery with chronic electrocorticography recording were studied. An older group consisted of 84 patients at least 10 years of age (7367 artefact-free non-epileptic electrodes), whereas a younger group included 16 children younger than age 10 (1438 electrodes). The probability of symptoms transiently induced by electrical stimulation was delineated on a 3D average surface image. The electrocorticography amplitude changes of high-gamma (70–110 Hz) and beta (15–30 Hz) activities during an auditory-naming task were animated on the average surface image in a 4D manner. Thereby, high-gamma augmentation and beta attenuation were treated as summary measures of cortical activation. Stimulation data indicated the causal relationship between (i) superior-temporal gyrus of either hemisphere and auditory hallucination; (ii) left superior-/middle-temporal gyri and receptive aphasia; (iii) widespread temporal/frontal lobe regions of the left hemisphere and expressive aphasia; and (iv) bilateral precentral/left posterior superior-frontal regions and speech arrest. On electrocorticography analysis, high-gamma augmentation involved the bilateral superior-temporal and precentral gyri immediately following question onset; at the same time, high-gamma activity was attenuated in the left orbitofrontal gyrus. High-gamma activity was augmented in the left temporal/frontal lobe regions, as well as left inferior-parietal and cingulate regions, maximally around question offset, with high-gamma augmentation in the left pars orbitalis inferior-frontal, middle-frontal, and inferior-parietal regions preceded by high-gamma attenuation in the contralateral homotopic regions. Immediately before verbal response, high-gamma augmentation involved the posterior superior-frontal and pre/postcentral regions, bilaterally. Beta-attenuation was spatially and temporally correlated with high-gamma augmentation in general but with exceptions. The younger and older groups shared similar spatial-temporal profiles of high-gamma and beta modulation; except, the younger group failed to show left-dominant activation in the rostral middle-frontal and pars orbitalis inferior-frontal regions around stimulus offset. The human brain may rapidly and alternately activate and deactivate cortical areas advantageous or obtrusive to function directed toward speech and language at a given moment. Increased left-dominant activation in the anterior frontal structures in the older age group may reflect developmental consolidation of the language system. The results of our functional mapping may be useful in predicting, across not only space but also time and patient age, sites specific to language function for presurgical evaluation of focal epilepsy.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
  • Selective impairment of hippocampus and posterior hub areas in
           Alzheimer’s disease: an MEG-based multiplex network study
    • Authors: Yu M; Engels MA, Hillebrand A, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Although frequency-specific network analyses have shown that functional brain networks are altered in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, the relationships between these frequency-specific network alterations remain largely unknown. Multiplex network analysis is a novel network approach to study complex systems consisting of subsystems with different types of connectivity patterns. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography to integrate five frequency-band specific brain networks in a multiplex framework. Previous structural and functional brain network studies have consistently shown that hub brain areas are selectively disrupted in Alzheimer’s disease. Accordingly, we hypothesized that hub regions in the multiplex brain networks are selectively targeted in patients with Alzheimer’s disease in comparison to healthy control subjects. Eyes-closed resting-state magnetoencephalography recordings from 27 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (60.6 ± 5.4 years, 12 females) and 26 controls (61.8 ± 5.5 years, 14 females) were projected onto atlas-based regions of interest using beamforming. Subsequently, source-space time series for both 78 cortical and 12 subcortical regions were reconstructed in five frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha 1, alpha 2 and beta band). Multiplex brain networks were constructed by integrating frequency-specific magnetoencephalography networks. Functional connections between all pairs of regions of interests were quantified using a phase-based coupling metric, the phase lag index. Several multiplex hub and heterogeneity metrics were computed to capture both overall importance of each brain area and heterogeneity of the connectivity patterns across frequency-specific layers. Different nodal centrality metrics showed consistently that several hub regions, particularly left hippocampus, posterior parts of the default mode network and occipital regions, were vulnerable in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to control subjects. Of note, these detected vulnerable hubs in Alzheimer’s disease were absent in each individual frequency-specific network, thus showing the value of integrating the networks. The connectivity patterns of these vulnerable hub regions in the patients were heterogeneously distributed across layers. Perturbed cognitive function and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β<sub>42</sub> levels correlated positively with the vulnerability of the hub regions in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Our analysis therefore demonstrates that the magnetoencephalography-based multiplex brain networks contain important information that cannot be revealed by frequency-specific brain networks. Furthermore, this indicates that functional networks obtained in different frequency bands do not act as independent entities. Overall, our multiplex network study provides an effective framework to integrate the frequency-specific networks with different frequency patterns and reveal neuropathological mechanism of hub disruption in Alzheimer’s disease.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
  • White matter changes in paediatric multiple sclerosis and monophasic
           demyelinating disorders
    • Authors: Longoni G; Brown RA, MomayyezSiahkal P, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><strong>See Hacohen <span style="font-style:italic;">et al.</span> (doi:<strong><a href="article.aspx'volume=&page=">10.1093/awx075<span></span></a></strong>) for a scientific commentary on this article</strong>.Most children who experience an acquired demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system will have a monophasic disease course, with no further clinical or radiological symptoms. A subset will be diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, a life-long disorder. Using linear mixed effects models we examined longitudinal diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in 505 serial scans of 132 paediatric participants with acquired demyelinating syndromes followed for a median of 4.4 years, many from first clinical presentation, and 106 scans of 80 healthy paediatric participants. Fifty-three participants with demyelinating syndromes eventually received a diagnosis of paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Diffusion tensor imaging measures properties of water diffusion through tissue, which normally becomes increasingly restricted and anisotropic in the brain during childhood and adolescence, as fibre bundles develop and myelinate. In the healthy paediatric participants, our data demonstrate the expected trajectory of more restricted and anisotropic white matter diffusivity with increasing age. However, in participants with multiple sclerosis, fractional anisotropy decreased and mean diffusivity of non-lesional, normal-appearing white matter progressively increased after clinical presentation, suggesting not only a failure of age-expected white matter development but also a progressive loss of tissue integrity. Surprisingly, patients with monophasic disease failed to show age-expected changes in diffusion parameters in normal-appearing white matter, although they did not show progressive loss of integrity over time. Further analysis demonstrated that participants with monophasic disease experienced different post-onset trajectories in normal-appearing white matter depending on their presenting phenotype: those with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis demonstrated abnormal trajectories of diffusion parameters compared to healthy paediatric participants, as did patients with non-acute disseminated encephalomyelitis presentations associated with lesions in the brain at onset. Patients with monofocal syndromes such as optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, or isolated brainstem syndromes in whom multifocal brain lesions were absent, showed trajectories more closely approximating normal-appearing white matter development. Our findings also suggest the existence of sexual dimorphism in the effects of demyelinating syndromes on normal-appearing white matter development. Overall, we demonstrate failure of white matter maturational changes and progressive loss of white matter integrity in paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis, but also show that even a single demyelinating attack—when associated with white matter lesions in the brain—negatively impacts subsequent normal-appearing white matter development.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
  • Insulin resistance and exendin-4 treatment for multiple system atrophy
    • Authors: Bassil F; Canron M, Vital A, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection"><strong>See Stayte and Vissel (doi:<strong><a href="article.aspx'volume=&page=">10.1093/awx064<span></span></a></strong>) for a scientific commentary on this article</strong>.Multiple system atrophy is a fatal sporadic adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with no symptomatic or disease-modifying treatment available. The cytopathological hallmark of multiple system atrophy is the accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates in oligodendrocytes, forming glial cytoplasmic inclusions. Impaired insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signalling (IGF-1) and insulin resistance (i.e. decreased insulin/IGF-1) have been reported in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Increasing evidence also suggests impaired insulin/IGF-1 signalling in multiple system atrophy, as corroborated by increased insulin and IGF-1 plasma concentrations in multiple system atrophy patients and reduced IGF-1 brain levels in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy. We here tested the hypothesis that multiple system atrophy is associated with brain insulin resistance and showed increased expression of the key downstream messenger insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylated at serine residue 312 in neurons and oligodendrocytes in the putamen of patients with multiple system atrophy. Furthermore, the expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylated at serine residue 312 was more apparent in inclusion bearing oligodendrocytes in the putamen. By contrast, it was not different between both groups in the temporal cortex, a less vulnerable structure compared to the putamen. These findings suggest that insulin resistance may occur in multiple system atrophy in regions where the neurodegenerative process is most severe and point to a possible relation between α-synuclein aggregates and insulin resistance. We also observed insulin resistance in the striatum of transgenic multiple system atrophy mice and further demonstrate that the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue exendin-4, a well-tolerated and Federal Drug Agency-approved antidiabetic drug, has positive effects on insulin resistance and monomeric α-synuclein load in the striatum, as well as survival of nigral dopamine neurons. Additionally, plasma levels of exosomal neural-derived IRS-1 phosphorylated at serine residue 307 (corresponding to serine residue 312 in humans) negatively correlated with survival of nigral dopamine neurons in multiple system atrophy mice treated with exendin-4. This finding suggests the potential for developing this peripheral biomarker candidate as an objective outcome measure of target engagement for clinical trials with glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues in multiple system atrophy. In conclusion, our observation of brain insulin resistance in multiple system atrophy patients and transgenic mice together with the beneficial effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist exendin-4 in transgenic mice paves the way for translating this innovative treatment into a clinical trial.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
  • Dissecting gamma frequency activity during human memory processing
    • Authors: Kucewicz MT; Berry BM, Kremen V, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Gamma frequency activity (30–150 Hz) is induced in cognitive tasks and is thought to reflect underlying neural processes. Gamma frequency activity can be recorded directly from the human brain using intracranial electrodes implanted in patients undergoing treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy. Previous studies have independently explored narrowband oscillations in the local field potential and broadband power increases. It is not clear, however, which processes contribute to human brain gamma frequency activity, or their dynamics and roles during memory processing. Here a large dataset of intracranial recordings obtained during encoding of words from 101 patients was used to detect, characterize and compare induced gamma frequency activity events. Individual bursts of gamma frequency activity were isolated in the time-frequency domain to determine their spectral features, including peak frequency, amplitude, frequency span, and duration. We found two distinct types of gamma frequency activity events that showed either narrowband or broadband frequency spans revealing characteristic spectral properties. Narrowband events, the predominant type, were induced by word presentations following an initial induction of broadband events, which were temporally separated and selectively correlated with evoked response potentials, suggesting that they reflect different neural activities and play different roles during memory encoding. The two gamma frequency activity types were differentially modulated during encoding of subsequently recalled and forgotten words. In conclusion, we found evidence for two distinct activity types induced in the gamma frequency range during cognitive processing. Separating these two gamma frequency activity components contributes to the current understanding of electrophysiological biomarkers, and may prove useful for emerging neurotechnologies targeting, mapping and modulating distinct neurophysiological processes in normal and epileptogenic brain.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
  • A combinatorial approach to identify calpain cleavage sites in the
           Machado-Joseph disease protein ataxin-3
    • Authors: Weber JJ; Golla M, Guaitoli G, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Ataxin-3, the disease protein in Machado-Joseph disease, is known to be proteolytically modified by various enzymes including two major families of proteases, caspases and calpains. This processing results in the generation of toxic fragments of the polyglutamine-expanded protein. Although various approaches were undertaken to identify cleavage sites within ataxin-3 and to evaluate the impact of fragments on the molecular pathogenesis of Machado-Joseph disease, calpain-mediated cleavage of the disease protein and the localization of cleavage sites remained unclear. Here, we report on the first precise localization of calpain cleavage sites in ataxin-3 and on the characterization of the resulting breakdown products. After confirming the occurrence of calpain-derived fragmentation of ataxin-3 in patient-derived cell lines and post-mortem brain tissue, we combined <span style="font-style:italic;">in silico</span> prediction tools, western blot analysis, mass spectrometry, and peptide overlay assays to identify calpain cleavage sites. We found that ataxin-3 is primarily cleaved at two sites, namely at amino acid positions D208 and S256 and mutating amino acids at both cleavage sites to tryptophan nearly abolished ataxin-3 fragmentation. Furthermore, analysis of calpain cleavage-derived fragments showed distinct aggregation propensities and toxicities of C-terminal polyglutamine-containing breakdown products. Our data elucidate the important role of ataxin-3 proteolysis in the pathogenesis of Machado-Joseph disease and further emphasize the relevance of targeting this disease pathway as a treatment strategy in neurodegenerative disorders.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
  • Clinical and genetic characterization of leukoencephalopathies in adults
    • Authors: Lynch DS; Rodrigues Brandão de Paiva A, Zhang W, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Leukodystrophies and genetic leukoencephalopathies are a rare group of disorders leading to progressive degeneration of cerebral white matter. They are associated with a spectrum of clinical phenotypes dominated by dementia, psychiatric changes, movement disorders and upper motor neuron signs. Mutations in at least 60 genes can lead to leukoencephalopathy with often overlapping clinical and radiological presentations. For these reasons, patients with genetic leukoencephalopathies often endure a long diagnostic odyssey before receiving a definitive diagnosis or may receive no diagnosis at all. In this study, we used focused and whole exome sequencing to evaluate a cohort of undiagnosed adult patients referred to a specialist leukoencephalopathy service. In total, 100 patients were evaluated using focused exome sequencing of 6100 genes. We detected pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 26 cases. The most frequently mutated genes were <span style="font-style:italic;">NOTCH3</span>, <span style="font-style:italic;">EIF2B5</span>, <span style="font-style:italic;">AARS2</span> and <span style="font-style:italic;">CSF1R.</span> We then carried out whole exome sequencing on the remaining negative cases including four family trios, but could not identify any further potentially disease-causing mutations, confirming the equivalence of focused and whole exome sequencing in the diagnosis of genetic leukoencephalopathies. Here we provide an overview of the clinical and genetic features of these disorders in adults.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
  • ZNHIT3 is defective in PEHO syndrome, a severe encephalopathy with
           cerebellar granule neuron loss
    • Authors: Anttonen A; Laari A, Kousi M, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Progressive encephalopathy with oedema, hypsarrhythmia, and optic atrophy (PEHO) syndrome is an early childhood onset, severe autosomal recessive encephalopathy characterized by extreme cerebellar atrophy due to almost total granule neuron loss. By combining homozygosity mapping in Finnish families with Sanger sequencing of positional candidate genes and with exome sequencing a homozygous missense substitution of leucine for serine at codon 31 in <span style="font-style:italic;">ZNHIT3</span> was identified as the primary cause of PEHO syndrome. <span style="font-style:italic;">ZNHIT3</span> encodes a nuclear zinc finger protein previously implicated in transcriptional regulation and in small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particle assembly and thus possibly to pre-ribosomal RNA processing. The identified mutation affects a highly conserved amino acid residue in the zinc finger domain of ZNHIT3. Both knockdown and genome editing of <span style="font-style:italic;">znhit3</span> in zebrafish embryos recapitulate the patients’ cerebellar defects, microcephaly and oedema. These phenotypes are rescued by wild-type, but not mutant human <span style="font-style:italic;">ZNHIT3</span> mRNA, suggesting that the patient missense substitution causes disease through a loss-of-function mechanism. Transfection of cell lines with ZNHIT3 expression vectors showed that the PEHO syndrome mutant protein is unstable. Immunohistochemical analysis of mouse cerebellar tissue demonstrated ZNHIT3 to be expressed in proliferating granule cell precursors, in proliferating and post-mitotic granule cells, and in Purkinje cells. Knockdown of <span style="font-style:italic;">Znhit3</span> in cultured mouse granule neurons and <span style="font-style:italic;">ex vivo</span> cerebellar slices indicate that ZNHIT3 is indispensable for granule neuron survival and migration, consistent with the zebrafish findings and patient neuropathology. These results suggest that loss-of-function of a nuclear regulator protein underlies PEHO syndrome and imply that establishment of its spatiotemporal interaction targets will be the basis for developing therapeutic approaches and for improved understanding of cerebellar development.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
  • Clinical approach to delayed-onset cerebellar impairment following deep
           brain stimulation for tremor
    • Authors: Contarino M; van Coller R, Mosch A, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Sir,</span>
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
  • Reply: Clinical approach to delayed-onset cerebellar impairment following
           deep brain stimulation for tremor
    • Authors: Reich MM; Pozzi NG, Brumberg J, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Sir,</span>
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
  • Salience and default mode network dysregulation in chronic cocaine users
           predict treatment outcome
    • Authors: Geng X; Hu Y, Gu H, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">While chronic cocaine use is associated with abnormalities in both brain structure and function within and interactions between regions, previous studies have been limited to interrogating structure and function independently, and the detected neural differences have not been applied to independent samples to assess the clinical relevance of results. We investigated consequences of structural differences on resting-state functional connectivity in cocaine addiction and tested whether resting-state functional connectivity of the identified circuits predict relapse in an independent cohort. Subjects included 64 non-treatment-seeking cocaine users (NTSCUs) and 67 healthy control subjects and an independent treatment-completed cohort (<span style="font-style:italic;">n = </span>45) of cocaine-dependent individuals scanned at the end of a 30-day residential treatment programme. Differences in cortical thickness and related resting-state functional connectivity between NTSCUs and healthy control subjects were identified. Survival analysis, applying cortical thickness of the identified regions, resting-state functional connectivity of the identified circuits and clinical characteristics to the treatment cohort, was used to predict relapse. Lower cortical thickness in bilateral insula and higher thickness in bilateral temporal pole were found in NTSCUs versus healthy control subjects. Whole brain resting-state functional connectivity analyses with these four different anatomical regions as seeds revealed eight weaker circuits including within the salience network (insula seeds) and between temporal pole and elements of the default mode network in NTSCUs. Applying these circuits and clinical characteristics to the independent cocaine-dependent treatment cohort, functional connectivity between right temporal pole and medial prefrontal cortex, combined with years of education, predicted relapse status at 150 days with 88% accuracy. Deficits in the salience network suggest an impaired ability to process physiologically salient events, while abnormalities in a temporal pole–medial prefrontal cortex circuit might speak to the social-emotional functional alterations in cocaine addiction. The involvement of the temporal pole–medial prefrontal cortex circuit in a model highly predictive of relapse highlights the importance of social-emotional functions in cocaine dependence, and provides a potential underlying neural target for therapeutic interventions, and for identifying those at high risk of relapse.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
  • Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness
    • Authors: Pinto Y; Neville DA, Otten M, et al.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain.</span>
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
  • Neuromodulation interventions for addictive disorders: challenges,
           promise, and roadmap for future research
    • Authors: Spagnolo PA; Goldman D.
      Abstract: <span class="paragraphSection">Addictive disorders are a major public health concern, associated with high relapse rates, significant disability and substantial mortality. Unfortunately, current interventions are only modestly effective. Preclinical studies as well as human neuroimaging studies have provided strong evidence that the observable behaviours that characterize the addiction phenotype, such as compulsive drug consumption, impaired self-control, and behavioural inflexibility, reflect underlying dysregulation and malfunction in specific neural circuits. These developments have been accompanied by advances in neuromodulation interventions, both invasive as deep brain stimulation, and non-invasive such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. These interventions appear particularly promising as they may not only allow us to probe affected brain circuits in addictive disorders, but also seem to have unique therapeutic applications to directly target and remodel impaired circuits. However, the available literature is still relatively small and sparse, and the long-term safety and efficacy of these interventions need to be confirmed. Here we review the literature on the use of neuromodulation in addictive disorders to highlight progress limitations with the aim to suggest future directions for this field.</span>
      PubDate: 2016-12-03
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