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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 369 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 369 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 489, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Mathematics Research Surveys - advance access     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)

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Journal Cover Journal of Chromatographic Science
  [SJR: 0.448]   [H-I: 42]   [18 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0021-9665 - ISSN (Online) 1945-239X
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [369 journals]
  • Determination of Miroestrol and Isomiroestrol From Pueraria mirifica
           (White Kwao Krua) in Dietary Supplements by LC–MS-MS and
           LC–Q-Orbitrap/MS
    • Authors: Lee J; Kim J, Cho S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe purpose of this study is to develop LC–MS-MS and LC–Q-Orbitrap/MS method for the analysis of the components of Pueraria mirifica, which are illegal additives in dietary supplements. Blank samples and samples spiked with miroestrol and isomiroestrol were used for the initial development and validation studies. Specificity, linearity, limit of quantification (LOQ), limit of detection (LOD), accuracy, precision, recovery and stability were employed as the validation parameters. The LODs of miroestrol and isomiroestrol were found to be 4.17 and 0.84 ng/mL, respectively, whereas their LOQs were 12.50 and 2.52 ng/mL, respectively. The determination coefficient was over 0.999, intra- and inter-day precisions were 0.8–6.9 and 1.9–9.8%, respectively, and intra and inter-day accuracies were 82.1–103.7 and 85.0–109.7%, respectively. The mean recoveries of the targeted compounds from the dietary supplements ranged from 86.9 to 108.9%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for recovery were
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
       
  • Development of Solid-Phase Extraction and HPLC Method for Simultaneous
           Estimation of Ilaprazole and Glimepiride in Rat Plasma: Application to
           Pharmacokinetic Studies
    • Authors: Dewani AP; Tripathi AS, Shelke PG, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractA novel, simple and mass spectrometry (MS) compatible high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is reported for the simultaneous estimation of ilaprazole (ILA) and glimepiride (GLM) in rat plasma. The bio-analytical procedure involves extraction of ILA, GLM and internal standard (IS) from rat plasma with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) process. The chromatographic analysis was performed on Waters-600 system using an isocratic mobile phase comprising methanol:water (80:20 % v/v) with pH of water modified to three using formic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and Kinetex C18 column maintained at 30 ± 1°C. The signals were monitored using a PDA detector set at 225 nm. IS, ILA and GLM eluted at 2.04, 4.7 and 7.4 min, respectively, and the total run time was 10 min. Method validation was performed as per US Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 10–600 ng/mL (r2 = 0.999). The intra- and inter-day precisions for ILA and GLM were (%RSD values) in the range of 1.52–9.74 and 1.52–11.76%, respectively, in rat plasma. The method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic studies followed by oral administration of GLM and ILA in rats.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
       
  • Determination of Morin in Maclura cochinchinensis Heartwood by HPLC
    • Authors: Kongkiatpaiboon S; Tungsukruthai P, Sriyakool K, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe HPLC-DAD method was developed to determine morin content in Maclura cochinchinensis Corner heartwood extract. The chromatographic separation was performed using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, isocratic solvent system of 0.5% acetic acid in water:acetonitrile (80:20) with 1.0 mL/min flow rate and detected at 355 nm. The standard curve of morin was linear in the range of 7–905 μg/mL. The method was precise with intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) of lower than 1% and 2.06% for inter-day RSD. The method accuracy represented by percent recover was 99.58%. The highly efficient HPLC system developed from this study could detect morin contents in M. cochinchinensis heartwood samples collected from various locations in Thailand in the range of 0.74–1.57% w/w. This developed method provided a useful standardization procedure of M. cochincihinesis materials for further application in pharmacy and other commercial developments.
      PubDate: 2016-12-14
       
  • Optimization and Assessment of Three Different High Performance Liquid
           Chromatographic Systems for the Combinative Fingerprint Analysis and
           Multi-Ingredients Quantification of Sangju Ganmao Tablet
    • Authors: Guo M; Han J, He D, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractChromatographic separation is still a critical subject for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, three different high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) systems employing commercially available columns packed with 1.8, 3.5 and 5.0 μm particles were respectively developed and optimized for the combinative fingerprint analysis and multi-ingredients quantification of Sangju Ganmao tablet (SGT). Chromatographic parameters including the repeatability of retention time and peak area, symmetry factor, resolution, number of theoretical plates and peak capacity were used to assess the chromatographic performance of different HPLC systems. The optimal chromatographic system using Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 3.5 μm) as stationary phase was respectively coupled with diode array detector or mass spectrometry detector for the chromatographic fingerprint analysis and simultaneous quantification or identification of nine compounds of SGT. All the validation data conformed to the acceptable requirements. For the fingerprint analysis, 31 peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of SGT from 10 different manufacturers using heatmap, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The results demonstrated that the combinations of the quantitative and chromatographic fingerprint analysis offer an efficient way to evaluate the quality consistency of SGT.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
       
  • Analysis of Lycobetaine in Rat Plasma by LC-ESI-MS/MS
    • Authors: Chen T; Li W, Gong T, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIn this study, a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for the determination of lycobetaine in rat plasma. Berberine was selected as the internal standard, and rat plasma samples were pretreated via protein precipitation and further separated on a diamonsil octadecyl-silylated silica column using 0.2% (v/v) aqueous formic acid and methanol as the mobile phase. Selected reaction monitoring was performed using the transitions m/z 266.1 → 208.1 and m/z 336.1 → 320.0 to determine the concentrations of lycobetaine and internal standard, respectively. The injection volume was 1 µL, and the calibration curve was linear (R2 = 0.9998), while the validated lower limit of quantification was 25 ng/mL. Precision varied from 3.4% to 9.9%, and accuracy varied from −2.6% to 8.7%. Lycobetaine remained stable under all relevant analytical conditions tested in the study. The method was successfully applied to determine the plasma concentration of lycobetaine in a pharmacokinetic study. After intravenous administration of 10 mg/kg and oral administration of 200 mg/kg lycobetaine in rats, the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and the oral bioavailability of lycobetaine was determined as 7.30% ± 1.44%.
      PubDate: 2016-11-29
       
  • Application of an Untargeted Chemometric Strategy in the Impurity
           Profiling of Pharmaceuticals: An Example of Amisulpride
    • Authors: Skibiński R; Trawiński J.
      Abstract: AbstractThe untargeted chemometric methodology for the impurity profiling of amisulpride pharmaceutical formulations was successfully applied and developed. For this purpose a fast, accurate and specific analytical method was elaborated with the use of ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution hybrid electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer in a fast polarity switching mode. All the obtained chromatographic profiles were aligned and a multivariate chemometric analysis including principal component analysis and partial least square (PLS) was performed. The developed PLS-DA pattern recognition model allowed the identification of all the analyzed pharmaceutical formulations of amisulpride as well as their manufacturers. Additionally, six impurities of amisulpride were identified by the use of MS/MS fragmentation and one of them was found as the main impurity (Imp-1) and can be regarded as the primary impurity “marker” for the analyzed formulations. Furthermore, one new impurity of amisulpride was found and its chemical structure was proposed (4-amino-5-(ethylsulfinyl)-2-methoxy-N-[(1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl)methyl]benzamide).
      PubDate: 2016-11-29
       
  • Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Coupled with High-Performance Liquid
           Chromatography Diode Array Detection for Simultaneous Determination of
           Four Lipophilic Constituents from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge
    • Authors: Wang Z; Ma S, Zhang Q, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractA simple, rapid and efficient method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for determination of lipophilic constituents, including dihydrotanshinone, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone II A in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Box–Behnken design was employed for optimization of the extraction conditions of matrix solid-phase dispersion, including mass ratio of dispersant to sample, volume of elution solvent, and amount of cleanup reagent. The optimal experimental results were obtained using 0.27 g of acid alumina as dispersant, 13 mL of acetonitrile as elution solvent and 0.36 g of acid alumina as cleanup reagent. The target analytes was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The recoveries of tanshinones obtained by analyzing the spiked samples were from 83.81% to 93.74% and relative standard deviations from 2.87% to 6.83%. Matrix solid-phase dispersion integrated the extraction and cleanup into a single step, which provides the advantages of being simple, fast and convenient. Compared with other conventional methods, the present method consumed less time and less organic solvent. The results demonstrate that this method has potential for the determination of active constituents and the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine.
      PubDate: 2016-11-29
       
  • A New Microextraction Technique for the Assay of Alkaloids in Chinese
           Compound Formula-Based Polyether Sulfone Membrane Fiber Decorated by TiO 2
           Nanoparticles
    • Authors: Sun X; Wei Y, Hou B, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractA new nanocomposite membrane was used to clean up impurities from complex samples and the obvious synergy was obtained in this paper. The nanocomposite membrane was prepared by dispersing TiO2 nanoparticles in chloroform and filled in the pores and lumen of polyether sulfone membrane fiber. The novel microextraction method showed the ideal selective extraction effect for alkaloids in the formulae composed of Rhizoma coptidis and the excellent clean-up efficiency compared with the single membrane method. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: chloroform as accepted phase; the number of nanocomposite membrane fiber bars, 7; extraction time, 30 min; pH of the sample solution, 10.55; desorption solvent, methanol. The limit of detection for the described alkaloids was estimated at 0.122 μg mL−1. The recovery of the four alkaloids in complex samples ranged from 93.24% to 97.94% with relative standard deviation of 
      PubDate: 2016-11-29
       
  • Efficiency of Hollow Fiber Liquid-Phase Microextraction Chromatography
           Methods in the Separation of Organic Compounds: A Review
    • Authors: Alsharif A; Tan G, Choo Y, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractHollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) techniques coupled to chromatographic systems have been widely used for extraction and determination of diverse compounds. HF-LPME was able to provide better results in precision, accuracy, selectivity and enrichment factor, in addition to reduction of matrix effect and carry over. It is applicable within a wide pH range and compatible with most analytical instruments which enable the utilization of HF-LPME in a wide variety of applications. This review focused on the modified HF-LPME techniques, efficiency, comparison to other LPME methods and applications.
      PubDate: 2016-11-29
       
  • An HPLC Procedure for the Quantification of Aloin in Latex and Gel from
           Aloe barbadensis Leaves
    • Authors: Sánchez-Machado DI; López-Cervantes J, Mariscal-Domínguez MF, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAloin is an anthraquinone-C-glycoside present in Aloe vera. This compound is extremely variable among different species and highly depends on the growing conditions of the plants. The quantification of aloin in different extraction preparations has been a frequent problem due to the high instability of the compound. The aim of the present study is to develop and validated an analytical method for aloin detection in fresh and dry samples of Aloe barbadensis gel and latex using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Phosphate buffered saline (pH 3) was selected as the extraction solvent. The aloin was separated using a Zorbax Eclipse AAA column (4.6 × 150 mm) at 35°C, and water and acetonitrile were used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The linearity was satisfactory with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999. Under these conditions, the method precision (relative standard deviation) was 3.71% for FL, 4.41% for dry latex, 0.81% for fresh gel and 4.42% for dry gel samples. Aloe latex was determined to have a greater amount of aloin than aloe gel. The method validation was satisfactory and exhibited adequate linearity, repeatability and accuracy.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24
       
  • Simultaneous Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Ebastine with Two
           Sympathomimetic Drugs Using a Monolithic Column
    • Authors: Ibrahim FF; Wahba MK.
      Abstract: AbstractEbastine (EBS) has been assayed in its laboratory-prepared co-formulated tablets with either pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSU) or phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHR) using isocratic reversed-phase chromatography. Separation was conducted using a 50 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., Chromolith® SpeedROD RP-18 end-capped column at ambient temperature. A mobile phase composed of water:acetonitrile in a ratio of 25:75 having a pH of 3.2, has been utilized at 1 mL/min with UV detection at 254 nm for both EBS and PSU and 274 nm for PHR which in turn increased the sensitivity of the proposed method significantly. Symmetric well-separated peaks resulted in a short chromatographic run;
      PubDate: 2016-11-24
       
  • Development and Validation of an LC-ESI-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous
           Determination of Ligustroflavone and Rhoifolin in Rat Plasma and Its
           Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study
    • Authors: Liu H; Xu C, Wang W, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractA selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ligustroflavone and rhoifolin in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Venusil HILIC column using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/water/formic acid (75:25:0.1, v/v/v). The detection was achieved using a triple-quadrupole tandem MS in negative ionization through selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The calibration curves of both analytes in plasma showed good linearity over the concentration ranges of 3–300 ng/mL for ligustroflavone, and 2–200 ng/mL for rhoifolin. This assay was used to investigate the pharmacokinetics of ligustroflavone and rhoifolin in rats.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24
       
  • Optimization of Robust HPLC Method for Quantitation of Ambroxol
           Hydrochloride and Roxithromycin Using a DoE Approach
    • Authors: Patel RB; Patel NM, Patel MR, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe aim of this work was to develop and optimize a robust HPLC method for the separation and quantitation of ambroxol hydrochloride and roxithromycin utilizing Design of Experiment (DoE) approach. The Plackett–Burman design was used to assess the impact of independent variables (concentration of organic phase, mobile phase pH, flow rate and column temperature) on peak resolution, USP tailing and number of plates. A central composite design was utilized to evaluate the main, interaction, and quadratic effects of independent variables on the selected dependent variables. The optimized HPLC method was validated based on ICH Q2R1 guideline and was used to separate and quantify ambroxol hydrochloride and roxithromycin in tablet formulations. The findings showed that DoE approach could be effectively applied to optimize a robust HPLC method for quantification of ambroxol hydrochloride and roxithromycin in tablet formulations. Statistical comparison between results of proposed and reported HPLC method revealed no significant difference; indicating the ability of proposed HPLC method for analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride and roxithromycin in pharmaceutical formulations.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24
       
  • Development and Validation of a Sensitive LC–MS-MS Method for
           Quantification of Mogrol in Rat Plasma and Application to Pharmacokinetic
           Study
    • Authors: Luo Z; Zhang K, Shi H, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractMogrol, the aglycone of mogrosides, is a potential pharmacologically active ingredient isolated from the fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an LC–MS-MS method for the quantification of mogrol in rat plasma. Protein precipitation extraction procedure using methanol/water (1:1, v/v) was employed to extract mogrol from rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed on a reverse-phase Agilent Zorbax XDB C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) with gradient elution using a mobile phase containing methanol and water, both of which contained 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.50 mL/min. The analyte was monitored by tandem-mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization mode. The precursor/product transitions (m/z) in the positive ion mode were 459.3→423.3 and 386.2→122.3 for mogrol and internal standard, respectively. The method was validated over the concentration range of 10.0–10,000 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantification of 10.0 ng/mL in rat plasma. Validation experiments included tests for specificity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect, and stability under different storage and handling conditions. This method was successfully utilized to pharmacokinetic evaluation of mogrol after intravenous and oral administration of a single dose in rats at 2.0 and 5.0 mg/kg, respectively. The oral absolute bioavailability (F) of mogrol was estimated to be 10.3 ± 2.15% with an elimination half-life (t1/2) value of 2.41 ± 0.11 h.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24
       
  • Identification and Determination of Phenolics in Lamiaceae Species by
           UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS
    • Authors: Çelik S; Tufan A, Bekdeşer B, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThis study reports the phenolic profile screening of aromatic Lamiaceae species such as marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), lavender (Lavandula officinalis) and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) using a novel and validated ultra performance liquid chromatography method coupled with DAD diode array detector and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in negative mode of electrospray ionization. Identification and quantification of phenolics in these plant extracts has been realized within 12 min. This method showed good precision (percentage relative standard deviation; RSD% 0.54–2.72 for intra-day, 1.71–4.64 for inter-day), reproducibility (percentage recovery, REC% 92.0–109.0) and linearity (r = 0.9988–0.9999). Limits of detection ranged from 0.02 to 18.2 ng/mL. The extraction of plants was performed using microwave-assisted extraction technique and 60% (v/v) aqueous methanol solvent medium was selected as suitable solvent because of maximum extraction efficiency. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity of these plant extracts were tested and the results correlated well among each other. According to the Folin assay, phenolic contents of Origanum majorana L., Mentha pulegium L. and Lavandula officinalis were calculated as 119 ± 3.4, 85.1 ± 2.8 and 57.8 ± 2.1 mg GAE/g dry matter, respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24
       
  • Quantification of Paclitaxel and Polyaspartate Paclitaxel Conjugate in
           Beagle Plasma: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study
    • Authors: Gao Y; Chen J, Zhang X, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAn LC–MS/MS method for the determination of polyaspartate paclitaxel conjugate (PASP-PTX) and paclitaxel (PTX) in dog plasma with cephalomannine (Internal Standard for PASP-PTX, IS-I) and clopidogrel bisulfate (Internal Standard for PTX, IS-II) as the internal standards was developed and validated. Plasma samples of PASP-PTX were extracted by ethyl acetate following the hydrolysis reaction, while protein precipitation was used for the extraction of PTX using acetonitrile. Analytes were separated by a CAPCELL PAK C18 MG II column using a gradient elution with the mobile phase (A) 5 mM ammonium containing 0.1% formic acid, and (B) acetonitrile. Quantification was performed by monitoring the m/z transitions of 286.2/105.0 for PASP-PTX, 264.2/83.0 for IS-I, 854.4/286.0 for PTX, and 322.1/184.1 for IS-II in the ESI positive mode. This method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and stability. The lower limit of quantification was 0.15 µg/mL for PASP-PTX and 0.01 µg/mL for PTX, and the calibration curves were linear over 0.15–300 µg/mL for PASP-PTX and over 0.01–10 µg/mL for PTX. The samples were stable under all the tested conditions. The method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetic profiles of PASP-PTX and PTX in beagles following intravenous administration of PASP-PTX.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23
       
  • Determination of Common Adulterants in Herbal Medicine and Food Samples
           using Core-shell Column Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry
    • Authors: Al Lawati HJ; Al Busaidi I, Kadavilpparampu AM, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractHigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to develop and validate a rapid method to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse 18 common adulterants in herbal medicine and food samples. Initially, the mobile phase composition was optimized in three different columns: core-shell, monolithic and standard 3.5-µm-particle-size columns. The results show that the core-shell column provides the best separation. Moreover, the tandem mass spectrometry was optimized. The linear range for all adulterants was 0.5–500 μg mL−1. Finally, the samples that were supplied by the Public Authority of Customer Protection, Ministry of Health, and those collected from the local market were analysed. The results indicate that 7 of 33 analysed samples contained adulterants. The adulterated samples mainly contain sildenafil, tadalafil or vardenafil. The concentrations of these three adulterants in the samples were 0.18–39 wt%. This study is the first report in the Sultanate of Oman about adulteration in herbal medicine and food samples. The results clearly raise some concern and require proper plan of action to increase public awareness about this serious issue.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23
       
  • The Metabolic Profiling of Isorhamnetin-3- O -Neohesperidoside Produced by
           Human Intestinal Flora Employing UPLC-Q-TOF/MS
    • Authors: Du L; Zhao M, Tao J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIsorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside is the major active substance of Puhuang, a traditional herb medicine widely used in clinical practice to tackle many chronic diseases. However, little is known about the interactions between this ingredient and intestinal flora. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry together with automated data analysis software (Metabolynx™) was used for analysis of the metabolic profile of isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside by the isolated human intestinal bacteria. The parent and three metabolites isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin and quercetin were detected and identified based on the characteristics of their deprotonated molecules. These metabolites indicated that isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside was firstly deglycosylated to isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside and subsequently to the aglycone isorhamnetin, and the latter was demethylated to quercetin. The majority of bacteria such as Escherichia sp. 23 were capable of converting isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside to considerable amounts of aglycone isorhamnetin and further to minor amounts of quercetin, while minor amounts of isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside were detected in minority of bacterial samples such as Enterococcus sp. 30. The metabolic pathway and metabolites of isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside by the different human intestinal bacteria were firstly investigated. Furthermore, the metabolites of isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside might influence the effects of traditional herb medicines. Thus, our study is helpful to further unravel how isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside and Puhuang work in vivo.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23
       
  • New Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatographic Method for Analyzing Idebenone
           in Pediatric Formulations
    • Authors: Contin M; Buontempo F, García Becerra C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractA novel, simple and reliable method based on micellar electrokinetic chromatography with ultraviolet detection was developed to analyze idebenone in a pediatric formulation. Idebenone is a synthetic short chain benzoquinone that acts as an electron carrier in the mitochondrial electron transport chain facilitating the production of adenosine triphosphate. It can be found in two different redox states that differ in their physiological properties. Idebenone has been investigated as a treatment in several neurological disorders like Friedreich's ataxia, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, mitochondrial encephalomyopathies and senile dementia. Accordingly, a micellar electrokinetic chromatography was employed to discriminate both redox forms. The final optimized system was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity (r2 0.992), limit of detection (0.5 µg/mL), limit of quantification (1.8 µg/mL), intra- and inter-day precision (RSD ≤ 2) and accuracy in terms of recovery studies (99.3–100.5%). Robustness was studied following a Plackett–Burman design. Finally, the validated system was applied to the analysis of idebenone in a pediatric formulation.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23
       
  • Extraction of Volatile Flavor Compounds From Tobacco Leaf Through a
           Low-Density Polyethylene Membrane
    • Authors: Yokoi M; Shimoda M.
      Abstract: AbstractA low-density polyethylene (LDPE) membrane pouch method was developed to extract volatile flavor compounds from tobacco leaf. Tobacco leaf suspended in water was enclosed in a pouch prepared from a LDPE membrane of specific gravity 0.92 g/cm3 and 0.03 mm thickness and then extracted with diethyl ether. In comparison with direct solvent extraction, LDPE membrane excluded larger and higher boiling point compounds which could contaminate a gas chromatograph inlet and damage a column. Whilst being more convenient than a reduced-pressure steam distillation, it could extract volatile flavor compounds of wide range of molecular weight and polarity. Repeatabilities in the extracted amounts were ranged from 0.38% of 2.3-bipyridyl to 26% of β-ionone, and average value of 39 compounds was 5.9%.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23
       
  • Simultaneous Analysis of Two Phytohormones in Chili and Wheat Using HPLC
           Using Novel Calixarene as SPE Sorbent
    • Authors: Chen Y; Yang L, Zhang W, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIn this paper, a high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection method, using tetraazacalix[2]arene[2]triazine-modified silica gel (NCS) as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent, was developed for extracting and purifying the two phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)) in chili and wheat samples from different organs of chili and wheat. The limits of detection were about 0.02 and 0.04 μg/mL, and the limits of quantification were 0.04 and 0.20 μg/mL for IAA and IBA, respectively. The intraday and interday RSDs (n = 6) of peak areas and retention times were in the range of 0.76–1.20%. In addition, overall recoveries through the extraction and NCS–SPE purification ranged from 78.4% to 86.8% for IAA and IBA were obtained. Compared with the commercial SPE sorbents, NCS featured excellent selectivity to retain IAA and IBA in the sample matrices. In addition, the results more clearly indicated that high IAA and IBA content existed in roots and leaves of wheat and chili; in other organs of the plants, the concentration of the two phytohormones is lower. The results from theoretical computation were consistent with the retention behaviors of IAA and IBA on NCS. The proposed NCS–SPE–HPLC method is highly effective for trace analysis of the two phytohormones in plant samples.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27
       
  • Wide-Bore Columns of Poly (Glycidyl Methacrylate- Co
           -Divinylbenzene)-Based Monolithic Beds for Reversed-Phase and
           Anion-Exchange Chromatographic Separation of Biomolecules
    • Authors: Lubbad SH.
      Abstract: AbstractThree monoliths based on poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-divinylbenzene) were prepared in the confines of borosilicate glass columns (100 × 3 mm I.D.). The first monolith was applied for analysis of proteins by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. It furnished a fast base-line separation for four proteins (ribonuclease A, cytochrome c, α-lactalbumin and myoglobin) in
      PubDate: 2016-10-24
       
  • Assay Development for Aminoglycosides by HPLC with Direct UV Detection
    • Authors: Blanchaert B; Huang S, Wach K, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe absence of UV chromophores in the structure of most aminoglycosides impedes an easy and straightforward development of analytical methods. It was demonstrated that addition of borate to the mobile phase allowed direct detection of aminoglycosides at the lower end of the UV spectrum. Although the borate ion complexes preferably with compounds possessing vicinal diols, the aim of this study was to develop an assay for tobramycin that does not contain vicinal diols in its structure. Amikacin, an aminoglycoside with a broad spectrum, was added to the study for its high therapeutic importance. An assay for both has been developed and validated. This method was developed on an XBridge C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm; 5 µm) and the mobile phase consisting of methanol—disodium tetraborate decahydrate buffer (0.1 M; pH = 9.0)—water (20:20:60) supplemented with 1 g/L sodium octanesulfonate was run isocratically at a column temperature of 40°C. After validation according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, this method was tested on two commercially available pharmaceutical formulations, Amukin® and Tobrex®. The developed method was fast, accurate, easy to use and cheap as it did not require sophisticated equipment or tedious derivatization steps.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18
       
 
 
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