Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 413 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 413 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 407, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 257, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 616, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 103, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insect Systematics and Diversity     Hybrid Journal  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.065
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 15  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0146-4760 - ISSN (Online) 1945-2403
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [413 journals]
  • The International Association of Forensic Toxicologists
    • Authors: LeBeau M.
      Pages: 753 - 753
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa129
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • A Novel Bioanalytical Method for the Determination of Opioids in Blood and
           Pericardial Fluid
    • Authors: Ferreira E; Corte Real F, Pinho e Melo T, et al.
      Pages: 754 - 768
      Abstract: AbstractOpioids are the drugs most commonly detected in overdose deaths and the second most consumed worldwide. An analytical methodology has been optimized and fully validated for the determination of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, 6-acetylcodeine, oxycodone, oxymorphone and fentanyl in whole blood and pericardial fluid. The internal standards used were codeine-d3, morphine-d3, 6-acetylmorphine-d3 and fentanyl-d5. Before solid-phase extraction, volumes of 250 μL of blood and pericardial fluid were subjected to a protein precipitation (with 750 μL of ice-cold acetonitrile) and a microwave-induced oximation was performed using a solution of 1% aqueous hydroxylamine hydrochloride in phosphate-buffered saline (1:2, v/v). Finally, the dried extracts were further derivatized with a solution of n-methyl-n-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide + 5% trimethylchlorosilane under microwave irradiation. The chromatographic analysis was carried out using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry operating in electron impact and selected ion monitoring mode. For all analytes, the method was linear between 5 and 1,000 ng/mL with determination coefficients (r2) >0.99. Depending on the analyte and matrix, the limit of detection varies between 3 and 4 ng/mL. Intra- and intermediate precision (<20%) and bias (±20%) were acceptable for all analytes in both matrices. The stability of the substances in the studied matrices was guaranteed, at least, 24 h in the autosampler, 4 h at room temperature and 30 days after three freeze/thaw cycles. This methodology was applied to real samples from the Laboratory of Chemistry and Forensic Toxicology, Centre Branch, of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Portugal.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa064
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • A Comprehensive HPLC–MS-MS Screening Method for 77 New Psychoactive
           Substances, 24 Classic Drugs and 18 Related Metabolites in Blood, Urine
           and Oral Fluid
    • Authors: Trana A; Mannocchi G, Pirani F, et al.
      Pages: 769 - 783
      Abstract: AbstractTo date, more than 800 molecules are classified as New Psychoactive Substances (NPS), and it is reported that this number increases every year. Whereas several cases of polydrug consumption that led to acute intoxication and death are reported, a lack of effective analytical screening method to detect NPS and classical drug of abuse in human matrices affects the prompt identification of the probable cause of intoxication in emergency department of hospitals. In this concern, a fast, simple and comprehensive high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS-MS) screening method to detect and quantify 77 NPS, 24 classic drugs and 18 related metabolites has been successfully developed and validated in blood, urine and oral fluid. A small volume (100 µL) of whole blood samples spiked with internal standard deuterated mixture was added to 70 µL of M3® buffer, and after precipitation of blood proteins, the supernatant was evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in 1 mL of mobile phase. Same volume (100 µL) of urine and oral fluid samples spiked with internal standard deuterated mix were only diluted with 500 µL of M3® reagent. One microliter of samples of each matrix was injected into HPLC–MS-MS equipment. The run time lasted 10 min with a gradient mobile phase. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear for all analytes under investigation with a determination coefficient always better than 0.99. The calibration range for blood and oral fluid was from limits of quantification (LOQs) to 200 ng/mL, whereas that for urine was LOQs to 1000 ng/mL. Recovery and matrix effect were always higher than 80%, whereas intra-assay and inter-assay precision were always better than 19% and accuracy was always within 19% of target in every matrix. Applicability of the method was verified by analysis of samples from real cases.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa103
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • LC–MS-MS Determination of 25 Antipsychotic Drugs and Metabolites in
           Urine for Medication Compliance Monitoring
    • Authors: Kim S; Kim H, Cheong J, et al.
      Pages: 784 - 796
      Abstract: AbstractA liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS) method was developed for 25 antipsychotic drugs and their metabolite in urine for monitoring medication compliance of mentally disordered criminals on probation. Target compounds were extracted with a solid-phase extraction technique using a newly developed hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced sorbent to remove interferences and minimize the matrix effect (ME). Extracted sample was injected into the LC–MS-MS with an electrospray ionization source in positive mode and multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The analytes were separated and detected within 10 minutes using a reversed-phase column with a gradient elution method using 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in methanol as mobile phase. The validation parameters were evaluated as follows: selectivity, limit of detection, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), linearity, accuracy and precision, stability, dilution integrity, recovery (RE), ME and process efficiency (PE). The LLOQs were 0.1 to 2.0 ng/mL, and determination coefficients of the calibration curve were above 0.9943 over the concentration ranges. The intra-and inter-day accuracy ranged from −10.4% to 9.9% and from −9.6% to 9.4%, while the intra-and inter-day precision were within 10.7% and 9.9%. The bench-top and long-term stability ranged from 92.1% to 109.5% and 88.7% to 111.6%, respectively. The reproducibility of auto-sampler stability was <10% for all analytes. The accuracy and precision of dilution integrity ranged from −11.7% to 10.5% and 0.4% to 9.9%, respectively. The relative standard deviation of RE and ME was from 0.6% to 6.6% and 0.5% to 3.9%, respectively, while that of PE was 1.3% to 4.5%. The developed LC–MS-MS method for medication compliance monitoring was successfully applied to urine samples from mentally disordered probationers and determined to be one of effective ways for preventing the recurrence of mentally disordered crimes.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa099
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • Assessment of Tobacco Exposure During Pregnancy by Meconium Analysis and
           Maternal Interview
    • Authors: López-Rabuñal Á; Lendoiro E, González-Colmenero E, et al.
      Pages: 797 - 802
      Abstract: AbstractSmoking during pregnancy can have serious obstetric and fetal complications. Therefore, it is essential to identify in utero exposure to tobacco, being meconium the matrix of choice for this purpose. Meconium (n = 565) was analyzed for nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine by LC–MS-MS. Then, tobacco meconium results were compared with smoking habits during pregnancy and neonatal outcomes measures (birth weight, length, head circumference, gestational age and Apgar scores). Although meconium analysis increased identification of in-utero exposure to tobacco (17.7% meconium positive specimens vs 13.5% mothers admitting tobacco use during pregnancy), there was a statistically significant relationship between meconium results and interview answers (P < 0.001). Birth weight was significantly lower for newborns with meconium positive results in males (P = 0.023) and females (P = 0.001), while for length significance was only observed in females (P = 0.001); however, when excluding meconium specimens positive for other drugs, a statistically significant difference was only found for female weight (P = 0.045). Meconium analysis proved to be more reliable for tobacco prenatal exposure detection than maternal interview. In addition, positive meconium results increased the probability for low birth weight, especially in females.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa027
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • Identification of Unique 4-Methylmethcathinone (4-MMC) Degradation Markers
           in Putrefied Matrices†
    • Authors: Trujillo Uruena M; York R, Philp M, et al.
      Pages: 803 - 810
      Abstract: AbstractDrug degradation as a consequence of putrefactive bacterial activity is a well-known factor that affects the identification and quantitation of certain substances of forensic interest. Current knowledge on putrefaction-mediated degradation of drugs is, however, significantly lacking. This study aimed to investigate the degradation of 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC or mephedrone) and to detect its degradation products in putrefied biological matrices containing 4-MMC. The bacteria species Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris were grown in brain-heart infusion broth, spiked with 4-MMC and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Postmortem human blood and fresh porcine liver macerate were also left to putrefy in sample tubes at room temperature for 1 week. Structural elucidation was based on modern spectroscopic analyses including the use of high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All four putrefactive bacteria were capable of degrading 4-MMC extensively under the experimental conditions explored. Of particular interest was the discovery of a novel degradation product common to all four bacterial species, which was assigned as 2-hydroxy-1-(4-methylphenyl)propan-1-one (HMP) based on the spectroscopic data. This degradation product was detectable in both postmortem human blood and porcine liver samples. The stability of the identified degradation products, especially HMP, should be further investigated to assess their validity of serving as marker analytes for monitoring 4-MMC in postmortem toxicology.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa041
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • Evidence of Natural GHB Presence in Energy Drinks: Caution in Data
           Interpretation in Suspected DFSA Cases
    • Authors: Vaiano F; Ronchi F.
      Pages: 811 - 817
      Abstract: AbstractGamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), usually reported as rape drug in drug-facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA), is an endogenous substance in human body and is also found in many beverages. This may lead to data misinterpretation in forensic cases. Herein, we aimed to collect evidence about natural GHB presence in 13 energy drinks (ED). After a liquid–liquid extraction with acidic ethyl acetate, samples were derivatized with BSTFA 1% TMCS. Analyses were carried out by a GC–MS system in SIM mode (GHB, 233, 234, 143 and 147 m/z; GHB-d6, 239, 240, 120 and 206 m/z). GHB was present in all the samples at very low concentrations ranging from 98 to 197 ng/mL. Thus, GHB presence in ED is not exclusively related to exogenous addition. Since the GHB levels are far lower than the minimum active dose (i.e., 0.5 g), it is not expected to induce any effect.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa025
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • Methyl-4-Hydroxybutyrate and Ethyl-4-Hydroxybutyrate as Potential Markers
           for Simultaneous Consumption of GHB/GBL and Alcohol: Preliminary
    • Authors: Küting T; Beier N, Krämer M, et al.
      Pages: 818 - 828
      Abstract: Abstractγ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its corresponding lactone γ-butyrolactone (GBL) are misused as knock out (k.o.) drugs. The short detection window and the major inter- and intra-individual variations of endogenous GHB concentrations in commonly used matrices such as blood and urine complicate the analytical proof of an exogenous GHB/GBL administration. We searched for an alternative way to prove an exogenous GHB/GBL administration via detection of methyl- and ethyl-4-hydroxybutyrate, which could arise in alcoholic solutions after spiking with GHB/GBL. A liquid chromatographic–triple quadrupole mass spectrometric method was developed and validated to quantitatively determine methyl- and ethyl-4-hydroxybutyrate in alcoholic beverages (limit of detection [LoD]: 5.8 and 3.4 ng/mL, respectively). A sample collective of alcoholic beverages (n = 47) revealed natural occurring amounts of ethyl-4-hydroxybutyrate (<LoD—approx. 3980 ng/mL) with higher concentrations particularly found in wine samples. Nearly no ethyl-4-hydroxybutyrate was observable in spirits/liqueurs and no methyl-4-hydroxybutyrate was detectable at all. A moderate correlation was shown between the ethyl-4-hydroxybutyrate concentration and the pH-value in wine samples (pH 2.9–3.7, n = 29) as well as between the ethyl-4-hydroxybutyrate concentration and the GHB concentration in all measured beverages (GHB:  <  limit of quantification [LoQ]—11.4 µg/mL, n = 47). A dependency on alcohol content could not be observed. A voluntary intake (n = 1) of 750-mL wine naturally containing high amounts of ethyl-4-hydroxybutyrate (approx. 2010 ng/mL) revealed no observable GHB-ester concentrations in blood and urine. Furthermore, an experiment simulating a beverage that could potentially be used in a drug-facilitated crime (DFC) case showed ethyl-4-hydroxybutyrate concentrations exceeding the concentrations naturally observed in beverage samples. However, in order to evaluate whether ethyl-4-hydroxybutyrate could be useful as marker for the co-consumption of GHB/GBL and alcohol and to prolong the detection window of unintended GHB/GBL intake, further experiments have to be performed.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa096
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • The Effect of Prolonged Storage Time on the Stability of Fatty Acid Ethyl
           Esters in Hair Samples
    • Authors: Tsanaclis L; Bagley K, Bevan S, et al.
      Pages: 829 - 833
      Abstract: AbstractThe advantages of analysis of drugs in hair samples are recognized for the long window of detection, alongside easy sampling and long stability after sample collection. Alcohol markers, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair, are widely used for monitoring alcohol consumption for clinical and forensic purposes. Although stability of drugs and EtG in hair samples is documented to a certain extent, stability of FAEEs in hair samples after collection has not been reported. This study covered hair samples that had been tested for FAEEs on the day of arrival at the laboratory and retested between 4 and 80 months later. The statistical analysis of the data set reveals significant lower FAEEs levels including ethyl palmitate (EtPa) ester levels when samples were retested for the second time after 6 days of storage under ideal conditions. Specifically, the results suggest that when measuring total FAEEs or solely EtPa in hair samples, the elapsed time between sample collection and analysis of the sample needs to be considered when interpreting the results. The recommendation is that whenever hair samples need to be tested for total FAEEs or EtPa, the analytical procedure needs to be performed within 1 week after collection in order to obtain meaningful results. The study results substantiate the case for the use of hair samples solely for the analysis of EtG, in conjunction with other measurements such as full blood count, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin test, liver function test or phosphatidylethanol alongside clinical assessment for a more effective evaluation of alcohol consumption.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa026
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • Testing for Stanozolol, Using UPLC–MS-MS and Confirmation by
           UPLC–q-TOF-MS, in Hair Specimens Collected from Five Different
           Anatomical Regions
    • Authors: Gheddar L; Raul J, Kintz P.
      Pages: 834 - 839
      Abstract: AbstractAn athlete challenged the result from an in-competition doping test which returned with an adverse analytical finding for stanozolol, claiming it was due to supplement contamination. Her lawyer asked the laboratory to analyze several hair specimens simultaneously collected from five different anatomical regions, head, arm, leg, pubis and armpit, to document the pattern of drug exposure. A specific UPLC–MS-MS method was developed. After decontamination with dichloromethane, stanozolol was extracted from hair in the presence of stanozolol-d3 used as internal standard, under alkaline conditions, with diethyl ether. Linearity was observed for concentrations ranging from 5 pg/mg to 10 ng/mg. The method has been validated according to linearity, precision and matrix effect. Concentrations of stanozolol in head hair, pubic hair, arm hair, leg hair and axillary hair were 73, 454, 238, 244 and 7,100 pg/mg, respectively. The concentration of stanozolol in head hair is in accordance with data published in the literature. When comparing the concentrations, body hair concentrations were higher than the concentration found in head hair. These results are consistent with a better incorporation rate of stanozolol in body hair when compared to head hair. The simultaneous positive concentrations in different hair types confirm the adverse analytical finding in urine of the top athlete, as the measured concentrations do not support the theory of contamination. For the first time, an anabolic agent was simultaneously tested in hair collected from five different anatomical regions from the same subject, with a large distribution of concentrations, due to anatomical variations, and these findings will help interpretation in further doping cases when documented with hair.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa023
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • Microextraction by Packed Sorbent as a Novel Strategy for Sample Clean-Up
           in the Determination of Methadone and EDDP in Hair
    • Authors: Rosado T; Gallardo E, Vieira D, et al.
      Pages: 840 - 850
      Abstract: AbstractA microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) procedure for rapid concentration of methadone and its primary metabolite (EDDP) in hair samples was developed. The miniaturized approach coupled to gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS-MS) was successfully validated. Hair samples (50 mg) were incubated with 1 mL of 1 M sodium hydroxide for 45 min at 50°C, time after which the extract was neutralized by adding 100 μL of 20% formic acid. Subsequently, MEPS was applied using a M1 sorbent (4 mg; 80% C8 and 20% strong cation-exchange (SCX)), first conditioned with three 250-μL cycles of methanol and three 250-μL cycles of 2% formic acid. The extract load occurred with nine 150-μL cycles followed by a washing step involving three 50-μL cycles with 3.36% formic acid. For the elution of the analytes, six 100-μL cycles of 2.36% ammonium hydroxide in methanol were applied. The method was linear from 0.01 to 5 ng/mg, for both compounds, presenting determination coefficients greater than 0.99. Precision and accuracy were in accordance with the statements of international guidelines for method validation. This new miniaturized approach allowed obtaining recoveries ranging from 73 to 109% for methadone and 84 to 110% for EDDP, proving to be an excellent alternative to classic approaches, as well as other miniaturized procedures.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa040
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • Comparison of Spectroscopic Techniques Combined with Chemometrics for
           Cocaine Powder Analysis
    • Authors: Eliaerts J; Meert N, Dardenne P, et al.
      Pages: 851 - 860
      Abstract: AbstractSpectroscopic techniques combined with chemometrics are a promising tool for analysis of seized drug powders. In this study, the performance of three spectroscopic techniques [Mid-InfraRed (MIR), Raman and Near-InfraRed (NIR)] was compared. In total, 364 seized powders were analyzed and consisted of 276 cocaine powders (with concentrations ranging from 4 to 99 w%) and 88 powders without cocaine. A classification model (using Support Vector Machines [SVM] discriminant analysis) and a quantification model (using SVM regression) were constructed with each spectral dataset in order to discriminate cocaine powders from other powders and quantify cocaine in powders classified as cocaine positive. The performances of the models were compared with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC–FID). Different evaluation criteria were used: number of false negatives (FNs), number of false positives (FPs), accuracy, root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and determination coefficients (R2). Ten colored powders were excluded from the classification data set due to fluorescence background observed in Raman spectra. For the classification, the best accuracy (99.7%) was obtained with MIR spectra. With Raman and NIR spectra, the accuracy was 99.5% and 98.9%, respectively. For the quantification, the best results were obtained with NIR spectra. The cocaine content was determined with a RMSECV of 3.79% and a R2 of 0.97. The performance of MIR and Raman to predict cocaine concentrations was lower than NIR, with RMSECV of 6.76% and 6.79%, respectively and both with a R2 of 0.90. The three spectroscopic techniques can be applied for both classification and quantification of cocaine, but some differences in performance were detected. The best classification was obtained with MIR spectra. For quantification, however, the RMSECV of MIR and Raman was twice as high in comparison with NIR. Spectroscopic techniques combined with chemometrics can reduce the workload for confirmation analysis (e.g., chromatography based) and therefore save time and resources.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa101
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • The Relationship Between Ingested Dose of Ethanol and Amount of Ethyl
           Glucuronide Formed in Blood
    • Authors: Fosen J; Mørland J, Høiseth G.
      Pages: 861 - 863
      Abstract: AbstractA positive non-linear relation between the dose of ethanol ingested and the area under the curve (AUC) for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine is previously observed. The relation between both doses and AUC of ethanol and the AUC for EtG in blood is not previously published, and this study aimed to investigate this relationship. After an overnight fast, 10 healthy volunteers ingested 0.5-g ethanol per kilo body weight (low dose) in one occasion and 1.0-g ethanol per kilo body weight (high dose) in the next occasion. Results showed that there was a significant higher median ratio between blood AUC for EtG and dose of ethanol in the high-dose (8.99; range 7.37–10.94) group compared to the low-dose (5.02; range 4.25–6.15) group (P = 0.005). The median ratio between the AUC for EtG and AUC for ethanol was actually significantly higher in the low-dose (1.77; range 1.51–2.24) group compared to the high-dose (1.67; range 1.30–2.02) group (P = 0.005), although values are quite similar. This study therefore showed that the ratio between the AUC for EtG in blood and dose of ethanol is higher after intake of 1.0 g/kg than 0.5 g/kg. This pattern is however not seen when AUC for EtG is compared to AUC for ethanol. Results therefore support that the percentage of ethanol converted to EtG is not increasing when the doses increase. An explanation for the positive non-linear relation previously observed between the dose of ethanol ingested and amount of EtG formed may be a relative higher first-pass metabolism of ethanol at lower doses.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa090
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • Stability of Cocaine Compounds in Biological Fluids During Post-Analytical
           Sample Storage
    • Authors: Huertas T; Jurado C, Salguero M, et al.
      Pages: 864 - 870
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study is to evaluate in vitro stability of cocaine compounds, cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME) and benzoylecgonine ethyl ester (EBE), in blood and urine, during post-analysis custody. Stability was evaluated by measuring percent recovery. Parameters evaluated were time of custody (1 year), storage temperature (−20°C and 4°C), influence of preservative (only for blood samples) and pH (only for urine samples). The impact of the temperature is very important in blood samples. At −20°C all compounds demonstrated to be stable, with recoveries higher than 80% after 1 year. In contrast, degradation was observed in the concentration for all four compounds when the samples were maintained at 4°C. In these same conditions, the influence of the preservative was also noticeable and a higher stability was found in samples preserved with NaF. COC and EBE had similar profiles, and both compounds disappeared after 30 days in samples without NaF and after 150 days in samples with NaF added. EME disappeared after 185 days and after 215 days in samples without and with preservative, respectively. BE recoveries, after 365 days of storage, were 68.5% (in samples with NaF) and 3.7% (in samples without NaF). In urine samples, the four compounds were stable in all the studied conditions except when samples were at pH 8 and stored at 4°C where the compounds disappeared (COC and EBE after 75 days of storage and EME after 15 days). The exception was BE, with a recovery of 23% after 1 year of storage. Of the temperatures evaluated, −20°C seems to be optimal for storage to maintain the stability of cocaine and metabolites in biological samples. This can be further enhanced by maintaining a pH of 4 in urine samples and adding a NaF preservative to blood.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa044
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • Influence of Pain Killers on the Urinary Anabolic Steroid Profile
    • Authors: Stoll A; Iannone M, De Gregorio G, et al.
      Pages: 871 - 879
      Abstract: AbstractAnabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are prohibited as performance-enhancing drugs in sports. Among them, testosterone and its precursors are often referred to as “pseudoendogenous” AAS, that is, endogenous steroids that are prohibited when administered exogenously. To detect their misuse, among other methods, the World Anti-Doping Agency-accredited laboratories monitor the steroid profile (concentrations and concentration ratios of endogenous steroids, precursors and metabolites) in urine samples collected from athletes in and out of competition. Alterations in steroid profile markers are used as indicators for misuse of anabolic steroids in sports. Therefore, especially their metabolic pathways with possible interactions are crucial to elucidate. As steroid metabolism is very complex, and many enzymes are involved, certain non-prohibited drugs may influence steroid metabolite excretion. One important group of steroid-metabolizing enzymes is aldo–keto reductases (AKRs). An inhibition of them by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are neither prohibited nor monitored, but frequently used drugs in sports, was demonstrated in vitro. Thus, this work aims to investigate the influence of NSAID intake on the urinary steroid profile. Kinetic and inhibitory studies were performed using 5α-dihydrotestosterone as substrate. The results obtained from in vitro experiments show that ibuprofen inhibits AKR1C2 and thus influences steroid biotransformation. For in vivo investigations, urine samples prior, during and postadministration of ibuprofen were analyzed using routine methods to monitor the steroid profile. Changes in markers of the steroid profile of volunteers were observed. The combination of in vitro and in vivo results suggests that monitoring of ibuprofen may be useful in doping control analysis. The presented work illustrates the importance to consider co-administration of (non-prohibited) drugs during antidoping analysis. Intake of multiple substances is likely leading to interfering effects. Divergent results in antidoping analysis may therefore be observed and misinterpretation of analytical data may occur. Similar considerations may be appropriate for other fields of forensic applications.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa049
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • Formaldehyde Reacts with Amino Acids and Peptides with a Potential Role in
           Acute Methanol Intoxication
    • Authors: Sýkora D; Jindřich J, Král V, et al.
      Pages: 880 - 885
      Abstract: AbstractMethanol, an aliphatic alcohol widely used in the industry, causes acute and chronic intoxications associated with severe long-term health damage, including permanent visual impairment, brain damage, mainly necrosis of the basal ganglia and high mortality due to cancer. However, the role of formaldehyde, an intermediate metabolite of methanol oxidation, in methanol toxicity remains unclear. Thus, we studied the reactivity of several amino acids and peptides in the presence of formaldehyde by identifying products by direct infusion electrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization MS. Cysteine, homocysteine and two peptides, CG and CGAG, provided cyclic products with a +12 amu mass shift with respect to the original compounds. The proposed structures of the products were confirmed by high-resolution tandem MS. Moreover, the formation of the products with +12 amu mass shift was also shown for two biologically relevant peptides, fragments of ipilimumab, which is a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4. Overall, our experimental results indicate that formaldehyde reacts with some amino acids and peptides, yielding covalently modified structures. Such chemical modifications may induce undesirable changes in the properties and function of vital biomolecules (e.g., hormones, enzymes) and consequently pathogenesis.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa039
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • The Emergence of Deschloro-N-ethyl-ketamine, a Ketamine Analog, in Drug
           Seizures and Drug Driving Cases in Hong Kong
    • Authors: Cheng W; Dao K.
      Pages: 886 - 895
      Abstract: AbstractThe study reports the detection of a newly emerged drug, deschloro-N-ethyl-ketamine (2-oxo-PCE), an analog of ketamine, through forensic drug and toxicological examinations of exhibits from drug seizure cases and blood samples taken from drivers of driving under the influence of drug (DUID) cases, respectively, in Hong Kong. The submission of 2-oxo-PCE in both types of cases was firstly encountered in October 2017. A total of 31 drug seizure cases (52 items) and 4 DUID cases were found positive with 2-oxo-PCE till October 2018. Drug seizures with 2-oxo-PCE found were all in physical form (mostly in powdery or crystalline solid), resembling those samples commonly found with ketamine but having much lower purity. Although the majority of the relevant items was found with 2-oxo-PCE as the only psychoactive substance (36 items, ~69%) or as a mixture with ketamine (10 items, ~19%), other psychoactive substances including methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine and pentylone have also been encountered (6 items, 12%). For the four DUID cases, 2-oxo-PCE and its metabolite, deschloronorketamine, were detected in all blood samples. The 2-oxo-PCE concentrations in the four blood samples were in the range of 0.08–0.31 μg/mL, being higher than the concentrations of deschloronorketamine (in the range of 0.04–0.09 μg/mL) for each sample. The 2-oxo-PCE levels found were generally lower than the ketamine levels found in reported DUID cases. With items found with 2-oxo-PCE, which were physically indistinguishable from ketamine but having lower drug purity in seizures, the lower 2-oxo-PCE blood levels with more severe impairment signs observed for the drivers in DUID cases, it is not unreasonable to speculate that users might have taken it as ketamine without knowing of its real identity and hence was adversely affected by the more potent 2-oxo-PCE.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa038
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • Alpha-Methylfentanyl and Beta-Hydroxyfentanyl LC–MS-MS Quantification in
           Rat Plasma after Long-Term Ethanol Exposure
    • Authors: Lyu L; Chen R, Li L, et al.
      Pages: 896 - 904
      Abstract: AbstractFentanyl and its analogues are highly abused drugs that dominate the illicit drug trade. alpha-Methylfentanyl (A-F) and beta-hydroxyfentanyl (B-F) are two fentanyl analogues that require the development of rapid detection technologies. The current study established and validated a rapid and high-sensitivity liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS) method to measure A-F and B-F concentrations in rat plasma following intravenous drug administration (20 μg/kg). Because fentanyl is primarily metabolized by the liver, we evaluated the concentrations of A-F and B-F in vivo in rats, in a control group and a group with liver damage induced by 55 days of oral ethanol gavage (6.5 g/kg, 22.5% v/v). Liquid–liquid extraction and LC–MS-MS operating in the positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode were used. A C18 column was used, and the mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid aqueous and acetonitrile. The limit of detection was 3 pg/mL (S/N > 5) for A-F and B-F. The calibration curves were linear within the concentration range of 0.01–5 ng/mL (R2 = 0.9991) and 0.005–20 ng/mL (R2 = 0.9999) for A-F and B-F, respectively. Extraction recoveries were 91.3%–97.6% with RSD ≤ 11.2% and 90.5%–94.3% with RSD ≤ 10.5% for A-F and B-F, respectively. Plasma matrix effects were 80.61%–84.58% for A-F and 80.67%–81.33% for B-F with RSD ≤ 13.9%. The validated assay indicated no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0-t, Cmax and T1/2) derived from the assessment of A-F and B-F plasma concentrations between control and ethanol-exposed rats. This assay, for which the LOD was 3 pg/mL for A-F and B-F may help the forensic science field to determine fentanyl analogue-related causes of death and identify illicit drug tampering.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa114
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • Blood Concentrations of Designer Benzodiazepines: Relation to Impairment
           and Findings in Forensic Cases
    • Authors: Heide G; Høiseth G, Middelkoop G, et al.
      Pages: 905 - 914
      Abstract: AbstractThe use of designer benzodiazepines appears to be increasing in many countries, but data concerning blood concentrations are scarce, making interpretation of concentrations difficult. The aim of this study was to report blood concentrations of clonazolam, diclazepam, etizolam, flualprazolam, flubromazepam, flubromazolam and phenazepam and to investigate the relationship between blood concentrations and impairment. The concentration data are from blood samples collected from living cases (apprehended drivers and other drug offences) and medico-legal autopsies. The blood samples were analysed for the seven designer benzodiazepines mentioned above by ultra high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Positive cases from between 1 June 2016 and 30 September 2019 were included. Blood concentrations and the conclusion from a clinical test of impairment (when available) are reported. The presented seven benzodiazepines were detected in a total of 575 cases, where 554 of these cases concerned apprehended drivers or other criminal offenders. The number of findings and the median (range) concentrations were as follows: clonazolam, n = 22, 0.0041 mg/L (0.0017–0.053 mg/L); diclazepam, n = 334, 0.0096 mg/L (0.0016–0.25 mg/L); etizolam, n = 40, 0.054 mg/L (0.015–0.30 mg/L); flualprazolam, n = 10, 0.0080 mg/L (0.0033–0.056 mg/L); flubromazepam, n = 5, 0.037 mg/L (0.0070–0.70 mg/L); flubromazolam, n = 20, 0.0056 mg/L (0.0004–0.036 mg/L); and phenazepam, n = 138, 0.022 mg/L (0.0018–0.85 mg/L). A designer benzodiazepine was the only drug detected with relevance for impairment in 25 of the 554 living cases. The physician concluded with impairment in 19 of the 25 cases. Most of the concentrations in these cases were relatively similar to or higher than the median reported concentrations. The most frequent other drugs detected were amphetamine, tetrahydrocannabinol, clonazepam and methamphetamine. The presented blood concentrations can be helpful with the interpretation of cases involving one or more of these seven benzodiazepines. The results indicate that concentrations commonly observed in forensic cases are associated with impairment.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa043
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • Identification and Quantification of Antipsychotics in Blood Samples by
           LC–MS-MS: Case Reports and Data from Three Years of Routine Analysis
    • Authors: Proença P; Monteiro C, Mustra C, et al.
      Pages: 915 - 922
      Abstract: AbstractAntipsychotic drugs (AP) are widely prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia and psychosis. The pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia is often performed with the simultaneous use of two or more antipsychotic agents to achieve the desired control of psychotic symptoms Available AP include both conventional (typical) and new (atypical) antipsychotic medications. Atypical AP, such as quetiapine, now account for the vast majority of AP prescriptions. In forensic toxicology, AP are of considerable interest because of their potential abuse and their involvement in intoxications and suicides. The authors retrospectively examined AP positive cases detected in samples collected during autopsies performed in the Forensic Clinical and Pathology Service of National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences Centre Branch or in other autopsies carried out in the central region of Portugal, between January 2016 and December 2018. A quantitative liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed for the simultaneous determination of 16 AP (amisulpride, aripiprazole, chlorpromazine, clozapine, cyamemazine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, levomepromazine, melperone, olanzapine, paliperidone, promethazine, quetiapine, risperidone, sulpiride and ziprasidone) in blood samples of postmortem cases. The Laboratory of Forensic Chemistry and Toxicology received 3,588 requests for toxicological analysis: 1,413 cases were positive for drugs from which 351 (24.8%) cases were positive for AP, 60.1% from male individuals and 39.9% from female. Quetiapine was the most prevalent AP (36.5%) followed by olanzapine (20.8%). During this period, there were 25 postmortem cases with AP blood concentrations above therapeutic range, in which 36% of those are in agreement with the information received (psychological history or acute intoxication suspicion) and the manner of death was suicide. Our results point that antipsychotics are an increasingly prevalent class of drugs. AP must be measured not only in toxic concentrations but also in therapeutic levels in postmortem cases; therefore, it is important to come up with a sensitive method to cover the low therapeutic range in which AP are usually present.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa100
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • MDMA Intoxication in a Potential Organ Donor with Cardiac Arrest
    • Authors: Castro A; Tarelho S, Almeida D, et al.
      Pages: 923 - 926
      Abstract: AbstractAmphetamine and its derivatives’ consumption is still an important public health issue, namely in terms of compounds variability and disposition to consumers. However, some of them, like 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), still live in the illicit market, with continuous success. Nevertheless, there is always new information and data on MDMA intoxication, both in vivo and in postmortem context. The authors report an intoxication case with MDMA, in an 18-year-old male, considered a potential organ donor after a cardiac arrest. Whole blood samples were collected in vivo, at the emergency room (ER), and postmortem, at the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences. After a general screening procedure, samples were extracted by solid phase extraction (OASIS® MCX), followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. The whole blood postmortem sample was positive for lidocaine (<500 ng/mL), compatible with the ER intervention, and positive for MDMA (2278 ng/mL) and methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) (49 ng/mL), while whole blood samples collected in vivo (during the maintenance of the individual under advanced life support), were positive for MDMA (504–1918 ng/mL) and MDA (20–89 ng/mL). Samples were negative for other substances, namely ethanol, other drugs of abuse and medicines. Results interpretation is pivotal to understand the behavior of the substance. Thus, in this case, MDMA postmortem behavior should be carefully evaluated, considering as possible influencers, in the specific context of the case, the time lapse between death verification, maintenance of the advanced life support and body manipulation for organ collection purposes. Also referred and discussed is the antemortem/postmortem ratio of MDMA obtained values, compared with literature references. There is no doubt that death was due to MDMA intoxication, but information from the analysis performed on the in vivo samples suggests that this type of sample should also be considered, in a complementary role, whenever possible.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa042
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
  • Ultraviolet-Visible and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for the
           Identification of Cyclopropyl-Fentanyl in the First Fatal Case in Spain
    • Authors: Matey J; García-Ruíz C, Montalvo G, et al.
      Pages: 927 - 935
      Abstract: AbstractHere we report the identification and quantitation of cyclopropyl-fentanyl in a fatality casework occurred due to a poly-drug toxicity in Spain in December 2017. The cyclopropyl-fentanyl was identified in non-biological (paraphernalia) and biological samples (whole-blood, vitreous humor and urine). Conventional techniques (GC–MS) and the UV-Vis spectral allowed differencing between the two structural isomer compounds of fentanyl (cyclopropyl and crotonyl) when the CRM was not available at the laboratory. Both of the drugs have the same MS spectra but different UV-Vis spectra due to the presence of an additional chromophore group in the case of crotonyl. The cyclopropyl-fentanyl detection allowed generating an alert and contributing to the surveillance and detection of this dangerous substance found mixed in doses of clandestine sale heroin. Then, high-resolution analytical techniques (LC–HRMS-MS), showed limitations for the identification of the isobaric fentanyl compounds but they had a high potential for fentanyl metabolites identification. Two tentative metabolites were identified in urine samples: cyclopropyl-norfentanyl and N-methyl cyclopropyl-norfentanyl. Finally, the systematic routine method (LC–MS-MS) was validated and applied to the quantification of cyclopropyl-fentanyl in a blood sample. A obtained value (20.4 ng/mL) was in the range of those reported in other cases in different countries (from 8 to 30 mg/ mL), being the determined concentration of cyclopropyl-fentanyl high enough to infer that this fentanyl analog had a main role as cause of death. As far as we know, this is the first fatality reported in Spain involving cyclopropyl-fentanyl
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkaa081
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 8 (2020)
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