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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 585, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 232, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.065
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0146-4760 - ISSN (Online) 1945-2403
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • Saxitoxin Exposure Confirmed by Human Urine and Food Analysis
    • Authors: Coleman R; Ojeda-Torres G, Bragg W, et al.
      Abstract: A case of an elderly female with suspected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is presented. The patient shared a meal of recreationally-harvested shellfish with her family and soon began to experience nausea and weakness. She was taken to the local emergency department and then transported to a larger hospital in Anchorage where she was admitted to the intensive care unit with respiratory depression and shock. Her condition improved, and she was discharged from the hospital 6 days later. No others who shared the meal reported symptoms of PSP. A clam remaining from the meal was collected and analyzed for paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) by the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Environmental Health Laboratory; the clam tested positive for saxitoxin (STX; 277 μg/100 g), neosaxitoxin (NEO; 309 μg/100 g), multiple gonyautoxins (GTX; 576–2490 μg/100 g), decarbamoyl congeners (7.52–11.3 μg/100 g) and C-toxins (10.8–221 μg/100 g) using high-pressure liquid chromatography with post-column oxidation (AOAC Method 2011.02). Urine from the patient was submitted to Centers for Disease Control for analysis of selected PSTs and creatinine. STX (64.0 μg/g-creatinine), NEO (60.0 μg/g-creatinine) and GTX1–4 (492–4780 μg/g-creatinine) were identified in the urine using online solid phase extraction with HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry. This was the first time GTX were identified in urine of a PSP case from Alaska, highlighting the need to include all STX congeners in testing to protect the public’s health through a better understand of PST toxicity, monitoring and prevention of exposures.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky031
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Suspected Driving Under the Influence Case Involving Mitragynine
    • Authors: Wright T.
      Abstract: Mitragynine is a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) that has emerged as a designer opioid being distributed on the street. Mitragynine, also known as kratom, has dose-dependent pharmacological effects and possesses both stimulant-like and sedative effects due to dual-binding of α-adrenergic and μ-opioid receptors. This herbal remedy readily available online has caused adverse effects including tachycardia, agitation, tremors, hallucination and death; however, this is the first reported suspected driving under the influence case involving mitragynine. Additional testing outside of the normal routine protocol for suspected impaired driving cases was performed based on the admission of kratom use from the suspect to the drug recognition expert (DRE) officer. Based on the evaluation, the DRE officer concluded that the driver was under the influence of a central nervous system stimulant and cannabis. An alkaline drug screen identified mitragynine in a 37-year-old female driver who was suspected of driving under the influence after nearly striking an oncoming vehicle. A blood amphetamine concentration was quantified at 0.052 mg/L and mitragynine and citalopram were reported qualitatively. The goal of this case study is to provide demographic history, adverse effects and a DRE evaluation in a driver known to have abused mitragynine.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky028
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Dibutylone (bk-DMBDB): Intoxications, Quantitative Confirmations and
           Metabolism in Authentic Biological Specimens
    • Authors: Krotulski A; Mohr A, Papsun D, et al.
      Pages: 437 - 445
      Abstract: The number of emerging novel stimulants modified based on beta-keto variations of amphetamine-like substances continues to rise. Dibutylone reports described in the medical and toxicological literature are limited, therefore little information is available in terms of quantitative confirmation or metabolism. During this study, authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for the presence of dibutylone and butylone, with paired case history and demographic information. Dibutylone concentrations were variable across all specimen types, specifically ranging from 10 to 1,400 ng/mL in postmortem blood specimens. The metabolic profile of dibutylone was mapped by in vitro incubation with human liver microsomes (HLM). Samples were analyzed using a SCIEX TripleTOF® 5600+ quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Data processing was conducted using MetabolitePilot™. Authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver, were utilized for in vivo verification of five HLM-generated metabolites in analytically confirmed cases of dibutylone use. Butylone was confirmed as a metabolite of dibutylone, but issues involving co-ingestion of these two novel stimulants or potential co-existence from synthesis lead to ineffectiveness as a true biomarker. Hydrogenation of the beta-ketone of dibutylone resulted in the most prominent metabolite found in human specimens, and its uniqueness to dibutylone over other stimulants leads to its classification as an appropriate biomarker for dibutylone ingestion. This is the first study to map the metabolic profile of dibutylone, including verification in authentic specimens, confirming metabolic conversion to butylone and identifying biomarkers more useful in forensic toxicological drug testing.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky022
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Comparative Study of Postmortem Concentrations of Antidepressants in
           Several Different Matrices
    • Authors: Øiestad Å; Karinen R, Rogde S, et al.
      Pages: 446 - 458
      Abstract: Peripheral blood (PB) is considered to be the golden standard for measuring postmortem drug concentrations. In several cases, PB is however not available, but information regarding drug findings might still be crucial in order to determine the cause of death. Antidepressants are frequently detected in postmortem samples from forensic toxicology cases, but the literature investigating concentrations in other matrices than peripheral and heart blood is limited.We here describe a study for comparison of concentrations for a large number of different drugs in six different matrices. A total of 173 postmortem cases were included in the study material. The results from 44 cases with findings of antidepressants (amitriptyline/nortriptyline, citalopram, mianserin, mirtazapine, paroxetine, sertraline, trimipramine and venlafaxine) are presented in this article. Concentrations in peripheral and cardiac blood (CB), pericardial fluid (PF), two muscle samples and vitreous humour (VH) are compared. Ratios between concentrations in different matrices have also been compiled from available literature.All the investigated antidepressants were detected in all different matrices, and comparable concentration levels were found in the different matrices with a few exceptions. Concentrations in VH were generally lower than in the other matrices, and in a few cases with low concentrations in blood the antidepressants were not detected in VH. For most of the cases, ratios of 0.5–2 were found between concentration in PB and that in the other matrices. Some deviant concentrations where however found.This study shows that CB, PF, muscle and VH can provide important indications of the corresponding concentrations in PB when PB is not available.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky030
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Sensitive and simultaneous determination of nine anticoagulant
           rodenticides in human blood by UPLC–MS-MS with phospholipid removal
           pretreatment
    • Authors: Guo H; Wang J, Wu Y, et al.
      Pages: 459 - 466
      Abstract: A sensitive and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of nine anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in human blood is reported herein. The method involves phospholipid removal pretreatment for reduced matrix effect (ME) and detection with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Satisfactory recoveries were achieved ranging from 80.6% to 113.1% for the nine analytes, with the intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 3.4–7.9% and inter-day RSDs in the range of 4.1–8.3%, indicating good precision. Linear relationships with correlation coefficients above 0.998 (n = 6) were found in the range of 1–2,000 ng/mL. High sensitivity was achieved with limits of detection ranging from 0.02 to 0.3. The application of phospholipid removal step significantly optimized the ME, and the reduction of ME ranged from 6.1% to 15.5%. This method was successfully applied to the determination of ARs for blood samples from real forensic cases. These results prove that this method is reliable for rapid forensic and clinical diagnosis. The removal capabilities for five representative phospholipids that are abundant in blood were evaluated individually with Phree™ phospholipid removal plates. While significant capabilities for phospholipid removal were confirmed, the results showed that the removal capability for certain phospholipid could be improved.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky024
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • N-Ethyl Pentylone (Ephylone) Intoxications: Quantitative Confirmation and
           Metabolite Identification in Authentic Human Biological Specimens
    • Authors: Krotulski A; Papsun D, De Martinis B, et al.
      Pages: 467 - 475
      Abstract: N-ethyl pentylone (ephylone) has been identified as the most recent novel stimulant to emerge into the arena of evolving novel psychoactive substances (NPS). Due to its novelty, information regarding case reports with associated quantitative confirmations, biotransformation pathways, and identified unique metabolites will assist the scientific community in understanding the implications of the emergence and risks associated with N-ethyl pentylone use. Authentic blood specimens (n = 26) submitted as part of toxicological death investigations or drugged driving casework tested positive for N-ethyl pentylone, and were quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS). N-ethyl pentylone concentrations ranged from 12 to 1,200 ng/mL, with mean (±standard deviation) and median concentrations of 313 (±366) and 125 ng/mL, respectively, excluding one case measured at 50,000 ng/mL. N-ethyl pentylone was often found in combination with other drugs of abuse and NPS, include a variety of novel opioids including fentanyl analogs. Oral fluid specimens (n = 5), collected from recreational drug users at a dance music festival, were quantitatively analyzed using LC–MS-MS. Concentrations ranged from 12.6 to 1,377 ng/mL. Additional analysis was performed to characterize the metabolic profile of N-ethyl pentylone using human liver microsomes (HLM), followed by confirmation of the presence of the proposed metabolites in a subset of the blood specimens and oral fluid specimens. Metabolomic analysis was performed using a liquid chromatograph quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF), followed by data processing using MetabolitePilot™ software. In vivo verification of in vitro HLM-generated metabolites resulted in the confirmation of four metabolites. Reduction of the beta-ketone to an alcohol resulted in the most prominent metabolite found in the authentic specimens, and its uniqueness to N-ethyl pentylone leads to this metabolite being an appropriate biomarker to determine N-ethyl pentylone ingestion. This is the first study to report N-ethyl pentylone concentrations and to characterize the metabolic profile of N-ethyl pentylone.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky025
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Carfentanil in Impaired Driving Cases and the Importance of Drug Seizure
           Data
    • Authors: Tiscione N; Alford I.
      Pages: 476 - 484
      Abstract: Drug seizures containing carfentanil continue to increase in Palm Beach County, FL, USA despite international efforts to control the distribution of the drug. The analysis of drug seizures from the county in 2016 and 2017 demonstrated that carfentanil was the most commonly identified fentanyl analog and was most often detected in combination with heroin, fentanyl, furanyl fentanyl and/or other fentanyl analogs. Carfentanil is an ultra-potent opioid requiring a method with adequate sensitivity for detection in blood specimens from impairment cases. Previous research indicated that carfentanil could not be identified in biological specimens by routine drug testing protocols and that detection requires targeted analysis with greater sensitivity. Due to the prevalence of carfentanil in drug seizures, a sensitive targeted qualitative method by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in antemortem blood samples was evaluated, validated and implemented. The method included identification of carfentanil, acetyl fentanyl, beta-hydroxythiofentanyl, butyryl fentanyl, fentanyl, furanyl fentanyl, kavain, mitragynine, MT-45 and U-47700. In 2017 carfentanil was the second most frequently detected drug, after ethanol, in driving under the influence blood cases. Of all blood cases in which drug testing was performed (n = 145), carfentanil was detected in 38% followed by alprazolam (29%), fentanyl (27%), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (24%) and morphine (23%). In toxicology cases carfentanil was rarely identified alone (only four cases) and was most commonly identified with other opioids (73% of cases), benzodiazepines (43%) and stimulants (29%). The high incidence of carfentanil-positive cases detected by this method underscores the importance of continually monitoring regional drug seizure trends, and evaluating the adequacy of toxicology testing panels based on these trends.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky026
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • The Increasing Use and Abuse of Tapentadol and Its Incorporation Into a
           Validated Quantitative Method
    • Authors: Partridge E; Teoh E, Nash C, et al.
      Pages: 485 - 490
      Abstract: Tapentadol is a centrally acting synthetic analgesic which is prescribed for the treatment of a range of chronic pain conditions. Its use in treating various pain conditions is increasing and, as with other opioids, it has the potential to be abused. We describe a three-stage incorporation of tapentadol into validated screening and quantitative methods through: (i) addition of retention time/mass spectral data to a database, (ii) qualitative validation and (iii) quantitative validation. This represents an efficient and flexible approach to the incorporation of new compounds of interest to existing screening methods. Tapentadol was analyzed in blood and serum samples using alkaline liquid–liquid extraction with identification and quantitation by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In a series of six post-mortem cases where tapentadol was detected but was not a primary causative factor in death, blood concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 1.0 mg/L. In two cases where tapentadol was a significant contributor to death, post-mortem blood concentrations were 1.7 and 3.9 mg/L. In one of these fatal cases, ante-mortem blood and serum were also analyzed. The tapentadol concentration in the post-mortem blood was 30% higher than in the ante-mortem blood after a post-mortem interval of 13 days, indicating some potential for post-mortem redistribution. The measured ante-mortem blood:serum ratio was 1.7, and is the first such ratio to be reported. Other drugs were detected in almost all cases, with the majority being prescription analgesics, sedatives and antidepressants. The number of cases in which tapentadol has been detected has increased in recent years, highlighting the importance of screening for this drug in forensic toxicological laboratories.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky027
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Zolpidem and Zolpidem Carboxylic Acid Results from Medication Monitoring
    • Authors: Feng S; Cummings O, McIntire G.
      Pages: 491 - 495
      Abstract: Zolpidem (Ambien®) is one of the “Z” drugs often used to improve sleep in older patients and those suffering from insomnia. Schwope, D.M., DePriest, A., Black, D.L., Caplan, Y.H., Cone, E.J., Heltsley, R. (2014) Determing zolpidem compliance: urinary metabolite detection and prevalence in chronic pain patients . Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 38, 513–518 reported that zolpidem in urine is not very prevalent being present <23% of the time in patient urine while the major metabolite, zolpidem 4-phenyl carboxylic acid (ZCA), is much more prevalent in urine with positive rates as high as 50% of the patient samples reviewed. Results from patient testing over a year’s time are in agreement with the reported zolpidem results. However, the data observed herein for ZCA are not consistent with the earlier report. These data suggest that monitoring ZCA may result in even higher levels of positivity. Further, while the Food and Drug Administration has pointed out that female dosing should be half that given to males, results of this population testing indicate that the majority of patients (83% male and 73% female) receive 10 mg/day or 12.5 mg/day for Ambien CR® with females demonstrating statistically significantly higher levels of ZCA albeit zolpidem levels are not statistically significantly different between men and women. Estimates of patient positivity are dependent upon the value of the limit of quantification (LOQ) as demonstrated by the zolpidem results herein (LOQ = 50 ng/mL vs. 4 ng/mL). However, even with a much higher LOQ of 50 ng/mL for ZCA in this work, the positivity from ZCA results is significantly higher (e.g., 64.8%) than reported earlier (50.3%). Nevertheless, these data support the addition of ZCA for monitoring zolpidem in urine.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky033
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Analytical Determination of Nicotine and Tar Levels in Various Dokha and
           Shisha Tobacco Products
    • Authors: Mahboub B; Mohammad A, Nahlé A, et al.
      Pages: 496 - 502
      Abstract: In the Middle East, there is no precise data and literature on tobacco-based products, such as dokha and shisha. The proposed study aims to quantify the levels of nicotine and tar in different kinds of dokha and shisha products that are sold in the local marketplace. The amount of nicotine in dokha and shisha products can be quantitatively determined using a combination of the “kissling” and “silicotungstic acid” method proposed by Robert M. Chapin. The tar residue from the smoke sample was collected on a glass wool placed before the stopcock (tap) of a separatory funnel as the smoke passes through the inlet of an electronically controlled vacuum pump. The nicotine levels in dokha and shisha samples ranged from 23.83 to 52.80 mg/g and 0.80 to 20.52 mg/g, respectively. The nicotine level varies between different tobacco products. It varies from 0.5 to 19.5 mg/g in cigarettes, from 10.3 to 23.1 mg/g in snuff tobacco, from 11 to 18 mg/g in electronic cigarettes and from 2.9 to 16.6 mg/g in chewing tobacco. The tar levels in the dokha and shisha samples ranged from 21.6 to 45.02 mg/g and 1.68 to 11.87 mg/g, respectively. Smokers are at a high risk of getting lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema and coronary artery disease owing to the high levels of nicotine and tar present in dokha and shisha tobacco products. These findings contradict the widespread belief among teenagers that dokha and shisha tobacco products are safer alternatives to cigarettes.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky029
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 7 (2018)
       
  • Case Reports of Fatalities Involving Tianeptine in the United States
    • Authors: Bakota E; Samms W, Gray T, et al.
      Pages: 503 - 509
      Abstract: Tianeptine is a tricyclic anti-depressant that is also known to have opioid receptor activity. We present two fatal cases of tianeptine intoxication in Texas in which tianeptine was used recreationally. The first case involved a 28-year-old white male found alone on the floor of his locked residence. He had a history of drug abuse but no other toxicological findings. The second case involved a 30-year-old white male found on the floor of the bathroom in his home. Drug paraphernalia and bags labeled as tianeptine powder were found at both scenes. In response to the first case, our laboratory developed a method for quantitation of tianeptine by LC–MS-MS. This method was then validated according to SWGTOX guidelines for specificity, calibration model, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, ion suppression, and carryover. This method was successfully used to determine tianeptine concentrations in postmortem blood in two cases. In these cases, tianeptine was measured at 2.1 mg/L and 8.9 mg/L. These represent the first known tianeptine fatalities in Texas and in the United States.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky023
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 7 (2018)
       
 
 
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