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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 368 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 368 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 38)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 35)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 46)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 107)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 80)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 43)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.441, h-index: 77)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 3.047, h-index: 201)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 111)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American journal of legal history     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.151, h-index: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 23)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 22)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.912, h-index: 124)
Annals of Occupational Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 57)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.362, h-index: 173)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 53)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 10)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 31)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.749, h-index: 63)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 11)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.96, h-index: 71)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 20)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 15)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.698, h-index: 92)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221, SJR: 4.643, h-index: 271)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.801, h-index: 90)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.374, h-index: 154)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 9)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 55)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 133)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 20)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 6.097, h-index: 264)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 4.086, h-index: 73)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.771, h-index: 50)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.267, h-index: 38)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 18)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 489, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 62)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 53)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 84)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.474, h-index: 31)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.957, h-index: 59)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 22)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 7)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal  
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.439, h-index: 167)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.897, h-index: 175)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.827, h-index: 192)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, h-index: 19)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 76)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 18)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 11)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.238, h-index: 15)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 8)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 4.742, h-index: 261)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 28)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 47)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 10)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.999, h-index: 20)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 24)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 22)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 77)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 52)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.26, h-index: 23)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.791, h-index: 66)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.197, h-index: 25)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.201, h-index: 71)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.917, h-index: 81)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 6.997, h-index: 227)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.044, h-index: 58)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 31)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.568, h-index: 104)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140, SJR: 0.722, h-index: 38)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 60)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.284, h-index: 64)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 42)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 24)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.061, h-index: 53)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, h-index: 77)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 115)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 118)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 7.587, h-index: 150)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.213, h-index: 66)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.859, h-index: 10)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.903, h-index: 44)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 6)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 10)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 7)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.22, h-index: 39)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.839, h-index: 119)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 13)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal  
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 101)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 40)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.814, h-index: 80)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.628, h-index: 66)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 60)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 20)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 13)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 4.288, h-index: 233)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 2.271, h-index: 179)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.678, h-index: 128)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.7, h-index: 21)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 88)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 51)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 20)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 28)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.032, h-index: 44)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.37, h-index: 81)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 15)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.911, h-index: 90)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 59)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.743, h-index: 35)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.613, h-index: 111)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.593, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114, SJR: 4.381, h-index: 145)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.404, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 79)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 12)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.052, h-index: 42)
Intl. Mathematics Research Surveys - advance access     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.339, h-index: 19)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 17)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 28)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.184, h-index: 68)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.783, h-index: 38)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 4)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.647, h-index: 30)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 34)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 60)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.157, h-index: 149)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 43)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.341, h-index: 96)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 42)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 11)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 16)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.165, h-index: 5)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 15)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 4.896, h-index: 121)
J. of Crohn's and Colitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.543, h-index: 37)
J. of Cybersecurity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.69, h-index: 36)
J. of Design History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 14)
J. of Economic Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 76)
J. of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.909, h-index: 69)
J. of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 20)
J. of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.798, h-index: 163)
J. of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 27)
J. of Global Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 76)
J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
J. of Hip Preservation Surgery     Open Access  
J. of Human Rights Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 10)
J. of Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 4, h-index: 209)
J. of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 31)
J. of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Journal of Analytical Toxicology
  [SJR: 1.038]   [H-I: 60]   [13 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0146-4760 - ISSN (Online) 1945-2403
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [368 journals]
  • Pharmacokinetic Profile of Oral Cannabis in Humans: Blood and Oral Fluid
           Disposition and Relation to Pharmacodynamic Outcomes
    • Authors: Vandrey R; Herrmann ES, Mitchell JM, et al.
      Abstract: Most research on cannabis pharmacokinetics has evaluated inhaled cannabis, but oral (“edible”) preparations comprise an increasing segment of the cannabis market. To assess oral cannabis pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, healthy adults (N = 6 per dose) were administered cannabis brownies containing 10, 25 or 50 mg 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Whole blood and oral fluid specimens were obtained at baseline and then for 9 days post-exposure; 6 days in a residential research setting and 3 days as outpatients. Measures of subjective, cardiovascular and performance effects were obtained at baseline and for 8 h post-ingestion. The mean Cmax for THC in whole blood was 1, 3.5 and 3.3 ng/mL for the 10, 25 and 50 mg THC doses, respectively. The mean maximum concentration (Cmax) and mean time to maximum concentration (Tmax) of 11-OH-THC in whole blood were similar to THC. Cmax blood concentrations of THCCOOH were generally higher than THC and had longer Tmax values. The mean Tmax for THC in oral fluid occurred immediately following oral dose administration, and appear to reflect local topical residue rather than systemic bioavailbility. Mean Cmax oral fluid concentrations of THCCOOH were lower than THC, erratic over time and mean Tmax occurred at longer times than THC. The window of THC detection ranged from 0 to 22 h for whole blood (limit of quantitation (LOQ) = 0.5 ng/mL) and 1.9 to 22 h for oral fluid (LOQ = 1.0 ng/mL). Subjective drug and cognitive performance effects were generally dose dependent, peaked at 1.5–3 h post-administration, and lasted 6–8 h. Whole blood cannabinoid concentrations were significantly correlated with subjective drug effects. Correlations between blood cannabinoids and cognitive performance measures, and between oral fluid and all pharmacodynamic outcomes were either non-significant or not orderly by dose. Quantitative levels of cannabinoids in whole blood and oral fluid were low compared with levels observed following inhalation of cannabis. The route of administration is important for interpretation of cannabinoid toxicology.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03
       
  • Accumulation and Determination of Phenylethanolamine A Residue in Hair of
           Swine and Sheep
    • Authors: Decheng S; Ruiguo W, Peilong W, et al.
      Abstract: The present study proposed the use of liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to detect the novel β-agonist phenylethanolamine A (PEA) in incurred hair samples of swine and sheep and to assess its accumulation for residue monitoring. The method showed good percent recoveries ranging from 93.2% to 102% and good coefficient of variation at
      PubDate: 2016-11-22
       
  • Catching Fakes: New Markers of Urine Sample Validity and Invalidity
    • Authors: Goggin MM; Tann C, Miller A, et al.
      Abstract: Urine drug testing is common for workplace drug testing, prescription management, emergency medicine and the criminal justice system. Unsurprisingly, with the significant consequences based upon the results of urine drug testing, a donor in need of concealing the contents of their sample is highly motivated to cheat the process. Procedures and safeguards ensuring sample validity are well known, and include measuring sample temperature at the time of collection, and laboratory measurements of creatinine, specific gravity and pH. Synthetic urine samples are available and are designed to deceive all aspects of urine drug testing, including validity testing. These samples are sophisticated enough to contain biological levels of creatinine, and are at a physiological pH and specific gravity. The goal of our research was to develop new procedures designed to distinguish authentic samples from masquerading synthetic samples. We aimed to identify substances in commercial synthetic urines not expected to be present in a biological sample distinguishing fake specimens. Additionally, we aimed to identify and employ endogenous compounds in addition to creatinine for identifying biological samples. We successfully identified two compounds present in synthetic urines that are not present in biological samples and use them as markers of invalidity. Four new endogenous markers for validity were successfully evaluated. Validity assessment was further aided by monitoring metabolites of nicotine and caffeine. When the method was applied to patient samples, 2% of samples were identified as inconsistent with natural urine samples, even though they met the current acceptance criteria for creatinine, pH and specific gravity.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22
       
  • A Fatality Related to the Synthetic Opioid U-47700: Postmortem
           Concentration Distribution
    • Authors: McIntyre IM; Gary RD, Joseph S, et al.
      Abstract: In this case report, we present an evaluation of the distribution of postmortem concentrations of 3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide (U-47700) in a fatality attributed principally to the drug. A man who had a history of drug abuse was found unresponsive and not breathing on his bed. Drug paraphernalia, indicating drug insufflation, was located in the decedent's room. Toxicology screening tests in peripheral blood initially identified U-47700 using an alkaline drug screen with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following solid-phase extraction. It was subsequently confirmed and quantitated by GC-MS-specific ion monitoring analysis following liquid–liquid extraction. The U-47700 peripheral blood concentration was quantitated at 190 ng/mL compared to the central blood concentration of 340 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 1,700 ng/g, the vitreous was 170 ng/mL, the urine was 360 ng/mL and the gastric contained only a trace amount (
      PubDate: 2016-10-26
       
  • EtG and EtS in Autopsy Blood Samples With and Without Putrefaction Using
           UPLC–MS-MS
    • Authors: Hegstad S; Kristoffersen L, Liane VH, et al.
      Abstract: Analytical challenges related to postmortem specimens are well known. The degree of putrefaction of the corpse will influence the quality of the blood samples, and both the efficiency of sample preparation and the subsequent chromatographic performance can be affected. An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in postmortem whole blood. Sample preparation prior to UPLC–MS-MS analysis consisted of protein precipitation and filtration through a phospholipid removal plate. Chromatography was achieved using an HSS T3 column and gradient elution with formic acid in water in combination with methanol. The injection volume was 0.5 µL. Negative electrospray ionization was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two transitions were monitored for the analytes and one for the internal standards. The between-assay relative standard deviations were in the range of 1.7–7.0% and the limits of quantification were 0.025 and 0.009 mg/L for EtG and EtS, respectively. Recovery was 51–55% and matrix effects ranged from 98% to 106% (corrected with internal standard). Blood samples from nine autopsy cases with various extents of putrefaction were analyzed. The sample preparation efficiently removed the phospholipids from the blood specimens. The samples were clean and the analytical quality of the chromatographic performance was satisfactory for both analytes irrespective of the degree of putrefaction.
      PubDate: 2016-10-26
       
  • Drugged Drivers Blood Concentrations in England and Wales Prior to the
           Introduction of Per Se Limits
    • Authors: Rooney B; Gouveia G, Isles N, et al.
      Abstract: This report details the blood concentration of drugs found in motorists suspected of driving under the influence of drugs from 2010 to 2012 in England and Wales. This study was carried out as new legislation has come into place, setting fixed blood concentration limits for drugs in motorists. These include a cannabis (Δ9-THC) blood concentration of 2 µg/L, amphetamine 250 µg/L, benzoylecgonine (BZE) 50 µg/L, cocaine 10 µg/L, 6-monoacetylmorphine 5 µg/L, morphine 80 µg/L, diazepam 550 µg/L and methadone 500 µg/L. Samples were screened for opiates, methadone, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, amphetamines and methamphetamine. Cannabinoids were the most prevalent drug group (29.7%) followed by benzodiazepines (22.7%), opiates (18.8%), cocaine (16.3%), amphetamine (7%) and methadone (5.6%). The analytical results are compared with the new per se limits to give a reference of drug concentrations prior to this legislation coming into effect. Our studies show that 64.9% of the cannabis samples, 59.1% of the cocaine samples and 94.6% of the BZE samples would be above the new per se limits set under Section 5a of the Road Traffic Act. In contrast, the medicinal drugs such as benzodiazepines and opiates (morphine) were predominantly detected at concentrations below the new per se limit. Given its medical applications, amphetamines appear to have been grouped with the medicinal type drugs, with our data showing that 25.2% of the amphetamine positive samples would exceed the new specified limit. These data show that samples containing medicinal and prescription drugs are likely to be detected below the new legal limits, while illicit drugs were typically found at concentrations above the new specified limits.
      PubDate: 2016-10-26
       
  • GC–MS Quantification Method for Mephedrone in Plasma and Urine:
           Application to Human Pharmacokinetics
    • Authors: Olesti E; Pujadas M, Papaseit E, et al.
      Abstract: Increasing consumption has been observed among young people of new psychoactive substances, including synthetic cathinone derivatives. The most well known of these is mephedrone whose use has been related to acute intoxication and fatality. Several methods able to detect mephedrone have been reported, although to date, none have been applied to human pharmacokinetic studies in a controlled setting. We developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique for mephedrone quantification in human plasma and urine. Plasma after deproteinization and urine were submitted to a liquid-liquid extraction and derivatization of the extract with MSTFA prior to analysis. Calibration curves covered concentration ranges in plasma between 5 and 300 ng/mL and in urine between 20 and 1,500 ng/mL. The method has been successfully applied to biological samples obtained from a pilot clinical trial intended to evaluate the human pharmacology of mephedrone and its relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics. Six healthy males were administered 150 mg of mephedrone by the oral route in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over controlled trial. Peak plasma concentration (Cmax = 122.6 ± 32.9 ng/mL) was reached at 1 hour (0.5–2 h) post-drug administration. Mephedrone showed a rapid elimination half-life (t1/2 = 2.2 h) compared to other psychostimulants. Less than 15% of the dose was excreted in urine as a free-form. Mephedrone concentrations displayed a relevant inter-subject variability.
      PubDate: 2016-10-23
       
  • Impact of Expanding ELISA Screening in DUID Investigations to Include
           Carisoprodol/Meprobamate and Zolpidem
    • Authors: Lu A; Scott KS, Chan-Hosokawa A, et al.
      Abstract: In 2013, the National Safety Council's Alcohol Drugs and Impairment Division added zolpidem and carisoprodol and its metabolite meprobamate to the list of Tier 1 drugs that should be tested for in all suspected drug impaired driving and motor vehicle fatality investigations. We describe the validation of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for both drugs in whole blood, and the utilization of the ELISA to assess their positivity in a sample of 322 suspected impaired driving cases that was retrospectively screened using the validated assays. The occurrence of carisoprodol/meprobamate was found to be 1.2%, and for zolpidem, 1.6%. In addition, we analyzed a large dataset (n = 1,672) of Driving Under the Influence of Drugs (DUID) test results from a laboratory performing high volume DUID testing to assess the frequency of detection of both drugs after implementing the expanded NSC scope. Carisoprodol or meprobamate were found positive in 5.9% (n = 99) of these samples, while zolpidem was found positive in 5.3% (n = 89) in drivers who in many cases had been found to be negative for other drugs. Carisoprodol and zolpidem are both potent CNS depressants and are appropriate additions to the recommended NSC scope of testing.
      PubDate: 2016-10-23
       
  • Stability of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol in Prepared Quality
           Control Medible Brownies
    • Authors: Wolf CE; Poklis JL, Poklis A.
      Abstract: The legalization of marijuana in the USA for both medicinal and recreational use has increased in the past few years. Currently, 24 states have legalized marijuana for medicinal use. The US Drug Enforcement Administration has classified marijuana as a Schedule I substance. The US Food and Drug Administration does not regulate formulations or packages of marijuana that are currently marketed in states that have legalized marijuana. Marijuana edibles or “medibles” are typically packages of candies and baked goods consumed for medicinal as well as recreational marijuana use. They contain major psychoactive drug in marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and/or cannabidiol (CBD), which has reputed medical properties. Presented is a method for the preparation and application of THC and CBD containing brownies used as quality control (QC) material for the analysis of marijuana or cannabinoid baked medibles. The performance parameters of the assay including possible matrix effects and cannabinoid stability in the brownie QC over time are presented. It was determined that the process used to prepare and bake the brownie control material did not degrade the THC or CBD. The brownie matrix was found not to interfere with the analysis of a THC or a CBD. Ten commercially available brownie matrixes were evaluated for potential interferences; none of them were found to interfere with the analysis of THC or CBD. The laboratory baked medible QC material was found to be stable at room temperature for at least 3 months.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18
       
  • Fentanyl–Norfentanyl Concentrations During Transdermal Patch
           Application: LC–MS-MS Urine Analysis
    • Authors: Ruan X; Chiravuri S, Kaye AD.
      PubDate: 2016-10-15
       
  • Response to: Fentanyl–Norfentanyl Concentrations During Transdermal
           Patch Application: LC–MS-MS Urine Analysis
    • Authors: Cummings OT; Enders JJ, McIntire GL.
      PubDate: 2016-10-15
       
  • New Hair Testing Conclusions
    • Authors: Montgomery M; LeBeau M, Morris-Kukoski C.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13
       
  • Simple and Highly Sensitive UPLC-ESI-MS/MS Assay for Rapid Determination
           of Suvorexant in Plasma
    • Authors: Iqbal M; Ezzeldin E, Khalil NY, et al.
      Abstract: Suvorexant is a dual orexin receptor antagonist, recently approved by USFDA for the treatment of insomnia. It is drug-of-abuse and listed in Schedule IV drug of the Controlled Substances Act. In this study, a simple and highly sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay was developed and fully validated for the determination of suvorexant in rat plasma. Both suvorexant and internal standard (rivaroxaban; IS) were separated on Aquity BEHTM C18 column after the extraction form plasma using diethyl ether as extracting agent. An isocratic mobile phase, consisting of acetonitrile and 10 mM ammonium acetate in composition ratio of 85:15 was eluted at flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Both suvorexant and IS were eluted within one min with total run time of 1.5 min only. The ionization was performed on electrospray ionization interface in positive mode by multiple reaction monitoring. Precursor to product ion transition of 451.12 > 104.01 for qualifier and 451.12 > 186.04 for quantifier were used for suvorexant whereas 436.10 > 144.93 for IS, respectively. The calibration curves in plasma were linear in the concentration range of 0.33–200 ng/mL (r2 ≥ 0.995) having limit of detection and limit of quantification of 0.10 and 0.33 ng/mL, respectively. All the validation parameters results were found to be within the acceptable limits according to the “Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) guidelines” and can be implemented for forensic analysis.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06
       
  • Urinary Concentrations of Topically Administered Pain Medications
    • Authors: Glinn MA; Lickteig AJ, Weber L, et al.
      Abstract: A common treatment for chronic pain is prescription of analgesics, but their long-term use entails risk of morbidity, addiction and misuse. One way to reduce the risk of abuse is prescribing of analgesics in a topical form. Physicians are urged to perform urine drug testing to ensure that patients are compliant with their medication regimens. However, there is little data on the efficiency of transdermal delivery for many analgesic drugs, and no data on expected urine drug levels. This study includes data from over 29,000 specimens tested for gabapentin, ketamine, cyclobenzaprine or amitriptyline used orally or topically. Gabapentin and amitriptyline concentrations were more likely to be below the limits of detection (25–40 ng/mL) in the urine of patients using them topically as compared with patients using them orally. Levels in gabapentin-positive topical specimens were much lower than in gabapentin-positive oral specimens (261 ng/mL vs >10,000 ng/mL). In contrast, ketamine and cyclobenzaprine were more readily detectable in the urine of topical users. Ketamine topical specimens were positive 12% more often than oral specimens, and mean topical specimen levels were 68–100% those of oral specimens. Cyclobenzaprine specimens were equally likely to be positive whether the dose was oral or topical, although mean levels after topical dosing were approximately 13–21% those after oral dosing. These findings are consistent with the reported percutaneous absorption efficiencies of gabapentin and ketamine, and are likely to be related to the absorption efficiencies of cyclobenzaprine and amitriptyline.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06
       
 
 
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