Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 412 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 412 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 214, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 396, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Brain Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 621, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 238, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insect Systematics and Diversity     Hybrid Journal  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.065
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0146-4760 - ISSN (Online) 1945-2403
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [412 journals]
  • CYP450-Mediated Metabolism of Mitragynine and Investigation of Metabolites
           in Human Urine
    • Authors: Basiliere S; Kerrigan S.
      Pages: 301 - 313
      Abstract: Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) has emerged as a recreational drug and a substance of medicinal intrigue. Although the drug was initially used recreationally for its sedating and euphoric effects, more recently its use has been associated with the non-medically supervised treatment of opioid abstinence syndrome. Mitragynine is the principal pharmacologically active alkaloid in kratom. Although metabolites of mitragynine have been identified, the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes responsible for its biotransformation are still under investigation. The goal of this study was to contribute further knowledge regarding CYP450 activity as it relates to mitragynine. Recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes (rCYPs) were used to investigate the isoforms involved in its metabolism. Biotransformational products were identified using liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight-mass spectrometry. Four rCYP enzymes (2C18, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4) were found to contribute to the metabolism of mitragynine. 7-Hydroxymitragynine (which has an affinity for the mu-opioid receptor >10-folds that of morphine) was produced exclusively by 3A4. 9-O-demethylmitragynine, the most abundant metabolite in vitro (and the most prevalent metabolite in urine among kratom users) was produced by 2C19, 3A4 and 2D6. 16-Carboxymitragynine was produced by rCYPs 2D6, 2C19 and 2C18. 2C19 was solely responsible for the formation of 9-O-demethyl-16-carboxymitragynine. In vitro rCYP studies were compared with phase I metabolites in urine from cases involving mitragynine.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz108
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 4 (2020)
  • Temperature and pH-Dependent Stability of Mitragyna Alkaloids
    • Authors: Basiliere S; Kerrigan S.
      Pages: 314 - 324
      Abstract: Mitragynine (MG) is the principal psychoactive alkaloid in kratom. The drug produces a variety of dose-dependent effects that appeal to recreational drug users and individuals seeking therapeutic benefits in the absence of medical supervision. In light of documented intoxications, hospitalizations and fatalities, MG and other alkaloids from Mitragyna speciosa are of growing importance to the forensic toxicology community. However, the chemical stability of these compounds has not been thoroughly described. In this report, the stability of MG, 7-hydroxymitragynine (MG-OH), speciociliatine (SC), speciogynine (SG) and paynantheine (PY) are investigated. Short-term stability of the Mitragyna alkaloids was determined over a range of pH (2–10) and temperature (4–80°C) over 8 hours. Liquid chromatography--quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to estimate half-lives and identify degradation products where possible. The stability of MG and other alkaloids was highly dependent on pH and temperature. All of the Mitragyna alkaloids studied were acid labile. Under alkaline conditions, MG undergoes chemical hydrolysis of the methyl ester to produce 16-carboxymitragynine. MG-OH was the most unstable alkaloid studied, with significant drug loss at 8 hours experienced at temperatures of 40°C and above. No significant drug losses were observed for MG in aqueous solution (pH 2–10) at 4, 20 or 40°C. Diastereoisomers of MG (SC and SG) demonstrated even greater stability. These findings are discussed within the context of the identification of Mitragyna alkaloids in toxicological specimens.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz103
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 4 (2020)
  • Determination of Morphine, Fentanyl and Their Metabolites in Small Sample
           Volumes Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry
    • Authors: Gleba J; Kim J.
      Pages: 325 - 330
      Abstract: The USA and numerous other countries worldwide are currently experiencing a public health crisis due to the abuse of heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl. We have developed a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS)-based method for the detection of morphine, fentanyl and their metabolites, including morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), normorphine, norfentanyl and deuterated internal standards in limited sample volumes with the limit of detection of 5.0/0.5 ng/mL (morphine, M3G, M6G, normorphine/fentanyl, norfentanyl). The inter-assay precision (%CV) was less than 12% for all assays, and the inter-assay bias (%) was less than 5%. The ruggedness of the method, dilution effect and carryover were also investigated as part of the study. The simultaneous quantification of morphine, fentanyl and its metabolites via this simple and time- and cost-efficient method could be successfully applied to samples taken for pharmacokinetic evaluation (antemortem and postmortem) after a single dose of morphine or co-administration of morphine with other drugs (e.g., fentanyl) in rats.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz104
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 4 (2020)
  • High-Throughput UHPLC-MS/MS Measurement of Per- and Poly-Fluorinated Alkyl
           Substances in Human Serum
    • Authors: Mottaleb M; Petriello M, Morris A.
      Pages: 339 - 347
      Abstract: Per- and poly-fluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are a large group of synthetic surfactant chemicals with widespread uses in food packaging and textile manufacturing and as the main constituent of aqueous film-forming firefighting foams. PFASs are highly persistent in the environment, and human exposures are extensive with these chemicals detectable in the blood of almost all adult Americans. PFASs exhibit a range of toxic effects in preclinical models. In humans, PFAS exposure has been associated with lower birth weights, decreased immune responses, cancer and impaired fertility and elevated circulating cholesterol levels. We have developed a sensitive high-throughput method for quantification of representative PFAS in human serum and plasma for biomonitoring and epidemiological studies of human health effects of PFAS exposure. The method combines robust and reproducible 96-well plate format sample preparation with ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The method was developed, validated and used for targeted measurements of eight short-/long-chain PFAS analytes in human serum. Targeted analytes were measured in 50 microliters of sample using mass-labeled internal standards. Mean spiked recoveries (n = 10) of target analytes for three tiers quality control (QC-low, QC-medium, QC-high) samples ranged from 70 to 127% with 2–14% relative standard deviation (RSD). The average spiked recoveries (n = 10) of surrogates were 79–115% with 8–12% RSD for QC-low, 90–123% with 7–12% RSD for QC-medium and 82–114% with 9–15% RSD for QC-high. The limit of detection for the target compounds was 0.05–0.04 ng/mL. The method was used to reveal regional differences in PFAS exposures in Kentucky residents receiving care at the University of Kentucky Hospitals.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz097
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 4 (2020)
  • An Experimental Pharmacokinetics Study of Diazepam and Its Metabolites in
           Oral Fluid of Chinese Population
    • Authors: Wang L; Ren X, He Y, et al.
      Pages: 348 - 353
      Abstract: Diazepam abuse is widespread all over the word, leading to an increasing number of forensic cases such as suicide, drug-driving and robbery, but relevant studies are limited regarding the extraction of diazepam and its metabolites in oral fluid. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of diazepam and its metabolites in oral fluid after a single oral dose in healthy volunteers. There was a total of 28 volunteers, and each ingested 5 mg diazepam orally, then ~2 mL oral fluid were collected from each participant at post-consumption time-points of prior (zero), 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 h and 2, 3, 6, 12 and 15 days, respectively. All samples were extracted with solid-phase extraction and analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, and diazepam and nordazepam were detected in the oral fluid of volunteers. Pharmacokinetics of diazepam in oral fluid conformed to a two-compartment model, and k01_HL, k12_HL, k10_HL were 0.7 ± 1.1, 31.4 ± 68.5, 12.1 ± 11.6 h, respectively, nordazepam conformed to an one-compartment model, and k01_HL, k10_HL were 41.5 ± 44.8, 282.3 ± 365.5 h, respectively. Both diazepam and nordazepam could be detected continuously for 15 days, although there were individual differences, and the results regarding diazepam detecting in oral fluid will be of much help in forensic science and drug screening filed.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz101
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 4 (2020)
  • Evaluating Endogenous GHB Variation in Hair with a Synthetic Hair Matrix
    • Authors: Lloyd E; Thomas J, Donnelly C, et al.
      Pages: 354 - 361
      Abstract: The variation in drug concentrations in human head hair from 22 donors was measured using a synthetic hair matrix (SMx™ hair). This matrix is being reported for the first time as a calibrator for an endogenous substance. In comparison to authentic hair or melanin, the synthetic hair provided a reliable batch-to-batch source of liquid matrix similar in composition to authentic hair, but without detectable concentrations of endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). Using the synthetic matrix for calibrator samples, validation of a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) quantitative method for GHB in human head hair was completed. Validation included the evaluation of the following parameters: accuracy, precision, calibration model, carryover, interferences, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and processed sample stability. The method was valid over a range of 0.4–12 ng/mg, and its LOD and LOQ were both experimentally estimated to be 0.4 ng/mg. After validation, the variation in endogenous GHB concentrations across multiple donors and locations in the vertex posterior region of the human head were evaluated. Results for 11 non-GHB users showed minimal variability (average 3.0% RSD) across the vertex posterior for hair samples taken from three different areas. There was also low variability (average 1.8% RSD) in repeat samples taken from the same location for 11 other non-users. Endogenous GHB concentrations from the LOD/LOQ to 5.60 ng/mg were determined for the 22 donors using the synthetic hair as a calibrator. These results demonstrate the successful application of a synthetic hair matrix in the analysis of GHB in human hair.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz095
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 4 (2020)
  • Toward the Interpretation of Positive Testing for Fentanyl and Its Analogs
           in Real Hair Samples: Preliminary Considerations
    • Authors: Salomone A; Bigiarini R, Palamar J, et al.
      Pages: 362 - 369
      Abstract: The detection of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in hair has become extensively researched in recent years. Although most NPS fall into the classes of synthetic cannabinoids and designer cathinones, novel synthetic opioids (NSO) have appeared with increasing frequency in the illicit drug supply. While the detection of NSO in hair is now well documented, interpretation of results presents several controversial issues, as is quite common in hair analysis. In this study, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method able to detect 13 synthetic opioids (including fentanyl analogs) and metabolites in hair was applied to 293 real samples. Samples were collected in the USA between November 2016 and August 2018 from subjects who had reported heroin use in the past year or had already tested positive to hair testing for common opiates. The range, mean and median concentrations were calculated for each analyte, in order to draw a preliminary direction for a possible cut-off to discriminate between exposure to either low or high quantities of the drug. Over two-thirds (68%) of samples tested positive for fentanyl at concentrations between LOQ and 8600 pg/mg. The mean value was 382 pg/mg and the median was 95 pg/mg. The metabolites norfentanyl and 4-ANPP were also quantified and were found between LOQ and 320 pg/mg and between LOQ and 1400 pg/mg, respectively. The concentration ratios norfentanyl/fentanyl, 4-ANPP/fentanyl and norfentanyl/4-ANPP were also tested as potential markers of active use and to discriminate the intake of fentanyl from other analogs. The common occurrence of samples positive for multiple drugs may suggest that use is equally prevalent among consumers, which is not the case, as correlations based on quantitative results demonstrated. We believe this set of experimental observations provides a useful starting point for a wide discussion aimed to better understand positive hair testing for fentanyl and its analogs in hair samples.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz102
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 4 (2020)
  • Development and Validation of an Analytical Method for Quantitation of
           Monobutylphthalate, a Metabolite of Di-n-Butylphthalate, in Rat Plasma,
           Amniotic Fluid, Fetuses and Pups by UPLC-MS/MS
    • Authors: Silinski M; Fernando R, Robinson V, et al.
      Pages: 370 - 377
      Abstract: Phthalates have been used for decades as softening agents in the production of plastics, but in recent years have been extensively investigated for their potential hazards to human health and the environment. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), with widespread exposure occurring through a variety of consumer products such as cosmetics and pesticides, is a suspected carcinogen and an endocrine system disruptor in both humans and laboratory animals. Its predominant metabolite is the monoester, monobutyl phthalate (MBP), which can serve as a marker of exposure. To support toxicological studies of DBP in pregnant and lactating rats and their offspring, a novel ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantitation of MBP in rat plasma, amniotic fluid, fetuses and whole pup samples. Plasma samples were extracted using a simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Extraction and delipidation of pup homogenate was performed using acetonitrile and then submerging the vials in liquid nitrogen. Extracts were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS in the negative ion mode. The method was successfully validated over the concentration ranges 25–5,000 ng/mL in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rat plasma and 50–5,000 ng/g in SD pup homogenate. Matrix calibration curves were linear (r ≥ 0.99), and the percent relative error (%RE) values were ≤ ±15% for standards at all levels. Absolute recoveries were > 92% in both matrices. The limits of detection (LODs) were 6.9 ng/mL in plasma and 9.4 ng/g in pup homogenate. Acceptable intra- and interday accuracy and precision were demonstrated by mean %RE ≤ ±7.5 and relative standard deviation (%RSD) ≤ 10.1%. Extract stability was demonstrated for ~6 days at various temperatures and freeze–thaw stability was demonstrated after 3 cycles over 3 days. Secondary matrix evaluation was performed for MBP in amniotic fluid and pooled fetus homogenate (mean %RE ≤ ±11.5 and %RSD ≤ 13.7). These data demonstrate that this simple method is suitable for determination of MBP in plasma, amniotic fluid, fetus and pup samples from toxicological studies of DBP.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz090
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 4 (2020)
  • Pharmacokinetic Study of Multiple Components of Gelsemium elegans in Goats
           by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass
    • Authors: Cao J; Yang K, Huang C, et al.
      Pages: 378 - 390
      Abstract: Gelsemium elegans (G. elegans) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. This plant is highly toxic to humans, but can promote the growth of pigs and goats in the veterinary clinic. It is a very complex mixture containing tens or hundreds of different components. Therefore, multiple-component pharmacokinetic studies of G. elegans are a major challenge due to the lack of authentic standards of the components. The purpose of this study was to investigate the plasma pharmacokinetics of multiple components after a single oral dose of G. elegans in goat using a sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous semiquantification of multiple alkaloids without standards. The method was validated in terms of the specificity, LOD, LOQ, linearity, accuracy, precision and matrix effects. To validate the global pharmacokinetic characteristics, the results obtained from the semiquantitative analysis of three authentic compounds (gelsemine, koumine and humantenmine) were compared with the absolute quantification from our recently published method. The results showed that the two methods had similar analytical results, and the obtained values of Tmax, T1/2 and MRT0−t of the three alkaloids were similar between the two methods. In addition, the values of Cmax and AUC0−t of the three alkaloids after normalization were close to the real values, which indicated that this semiquantitative method could be used in the pharmacokinetic study of multiplecomponents. Then the pharmacokinetic parameters of 23 other G. elegans alkaloids in goats were obtained. The results suggested that the gelsedine-type alkaloids were the major active ingredients that predict and explain the efficacy and toxicity of G. elegans.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz100
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 4 (2020)
  • Detection of Chemical Weapon Nerve Agents in Bone by Liquid
           Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
    • Authors: Rubin K; Goldberger B, Garrett T.
      Pages: 391 - 401
      Abstract: A recently proposed model for the incorporation of xenobiotics of forensic interest into the human skeleton suggests nerve agent metabolites may incorporate into bone at relatively elevated concentrations based on their unique chemical properties. To test the hypothesis that nerve agent metabolites interact with bone, methods for the extraction, isolation and semi-quantitative detection of nerve agent metabolites (MPA, EMPA, IMPA, iBuMPA, CMPA and PMPA, corresponding to the nerve agents VX, Russian VX, sarin, cyclosarin and soman, respectively) from osseous tissue were developed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with both quadrupole time-of-flight and triple quadrupole (QqQ) instruments. The optimized methods were validated on the QqQ instrument. Despite high ion suppression, the achieved limits of detection (5–20 pg/g for four analytes; 350 pg/g for the fifth analyte) were lower than many of those published for the same analytes in other biomatrices, including serum and urine. These methods were tested on the skeletal remains of minipigs exposed to the chemical weapon VX in vivo. The VX metabolite was detected in multiple minipig bone samples; to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time in vivo nerve agent exposure has been detected from bone. Further, detected concentrations and diaphyseal-to-epiphyseal area count ratios reflect animal exposure history. Although the results are limited, they are promising, indicating that nerve agent metabolites may interact with bone as a pharmacokinetic compartment and can be extracted from bone postmortem. Additional studies, assessing the effects of different agents, exposure pathways and taphonomic variables, are needed; however, these results suggest the method may be used with human bone to detect use of chemical weapons from postmortem biomatrices even well after a suspected attack. More general implications for both nerve agent toxicology and skeletal toxicology are also discussed.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz118
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 4 (2020)
  • An Optimized Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography–Mass
           Spectrometry Assay for the Determination of Ethyl Palmitate in Hair
    • Authors: Bastiani M; Lizot L, Da Silva A, et al.
      Pages: 402 - 409
      Abstract: The use of hair as a matrix for the evaluation of chronic ethanol drinking behavior presents the advantage of a longer window of detection and higher specificity when compared to classical biochemical markers. The most recent recommendations the Society of Hair Testing (SOHT) indicate that ethyl palmitate (EtP) hair levels can be used to estimate the ethanol drinking behavior, alternatively to the combined measurement of four main fatty acid ethyl esters. In this study, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) conditions for the extraction of EtP from hair were optimized using response surface analysis, after a Box–Behnken experiment. Analyses were performed by GC-MS. The optimized HS-SPME conditions, using a PDMS-DVB (65 μm) fiber, were pre-adsorption time of 6 min, extraction time of 60 min and incubation temperature of 94°C. The linear range was 0.05 to 3 ng mg−1, with accuracy within 95.15–109.91%. Between-assay and within-assay precision were 8.58–12.53 and 6.12–6.82%, respectively. The extraction yield was 61.3–71.9%. The assay was applied to hair specimens obtained from 46 volunteers, all presenting EtP levels within the linear range of the assay. Using a statistically designed experiment, a sensitive SPME-GC-MS assay for the measurement of EtP in hair was developed and validated, requiring only 20 mg of hair.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz085
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 4 (2020)
  • Comparative Analysis of ELISA Immunoassay and LC-QTOF for Opiate Screening
    • Authors: Kennedy D; Dani M.
      Pages: 410 - 413
      Abstract: A comparative analysis of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF) for the detection of opioids in blood samples is presented. The Orange County Crime Lab (OCCL) was concerned that the opioid drug class was not accurately detected at low concentrations due to the use of LC-QTOF as a non-targeted screening method for multiple classes of drugs. In order to investigate this issue, 968 ante-mortem and postmortem blood samples were analyzed by ELISA for the presence of the following opioids: morphine, morphine-glucuronide, codeine, codeine-glucuronide, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, hydromorphone-glucuronide, oxycodone, oxymorphone and oxymorphone-glucuronide. All samples had been previously analyzed by LC-QTOF. Overall, 84 samples tested positive for opioids. Discrepant samples between ELISA and LC-QTOF were analyzed by a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry confirmation method in order to determine the true composition of the sample. Upon review of the discrepant samples, no forensically relevant concentration of opioids was missed by LC-QTOF. Thus, the ability of the OCCL’s LC-QTOF screening method was verified to detect opioids at low concentrations.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz109
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 4 (2020)
  • ANSI/ASB Standard 036 for Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology Has
           Replaced SWGTOX’s Version
    • Authors: LeBeau M.
      Pages: 414 - 414
      Abstract: Recently, the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) announced through their Academy Standards Board (ASB) the publication of ANSI/ASB Standard 036, Standard Practices for Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology (1). As noted in the forward, the document serves as an update to a similar document published by the Scientific Working Group on Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) (2). One benefit of this new document is that it was developed through an ANSI-approved standard development process. This process ensured that all interested parties were afforded opportunities to provide comments on the document, and those comments were then evaluated by a group of experts representing forensic toxicology practitioners from state, local, federal and private laboratories; academia; researchers; and industry and legal representatives in order to achieve consensus approval of the final document.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Feb 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz115
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 4 (2020)
  • A Dilute and Shoot LC–MS/MS Method for Antipsychotics in Urine
    • Authors: Feng S; Enders J, Cummings O, et al.
      Pages: 331 - 338
      Abstract: Adherence to prescribed antipsychotics is an ongoing problem. Traditionally, estimates of adherence have been made from patient interviews, pill counting and blood testing. A number of methods for the analysis of antipsychotics in blood have been reported for both therapeutic drug monitoring and postmortem testing for toxicity. This report details a dilute and shoot method for the analysis of 19 different antipsychotics and metabolites. The method takes advantage of earlier reports demonstrating unique, prevalent urine metabolites for aripiprazole, brexpiprazole, haloperidol and lurasidone to enhance sensitivity for these analytes. With a fast analysis time and minimal sample preparation, this method can be used for quantitation of antipsychotics in urine. Finally, this method has been used to test samples for over a year with the results summarized in this report. While further improvements are certainly possible, this method is selective and sensitive for this group of important compounds.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkz098
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 4 (2019)
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