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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 406 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 605, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.065
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0146-4760 - ISSN (Online) 1945-2403
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [406 journals]
  • Forensic Drug Profile: Cocaethylene
    • Authors: Jones A.
      Pages: 155 - 160
      Abstract: This article is intended as a brief review or primer about cocaethylene (CE), a pharmacologically active substance formed in the body when a person co-ingests ethanol and cocaine. Reference books widely used in forensic toxicology contain scant information about CE, even though this cocaine metabolite is commonly encountered in routine casework. CE and cocaine are equi-effective at blocking the reuptake of dopamine at receptor sites, thus reinforcing the stimulant effects of the neurotransmitter. In some animal species, the LD50 of CE was lower than for cocaine. CE is also considered more toxic to the heart and liver compared with the parent drug cocaine. The plasma elimination half-life of CE is ~2 h compared with ~1 h for cocaine. The concentrations of CE in blood after drinking alcohol and taking cocaine are difficult to predict and will depend on the timing of administration and the amounts of the two precursor drugs ingested. After an acute single dose of cocaine and ethanol, the concentration–time profile of CE runs on a lower level to that of cocaine, although CE is detectable in blood for several hours longer. A strong case can be made for adding together the concentrations of cocaine and CE in forensic blood samples when toxicological results are interpreted in relation to acute intoxication and the risk of an overdose death.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz007
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2019)
  • Lethal Injection of a Castor Bean Extract: Ricinine Quantification as a
           Marker for Ricin Exposure Using a Validated LC–MS/MS Method
    • Authors: Verougstraete N; Helsloot D, Deprez C, et al.
      Abstract: Ricin is a highly toxic agent derived from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis). Poisoning occurs commonly by oral ingestion of the beans. Injection of ricin is believed to be more lethal. Ricin is a large glycosylated protein difficult to detect in clinical samples. Instead, ricinine, a small alkaloid found in the same beans, is used as surrogate marker for ricin exposure. We describe a simple LC–MS/MS method for the detection of ricinine in serum, blood and urine, validated according to EMA guidelines and successfully applied to patient samples of a suicidal death after injection of a castor bean extract.A 26-year-old man self-presented to the emergency department with severe abdominal cramps and nausea after injection of a castor bean extract. Due to rapid deterioration of his hemodynamic function despite early aggressive fluid resuscitation, he was transferred to ICU. Abdominal cramps worsened and a fulminant diarrhea developed, resulting in hypovolemic shock and cardiorespiratory collapse. Despite full supportive therapy, the patient died approximately 10 hours after injection due to multiple organ failure.Ricinine was quantified by LC–MS/MS after LLE with diethyl ether using ricinine-D3 as internal standard. Six hours after injection, ricinine concentrations in serum and blood were 16.5 and 12.9 ng/mL, respectively, which decreased to 12.4 and 10.6 ng/mL, 4 hours later. The urinary concentration was 81.1 ng/mL 7 hours after injection, which amply exceeded the levels previously reported in similar cases with lethal outcome. Concentrations of ricinine, compatible with a lethal exposure to castor beans, were detected in serum, blood and urine. Ricinine was also found in bile and liver tissue.
      PubDate: Sat, 22 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky100
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2018)
  • Development and Validation of a Novel All-Inclusive LC–MS-MS
           Designer Drug Method
    • Authors: Strickland E; Cummings O, Mellinger A, et al.
      Pages: 161 - 169
      Abstract: Designer drugs including synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are an increasing problem due to the ease of access to these compounds. They present analytical challenges inasmuch as the compound structures are numerous and growing within each class. Typically each class of designer compounds is analyzed separately due to differences in chemistry, desired cut-offs or other reasons. Physicians treating “high-risk” patients typically order tests for all “illicit” substances which can span several test classes. Despite that multiple classes of designer drugs are ordered together, there has not been a comprehensive confirmatory test developed to date. Presented here is a novel comprehensive designer drug LC–MS-MS method that combines synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones, etizolam, a designer benzodiazepine and mitragynine (kratom), a natural product analgesic. This method improves laboratory throughput with a cycle time of ~4.5 min which affords resolution of crucial isomers, such as ethylone and butylone. Development of this method also provided an opportunity to update the list of compounds within the method. Analytes with fewer than five positive specimens in a year of testing with previous separate methods were removed as old and not current. New analytes were added based on reports from NMS Laboratories and the US Drug Enforcement Administration testing and drug seizures, which included etizolam, its major metabolite α-hydroxyetizolam as well as newer synthetic cannabinoids (5-fluoro ADB metabolite 7, AB-FUBINACA metabolite 3, AB-FUBINACA metabolite 4 and MDMB-FUBINACA metabolite M1) and synthetic cathinones (N-ethyl pentylone). Finally, the impact of the new analytes and cut-off changes are discussed in context with patient results from the first 4 months of testing after implementation of the method in the lab.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky087
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2018)
  • Separation and Identification of Isomeric and Structurally Related
           Synthetic Cannabinoids Using 2D Liquid Chromatography and High Resolution
           Mass Spectrometry
    • Authors: Eckberg M; Arroyo-Mora L, Stoll D, et al.
      Pages: 170 - 178
      Abstract: Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are emerging drugs of abuse that are variations of existing compounds intended to cause a CNS psychotropic effect. Some NPS are so comparable in structure and physicochemical properties that they co-elute using traditional single column chromatographic techniques and therefore will not be detected as individual compounds. 2D liquid chromatography (2D-LC) has demonstrated applicability in difficult separations of small molecules and compounds in complex mixtures. It was hypothesized that this technique could also be used to separate co-eluting isomeric and structurally related, non-isomeric NPS, including synthetic cannabinoids (SC). Initial studies assessed several parameters, including column type, mobile phase, analysis time, gradient and flow rate, to optimize a 2D-LC method for separation and analysis of SC. The final comprehensive on-line 2D-LC method employed a Bonus-RP column in the first dimension (1D) coupled with UV detection and a biphenyl column in the second dimension (2D) coupled with QTOF-MS detection in full scan positive mode. To test the utility of the method, three SC mixes were created, each containing five compounds that were unresolvable in a traditional, 1D-LC separation; one mix with isomeric compounds and two with structurally related but non-isomeric compounds. Contour plots of UV absorbance in 1D and MS ion intensity in 2D demonstrated that all components in each mixture were successfully resolved using the 2D-LC separation method. This research serves as proof-of-concept for the application of 2D-LC to the separation of isomeric and structurally related SC. With further optimization and validation, 2D-LC may be a generally useful tool for separation of complex mixtures of NPS.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky081
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Application of a Single-Column GC–MS-MS Method for the Rapid
           Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Breakdown Products
    • Authors: Young S; Capacio B.
      Pages: 179 - 187
      Abstract: The development of one comprehensive gas chromatographic-triple quadrupole mass spectrometric (GC–MS-MS) method for the analysis of nerve agents and their breakdown products can pose a challenge due to significant differences in analyte volatility. Nerve agent breakdown products typically have a low volatility, requiring a derivatization step prior to analysis by gas chromatography (GC). However, nerve agent parent compounds are generally more volatile, which eliminates the need for derivatization and allows for direct analysis. Therefore, the analysis of these analytes is typically performed using separate analytical methods. This may require the use of multiple columns composed of different stationary phases to ensure the most efficient separation. With the wide selection of GC columns and derivatizing agents, it is potentially possible to develop a single-column/analytical method that is suitable for the detection of nerve agents and their breakdown products. We evaluated six nerve agents (tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, VX and Russian VX) and the six corresponding breakdown products (EDPA, IMPA, PMPA, CMPA EMPA and MMPA). Chromatographic separation and multiple-reaction mode electron ionization detection of the nerve agents and silylated breakdown product derivatives were performed using an Agilent 7890 A gas chromatography (GC) equipped with a mid-polarity column, coupled to a 7000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometry system. A fast (12.5 min), highly sensitive (picogram) and selective method was achieved. The feasibility of this method for nerve agent and breakdown product detection in real samples was demonstrated using nerve agent-spiked human plasma at various exposure times (3 min, 1 h and 24 h). Five of the six nerve agents and all six breakdown products were successfully detected. This robust method has utility as a rapid screening tool to identify a specific nerve agent in a potential exposure event by simultaneous detection of the parent and or its corresponding breakdown product in plasma.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky085
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2018)
  • A Gas Chromatography–Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry Assay for the
           Quantification of Opiates in Human Blood Samples
    • Authors: Saad M; Abu-Rumman A, Mohamed K.
      Pages: 188 - 195
      Abstract: A simplified protein precipitation method in combination with gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC–MS-MS) analysis was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine (6-MAM), hydrocodone and hydromorphone in human blood samples. A protein precipitation with 10% trichloroacetic acid followed by solid-phase extraction using a mixed-mode cartridge was used to separate the analyte from the blood samples. A BSTFA + 1% TMCS was used for derivatization of opiates prior to the analysis. Codeine-D3, morphine-D3, 6-acetylmorphine-D3 and hydrocodone-D6 were used as internal standards. The GC–MS-MS was operated under multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electron ionization technique. The transition ions used for quantitation were 371 → 234 for codeine, 429 → 146 for morphine, 399 → 287 for 6-MAM, 299 → 228 for hydrocodone and 357 → 314 for hydromorphone. The method was linear over the concentration range 2.5–1000 ng/mL for all analytes, except hydrocodone which was linear over 5–1000 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient (r2) = 0.99. The limit of detection was 1.0 ng/mL for all compounds except hydrocodone which was 2.5 ng/mL. The limit of quantitation was 2.5 ng/mL for all compounds except hydrocodone which was 5.0 ng/mL. The precision (% RSD) was within 1.26–14.81 and the accuracy (% Bias) was within −6.29–10.93% for all compounds. The method successfully analyzed morphine (305 ng/mL) and 6-acetylmorphine (6-MAM) (2.3 ng/mL) in a human blood sample received from an opiate user.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky077
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2018)
  • Development of a Reliable Method for Assessing Coca Alkaloids in Oral
           Fluid by HPLC–MS-MS
    • Authors: Rubio N; Bermejo-Barrera P, Bermejo A, et al.
      Pages: 196 - 202
      Abstract: A reliable method based on high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the assessment of coca alkaloids/metabolites [cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), cocaethylene (CE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME), tropococaine (TRO), transcinnamoylcocaine (trCIN), cuscohygrine (CUS) and hygrine (HYG)] in oral fluid samples from cocaine abusers and from coca leaves consumers (coca leaves chewers and coca tea drinkers). Oral fluid samples were collected by the passive drool technique (spitting), and after centrifugation the supernatant was treated for protein removal by adding acidified acetonitrile. The developed method was fully validated according to the international criteria and good results have been obtained (intraday and inter-day precisions were lower than ±20%, intraday and inter day accuracy was within the 75-116% range, and LODs/LOQs was lower and close to cut-off values for COC and BE). The proposed method has been successfully applied to oral fluid samples from cocaine abusers, and also from coca leave chewers and coca tea drinkers. CUS and HYG were only found in oral fluid from people who chewed coca leaves and drank coca tea and were not detected in cocaine abusers. Both CUS and HYG could be good markers in oral fluid for distinguishing people who consume coca leaves legally (coca leave chewers and coca tea drinkers) from those who consume illegal cocaine.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky076
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2018)
  • Simultaneous Detection and Quantification of Three Novel Prescription
           Drugs of Abuse (Suvorexant, Lorcaserin and Brivaracetam) in Human Plasma
           by UPLC–MS-MS
    • Authors: Iqbal M; Khalil N, Ezzeldin E, et al.
      Pages: 203 - 211
      Abstract: Suvorexant (SVR), lorcaserin (LCR) and brivaracetam (BVR) have been recently approved for the treatment of insomnia, obesity and epilepsy, respectively. Despite their clinical uses, these drugs have some abuse potential and have been enlisted under the schedule IV (SVR, LVR) and schedule V (BVR) categories of the Controlled Substances Act. A sensitive UPLC–MS-MS assay was developed for simultaneously determining SVR, LCR and BVR in human plasma. The liquid–liquid extraction method, using tert-butyl methyl ether as an extracting solvent, was used for sample preparation. Chromatographic separation was performed by using the Acquity BEH C18 column, using 10 mM ammonium acetate/acetonitrile/formic acid (15/85/0.1%; v/v/v) as the mobile phase. For sample ionization, electrospray ionization was used in the positive-ion mode. The multiple-reaction monitoring mode was used for detecting and quantifying analytes by using separate precursor-to-product ion transitions. The assay was validated following the SWGTOX guidelines, and all validation results were within the acceptable limits. The calibration curves of the analytes in the plasma were found to be linear, and the coefficient of determination (R2) was ≥ 0.992 for all the three analytes. The limit of detection values for SVR, LCR and BVR were 0.08, 0.11 and 0.26 ng/mL, respectively, whereas the limit of quantification values were 0.16, 0.27 and 0.65 ng/mL, respectively. The assay developed in this study is suitable for the identification and quantification of SVR, LCR and BVR in the forensic laboratory.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky078
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2018)
  • Fully Automated Forensic Routine Dried Blood Spot Screening for Workplace
    • Authors: Gaugler S; Al-Mazroua M, Issa S, et al.
      Pages: 212 - 220
      Abstract: In this study, we describe the transfer of a new and fully automated workflow for the cost-effective drug screening of large populations based on the dried blood spot (DBS) technology. The method was installed at a routine poison control center and applied for DBS and dried urine spot (DUS) samples. A fast method focusing on the high-interest drugs and an extended screening method were developed on the automated platform. The dried cards were integrated into the automated workflow, in which the cards were checked in a camera recognition system, spiked with deuterated standards via an in-built spraying module and directly extracted. The extract was transferred online to an analytical LC column and then to the electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry system. The target compounds were analyzed in positive multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Before each sample batch or analysis day, calibration samples were measured to balance inter-day variations and to avoid false negative samples. An internal standard was integrated prior the sample extraction to allow in process control. A total of 28 target compounds were analyzed and directly extracted within 5 min per sample. This fast screening method was then extended to 20 min, enabling the usage of a Forensic Toxicology Database to screen over 1,200 drugs. The method gives confident positive/negative results for all tested drugs at their individual cut-off concentration. Good precision (±15%, respectively ±20% at limit of quantification) and correlation within the calibration range from 5 to 1,000 ng/mL was obtained. The method was finally applied to real cases from the lab and cross-checked with the existing methodologies.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky074
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2018)
  • Comparison of Purified β-glucuronidases in Patient Urine Samples
           Indicates a Lack of Correlation Between Enzyme Activity and Drugs of Abuse
           Metabolite Hydrolysis Efficiencies Leading to Potential False Negatives
    • Authors: Sitasuwan P; Melendez C, Marinova M, et al.
      Pages: 221 - 227
      Abstract: Pain management laboratories analyze biological fluids (urine, saliva or blood) from patients treated for chronic pain to ensure compliance and to detect undisclosed drug use. The quantitation of multi-panel drugs in urine and tissues utilizes β-glucuronidase to cleave the glucuronic acid and liberate the parent drug for mass spectrometry analysis. This work focuses on the comparison of three different, purified and commercially available β-glucuronidases across 83 patient urine samples. One enzyme is genetically modified, expressed in bacteria and the other two enzymes are purified from abalone. The results indicate that the source of β-glucuronidase plays an important role in substrate specificity which in turn dictates hydrolysis efficiency. Contaminants in the enzyme solutions also interfere with analyte detection. Altogether, these factors impact precision and accuracy of data interpretation, leading up to 13% positive/negative disagreement.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky082
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2018)
  • Detection of Drugs in Simultaneously Collected Samples of Oral Fluid and
    • Authors: Bakke E; Høiseth G, Arnestad M, et al.
      Pages: 228 - 232
      Abstract: Simultaneously collected samples of oral fluid and blood in a naturalistic setting could provide a qualitative impression of the relative detection times of drugs in oral fluid compared to blood. The aim of this study was to compare detections of different drugs in oral fluid and blood from a large material of paired samples. The study included results from 930 paired oral fluid and blood samples collected from drivers suspected for driving under the influence of drugs. Oral fluid was collected using the Intercept device. Blood samples were screened using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS-MS) method and positive results were confirmed and quantified with a different analytical method. Oral fluid samples were analyzed using UHPLC–MS-MS. The drugs included in the study were: amphetamine, methamphetamine, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), diazepam, N-desmethyldiazepam, clonazepam, alprazolam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), methadone and buprenorphine. The drugs detected more frequently in oral fluid compared to blood were amphetamine (497 positive in oral fluid/408 positive in blood), methamphetamine (332/232), oxazepam (106/36), morphine (65/31) and 6-MAM (19/0). The drugs detected less frequently in oral fluid compared to blood were THC (224 positive in oral fluid/407 positive in blood), diazepam (137/160), N-desmethyldiazepam (183/188), clonazepam (148/307), alprazolam (47/68), nitrazepam (16/29) and buprenorphine (31/59). For methadone, the number of detections was the same in oral fluid and in blood (23/23). The results indicate that for amphetamine, methamphetamine, morphine and 6-MAM, relative detection time is longer in oral fluid than in blood, while for benzodiazepines, the results indicate that relative detection time is shorter in oral fluid than in blood. For oxazepam and buprenorphine, the results were dependent on the cut-off limits used. Regarding THC, the detection time in oral fluid depends on the sampling method. The relative detection time was shorter than in blood when using the Intercept device.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky079
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2018)
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