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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 369 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 369 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 149)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 494, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)
J. of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Journal of Analytical Toxicology
  [SJR: 1.038]   [H-I: 60]   [13 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0146-4760 - ISSN (Online) 1945-2403
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [369 journals]
  • Review of Caffeine-Related Fatalities along with Postmortem Blood
           Concentrations in 51 Poisoning Deaths
    • Authors: Jones A.
      Abstract: Publications reporting concentrations of caffeine in postmortem blood were reviewed if the cause of death was attributed to overdosing (poisoning) with drugs. Age and gender of the deceased, the manner of death (accident, suicide or undetermined) and types of co-ingested drugs were evaluated in relation to the concentrations of caffeine in blood (N = 51). The mean age (±SD) of the victims was 39 ± 17.8 years (range 18–84 years) and most were female (N = 31 or 61%). The difference in mean age of males (42 ± 17.2 years) and females (37 ± 18.3 years) was not statistically significant (t = 0.811, P = 0.421). The mean (±SD), median and range of caffeine concentrations in postmortem blood were 187 ± 96 mg/L (180 mg/L) and 33–567 mg/L, respectively. The median concentration of caffeine in males (161 mg/L) was not significantly different from that of females (182 mg/L), z = 1.18, P = 0.235. There was no correlation between the age of the deceased and the concentration of caffeine in postmortem blood (R2 = 0.026, P > 0.05). Manner of death was classified as suicide in 51% of cases (median blood–caffeine 185 mg/L), accidental in 16% (median 183 mg/L) or undetermined in 33% (median 113 mg/L). The median concentration of caffeine in blood was lower when manner of death was undetermined compared with suicide or accidental (P = 0.023). Although other drugs, including ethanol, antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and/or ephedrine, were often identified in postmortem blood, the predominant psychoactive substance was caffeine. The deceased had ingested caffeine in tablet or powder form and it does not seem likely that toxic concentrations of caffeine can be achieved from over-consumption of caffeinated beverages alone.
      PubDate: 2017-02-18
  • Correction to: Simultaneous Screening and Quantification of Basic, Neutral
           and Acidic Drugs in Blood Using UPLC-QTOF-MS
    • Authors: Bidny S; Gago K, Chung P, et al.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16
  • Analysis of U-47700, a Novel Synthetic Opioid, in Human Urine by
           LC–MS–MS and LC–QToF
    • Authors: Fleming SW; Cooley JC, Johnson L, et al.
      Abstract: The illicit drug market has rapidly evolved from synthetic cannabinoids to cathinone derivatives and now a new emerging threat of synthetic opioids. These compounds were mostly developed by pharmaceutical companies during drug discovery. The new psychoactive substances are not routinely covered in drug screening and may go undetected. Recently fentanyl analogous, AH-7921, MT-45 and now U-47700 have been encountered in clinical and forensic casework. U-47700 is gaining popularity on drug user forms as a legal alternative to heroin. It is a µ-receptor agonist that is part of the trans-1-2-diamine opioid analgesic drug class developed by The Upjohn Company in an attempt to develop a non-addicting analgesic. A LC–MS–MS method was developed and validated to detect and quantify U-47700. Additional analysis was conducted with an LC–QToF to identify the presence of the parent drug and metabolites. A total of four cases have been evaluated by the LC–MS–MS methodology which has an analytical range of 1–1,250 ng/mL and limit of detection of 1 ng/mL. The concentration of U-47700 in urine specimens ranged from below the limit of quantification to 224 ng/mL. The ToF analysis detected the presence of suspected phase I demethylated metabolites that may assist future analysis of this compound. The prevalence of designer opioids in casework highlights the importance of analysis for new psychoactive substances. Traditional opiates/opioids were not detected in the presented cases, but the available case histories revealed an opioid toxidrome. These findings suggest that U-47700 drug may cause significant morbidity and mortality within the United States as an emerging drug threat.
      PubDate: 2016-12-30
  • Identification of Suvorexant in Urine Using Liquid
           Chromatography-Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF-MS)
    • Authors: Sullinger S; Bryand K, Kerrigan S.
      Abstract: Suvorexant (Belsomra®) is a new hypnotic drug with a novel mechanism of action. In prescribed doses of 10 mg before bedtime, the drug produces rapid onset of sleep by inhibiting the orexin neurons of the arousal system, promoting decreased wakefulness. Suvorexant is a potent and highly selective dual orexin receptor antagonist. Sedative hypnotics are of forensic importance due to their widespread use, potential for additive effects with other central nervous system depressants, impairing effects and potential for misuse. In this report we describe a highly sensitive assay for the identification and quantification of suvorexant in urine. Suvorexant was isolated using liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) and identified using liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Suvorexant was quantified using a quadratic calibration model between 5 and 250 ng/mL (R2 = 1.000, n = 6). Processed sample stability was demonstrated for up to 24 h. The limit of detection was 0.5 ng/mL and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 5 ng/mL. The accuracy, bias and precision of the assay at the LOQ were 99% (81–117%), −1% and 12% (n = 18). Intraassay (n = 5) and interassay (n = 15) precision (% CV) at 10, 50 and 200 ng/mL were ≤8%, and bias ranged from −2% to 4% (98–104% accuracy). No qualitative interferences were detected from matrix, internal standard or 50 common drugs. Matrix effects evaluated at low and high concentrations were −16% and −9%, respectively, and produced CVs of 11% and 5% (n = 20). Suvorexant is a new drug of forensic importance. In this report we describe how a simple acidic/neutral LLE can be used to isolate this lipophilic drug with high recoveries and sound analytical performance.
      PubDate: 2016-12-30
  • Cross Validation of HS-GC/MS to Quantify Total Carbon Dioxide in Horse
    • Authors: Heffron B; Bash J, Larsen A.
      Abstract: The use of alkinizing agents by trainers to counteract the accumulation of lactic acid in racehorses has been well documented. A by-product of this administration is elevated total carbon dioxide (tCO2) concentrations. Most regulatory authorities have set the threshold for tCO2 in plasma at 37 mM. The quantification of tCO2 often presents a challenge to laboratories due to the instrumentation required, which can be expensive to use and maintain. The Beckman DxC 600 (Brea, CA) is currently used in our laboratory for tCO2 quantification. The goal of this research was to determine if another analytical method could be used for this procedure. We report the use of headspace gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) as an acceptable alternative to the use of the Beckman DxC 600. A six-point calibration curve ranging from 10 to 60 mM was analyzed along with controls at 15, 25 and 45 mM. Imprecision was found to be
      PubDate: 2016-12-30
  • Positive Predictive Value of PCP Immunoassay at UC San Diego Health
    • Authors: Metushi IG; Fitzgerald R, Pesce A.
      PubDate: 2016-12-24
  • A Case Report of Fatal Desmethyl Carbodenafil Toxicity
    • Authors: Bakota EL; Kelly AT, Walterscheid JP, et al.
      Abstract: We present the case report of a 34-year-old Hispanic male who was found unresponsive in the carport of his residence. Surveillance video footage from a security camera showed that he collapsed as he was walking to his vehicle. The decedent had no medical history and no history of illicit drug use. Initial toxicology testing revealed no alcohol or illicit drugs. Autopsy findings indicated a need for additional toxicological analysis due to a lack of trauma and the paucity of pathophysiologically significant natural disease. Liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry of postmortem blood revealed the presence of two large peaks corresponding to desmethyl carbodenafil, an unapproved sildenafil analogue and its hydroxy metabolite. Species that are probable desmethyl and hydroxydesmethyl metabolites of desmethyl carbodenafil were also found. The mass and retention time of the parent compound in the decedent's sample were matched to those of a commercial standard. Based on this preliminary match, a method was developed and validated to quantify desmethyl carbodenafil in human blood. This is the first known case of fatal intoxication by desmethyl carbodenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor that is not approved for use in the United States. Over the past several years, retailers have issued voluntary recalls for dietary supplements marketed as sexual performance enhancers on the basis that these supplements may contain undeclared desmethyl carbodenafil.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
  • Postmortem and Toxicological Findings in a Series of
           Furanylfentanyl-Related Deaths
    • Authors: Guerrieri D; Rapp E, Roman M, et al.
      Abstract: Over the course of 4 months in 2015 and 2016, a cluster of seven fatal intoxications involving the opioid-analogue furanylfentanyl occurred in Sweden; toxicological analysis showed presence of furanylfentanyl either as the only drug or in combination with other illicit substances. Previous publications have only reported non-lethal furanylfentanyl intoxications. In the cases presented here, furanylfentanyl intoxication—alone or in combination with other drugs—was determined to be the cause of death by the responsible pathologist. All victims were young (24–37 years old) males, five of which had a well-documented history of drug abuse. Femoral blood concentration of furanylfentanyl ranged from 0.41 ng/g to 2.47 ng/g blood. Five cases presented a complex panel of drugs of abuse and prescription drugs. Moreover, in five cases the concurrent presence of pregabalin corroborates previous observations indicating pregabalin as a possible contributing factor in polydrug intoxications. We conclude that it is difficult to establish a specific lethal concentration of furanylfentanyl, due to incompletely known effects of possible pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with other drugs, as well as to the unknown degree of tolerance to opioids. We suggest that a full toxicological screening—to assess the possibility of drug interactions—together with segmental hair analysis regarding opioids—to estimate the level of opioid tolerance—be carried out to assist in the interpretation of cases involving synthetic opioids such as furanylfentanyl.
      PubDate: 2016-12-17
  • LC–MS-MS Method for Analysis of Benzodiazepines in Wastewater During
           Football Games IV
    • Authors: Stamper B; Gul W, Godfrey M, et al.
      Abstract: Continuing our studies for the analyses of drugs of abuse in municipal wastewater, a method was developed for the analysis of benzodiazepines in wastewater samples using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS). Ten benzodiazepines and metabolites were analyzed (structures were found), including alprazolam, α-OH-alprazolam (the primary urinary metabolite of alprazolam), chlordiazepoxide, flurazepam, 2-OH-ethylflurazepam (the primary urinary metabolite of flurazepam), 7-NH2-flunitrazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, temazepam and α-OH-triazolam (the primary urinary metabolite of triazolam) (representative chromatograms were found). These drugs were chosen because of their widespread abuse. Wastewater samples were collected at both the Oxford Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Oxford, Mississippi (MS) and the University WWTP in University, MS. These wastewater samples were collected on weekends in which the Ole Miss Rebel football team held home games at the Vaught-Hemingway Stadium, University, and one weekend on which there was no game. The collected samples were analyzed using a validated method and found to contain alprazolam, α-OH-alprazolam, nordiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam. None of the samples contained chlordiazepoxide, flurazepam, 2-hydroxyethyl-flurazepam, 7-NH2-flunitrazepam and α-OH-triazolam.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15
  • Comparative Evaluation of Drug Deposition in Hair Samples Collected from
           Different Anatomical Body Sites
    • Authors: Tzatzarakis MN; Alegakis AK, Kavvalakis MP, et al.
      Abstract: In this study, we focused on the validation of a method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of cannabinoids, cocaine and opiates in hair as well as on the distribution of the drugs deposition in hair collected from different anatomical body sites. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for various parameters such as selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and recovery. Four hundred and eighty-one samples were collected during 2010–2015 from 231 drug abusers. A 6-h ultrasonic-assisted methanolic extraction was applied for the isolation of the drugs. The analysis was performed in an liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system for the opiates and cocaine and in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system for the cannabinoids. Cocaine was the most frequent detected drug (68.8–80.5%) followed by cannabinoids (47.6–63.3%) and opiates (34.7–46.7%) depending on the body site that the samples were collected. The mean concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were 0.63 ± 2.11 for head, 0.54 ± 1.03 for pubic, 0.34 ± 0.51 for axillary and 0.18 ± 0.18 ng/mg for chest hair samples. The values of cocaine were 6.52 ± 15.98, 4.64 ± 10.77, 6.96 ± 38.21 and 3.94 ± 6.35 ng/mg, while the values of 6-monoacetylmorphine (MAM) were 3.33 ± 5.89, 3.06 ± 9.33, 1.37 ± 1.37 and 16.4 ± 1.77 ng/mg for head, pubic, axillary and chest samples, respectively. Differences between the detected concentrations of cocaine and opiates between the hair samples of different anatomical sites, as well as the ratio of drug metabolites to the parent compounds were observed in some cases. Statistically significant differences in the mean detected levels were noticed for morphine and heroin between head and pubic hair and also for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, between head and axillary hair samples. Moreover, the ratio of MAM to morphine and THC to cannabinol seems to correlate statistically with the total opiate or cannabinoid detected concentrations. The above differences could be attributed to several parameters associated with the structure, morphology, growth rate and other characteristics of the collected hair.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15
  • Determination of Aflatoxin B 1 -Lysine in Pig Serum and Plasma by Liquid
           Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry
    • Authors: Di Gregorio MC; Jager AV, Costa AA, et al.
      Abstract: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a hepatocarcinogen produced by certain Aspergillus species growing on crops. After biotransformation in the liver, AFB1 generates several metabolites, one of which is AFB1 bound to lysine on serum albumin. AFB1-lysine (AFB1-lys) is a digest product of AFB1-albumin and is considered a biomarker of exposure to AFB1 in humans and animals. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the performance characteristics of a new analytical method for determination of AFB1-lys levels in pig serum, heparinized and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma and to evaluate the interference of these anticoagulants in AFB1-lys quantification. Blank blood samples were obtained from eight crossbreed 91-day-old barrows fed AFB1-free diets. Pooled samples (n = 3) and individual samples of serum, EDTA and heparinized plasma collected from five pigs were enzymatically digested with pronase at 37°C for 4 h. AFB1-lys was isolated by solid-phase extraction and quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical method was applied for determination of AFB1-lys in serum and EDTA plasma collected from five 49-day-old crossbreed barrows fed ad libitum diets containing 1.1 mg of AFB1 per kg of feed during 7 days (three animals) or 42 days (two animals). Samples of heparinized plasma were only available from animals intoxicated for 42 days. All animals had lower levels of AFB1-lys in EDTA plasma samples (24.78–37.40 ng/mL), when compared to serum (49.32–252.07 ng/mL−1) or heparinized plasma (176.81 and 264.24 ng/mL−1). EDTA did not interfere in AFB1-lys standard detection, but our findings suggest that EDTA should be avoided during blood collection since it affects the pronase activity in AFB1–albumin adduct digestion and, consequently, causes a reduction in the AFB1-lys levels. Hence, determination of AFB1-lys in serum and heparinized plasma is an approach to assess an individual's exposure of swine to AFB1.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15
  • Stability of 21 Cocaine, Opioid and Benzodiazepine Drug Analytes in Spiked
           Meconium at Three Temperatures
    • Authors: Wu F; Marin SJ, McMillin GA.
      Abstract: In this study, the stability of 21 cocaine, opioid and benzodiazepine analytes in spiked meconium was investigated at three storage temperatures: 4°C, room temperature (RT), and 37°C (body temperature). The drugs/metabolites included were hydrocodone, hydromorphone, codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), oxycodone, oxymorphone, cocaine, cocaethylene, benzoylecgonine, m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, diazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, nordiazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, alprazolam, alpha-hydroxyalprazolam, clonazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, midazolam, alpha-hydroxymidazolam and zolpidem. Drug testing was performed using mass spectrometry methods that were validated for clinical use. After 2 weeks of storage, a substantial loss was observed in the concentrations of 7-aminoclonazepam (48.4% at 4°C and 71.5% at RT), and chlordiazepoxide (59.5% at RT). A slight decrease was observed in the concentrations of alprazolam (20.9% at 4°C), clonazepam (24.5% at 4°C), chlordiazepoxide (23.5% at 4°C), midazolam (20.8% at 4°C), nordiazepam (22.8% at RT), and alpha-hydroxyalprazolam (20.7% at 4°C). At 37°C, the concentrations of chlordiazepoxide, 7-aminoclonazepam, lorazepam, oxazepam, nordiazepam and temazepam decreased by 81.4%, 86.8%, 56.5%, 59.9%, 45.4% and 31.7%, respectively, after 2 weeks. 6-AM was observed to be unstable regardless of storage temperatures. For morphine, a 33.3% increase at 4°C and a 23.4% increase at RT were observed after 2 weeks, respectively, possibly due to 6-AM degradation, while no changes ≥20% were observed at 37°C. All other analytes were stable up to 2 weeks at all three storage temperatures (concentration changes
      PubDate: 2016-11-26
  • Unusual Case of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault using Chloroform
    • Authors: Richeval C; Allorge D, Lopez V, et al.
      Abstract: Despite its well-known sedative properties, chloroform is rarely used for drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) as its administration cannot be achieved without the victim's knowledge: we report an unusual case of DFSA using this solvent. A 26-year-old woman declared that her partner get her to sleep using chloroform the previous night. When she waked up at 3 am, her hands were tied. She immediately suspected violence and sexual penetration. Toxicological blood screening using a liquid chromatography–electrospray coupled tandem mass spectrometry method highlighted the presence of bamifylline and theophylline, two therapeutics of asthma. A screening method for volatile substances using a headspace-gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method showed (i) the presence of chloroform in blood at a concentration subsequently estimated at 580 µg/L using an external calibration, and (ii) chloroform traces on a piece of a scarf brought by the patient and suspected to have been used to put her to sleep. These results were consistent with an exposure to chloroform by inhalation and demonstrate that there is no limit in the use of chemical weapons in DFSA.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22
  • Simultaneous Screening and Quantification of Basic, Neutral and Acidic
           Drugs in Blood Using UPLC-QTOF-MS
    • Authors: Bidny S; Gago K, Chung P, et al.
      Abstract: An analytical method using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS) was developed and validated for the targeted toxicological screening and quantification of commonly used pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in postmortem blood using 100 µL sample. It screens for more than 185 drugs and metabolites and quantifies more than 90 drugs. The selected compounds include classes of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse such as: antidepressants, antipsychotics, analgesics (including narcotic analgesics), anti-inflammatory drugs, benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, amphetamines, new psychoactive substances (NPS), cocaine and metabolites. Compounds were extracted into acetonitrile using a salting-out assisted liquid–liquid extraction (SALLE) procedure. The extracts were analyzed using a Waters ACQUITY UPLC coupled with a XEVO QTOF mass spectrometer. Separation of the analytes was achieved by gradient elution using Waters ACQUITY HSS C18 column (2.1 mm x 150 mm, 1.8 μm). The mass spectrometer was operated in both positive and negative electrospray ionization modes. The high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) data was acquired using a patented Waters MSE acquisition mode which collected low and high energy spectra alternatively during the same acquisition. Positive identification of target analytes was based on accurate mass measurements of the molecular ion, product ion, peak area ratio and retention times. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range 0.05–2 mg/L for basic and neutral analytes and 0.1–6 mg/L for acidic analytes with the correlation coefficients (r2) > 0.96 for most analytes. The limits of detection (LOD) were between 0.001–0.05 mg/L for all analytes. Good recoveries were achieved ranging from 80% to 100% for most analytes using the SALLE method. The method was validated for sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, stability, carryover and matrix effects. The developed method was tested on a number of authentic forensic samples producing consistent results that correlated with results obtained from other validated methods.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22
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