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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 370 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 370 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 548, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 53)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Brain
  [SJR: 6.097]   [H-I: 264]   [63 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0006-8950 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2156
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • TMEM106B and myelination: rare leukodystrophy families reveal unexpected
    • Authors: Zhou X; Rademakers R.
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘A recurrent de novo mutation in TMEM106B causes hypomyelinating leukodystrophy’, by Simons et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awx314).
      PubDate: 2017-11-29
  • MOG-antibody neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: is it a separate
    • Authors: de Seze J.
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Clinical presentation and prognosis in MOG-antibody disease: a UK study’, by Jurynczyk et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awx276).
      PubDate: 2017-11-29
  • Imbalance of the direct and indirect pathways in focal dystonia: a
           balanced view
    • Authors: Fujita K; Eidelberg D.
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘The direct basal ganglia pathway is hyperfunctional in focal dystonia’ by Simonyan et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awx263).
      PubDate: 2017-11-29
  • Functional brain network architecture may route progression of
           Alzheimer’s disease pathology
    • Authors: Franzmeier N; Dyrba M.
      Abstract: This scientific commentary refers to ‘Distinct influence of specific versus global connectivity on the different Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers’, by Mutlu et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awx279).
      PubDate: 2017-11-29
  • How far can biomarkers take us in neurodegenerative disorders'
    • Authors: Husain M.
      Abstract: It is difficult to miss. The rise and rise of biomarkers in neurodegenerative disorders is seemingly like a juggernaut, unstoppable in its momentum, sweeping all aside in its path. In Alzheimer’s disease, where the project is at its furthest, it has undoubtedly made significant contributions (Frisoni et al., 2017). Biomarker research has galvanized interest in attempts to detect patients at an earlier, prodromal stage; provided selection criteria for clinical trials to reduce heterogeneity within study populations; and potentially begun to assist clinicians in making a diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29
  • A recurrent de novo mutation in TMEM106B causes hypomyelinating
    • Authors: Simons C; Dyment D, Bent S, et al.
      Abstract: See Zhou and Rademakers (doi:10.1093/brain/awx318) for a scientific commentary on this article.Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of disorders with a clinical presentation that often includes early-onset nystagmus, ataxia and spasticity and a wide range of severity. Using next-generation sequencing techniques and GeneMatcher, we identified four unrelated patients with brain hypomyelination, all with the same recurrent dominant mutation, c.754G>A p.(Asp252Asn), in TMEM106B. The mutation was confirmed as de novo in three of the cases, and the mildly affected father of the fourth affected individual was confirmed as mosaic for this variant. The protein encoded by TMEM106B is poorly characterized but is reported to have a role in regulation of lysosomal trafficking. Polymorphisms in TMEM106B are thought to modify disease onset in frontotemporal dementia, but its relation to myelination is not understood. Clinical presentation in three of the four patients is remarkably benign compared to other hypomyelinating disorders, with congenital nystagmus and mild motor delay. These findings add TMEM106B to the growing list of genes causing hypomyelinating disorders and emphasize the essential role lysosomes play in myelination.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29
  • Distinct influence of specific versus global connectivity on the different
           Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers
    • Authors: Mutlu J; Landeau B, Gaubert M, et al.
      Abstract: See Franzmeier and Dyrba (doi:10.1093/brain/awx304) for a scientific commentary on this article.Recent findings suggest that the topography and propagation of lesions in Alzheimer’s disease are related to functional connectivity, either showing that regions of high global connectivity are more vulnerable or that lesions propagate neuron-to-neuron from a starting area called the epicentre, thus involving specific connectivity. However, the relative influence of specific and global connectivity and their differential impact on the three main neuroimaging biomarkers of the disease (atrophy, hypometabolism and amyloid-β deposition) have never been investigated to date. Forty-two healthy elderly subjects and 35 amyloid-β positive amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease patients underwent resting-state functional MRI, anatomical T1-weighted MRI, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET and florbetapir-PET scans. All patients also underwent follow-up T1-weighted MRI, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET and florbetapir-PET scans 18 months later to assess the lesion propagation. The epicentre was defined per modality as the most altered region at baseline in patients compared to controls. Maps of global and specific functional connectivity were computed from the resting-state functional MRI data of the healthy elderly subjects. Global connectivity corresponds to the connectivity strength of each grey matter area with the rest of the brain (i.e. all other grey matter areas) while specific connectivity refers to the connectivity of a single specific brain region (the epicentre) with the rest of the brain (i.e. all other brain regions). Maps of baseline alterations and propagation were computed for grey matter atrophy, hypometabolism and amyloid-β deposition in patients. Regression analyses were performed across the 239 brain regions to assess the links between global or specific functional connectivity in healthy elderly subjects and Alzheimer’s disease-related baseline disruptions or alteration propagation. Atrophy at baseline was predicted by specific connectivity and inversely correlated with global connectivity, while hypometabolism and amyloid-β deposition were positively influenced by both global and specific connectivity. Regarding longitudinal changes, atrophy spread in regions with high specific connectivity while hypometabolism propagated in areas showing high global connectivity. This is the first study to show that global connectivity has an opposite relationship with atrophy versus hypometabolism and amyloid-β deposition, suggesting that the high level of functional connectivity found in hubs exerts a differential influence on these Alzheimer’s disease lesions. These results sustain the hypotheses of higher vulnerability of hubs to hypometabolism and amyloid-β deposition versus transneuronal propagation of atrophy from the epicentre to connected regions, in Alzheimer’s disease. Global and specific connectivity exert a differential influence on, and provide complementary information to predict, the topography of Alzheimer’s disease lesions and their propagation.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29
  • Synaptic phosphorylated α-synuclein in dementia with Lewy bodies
    • Authors: Colom-Cadena M; Pegueroles J, Herrmann A, et al.
      Abstract: Dementia with Lewy bodies is characterized by the accumulation of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in the CNS, both of which are composed mainly of aggregated α-synuclein phosphorylated at Ser129. Although phosphorylated α-synuclein is believed to exert toxic effects at the synapse in dementia with Lewy bodies and other α-synucleinopathies, direct evidence for the precise synaptic localization has been difficult to achieve due to the lack of adequate optical microscopic resolution to study human synapses. In the present study we applied array tomography, a microscopy technique that combines ultrathin sectioning of tissue with immunofluorescence allowing precise identification of small structures, to quantitatively investigate the synaptic phosphorylated α-synuclein pathology in dementia with Lewy bodies. We performed array tomography on human brain samples from five patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, five patients with Alzheimer’s disease and five healthy control subjects to analyse the presence of phosphorylated α-synuclein immunoreactivity at the synapse and their relationship with synapse size. Main analyses were performed in blocks from cingulate cortex and confirmed in blocks from the striatum of cases with dementia with Lewy bodies. A total of 1 318 700 single pre- or postsynaptic terminals were analysed. We found that phosphorylated α-synuclein is present exclusively in dementia with Lewy bodies cases, where it can be identified in the form of Lewy bodies, Lewy neurites and small aggregates (<0.16 µm3). Between 19% and 25% of phosphorylated α-synuclein deposits were found in presynaptic terminals mainly in the form of small aggregates. Synaptic terminals that co-localized with small aggregates of phosphorylated α-synuclein were significantly larger than those that did not. Finally, a gradient of phosphorylated α-synuclein aggregation in synapses (pre > pre + post > postsynaptic) was observed. These results indicate that phosphorylated α-synuclein is found at the presynaptic terminals of dementia with Lewy bodies cases mainly in the form of small phosphorylated α-synuclein aggregates that are associated with changes in synaptic morphology. Overall, our data support the notion that pathological phosphorylated α-synuclein may disrupt the structure and function of the synapse in dementia with Lewy bodies.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23
  • Epigenetic editing of the Dlg4 /PSD95 gene improves cognition in aged and
           Alzheimer’s disease mice
    • Authors: Bustos F; Ampuero E, Jury N, et al.
      Abstract: The Dlg4 gene encodes for post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), a major synaptic protein that clusters glutamate receptors and is critical for plasticity. PSD95 levels are diminished in ageing and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s disease. The epigenetic mechanisms that (dys)regulate transcription of Dlg4/PSD95, or other plasticity genes, are largely unknown, limiting the development of targeted epigenome therapy. We analysed the Dlg4/PSD95 epigenetic landscape in hippocampal tissue and designed a Dlg4/PSD95 gene-targeting strategy: a Dlg4/PSD95 zinc finger DNA-binding domain was engineered and fused to effector domains to either repress (G9a, Suvdel76, SKD) or activate (VP64) transcription, generating artificial transcription factors or epigenetic editors (methylating H3K9). These epi-editors altered critical histone marks and subsequently Dlg4/PSD95 expression, which, importantly, impacted several hippocampal neuron plasticity processes. Intriguingly, transduction of the artificial transcription factor PSD95-VP64 rescued memory deficits in aged and Alzheimer’s disease mice. Conclusively, this work validates PSD95 as a key player in memory and establishes epigenetic editing as a potential therapy to treat human neurological disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23
  • Distinct spatiotemporal accumulation of N-truncated and full-length
           amyloid-β 42 in Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Shinohara M; Koga S, Konno T, et al.
      Abstract: Accumulation of amyloid-β peptides is a dominant feature in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease; however, it is not clear how individual amyloid-β species accumulate and affect other neuropathological and clinical features in the disease. Thus, we compared the accumulation of N-terminally truncated amyloid-β and full-length amyloid-β, depending on disease stage as well as brain area, and determined how these amyloid-β species respectively correlate with clinicopathological features of Alzheimer’s disease. To this end, the amounts of amyloid-β species and other proteins related to amyloid-β metabolism or Alzheimer’s disease were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) or theoretically calculated in 12 brain regions, including neocortical, limbic and subcortical areas from Alzheimer’s disease cases (n = 19), neurologically normal elderly without amyloid-β accumulation (normal ageing, n = 13), and neurologically normal elderly with cortical amyloid-β accumulation (pathological ageing, n = 15). We observed that N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 and full-length amyloid-β42 accumulations distributed differently across disease stages and brain areas, while N-terminally truncated amyloid-β40 and full-length amyloid-β40 accumulation showed an almost identical distribution pattern. Cortical N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 accumulation was increased in Alzheimer’s disease compared to pathological ageing, whereas cortical full-length amyloid-β42 accumulation was comparable between Alzheimer’s disease and pathological ageing. Moreover, N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 were more likely to accumulate more in specific brain areas, especially some limbic areas, while full-length amyloid-β42 tended to accumulate more in several neocortical areas, including frontal cortices. Immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry analysis showed that several N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 species, represented by pyroglutamylated amyloid-β11-42, were enriched in these areas, consistent with ELISA results. N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 accumulation showed significant regional association with BACE1 and neprilysin, but not PSD95 that regionally associated with full-length amyloid-β42 accumulation. Interestingly, accumulations of tau and to a greater extent apolipoprotein E (apoE, encoded by APOE) were more strongly correlated with N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 accumulation than those of other amyloid-β species across brain areas and disease stages. Consistently, immunohistochemical staining and in vitro binding assays showed that apoE co-localized and bound more strongly with pyroglutamylated amyloid-β11-x fibrils than full-length amyloid-β fibrils. Retrospective review of clinical records showed that accumulation of N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 in cortical areas was associated with disease onset, duration and cognitive scores. Collectively, N-terminally truncated amyloid-β42 species have spatiotemporal accumulation patterns distinct from full-length amyloid-β42, likely due to different mechanisms governing their accumulations in the brain. These truncated amyloid-β species could play critical roles in the disease by linking other clinicopathological features of Alzheimer’s disease.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17
  • Induced cortical responses require developmental sensory experience
    • Authors: Yusuf P; Hubka P, Tillein J, et al.
      Abstract: Sensory areas of the cerebral cortex integrate the sensory inputs with the ongoing activity. We studied how complete absence of auditory experience affects this process in a higher mammal model of complete sensory deprivation, the congenitally deaf cat. Cortical responses were elicited by intracochlear electric stimulation using cochlear implants in adult hearing controls and deaf cats. Additionally, in hearing controls, acoustic stimuli were used to assess the effect of stimulus mode (electric versus acoustic) on the cortical responses. We evaluated time-frequency representations of local field potential recorded simultaneously in the primary auditory cortex and a higher-order area, the posterior auditory field, known to be differentially involved in cross-modal (visual) reorganization in deaf cats. The results showed the appearance of evoked (phase-locked) responses at early latencies (<100 ms post-stimulus) and more abundant induced (non-phase-locked) responses at later latencies (>150 ms post-stimulus). In deaf cats, substantially reduced induced responses were observed in overall power as well as duration in both investigated fields. Additionally, a reduction of ongoing alpha band activity was found in the posterior auditory field (but not in primary auditory cortex) of deaf cats. The present study demonstrates that induced activity requires developmental experience and suggests that higher-order areas involved in the cross-modal reorganization show more auditory deficits than primary areas.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
  • Dr W. H. R. Rivers: Siegfried Sassoon and Robert Graves’
           ‘fathering friend’
    • Authors: Wilson J.
      Abstract: W.H.R. Rivers is best known for treating First World War soldiers for shell-shock, including the war poets Siegfried Sassoon and Robert Graves, whom he met at Craiglockhart Military Hospital. Jean Moorcoft Wilson, biographer of Sassoon and Graves, explores the friendship between these three men and its influence on each man’s work.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14
  • The secret dream laboratory
    • Authors: ffytche M; ffytche D.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14
  • Excessive burden of lysosomal storage disorder gene variants in
           Parkinson’s disease
    • Authors: Robak L; Jansen I, van Rooij J, et al.
      Abstract: Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA), which cause Gaucher disease, are also potent risk factors for Parkinson’s disease. We examined whether a genetic burden of variants in other lysosomal storage disorder genes is more broadly associated with Parkinson’s disease susceptibility. The sequence kernel association test was used to interrogate variant burden among 54 lysosomal storage disorder genes, leveraging whole exome sequencing data from 1156 Parkinson’s disease cases and 1679 control subjects. We discovered a significant burden of rare, likely damaging lysosomal storage disorder gene variants in association with Parkinson’s disease risk. The association signal was robust to the exclusion of GBA, and consistent results were obtained in two independent replication cohorts, including 436 cases and 169 controls with whole exome sequencing and an additional 6713 cases and 5964 controls with exome-wide genotyping. In secondary analyses designed to highlight the specific genes driving the aggregate signal, we confirmed associations at the GBA and SMPD1 loci and newly implicate CTSD, SLC17A5, and ASAH1 as candidate Parkinson’s disease susceptibility genes. In our discovery cohort, the majority of Parkinson’s disease cases (56%) have at least one putative damaging variant in a lysosomal storage disorder gene, and 21% carry multiple alleles. Our results highlight several promising new susceptibility loci and reinforce the importance of lysosomal mechanisms in Parkinson’s disease pathogenesis. We suggest that multiple genetic hits may act in combination to degrade lysosomal function, enhancing Parkinson’s disease susceptibility.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
  • Clinical presentation and prognosis in MOG-antibody disease: a UK study
    • Authors: Jurynczyk M; Messina S, Woodhall M, et al.
      Abstract: See de Seze (doi:10.1093/brain/awx292) for a scientific commentary on this article.A condition associated with an autoantibody against MOG has been recently recognized as a new inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, but the disease course and disability outcomes are largely unknown. In this study we investigated clinical characteristics of MOG-antibody disease on a large cohort of patients from the UK. We obtained demographic and clinical data on 252 UK patients positive for serum immunoglobulin G1 MOG antibodies as tested by the Autoimmune Neurology Group in Oxford. Disability outcomes and disease course were analysed in more detail in a cohort followed in the Neuromyelitis Optica Oxford Service (n = 75), and this included an incident cohort who were diagnosed at disease onset (n = 44). MOG-antibody disease affects females (57%) slightly more often than males, shows no ethnic bias and typically presents with isolated optic neuritis (55%, bilateral in almost half), transverse myelitis (18%) or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like presentations (18%). In the total Oxford cohort after a median disease duration of 28 months, 47% of patients were left with permanent disability in at least one of the following: 16% patients had visual acuity ≤6/36 in at least one eye, mobility was limited in 7% (i.e. Expanded Disability Status Scale ≥ 4.0), 5% had Expanded Disability Status Scale ≥ 6.0, 28% had permanent bladder issues, 20% had bowel dysfunction, and 21% of males had erectile dysfunction. Transverse myelitis at onset was a significant predictor of long-term disability. In the incident cohort 36% relapsed after median disease duration of 16 months. The annualized relapse rate was 0.2. Immunosuppression longer than 3 months following the onset attack was associated with a lower risk of a second relapse. MOG-antibody disease has a moderate relapse risk, which might be mitigated by medium term immunosuppression at onset. Permanent disability occurs in about half of patients and more often involves sphincter and erectile functions than vision or mobility.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
  • ABCD1 dysfunction alters white matter microvascular perfusion
    • Authors: Lauer A; Da X, Hansen M, et al.
      Abstract: Cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which lead to a rapidly progressive cerebral inflammatory demyelination in up to 60% of affected males. Selective brain endothelial dysfunction and increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier suggest that white matter microvascular dysfunction contributes to the conversion to cerebral disease. Applying a vascular model to conventional dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance perfusion imaging, we demonstrate that lack of ABCD1 function causes increased capillary flow heterogeneity in asymptomatic hemizygotes predominantly in the white matter regions and developmental stages with the highest probability for conversion to cerebral disease. In subjects with ongoing inflammatory demyelination we observed a sequence of increased capillary flow heterogeneity followed by blood–brain barrier permeability changes in the perilesional white matter, which predicts lesion progression. These white matter microvascular alterations normalize within 1 year after treatment with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. For the first time in vivo, our studies unveil a model to assess how ABCD1 alters white matter microvascular function and explores its potential as an earlier biomarker for monitoring disease progression and response to treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
  • Hereditary spastic paraplegia type 5: natural history, biomarkers and a
           randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Schöls L; Rattay T, Martus P, et al.
      Abstract: Spastic paraplegia type 5 (SPG5) is a rare subtype of hereditary spastic paraplegia, a highly heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders defined by progressive neurodegeneration of the corticospinal tract motor neurons. SPG5 is caused by recessive mutations in the gene CYP7B1 encoding oxysterol-7α-hydroxylase. This enzyme is involved in the degradation of cholesterol into primary bile acids. CYP7B1 deficiency has been shown to lead to accumulation of neurotoxic oxysterols. In this multicentre study, we have performed detailed clinical and biochemical analysis in 34 genetically confirmed SPG5 cases from 28 families, studied dose-dependent neurotoxicity of oxysterols in human cortical neurons and performed a randomized placebo-controlled double blind interventional trial targeting oxysterol accumulation in serum of SPG5 patients. Clinically, SPG5 manifested in childhood or adolescence (median 13 years). Gait ataxia was a common feature. SPG5 patients lost the ability to walk independently after a median disease duration of 23 years and became wheelchair dependent after a median 33 years. The overall cross-sectional progression rate of 0.56 points on the Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale per year was slightly lower than the longitudinal progression rate of 0.80 points per year. Biochemically, marked accumulation of CYP7B1 substrates including 27-hydroxycholesterol was confirmed in serum (n = 19) and cerebrospinal fluid (n = 17) of SPG5 patients. Moreover, 27-hydroxycholesterol levels in serum correlated with disease severity and disease duration. Oxysterols were found to impair metabolic activity and viability of human cortical neurons at concentrations found in SPG5 patients, indicating that elevated levels of oxysterols might be key pathogenic factors in SPG5. We thus performed a randomized placebo-controlled trial (EudraCT 2015-000978-35) with atorvastatin 40 mg/day for 9 weeks in 14 SPG5 patients with 27-hydroxycholesterol levels in serum as the primary outcome measure. Atorvastatin, but not placebo, reduced serum 27-hydroxycholesterol from 853 ng/ml [interquartile range (IQR) 683–1113] to 641 (IQR 507–694) (−31.5%, P = 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). Similarly, 25-hydroxycholesterol levels in serum were reduced. In cerebrospinal fluid 27-hydroxycholesterol was reduced by 8.4% but this did not significantly differ from placebo. As expected, no effects were seen on clinical outcome parameters in this short-term trial. In this study, we define the mutational and phenotypic spectrum of SPG5, examine the correlation of disease severity and progression with oxysterol concentrations, and demonstrate in a randomized controlled trial that atorvastatin treatment can effectively lower 27-hydroxycholesterol levels in serum of SPG5 patients. We thus demonstrate the first causal treatment strategy in hereditary spastic paraplegia.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
  • Defining a functional network homeostasis after stroke: EEG-based approach
           is complementary to functional MRI
    • Authors: Caliandro P; Reale G, Vecchio F, et al.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
  • Reply: Defining a functional network homeostasis after stroke: EEG-based
           approach is complementary to functional MRI
    • Authors: Adhikari M; Deco G, Corbetta M.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
  • Complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia due to ATP13A2 mutations:
           what’s in a name'
    • Authors: de Bot S; Kamsteeg E, van deWarrenburg B.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
  • Reply: Complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia due to ATP13A2 mutations:
           what’s in a name'
    • Authors: Schüle R.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
  • A lesion model of envy and Schadenfreude : legal, deservingness and moral
           dimensions as revealed by neurodegeneration
    • Authors: Santamaría-García H; Baez S, Reyes P, et al.
      Abstract: The study of moral emotions (i.e. Schadenfreude and envy) is critical to understand the ecological complexity of everyday interactions between cognitive, affective, and social cognition processes. Most previous studies in this area have used correlational imaging techniques and framed Schadenfreude and envy as unified and monolithic emotional domains. Here, we profit from a relevant neurodegeneration model to disentangle the brain regions engaged in three dimensions of Schadenfreude and envy: deservingness, morality, and legality. We tested a group of patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), patients with Alzheimer’s disease, as a contrastive neurodegeneration model, and healthy controls on a novel task highlighting each of these dimensions in scenarios eliciting Schadenfreude and envy. Compared with the Alzheimer’s disease and control groups, patients with bvFTD obtained significantly higher scores on all dimensions for both emotions. Correlational analyses revealed an association between envy and Schadenfreude scores and greater deficits in social cognition, inhibitory control, and behaviour disturbances in bvFTD patients. Brain anatomy findings (restricted to bvFTD and controls) confirmed the partially dissociable nature of the moral emotions’ experiences and highlighted the importance of socio-moral brain areas in processing those emotions. In all subjects, an association emerged between Schadenfreude and the ventral striatum, and between envy and the anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, the results supported an association between scores for moral and legal transgression and the morphology of areas implicated in emotional appraisal, including the amygdala and the parahippocampus. By contrast, bvFTD patients exhibited a negative association between increased Schadenfreude and envy across dimensions and critical regions supporting social-value rewards and social-moral processes (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, angular gyrus and precuneus). Together, this study provides lesion-based evidence for the multidimensional nature of the emotional experiences of envy and Schadenfreude. Our results offer new insights into the mechanisms subsuming complex emotions and moral cognition in neurodegeneration. Moreover, this study presents the exacerbation of envy and Schadenfreude as a new potential hallmark of bvFTD that could impact in diagnosis and progression.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
  • Elevated progranulin contributes to synaptic and learning deficit due to
           loss of fragile X mental retardation protein
    • Authors: Zhang K; Li Y, Guo Y, et al.
      Abstract: Fragile X syndrome is an inheritable form of intellectual disability caused by loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, encoded by the FMR1 gene). Absence of FMRP caused overexpression of progranulin (PGRN, encoded by GRN), a putative tumour necrosis factor receptor ligand. In the present study, we found that progranulin mRNA and protein were upregulated in the medial prefrontal cortex of Fmr1 knock-out mice. In Fmr1 knock-out mice, elevated progranulin caused insufficient dendritic spine pruning and late-phase long-term potentiation in the medial prefrontal cortex of Fmr1 knock-out mice. Partial progranulin knock-down restored spine morphology and reversed behavioural deficits, including impaired fear memory, hyperactivity, and motor inflexibility in Fmr1 knock-out mice. Progranulin increased levels of phosphorylated glutamate ionotropic receptor GluA1 and nuclear factor kappa B in cultured wild-type neurons. Tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 antibody perfusion blocked the effects of progranulin on GluA1 phosphorylation; this result indicates that tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 is required for progranulin-mediated GluA1 phosphorylation and late-phase long-term potentiation expression. However, high basal level of progranulin in Fmr1 knock-out mice prevented further facilitation of synaptic plasticity by exogenous progranulin. Partial downregulation of progranulin or tumour necrosis factor receptor 2/nuclear factor kappa B signalling restored synaptic plasticity and memory deficits in Fmr1 knock-out mice. These findings suggest that elevated PGRN is linked to cognitive deficits of fragile X syndrome, and the progranulin/tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 signalling pathway may be a putative therapeutic target for improving cognitive deficits in fragile X syndrome.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
  • Preservation of hand movement representation in the sensorimotor areas of
    • Authors: Bruurmijn M; Pereboom I, Vansteensel M, et al.
      Abstract: Denervation due to amputation is known to induce cortical reorganization in the sensorimotor cortex. Although there is evidence that reorganization does not lead to a complete loss of the representation of the phantom limb, it is unclear to what extent detailed, finger-specific activation patterns are preserved in motor cortex, an issue that is also relevant for development of brain–computer interface solutions for paralysed people. We applied machine learning to obtain a quantitative measure for the functional organization within the motor and adjacent cortices in amputees, using high resolution functional MRI and attempted hand gestures. Subjects with above-elbow arm amputation (n = 8) and non-amputated controls (n = 9) made several gestures with either their right or left hand. Amputees attempted to make gestures with their amputated hand. Images were acquired using 7 T functional MRI. The sensorimotor cortex was divided into four regions, and activity patterns were classified in individual subjects using a support vector machine. Classification scores were significantly above chance for all subjects and all hands, and were highly similar between amputees and controls in most regions. Decodability of phantom movements from primary motor cortex reached the levels of right hand movements in controls. Attempted movements were successfully decoded from primary sensory cortex in amputees, albeit lower than in controls but well above chance level despite absence of somatosensory feedback. There was no significant correlation between decodability and years since amputation, or age. The ability to decode attempted gestures demonstrates that the detailed hand representation is preserved in motor cortex and adjacent regions after denervation. This encourages targeting sensorimotor activity patterns for development of brain–computer interfaces.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27
  • The direct basal ganglia pathway is hyperfunctional in focal dystonia
    • Authors: Simonyan K; Cho H, Hamzehei Sichani A, et al.
      Abstract: See Fujita and Eidelberg (doi:10.1093/brain/awx305) for a scientific commentary on this article.Focal dystonias are the most common type of isolated dystonia. Although their causative pathophysiology remains unclear, it is thought to involve abnormal functioning of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry. We used high-resolution research tomography with the radioligand 11C-NNC-112 to examine striatal dopamine D1 receptor function in two independent groups of patients, writer’s cramp and laryngeal dystonia, compared to healthy controls. We found that availability of dopamine D1 receptors was significantly increased in bilateral putamen by 19.6–22.5% in writer’s cramp and in right putamen and caudate nucleus by 24.6–26.8% in laryngeal dystonia (all P ≤ 0.009). This suggests hyperactivity of the direct basal ganglia pathway in focal dystonia. Our findings paralleled abnormally decreased dopaminergic function via the indirect basal ganglia pathway and decreased symptom-induced phasic striatal dopamine release in writer’s cramp and laryngeal dystonia. When examining topological distribution of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor abnormalities in these forms of dystonia, we found abnormal separation of direct and indirect pathways within the striatum, with negligible, if any, overlap between the two pathways and with the regions of phasic dopamine release. However, despite topological disorganization of dopaminergic function, alterations of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors were somatotopically localized within the striatal hand and larynx representations in writer’s cramp and laryngeal dystonia, respectively. This finding points to their direct relevance to disorder-characteristic clinical features. Increased D1 receptor availability showed significant negative correlations with dystonia duration but not its severity, likely representing a developmental endophenotype of this disorder. In conclusion, a comprehensive pathophysiological mechanism of abnormal basal ganglia function in focal dystonia is built upon upregulated dopamine D1 receptors that abnormally increase excitation of the direct pathway, downregulated dopamine D2 receptors that abnormally decrease inhibition within the indirect pathway, and weakened nigro-striatal phasic dopamine release during symptomatic task performance. Collectively, these aberrations of striatal dopaminergic function underlie imbalance between direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways and lead to abnormal thalamo-motor-cortical hyperexcitability in dystonia.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
  • Sleep apnoeas may represent a reversible risk factor for amyloid-β
    • Authors: Liguori C; Chiaravalloti A, Izzi F, et al.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
  • PINK1 signalling rescues amyloid pathology and mitochondrial dysfunction
           in Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Du F; Yu Q, Yan S, et al.
      Abstract: Mitochondrial dysfunction and synaptic damage are early pathological features of the Alzheimer’s disease-affected brain. Memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease is a manifestation of brain pathologies such as accumulation of amyloid-β peptide and mitochondrial damage. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms and effective disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer’s disease remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that decreased PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) expression is associated with Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Restoring neuronal PINK1 function strikingly reduces amyloid-β levels, amyloid-associated pathology, oxidative stress, as well as mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunction. In contrast, PINK1-deficient mAPP mice augmented cerebral amyloid-β accumulation, mitochondrial abnormalities, impairments in learning and memory, as well as synaptic plasticity at an earlier age than mAPP mice. Notably, gene therapy-mediated PINK1 overexpression promotes the clearance of damaged mitochondria by augmenting autophagy signalling via activation of autophagy receptors (OPTN and NDP52), thereby alleviating amyloid-β-induced loss of synapses and cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease mice. Loss of PINK1 activity or blockade of PINK1-mediated signalling (OPTN or NDP52) fails to reverse amyloid-β-induced detrimental effects. Our findings highlight a novel mechanism by which PINK1-dependent signalling promotes the rescue of amyloid pathology and amyloid-β-mediated mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunctions in a manner requiring activation of autophagy receptor OPTN or NDP52. Thus, activation of PINK1 may represent a new therapeutic avenue for combating Alzheimer’s disease.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
  • Voodoo surgery' The distinct challenges of functional neuroimaging in
           clinical neurology
    • Authors: Chong T.
      Abstract: Sir,
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
  • Tau hyperphosphorylation induces oligomeric insulin accumulation and
           insulin resistance in neurons
    • Authors: Rodriguez-Rodriguez P; Sandebring-Matton A, Merino-Serrais P, et al.
      Abstract: Insulin signalling deficiencies and insulin resistance have been directly linked to the progression of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease. However, to date little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms or insulin state and distribution in the brain under pathological conditions. Here, we report that insulin is accumulated and retained as oligomers in hyperphosphorylated tau-bearing neurons in Alzheimer’s disease and in several of the most prevalent human tauopathies. The intraneuronal accumulation of insulin is directly dependent on tau hyperphosphorylation, and follows the tauopathy progression. Furthermore, cells accumulating insulin show signs of insulin resistance and decreased insulin receptor levels. These results suggest that insulin retention in hyperphosphorylated tau-bearing neurons is a causative factor for the insulin resistance observed in tauopathies, and describe a novel neuropathological concept with important therapeutic implications.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13
  • Corrigendum
    • Abstract: Heidi I. L. Jacobs, David A. Hopkins, Helen C. Mayrhofer, Emiliano Bruner, Fred W. van Leeuwen, Wijnand Raaijmakers and Jeremy D. Schmahmann. The cerebellum in Alzheimer’s disease: evaluating its role in cognitive decline. Brain 2017; 10.1093/brain/awx194.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
  • Tau pathology and neurodegeneration contribute to cognitive impairment in
           Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Bejanin A; Schonhaut D, La Joie R, et al.
      Abstract: Neuropathological and in vivo studies have revealed a tight relationship between tau pathology and cognitive impairment across the Alzheimer’s disease spectrum. However, tau pathology is also intimately associated with neurodegeneration and amyloid pathology. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether grey matter atrophy and amyloid pathology contribute to the relationship between tau pathology, as measured with 18F-AV-1451-PET imaging, and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease. We included 40 amyloid-positive patients meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease (n = 5) or probable Alzheimer’s disease dementia (n = 35). Twelve patients additionally fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for posterior cortical atrophy and eight for logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia. All participants underwent 3 T magnetic resonance imaging, amyloid (11C-PiB) positron emission tomography and tau (18F-AV-1451) positron emission tomography, and episodic and semantic memory, language, executive and visuospatial functions assessment. Raw cognitive scores were converted to age-adjusted Z-scores (W-scores) and averaged to compute composite scores for each cognitive domain. Independent regressions were performed between 18F-AV-1451 binding and each cognitive domain, and we used the Biological Parametric Mapping toolbox to further control for local grey matter volumes, 11C-PiB uptake, or both. Partial correlations and causal mediation analyses (mediation R package) were then performed in brain regions showing an association between cognition and both 18F-AV-1451 uptake and grey matter volume. Our results showed that decreased cognitive performance in each domain was related to increased 18F-AV-1451 binding in specific brain regions conforming to established brain-behaviour relationships (i.e. episodic memory: medial temporal lobe and angular gyrus; semantic memory: left anterior temporal regions; language: left posterior superior temporal lobe and supramarginal gyrus; executive functions: bilateral frontoparietal regions; visuospatial functions: right more than left occipitotemporal regions). This pattern of regional associations remained essentially unchanged—although less spatially extended—when grey matter volume or 11C-PiB uptake maps were added as covariates. Mediation analyses revealed both direct and grey matter-mediated effects of 18F-AV-1451 uptake on cognitive performance. Together, these results show that tau pathology is related in a region-specific manner to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease. These regional relationships are weakly related to amyloid burden, but are in part mediated by grey matter volumes. This suggests that tau pathology may lead to cognitive deficits through a variety of mechanisms, including, but not restricted to, grey matter loss. These results might have implications for future therapeutic trials targeting tau pathology.
      PubDate: 2017-10-07
  • Reward deficits in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia include
           insensitivity to negative stimuli
    • Authors: Perry D; Datta S, Sturm V, et al.
      Abstract: During reward processing individuals weigh positive and negative features of a stimulus to determine whether they will pursue or avoid it. Though patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia display changes in their pursuit of rewards, such as food, alcohol, money, and sex, the basis for these shifts is not clearly established. In particular, it is unknown whether patients’ behaviour results from excessive focus on rewards, insensitivity to punishment, or to dysfunction in a particular stage of reward processing, such as anticipation, consumption, or action selection. Our goal was to determine the nature of the reward deficit in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and its underlying anatomy. We devised a series of tasks involving pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral olfactory stimuli, designed to separate distinct phases of reward processing. In a group of 25 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and 21 control subjects, diagnosis by valence interactions revealed that patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia rated unpleasant odours as less aversive than did controls and displayed lower skin conductance responses when anticipating an upcoming aversive odour. Subjective pleasantness ratings and skin conductance responses did not differ between behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and controls for pleasant or neutral smells. In a task designed to measure the effort subjects would expend to smell or avoid smelling a stimulus, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia were less motivated, and therefore less successful than control subjects, at avoiding what they preferred not to smell, but had equivalent success at obtaining stimuli they found rewarding. Voxel-based morphometry of patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia revealed that the inability to subjectively differentiate the valence of pleasant and unpleasant odours correlated with atrophy in right ventral mid-insula and right amygdala. High pleasantness ratings of unpleasant stimuli correlated with left dorsal anterior insula and frontal pole atrophy. These findings indicate that insensitivity to negative information may be a key component of the reward-seeking behaviours in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, and may relate to degeneration of structures that are involved in representing the emotional salience of sensory information.
      PubDate: 2017-10-07
  • Clinicopathological correlations in behavioural variant frontotemporal
    • Authors: Perry D; Brown J, Possin K, et al.
      Abstract: Accurately predicting the underlying neuropathological diagnosis in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) poses a daunting challenge for clinicians but will be critical for the success of disease-modifying therapies. We sought to improve pathological prediction by exploring clinicopathological correlations in a large bvFTD cohort. Among 438 patients in whom bvFTD was either the top or an alternative possible clinical diagnosis, 117 had available autopsy data, including 98 with a primary pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), 15 with Alzheimer’s disease, and four with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who lacked neurodegenerative disease-related pathology outside of the motor system. Patients with FTLD were distributed between FTLD-tau (34 patients: 10 corticobasal degeneration, nine progressive supranuclear palsy, eight Pick’s disease, three frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism associated with chromosome 17, three unclassifiable tauopathy, and one argyrophilic grain disease); FTLD-TDP (55 patients: nine type A including one with motor neuron disease, 27 type B including 21 with motor neuron disease, eight type C with right temporal lobe presentations, and 11 unclassifiable including eight with motor neuron disease), FTLD-FUS (eight patients), and one patient with FTLD-ubiquitin proteasome system positive inclusions (FTLD-UPS) that stained negatively for tau, TDP-43, and FUS. Alzheimer’s disease was uncommon (6%) among patients whose only top diagnosis during follow-up was bvFTD. Seventy-nine per cent of FTLD-tau, 86% of FTLD-TDP, and 88% of FTLD-FUS met at least ‘possible’ bvFTD diagnostic criteria at first presentation. The frequency of the six core bvFTD diagnostic features was similar in FTLD-tau and FTLD-TDP, suggesting that these features alone cannot be used to separate patients by major molecular class. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that nearly all pathological subgroups and even individual patients share atrophy in anterior cingulate, frontoinsula, striatum, and amygdala, indicating that degeneration of these regions is intimately linked to the behavioural syndrome produced by these diverse aetiologies. In addition to these unifying features, symptom profiles also differed among pathological subtypes, suggesting distinct anatomical vulnerabilities and informing a clinician’s prediction of pathological diagnosis. Data-driven classification into one of the 10 most common pathological diagnoses was most accurate (up to 60.2%) when using a combination of known predictive factors (genetic mutations, motor features, or striking atrophy patterns) and the results of a discriminant function analysis that incorporated clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological data.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06
  • Progranulin: a new avenue towards the understanding and treatment of
           neurodegenerative disease
    • Authors: Chitramuthu B; Bennett H, Bateman A.
      Abstract: Progranulin, a secreted glycoprotein, is encoded in humans by the single GRN gene. Progranulin consists of seven and a half, tandemly repeated, non-identical copies of the 12 cysteine granulin motif. Many cellular processes and diseases are associated with this unique pleiotropic factor that include, but are not limited to, embryogenesis, tumorigenesis, inflammation, wound repair, neurodegeneration and lysosome function. Haploinsufficiency caused by autosomal dominant mutations within the GRN gene leads to frontotemporal lobar degeneration, a progressive neuronal atrophy that presents in patients as frontotemporal dementia. Frontotemporal dementia is an early onset form of dementia, distinct from Alzheimer’s disease. The GRN-related form of frontotemporal lobar dementia is a proteinopathy characterized by the appearance of neuronal inclusions containing ubiquitinated and fragmented TDP-43 (encoded by TARDBP). The neurotrophic and neuro-immunomodulatory properties of progranulin have recently been reported but are still not well understood. Gene delivery of GRN in experimental models of Alzheimer’s- and Parkinson’s-like diseases inhibits phenotype progression. Here we review what is currently known concerning the molecular function and mechanism of action of progranulin in normal physiological and pathophysiological conditions in both in vitro and in vivo models. The potential therapeutic applications of progranulin in treating neurodegenerative diseases are highlighted.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18
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