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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 397 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 397 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 327, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 599, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.065
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0146-4760 - ISSN (Online) 1945-2403
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [397 journals]
  • SOFT President's Letter
    • Pages: 511 - 511
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky066
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 8 (2018)
  • Presence of Parent Cocaine in the Absence of Benzoylecgonine in
    • Authors: Puet B; Claussen K, Hild C, et al.
      Pages: 512 - 517
      Abstract: Cocaine (COC) is widely abused and associated with significant adverse effects. Forensic and clinical laboratories often test for COC intake through detection of the primary metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BZE) in urine. Testing for BZE alone may result in false-negative determinations in situations where COC is recently administered or metabolism is impaired. To our knowledge, no data have been provided demonstrating the utility of adding parent COC to urine confirmation testing in routine analyses. For this study, random urine specimens from patients undergoing treatment for pain management and/or addiction were collected over six months from 800 clinics across 39 states. A total of 7,587 urine specimens tested positive for a COC marker (COC and/or BZE). A positive result was determined using a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS) method with a limit of quantitation of 50 ng/mL. Of the positive specimens, 26% and 97% were positive for COC and BZE, respectively. Positive BZE-only specimens represented 74% of total positive specimens. However, 231 of the 7,587 urine specimens (3% of positive specimens) were positive for COC in the absence of BZE. The 231 COC-only positive specimens were collected from 206 patients, and two of these patients provided four COC-only positive specimens. Of a select group of COC-only specimens tested by both LC–MS-MS and immunoassay (IA) (N = 32), 81% were negative by IA, demonstrating the limitation of screening with BZE-specific IAs. A false-negative COC result can have profound impacts such as a delay in patient referral to addiction treatment, unintentional prescribing of a controlled substance to a patient actively abusing an illicit substance, or undetected cocaine use in the workplace. This study highlights the importance of testing for COC in addition to BZE in forensic and healthcare settings.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky057
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 8 (2018)
  • Rapid Separation and Quantitation of Cocaine and its Metabolites in Human
           Serum by Differential Mobility Spectrometry–tandem Mass Spectrometry
    • Authors: Dempsey S; Moeller F, Poklis J.
      Pages: 518 - 524
      Abstract: Cocaine continues to be one of the most widespread abused illicit drugs in the USA. Rapid methods are needed for the identification and quantitation of cocaine and its metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME) and cocaethylene (CE), in biological specimens by clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories. Presented is a differential ion mobility spectrometry–tandem mass spectrometry (DMS–MS-MS) method for the analysis of cocaine and its major metabolites in human serum that requires minimal sample preparation and no column chromatography. A Shimadzu Nexera X2 ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system was used to infuse the samples into the DMS cell at a rate of 30 μL/min. Separation of cocaine and its metabolites were performed in a SelexION DMS component from Sciex coupled to a QTRAP 6500 with an IonDrive Turbo V source for TurbolonSpray® using acetonitrile as a chemical modifier. Analysis consisted of ramping the CoV from −35 V to −6 V while monitoring the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions of each analyte. The assay was evaluated for linearity, bias, precision, carryover, interferences and stability. Calibration curves ranged from 10 to 1,000 ng/mL with linear regression correlation coefficients (r2) of 0.9912 or greater for each analyte. The limit of quantitation was set at 10 ng/mL. Intra-day precision (%CV) ranged from 0% to 15% for cocaine, 1% to 19% for BE, 1% to 17% for EME and 0% to 18% for CE. Inter-day precision ranged from 9% to 14% for cocaine, 2% to 17% for BE, 5% to 11% for EME and 5% to 15% for CE. No carryover or interferences were detected. Bland–Altman analysis of previously analyzed specimens by UPLC–MS-MS showed variability of 30% or less. The method demonstrates the applicability of DMS–MS-MS for high throughout analysis of drugs and their metabolites in clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky055
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 8 (2018)
  • Degradation of Bupropion: Implications for Interpretation of Postmortem
           Case Data
    • Authors: Bishop-Freeman S; Hensel E, Feaster M, et al.
      Pages: 525 - 536
      Abstract: The interpretation of postmortem bupropion is often a challenge to the forensic toxicology community because of the instability of the parent compound. At the North Carolina Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (NC OCME) toxicology laboratory, one of the active metabolites, threobupropion, is used as a complementary indicator for the extent of exposure to the parent compound. Metabolite data will address postmortem normal concentrations as well as when bupropion was attributed to the cause of death. For 55 natural cases where bupropion was unattributed to the cause of death, the blood and liver mean threobupropion concentrations were 1.8 mg/L and 12.1 mg/kg, respectively, with median concentrations of 1.5 mg/L and 10 mg/kg, respectively. For the 51 suicidal ingestion cases when bupropion was attributed to the cause of death, the blood and liver mean threobupropion concentrations were 15.8 mg/L and 131.5 mg/kg, respectively, with median concentrations of 13.5 mg/L and 110 mg/kg, respectively. The laboratory completed a stability study over the course of 50 days to evaluate how bupropion and threobupropion degrade in postmortem blood, liver and liver homogenate. The samples were subjected to forensically relevant conditions by storing them at room temperature (RT, 20°C), refrigerated (4°C) and frozen (−20°C). While the concentration of bupropion decreased in all specimens, the rate of degradation of the RT samples was the most dramatic. The threobupropion metabolite appeared to be relatively stable. The postmortem case data along with the evaluation of potential degradation products should provide an overall picture to assist the toxicological community with the interpretation of bupropion found in routine casework.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky058
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 8 (2018)
  • Evaluation of Nicotine and the Components of e-Liquids Generated from
           e-Cigarette Aerosols
    • Authors: Peace M; Mulder H, Baird T, et al.
      Pages: 537 - 543
      Abstract: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) deliver nicotine in an aerosol to the user that simulates the smoke of traditional cigarettes purportedly without the pathology of inhaling tobacco smoke due to the absence of combustion. Advanced versions of e-cigs enable the user to potentially moderate the concentration of drug in the aerosol by selecting from a range of voltages on the power supply. A method was developed to trap the aerosol produced by a KangerTech AeroTank, 1.8 Ω preassembled atomizer in order to analyze the concentration of nicotine and to evaluate the constituents of the aerosol at various voltages on the power supply. A 12-mg/mL formulation of nicotine in 50:50 propylene glycol (PG):vegetable glycerin (VG) was used to produce aerosol at 3.9, 4.3 and 4.7 V. The aerosol was trapped in a simple glass assemblage and analyzed by a 3200 Q Trap HPLC–MS-MS. The dose of nicotine delivered in the aerosol at 3.9, 4.3 and 4.7 V was determined to be 88 ± 12 μg, 91 ± 15 μg and 125 ± 22 μg. The average recovery of nicotine in the trap across the voltages was 99.8%. The glass trap system was an effective device for collecting the aerosol for analysis and an increase in drug yield was observed with increasing voltage from the power supply on the e-cig. The glass trap system was also used in combination with a 100-μm solid-phase microextraction fiber to capture the aerosol and analyze it via DART–MS and GC–MS. Four commercial e-liquids labeled to contain nicotine were aerosolized at 4.3 V. The pharmacologically active ingredient, nicotine, as well as PG, VG and a number of flavoring agents found in these formulations were identified.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky056
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 8 (2018)
  • The Detection of Novel Stimulants in Oral Fluid from Users Reporting
           Ecstasy, Molly and MDMA Ingestion
    • Authors: Krotulski A; Mohr A, Fogarty M, et al.
      Pages: 544 - 553
      Abstract: “Ecstasy” and “Molly” are common drug slang terms used among club and rave cultures to denote preparations believed to contain 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). However, users of Ecstasy and Molly have increasingly tested positive for novel psychoactive substances (NPS), notably novel stimulants. To evaluate hypothesized non-specific and interchangeable use of the terms Ecstasy, Molly and MDMA, self-reported drug use was compared against toxicological findings in biological specimens. Oral fluid specimens were collected from participants attending large multi-day electronic dance music festivals in Miami, FL; Tampa, FL; and Atlanta, GA. Participants additionally completed a structured survey about recent recreational drug use. Collected specimens were screened for therapeutic drugs, common drugs of abuse and NPS using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC−QTOF). Positive screen results were confirmed by validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC−MS-MS) methods for MDMA, MDA, methylone, dimethylone, ethylone, butylone, dibutylone, eutylone, pentylone, N-ethyl pentylone (ephylone), alpha-PVP and 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA). During this 4-year study, 223 participants provided an oral fluid specimen and indicated recent use of Ecstasy, Molly and/or MDMA/MDA. Of these subjects, 203 (91.0%) indicated only one of these drug terms; while 20 (9.0%) participants indicated a combination of multiple terms. Of the 203 participants designating only one drug term, 123 (60.6%) reported Molly use, 55 (27.1%) reported MDMA use and 25 (12.3%) reported Ecstasy use. Seven participants reported the use of MDA, but these responses were paired with MDMA responses due to detection of MDA as a metabolite of MDMA. The results from this study indicate that there are inconsistencies between admission to drug use and toxicological findings in this population. Of the 223 participants who indicated use of Ecstasy, Molly and/or MDMA/MDA, MDMA without a novel stimulant was confirmed in 121 (54.3%) participants, while 66 (29.6%) tested positive for at least one novel stimulant.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky051
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 8 (2018)
  • Quantitative Analysis of Novel Synthetic Opioids, Morphine and
           Buprenorphine in Oral Fluid by LC–MS-MS
    • Authors: Truver M; Swortwood M.
      Pages: 554 - 561
      Abstract: The opioid epidemic has become a national health emergency in the USA. While heroin and prescription opioid abuse is not uncommon, synthetic opioid use has risen dramatically, creating a public safety concern. Like traditional opioids, novel synthetic opioids are abused due to their analgesic and euphoric effects. Some adverse side effects include respiratory distress, nausea and decreased consciousness. Synthetic opioids have emerged into the illicit and online drug market, including AH-7921, MT-45, U-series and W-series. Though originally developed by pharmaceutical companies, these substances are not well studied in humans and comprehensive analytical methods for detecting and quantifying these opioids are limited. Oral fluid is a useful biological matrix for determining recent drug use, does not require a trained medical professional, and can be collected under direct observation, deterring adulteration. The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a comprehensive analytical method for the detection and quantification of morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, buprenorphine, U-47700, U-49900, U-50488, AH-7921, MT-45, W-18 and W-15 in oral fluid collected via Quantisal. This was achieved by solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The limits of detection and quantitation were 5 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL, respectively. Linearity was observed between 10 and 500 ng/mL (R2 ≥ 0.9959). Bias and imprecision were <±11.1%. Matrix effects ranged from −21.1 to 13.7%. No carryover was detected following injection of the highest calibrator. All analytes were stable (within ±15% change from baseline) under all tested conditions (24 h at room temperature, 72 h at 4°C, and in the autosampler for 60 h at 4°C).
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky053
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 8 (2018)
  • Screening of Novel Psychoactive Substances in Postmortem Matrices by
           Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC–MS-MS)†
    • Authors: Fagiola M; Hahn T, Avella J.
      Pages: 562 - 569
      Abstract: Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are newly emerging compounds, natural and synthetic, that are often sold as “legal” alternatives to controlled substances. These substances can include phenethylamines, tryptamines, synthetic cathinones, piperazines and others. Most novel psychoactive substances and similar designer drugs are often based on the chemical backbone of classic drugs of abuse but are not regularly encountered in postmortem casework. These compounds may go undetected in forensic toxicology labs where suitable identification methods for NPS may not exist. In order to keep up with this ever-expanding list of pharmacologically active and toxicologically hazardous substances, there is an increased need for a screening panel suitable for postmortem human samples such as whole blood and urine. In order to address this increased prevalence of NPS, a method was developed and validated to identify 50 NPS in postmortem samples using liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The data presented here represents a validated liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method to qualitatively identify NPS in postmortem samples. The limit of detection for all compounds was set at 2.5 ng/mL. To evaluate the prevalence of NPS in the region, blood and urine specimens from 110 postmortem cases were submitted for analysis based on initial screening results and/or case history. Of those cases, 28% were positive for several NPS, though only a few were included in the cause of death. The robustness of this method proves that it is suitable for the continual addition of newer substances, ensuring up-to-date simultaneous drug detection.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky050
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 8 (2018)
  • Quantitative Analysis of Fentanyl and Six Fentanyl Analogs in Postmortem
           Specimens by UHPLC–MS-MS†
    • Authors: Kahl J; Gonyea J, Humphrey S, et al.
      Pages: 570 - 580
      Abstract: Since 2013, opioid-related deaths have increased in Miami-Dade County, FL due to fentanyl and fentanyl analogs in the local heroin supply. From 2014 to 2015, a near 600% increase in fentanyl and fentanyl analog-related deaths was observed, followed by another 200% increase in 2016. In addition to fentanyl, six fentanyl analogs were identified in this time period: β-hydroxythiofentanyl, acetyl fentanyl, furanyl fentanyl, carfentanil, butyryl fentanyl and para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl. As a result, an analytical method to quantify these compounds in postmortem biological fluids and tissues using solid-phase extraction with analysis by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS-MS) was developed and validated. All analytes except carfentanil were linear from 1 to 50 ng/mL with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 ng/mL; carfentanil was linear from 0.2 to 10 ng/mL with a LOD of 0.1 ng/mL. For all analytes, bias was within ±14%, intra- and inter-day precision were ≤5% and extraction efficiency was >87%. Dilution integrity was assessed at 1:1, 1:4 and 1:9 (v/v) ratios; percent error from target was <12% for all analytes. No exogenous interferences were observed. Analytes were stable in preserved whole blood stored at 4°C for 9 months; extracted samples were stable in the refrigerated autosampler (15°C) for up to 72 h. The ability to distinguish the isomer pairs isobutyryl/butyryl fentanyl and p-fluoroisobutyryl/p-fluorobutyryl fentanyl is achieved by this method. The method was applied to 312 cases in which fentanyl and/or fentanyl analogs were previously identified. Postmortem concentrations in blood ranged from <0.2 to 0.73 ng/mL for carfentanil and from 30.6 to 91.7 ng/mL for p-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl in cases in which these analytes were listed as the sole cause of death.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky054
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 8 (2018)
  • Child Fatalities Due to Heroin/Fentanyl Exposure: What the Case History
    • Authors: DeRienz R; Baker D, Kelly N, et al.
      Pages: 581 - 585
      Abstract: This case report presents three unrelated children found to have heroin and/or fentanyl in their systems after general unknown systematic toxicological analysis (STA). The first case involves an 11-month-old male found unresponsive at their residence. The scene response suggested a potentially unsafe sleeping condition or a sudden unexplained infant death. The second case is a 14-month-old female found unresponsive after eating soft candies, suggesting that a choking related death may have occurred. The third case is a 12-year-old male found unresponsive in bed and foaming from the mouth. Gum was removed from the child’s airway, suggesting another choking related death. The STA included a 14-drug category enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) screening in whole blood. Cases 1 and 3 were presumptively positive for fentanyl, while Case 2 was presumptively positive for opiates and fentanyl. Reflex confirmation was performed in blood, urine and gastric contents, by solid-phase extraction (SPE) for 12 opiates including morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine (6MAM) by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and for fentanyl, norfentanyl, and novel analogs, by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS). High concentrations of fentanyl and 6MAM in the gastric contents of Case 1, along with the presence of diacetylmorphine, suggested probable enteral ingestion of heroin and fentanyl, separately or in a combined formulation. Interpretation of the toxicology results could not determine a probable route of exposure to heroin/fentanyl in Case 2, however, the cause of death was clearly related to this drug mixture. In Case 3, the presence of acetylfentanyl suggested an illicit fentanyl exposure. The intention of this case report is to demonstrate the need for a STA approach for all non-trauma postmortem cases regardless of case circumstances, age or suspicion of drug use.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Oct 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky052
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 8 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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