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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 406 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 345, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 603, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.065
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0146-4760 - ISSN (Online) 1945-2403
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [406 journals]
  • Detection of Drugs and Their Metabolites in Oral Fluid
    • Authors: Lee D.
      Abstract: WhiteR MSr.MooreC MDetection of Drugs and Their Metabolites in Oral Fluid. (2018) Elsevier, Inc. Cambridge, MA, RTI International, ISBN: 978-0-12-814595-1.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz016
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Association of Kratom Use with Impairment: Many Legal Questions Remain
    • Authors: Veltri C; Grundmann O.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz012
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Analytically Confirmed Intoxication by 4-Fluoromethylphenidate, an Analog
           of Methylphenidate
    • Authors: Papa P; Valli A, Di Tuccio M, et al.
      Abstract: Abstract4-Fluoromethylphenidate (4F-MPH) is an halogenated derivative of methylphenidate (MPH), a re-uptake inhibitor for dopamine and norepinephrine used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. In the last few years, several compounds structurally related to MPH have been marked as new psychoactive substances (NPS) with stimulating and euphoric effects similar to the parent drug, but with more dopaminergic activity. This report represents the first case of an analytically confirmed non-fatal intoxication by 4F-MPH. A 26-year-old female was admitted to the emergency department with neuropsychiatric and cardiologic symptoms that lasted for a week, during which she sniffed a powder named 4F-MPH acquired as entactogen on the Internet. The patient required sedation with intravenous diazepam and was discharged two days later with a prescription of promazine and quetiapine. The seized product was analytically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. These analyses confirmed the composition of the product as a 4F-MPH diastereomeric (±)-threo and (±)-erythro mixture, with a large preponderance of the active (±)-threo isomer. A minimal validation, intended for rare analytes, was performed for the quantification of 4F-MPH in the biological samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Accuracy (bias) and precision were within ±15% for both blood and urine. The blood and urine concentration of (±)-threo 4F-MPH were 32 ng/mL and 827 ng/mL, respectively. Analyses for classic drugs (opiates, methadone, cocaine, cannabis metabolites, amphetamines, ecstasy and LSD), ethanol, qualitative full screen by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and targeted analysis for 50 NPS by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry tested negative; comorbidities were excluded, too. Based on these data, it can be assumed that the clinical manifestations were due to 4F-MPH only.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz001
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Quantitation of Cannabinoids in Breath Samples Using a Novel
           Derivatization LC–MS/MS Assay with Ultra-High Sensitivity
    • Authors: Luo Y; Yun C, Lynch K.
      Pages: 331 - 339
      Abstract: AbstractAs the legalization of medical and recreational marijuana use expands, measurement of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in human breath has become an area of interest. The presence and concentration of cannabinoids in breath have been shown to correlate with recent marijuana use and may be correlated with impairment. Given the low concentration of THC in human breath, sensitive analytical methods are required to further evaluate its utility and window of detection. This paper describes a novel derivatization method based on an azo coupling reaction that significantly increases the ionization efficiency of cannabinoids for LC–MS/MS analysis. This derivatization reaction allows for a direct derivatization reaction with neat samples and does not require further sample clean-up after derivatization, thus facilitating an easy and rapid “derivatize & shoot” sample preparation. The derivatization assay allowed for limits of quantitation (LOQ’s) in the sub-pg/mL to pg/mL range for the five cannabinoids in breath samples, i.e., only 5~50 femtograms of an analyte was required for quantitation in a single analysis. This ultrahigh sensitivity allowed for the quantitation of cannabinoids in all breath samples collected within 3 hours of smoking cannabis (n = 180). A linear correlation between THC and cannabinol (CBN) in human breath was observed, supporting the hypothesis that CBN is converted from THC during the combustion of cannabis. The derivatization method was also applied to the analysis of cannabinoids in whole blood samples, achieving LOQ’s at ten-pg/mL to sub-ng/mL level. This azo coupling-based derivatization approach provided the needed analytical sensitivity for the analysis of THC in human breath samples using LC–MS/MS and could be a valuable tool for the analysis of other aromatic compounds in the future.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz023
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method for the Quantitative
           Identification of 23 New Psychoactive Substances in Blood and Urine
    • Authors: Nisbet L; Wylie F, Logan B, et al.
      Pages: 346 - 352
      Abstract: AbstractNew psychoactive substances (NPSs) have become an integral part of the recreational drug market with “new” compounds being reported by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction weekly. Due to the changing nature of NPSs, it is impractical to carry out single analyte or even simple class quantitation. Although several gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) methods have been developed these are typically class specific. We present a validated GC–MS method for the quantitation of 2-DPMP, 3-MeO-PCE, 3-MeO-PCP, 5-APB, 6-APB, benzedrone, butylone, ethylone, flephedrone, methiopropamine, MDPV, mephedrone, methoxetamine, methylone, naphyrone, 25B-NBOME, 25C-NBOME, 25D-NBOMe, 25E-NBOME, 25H-NBOME, 25I-NBOME, Mescaline-NBOME and 25P-NBOME in blood and urine samples. Sample preparation was carried out using solid-phase extraction followed by derivatisation and analysis by GC–MS. Parameters investigated for validation included bias, precision, linear calibration model, carryover, interferences, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and autosampler and freeze/thaw stability. All drugs yielded successful results for each of these parameters as per SWGTOX guidelines. The GC–MS method was used for the reanalysis of 12 blood samples (eight cases) where 25I-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, methoxetamine and methylone had previously been detected by NMS laboratories. This GC–MS method was able to quantitatively detect these drugs in 75% of the blood samples, 42% of which contained either 25C-NBOMe or 25I-NBOMe. This method accurately allows for the simultaneous quantification of a wide variety of compounds via GC–MS, in particular NBOMe compounds which are typically analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry which is not available in all laboratories.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky109
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Application of High-Resolution UPLC–MSE/TOF Confirmation in Forensic
           Urine Drug Screening by UPLC–MS/MS
    • Authors: Rosano T; Ohouo P, Wood M.
      Pages: 353 - 363
      Abstract: AbstractThe transition from presumptive (immunoassay) drug screening to definitive screening has continued in the practice of analytical toxicology. Development of a ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) screening method for over sixty drugs and metabolites (analytes) in urine has been reported by the authors and has been applied in probation, drug court, social services, chemical dependency, pain management and addiction medicine casework. Testing by the definitive screening method has increased both the rate and diversity of initial-positive drug findings, due to the lower positive thresholds and wider panel of analytes. Use of definitive screening in forensic casework, however, requires retesting of initial-positive analytes using a second method based upon a different analytical technique with at least equivalent sensitivity and selectivity. Consequently, a UPLC–MSE/TOF method for confirmation of the initial-positive analytes has been adapted; the method is for targeted confirmation and is based upon an alternate mass spectrometry technology and column separation. Both the initial screen and the confirmatory analysis employ threshold accurate calibration for normalization of matrix effects, without the use of stable isotopes. Validation and application of the complete workflow, in forensic urine drug testing casework, is reported.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky106
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • A Novel Enzyme Immunoassay for the Detection of Buprenorphine,
           Norbuprenorphine and Their Glucuronides in Urine
    • Authors: Schubert B; Pitterl F, Saxl B, et al.
      Pages: 364 - 368
      Abstract: AbstractBuprenorphine is a commonly used opioid in pain therapy as well as in opiate maintenance therapy. Immunoassays are quick and cost-effective methods for the necessary toxicological urine analysis of maintenance therapy patients. In this study a novel enzymatic immunoassay, the Thermo Fisher Scientific CEDIA Buprenorphine II assay (Bup2) was evaluated for the detection of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine and their conjugated metabolites in human urine samples. The Bup2 assay has a cut-off of 10 ng/mL with ±25% controls, whereas the existing CEDIA Buprenorphine assay (Bup1) has a cut-off of 5 ng/mL and ±40% controls. Both assays were analyzed on a Thermo Scientific Indiko Plus benchtop analyzer. Seven-day precision studies of Bup2 assay demonstrated excellent precision of 7.2–10.6%. No crossover between control samples and the cut-off level were observed. Urine samples of 120 patients undergoing opiate maintenance therapy were collected. Immunoassay results of Bup1 and Bup2 were confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine as well as for their glucuronides. Comparison showed a specificity of 0.99 between the Bup2 assay and GC/MS, whereas the Bup1 assay had a specificity 0.70 due to 21 false positive samples. The reason is a known cross-reactivity of the Bup1 assay to opiate compounds. The Bup2 assay revealed one false positive result close to the cut-off value; no specific candidate possibly causing a cross-reaction was detected by GC/MS and liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) methods. The data presented demonstrate an excellent correlation of the Bup2 assay to GC/MS, showing improved specificity and sensitivity when compared to the Bup1 assay. Thus, the Bup2 assay is highly suitable for urine testing, even for opiate maintenance patients receiving high doses of morphine.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz003
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Detection Time of Oxazepam and Zopiclone in Urine and Oral Fluid after
           Experimental Oral Dosing
    • Authors: Bruun L; Kjeldstadli K, Temte V, et al.
      Pages: 369 - 377
      Abstract: AbstractData from previous experimental studies on the detection time of oxazepam and zopiclone in biological matrices are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the detection time in urine and oral fluid after single oral doses of oxazepam and zopiclone. Ten healthy volunteers received 25 mg of oxazepam in the evening of Day 1 and 7.5 mg of zopiclone in the evening of Day 3. Urine and oral fluid samples were collected twice daily for 9 days, with an additional sampling the day after ingestion of zopiclone. A total of 19 samples of both urine and oral fluid from each participant were analyzed using fully validated chromatographic methods. The median detection time for oxazepam was 91 h (range 73–108) in urine and 67 h (range 50–98) in oral fluid. The median detection time for zopiclone in urine was 49 h (range 25–98) and 59 h (range 48–146) in oral fluid. The metabolite zopiclone N-oxide showed a detection time of 36 h (range 25–84) in urine. The area under the concentration–time curve (AUCTotal) in urine corrected for creatinine was 150 μmol/L/mmol/L*h (range 105–216) for oxazepam and 1.60 μmol/L/mmol/L*h (range 0.79–4.53) for zopiclone. In oral fluid, the AUCtotal was 673 nmol/L*h (range 339–1,316) for oxazepam and 2,150 nmol/L*h (range 493–4,240) for zopiclone. In conclusion, oxazepam can be detected longer in urine than in oral fluid, while zopiclone can be detected longer in oral fluid than in urine. The high AUCTotal for zopiclone in oral fluid shows that the transfer into oral fluid is significant. In certain individuals the detection time of zopiclone in oral fluid is long. These results can be helpful when interpreting drug testing analyzes.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky083
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Postmortem Brain–Blood Ratios of Amphetamine, Cocaine, Ephedrine,
           MDMA and Methylphenidate
    • Authors: Nedahl M; Johansen S, Linnet K.
      Pages: 378 - 384
      Abstract: AbstractBrain tissue may serve as a useful supplement to blood in postmortem investigations. However, reference concentrations for central stimulant drugs are scarce in brain tissue. This study involves some frequently used stimulants: amphetamine, cocaine, ephedrine, MDMA and methylphenidate. We present concentrations from brain and blood and brain–blood ratios of the analytes from autopsies. The cases were grouped according to the cause of death: A: The compound solely caused a fatal intoxication. B: The compound contributed to a fatal outcome in combination with other drugs, alcohol or disease. C: The compound was not related to the cause of death. Analyses were carried out using solid-phase extraction and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography. Paired brain and femoral blood concentrations from 133 cases were analysed. Positive correlations were observed for all analytes with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.58 to 0.95. The following median brain–blood ratios were obtained: cocaine 2.0 (range 0.20–7.0), amphetamine 3.2 (range 1.5–4.5), ephedrine 2.3 (range 1.1–6.2), MDMA 3.9 (range 0.92–5.1) and methylphenidate 2.4 (0.92–4.6). The concentrations in femoral blood generally agreed with the literature for all compounds. The metabolite of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, was also quantified in brain and blood from 60 cases, and the median brain–blood ratio was 0.66 with 10–90 percentiles of 0.39–1.27. The results of this study can aid the toxicological investigation in determining the cause of death.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky110
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Application of TDA AAS to Direct Mercury Determination in Postmortem
           Material in Forensic Toxicology Examinations
    • Authors: Lech T; Turek W.
      Pages: 385 - 391
      Abstract: AbstractMercury is a heavy metal with high toxicity, the level of which depends on the form of the metal. One of the newer techniques for determining trace amounts of total mercury in various materials, including biological samples, is thermal decomposition, amalgamation and atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA AAS). The TDA AAS method was optimized and validated using a mercury analyzer (DMA-80). The limits of detection for mercury were 0.10 and 0.20 μg/L (nickel and quartz boats, respectively). The working range of the calibration curve was at least from 0.6 to 200 ng Hg/mL; the intra-day precision in samples (RSD)—in the range of: 1.66–6.86% (blood), 0.82–1.47% (urine) and 2.01–3.44% (hair); the inter-day precision (over 8 days): 2.51%, and 2.5% (blood spiked with 2.5 and 10 ng Hg, respectively), 5.10% and 3.16% (urine spiked with 2.0 and 6.0 ng Hg, respectively). The accuracy (as relative error, mean value) determined on the basis of the study of reference materials of blood (Seronorm Trace Elements Whole Blood L-1, L-2, L-3), urine (Seronorm Trace Elements Urine, Urine L-2), and hair (Human Hair NIES CRM No. 13) was: 2.00% (blood), 0.50% (urine) and 0.86% (hair); recovery of 2.5 ng Hg (blood): 93–97%. The method was used for the determination of mercury in 76 samples of various biological matrices, including samples of whole blood, urine, hair, bile and vitreous humor. Mercury concentrations in postmortem blood (n = 24) were in the range: 0.61–12.4 μg/L (median 3.02 μg/L); urine (n = 12): 0.16–2.19 μg/L (median 0.81 μg/L); hair (n = 14): 0.08–0.53 μg/g (median 0.22 μg/g); bile (n = 12): 1.15–7.11 μg/L (median 2.41 μg/L and vitreous humor (n = 13): 0.22–1.01 μg/L (median 0.47 μg/L). The method is suitable for the purposes of forensic toxicology analysis.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky107
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Analysis of Acetyl Fentanyl in Postmortem Specimens by Gas
           Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS): Method Validation and Case
           Report
    • Authors: Finkelstein M; Chronister C, Stanley C, et al.
      Pages: 392 - 398
      Abstract: AbstractIn 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a warning regarding a new recreational drug, acetyl fentanyl. Acetyl fentanyl is a μ-opioid receptor agonist, and its pharmacological effects include euphoria, altered mood, miosis and central nervous system depression. The objective of this report was to develop a sensitive and specific method for the quantitation of acetyl fentanyl by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in postmortem casework. Acetyl fentanyl was isolated from biological matrices using solid-phase extraction and acetyl fentanyl-13C6 was employed as an internal standard. The method was validated utilizing the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology’s published method validation parameters, and the biological matrices used for analysis were postmortem blood and urine. In addition to the quantitation of acetyl fentanyl, a demographic study of cases obtained from the Rhode Island Office of State Medical Examiners and the University of Florida Health Pathology Laboratories—Forensic Toxicology Laboratory was performed to examine potential risk factors for acetyl fentanyl use. The results from this study found that the blood concentrations in these individuals ranged from 17 to 945 ng/mL. This suggests acetyl fentanyl is less potent than its prototype drug, fentanyl and requires an increased dose to achieve its desired effects. The demographic analysis indicated white males aged 21–40 years and individuals with a previous history of drug use have the highest risk for acetyl fentanyl abuse.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky108
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Validation of the Neogen ELISA Benzodiazepine Kit using Clonazepam as the
           Target Molecule for Blood and Urine
    • Authors: Behnke G; Tiscione N, Rakus J, et al.
      Pages: 399 - 405
      Abstract: AbstractThis study demonstrates the validation of a semi-quantitative method for the rapid screening of whole blood and urine specimens using clonazepam as the target molecule for the Neogen® Benzodiazepine kit. Decision points were validated at 10.0 ng/mL for whole blood and 25.0 ng/mL for urine. The validation design was based on the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) Standard Practices for Method Validation and included the evaluation of sensitivity, precision, specificity, carryover, hook effect, drift, ruggedness/robustness and a case sample evaluation. The experimental limit of detection for clonazepam was determined to be at least 5.0 ng/mL in whole blood and at least 10.0 ng/mL in urine. Excellent precision was demonstrated when the assay was evaluated using the mean of three replicates from five separate runs (n = 15) at the decision point and at concentration levels ±50% and +100% of the decision point. Although the method was optimized and exceptional precision was demonstrated at each level, the current SWGTOX validation requirements for a valid decision point were not fulfilled. However, both the blood and urine matrix did meet the proposed revision of the SWGTOX requirements for determining a valid decision point promulgated by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Standards Board and the assay was reliably able to detect benzodiazepines without interference from matrix components or other compounds routinely detected in authentic case samples. Case sample results were comparable with those obtained when the samples were initially screened using oxazepam as the target molecule. The Neogen® Benzodiazepine kit using clonazepam as the target molecule exhibited cross-reactivity for 29 different benzodiazepines and demonstrated excellent precision and sensitivity in both whole blood and urine, making it an efficient and reliable method to screen for benzodiazepines, even though the validation did not fulfill current SWGTOX requirements for a valid decision point.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz010
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Demoxepam Derivatization and GC–MS Analysis Produces Erroneous
           Nordiazepam and Oxazepam Results
    • Authors: Sarris G; Limoges J.
      Pages: 406 - 410
      Abstract: AbstractDemoxepam, when derivatized by silylation and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), produces artifacts which are falsely identified as nordiazepam and oxazepam. Demoxepam was analyzed unextracted at various concentrations, using different derivatization procedures, and on different GC-MS systems. Oxazepam and nordiazepam were consistently identified in neat demoxepam samples, despite the changing variables. Under certain conditions, oxazepam was identified as low as 50 ng/mL derivatized demoxepam, and nordiazepam identified as low as 500 ng/mL derivatized demoxepam. The analysis of underivatized demoxepam resulted in nordiazepam detection at levels ≥2,500 ng/mL, whereas oxazepam was not detectable at or below 10,000 ng/mL demoxepam. Isolating the derivatization procedures and GC-MS analyses demonstrates that these processes are responsible for any degradation or rearrangement reactions which are taking place. Laboratories which follow similar procedures for benzodiazepine confirmations should consider these findings when interpreting analytical data from chlordiazepoxide cases.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz006
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Postmortem CYP2D6 Genotyping and Copy Number Determinations Using DNA
           Extracted from Archived FTA Bloodstains
    • Authors: Melis R; Mohamed J, Ha Y, et al.
      Pages: 411 - 414
      Abstract: AbstractGenetic characterization of CYP2D6 post-mortem may help explain drug involvement in cause of death. Here we describe methods for DNA extraction, CYP2D6 genotyping and copy number variation (CNV) testing using dried blood archived at autopsy with FTA® cards. Bloodstained cards (n=75) were obtained from the Utah Office of the Medical Examiner. DNA was extracted from 3mm punches; DNA yield was 9–100 ng/μL; the 260/280 ratio was 1.2–2.0. CYP2D6 alleles detected using the iPLEX® genotyping assay and MassARRAY (Agena Bioscience) include (n=) *2A (20), *3 (2), *4 (26), *5(3), *6 (2), *10 (1), *29 (1), *35 (9) and*41 (10). CYP2D6 genotype could not be determined in one sample that failed to amplify. More than two copies of CYP2D6 were detected in 11 samples. CNV could not be determined in six samples. The commercially available methods described here were successful for CYP2D6 testing of post-mortem blood samples archived with FTA® cards.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz008
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019)
       
  • Analysis of Desomorphine in Urine Using Liquid Chromatography–Tandem
           Mass Spectrometry
    • Authors: Winborn J; Kerrigan S.
      Pages: 340 - 345
      Abstract: AbstractDesomorphine is a primary component of the drug Krokodil. While reports of Krokodil use continue to appear in the literature, analytically confirmed cases remain quite scarce. This might be attributed to trends in geographical use, and limited published analytical methodology to detect its use. A sensitive analytical method to detect desomorphine was developed and validated to assist with identification efforts. Solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantitatively identify desomorphine in urine. An isotopically labeled analog was used as the internal standard. Assay performance was evaluated in accordance with published guidelines. The extraction efficiency for desomorphine in urine was 90%, and limits of detection and quantitation were 0.5 ng/mL. The calibration range of the assay was 0.5–500 ng/mL. Bias ranged from −1% to 2% (n = 15), and the intra- and inter-assay CVs were 2–3% (n = 3) and 32−6% (n = 15), respectively. Ion suppression was −20% and −10% at low and high concentrations, respectively. Interferences were assessed using common drugs, including 24 opioids and structurally related compounds. Using this approach, the quantitative analysis of desomorphine in urine is described at forensically relevant concentrations.
      PubDate: Sat, 22 Dec 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bky103
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 5 (2018)
       
 
 
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