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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 406 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
Aesthetic Surgery J. Open Forum     Open Access  
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 348, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 603, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Econometrics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.926, CiteScore: 1)
Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116, SJR: 5.161, CiteScore: 3)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Integrative Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 3)
Integrative Organismal Biology     Open Access  
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Breast Imaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
American Journal of Hypertension
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.322
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 26  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0895-7061 - ISSN (Online) 1941-7225
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [406 journals]
  • Daytime Napping Masks Dipping
    • Authors: Bursztyn M.
      Abstract: To the Editor: I read with interest the paper by Li et al., titled “Diastolic Reverse Dipping Pattern Is the Predictor for the Echocardiographic Changes in the Untreated Masked Hypertensive Patients.”1 This otherwise careful study had overlooked a very important phenomenon relevant to dipping in Chinese people, daytime napping. Napping in China is a social norm, which is practiced by all ages primarily as a habit started in childhood.2 During daytime napping, there is a marked reduction of blood pressure (BP), similar to that that occurs during nighttime sleep.3,4Hence if daytime sleep (napping) BP is included in the daytime BP (misclassified as awake BP), dipping is diminished by up to 50%, and a substantial proportion of dippers may appear to be non-dipping.3–5
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz051
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
  • Role of Pendrin in the Pathophysiology of Aldosterone-Induced Hypertension
    • Authors: Shibata S.
      Pages: 607 - 613
      Abstract: The recent advances in genetics and molecular biology have resulted in the characterization of key components that critically regulate renal NaCl transport and blood pressure. Pendrin is a Cl−/HCO3− exchanger that is highly expressed in thyroid, inner ear, and kidney. In the kidney, it is selectively present at the apical membrane in non-α intercalated cells of the connecting tubules and cortical collecting duct. Besides its role in acid/base homeostasis, accumulating studies using various genetically modified animals have provided compelling evidence that pendrin regulates extracellular fluid volume and electrolyte balance at the downstream of aldosterone signaling. We have shown that angiotensin II and aldosterone cooperatively control pendrin abundance partly through mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and mineralocorticoid receptor dephosphorylation, which is necessary for the kidney to prevent extracellular fluid loss and electrolyte disturbances under physiologic perturbations. In line with the experimental observations, several clinical data indicated that the impaired pendrin function can cause fluid and electrolyte abnormalities in humans. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the recent progress regarding the role of pendrin in fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, as well as in the pathophysiology of hypertension associated with mineralocorticoid receptor signaling.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz054
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
  • In the Deep End of Dipping: Nocturnal Blood Pressure Fall and Surrogate
           Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Individuals With Optimal 24-Hour Blood
           Pressure
    • Authors: Gkaliagkousi E; Anyfanti P, Douma S.
      Pages: 614 - 616
      Abstract: Physiologically, the circadian variation of sympathetic activity presents a nadir during nighttime sleep and is accompanied by increased vagal tone and a marked reduction in heart rate, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance. Subsequently, blood pressure (BP) drops during nighttime bed-rest period.1 Although nighttime BP dipping follows a normal distribution in a population setting, nighttime BP values are expected to normally drop by 10–20% compared with daytime values. According to recent hypertension guidelines, assessment of nocturnal BP values and dipping status is a specific indication for 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), which enables the classification of patients as “dippers” and “nondippers.”2 The latter comprise a significant portion of the general hypertensive population (20–40%)3,4 and are generally considered as patients at a substantially increased cardiovascular risk.2
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz033
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
  • Renin and Antihypertensive Drug Therapy in African Ancestry Patients
    • Authors: Brewster L; van Montfrans G.
      Pages: 617 - 619
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz045
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
  • Nondipping Pattern and Cardiovascular and Renal Damage in a
           Population-Based Study (The STANISLAS Cohort Study)
    • Authors: Lopez-Sublet M; Girerd N, Bozec E, et al.
      Pages: 620 - 628
      Abstract: OBJECTIVEThe attenuation of physiological nocturnal decline of blood pressure (BP)—called nondipper pattern—has previously been reported to be associated with target organ damage in hypertensive subjects. However, this association remains debated and poorly studied in normotensive patients. This study aimed to investigate the association between nondipper pattern and subclinical cardiovascular and renal damage in an initially healthy population-based cohort study.METHODSThe STANISLAS Cohort is a single-center, familial longitudinal cohort composed of 1,006 families (4,295 subjects) recruited in 1993–1995 for a 5-year periodic health examination. A total of 1,334 subjects from the 4th visit (2011–2016) of the STANISLAS cohort were included. This 4th examination included estimated glomerular filtration rate, albumin/creatinine ratio, pulse wave velocity, central systolic BP, carotid intima–media thickness and distensibility, left ventricular mass index, left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Nondipping status was defined as a mean reduction in systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP) lower than 10% during nighttime.RESULTSData were obtained from 798 normotensive subjects (45 ± 14 years, 395 [49%] nondippers, SBP/DBP mmHg 24 hours: 116/71 ± 7/5) and 536 hypertensive patients (56 ± 11 years, 257 [48%] nondippers, SBP/DBP mmHg 24 hours: 127/78 ± 10/7). Mean 24-hour and daytime ABPM measurements were within the normal range, even in hypertensive participants (19% treated). The nondipping pattern was not associated with cardiovascular or renal alterations in this population.CONCLUSIONIn this middle-aged population with an overall 24-hour optimal BP control, the nondipper pattern was not associated with increased cardiovascular or renal damage.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz020
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
  • Telemonitoring of 24-Hour Blood Pressure in Local Pharmacies and Blood
           Pressure Control in the Community: The Templar Project
    • Authors: Omboni S; Mancinelli A, Rizzi F, et al.
      Pages: 629 - 639
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe analysis of ambulatory blood pressure monitorings (ABPMs) performed in 639 Italian pharmacies in the context of a telehealth-based service allowed to evaluate the level of blood pressure (BP) control in the community.METHODSTwenty-four-hour ABPMs were performed by a clinically validated, automated, upper-arm BP monitor. Recordings were uploaded on a certified web-based telemedicine platform (www.tholomeus.net) and remote medical reporting provided. In each subject, an automatic BP measurement was obtained in the pharmacy and clinical information collected before starting the ABPM.RESULTSA total of 20,773 subjects (mean age 57 ± 15 years; 54% females; 28% receiving antihypertensive medications, 31% with any cardiovascular [CV] risk factor) provided valid ABPMs. BP control was poor, but better in ambulatory conditions (24-hour BP <130/80 mm Hg 54% vs. pharmacy BP < 140/90 mm Hg 43%; P < 0.0001) and in drug-treated subjects. Sustained normotension was reported in only 28% subjects. Isolated nocturnal hypertension (16%; nighttime BP ≥120/70 mm Hg with normal daytime BP) was more common (P < 0.0001) than isolated daytime hypertension (9%; daytime BP ≥ 135/85 mm Hg with normal nighttime BP). Sustained hypertension (43%) was more common in younger males at the lowest CV risk, with daytime hypertension. White-coat hypertension (14%) was more common in females. Masked hypertension was not uncommon (15%) and more often observed in older males with an elevated nocturnal BP.CONCLUSIONSA telemedicine-based service provided to community pharmacies may facilitate access to ABPM, thus favoring a more accurate hypertension screening and detection. It may also help describe the occurrence of different 24-hour BP phenotypes and personalize the physician’s intervention.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz049
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
  • Relationships Between Calcium Channel Blockers and Vascular Function Tests
    • Authors: Maruhashi T; Kajikawa M, Kishimoto S, et al.
      Pages: 640 - 648
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDDifferences between the effects of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and other antihypertensive drugs on vascular function have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the confounding effect of CCBs on vascular function tests.METHODSWe measured flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation (NID), and brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 1,134 subjects who underwent health-screening examinations or who visited the outpatient clinic at Hiroshima University Hospital.RESULTSFMD and NID were significantly lower (4.3 ± 3.2% vs. 2.3 ± 2.4% and 14.1 ± 5.8% vs. 10.6 ± 5.3%, P < 0.001, respectively) and baPWV was significantly higher (1,604 ± 412 cm/s vs. 1,715 ± 343 cm/s, P < 0.001) in subjects receiving CCB treatment than in subjects without CCB treatment. Multivariate analyses revealed that CCB treatment was significantly associated with lower FMD (β = –0.151, P < 0.001) and lower NID (β = –0.120, P < 0.001) but not with baPWV (β = 0.017, P = 0.42). Propensity score matching analyses revealed that FMD and NID were significantly lower and baseline brachial artery diameter was significantly larger in subjects receiving CCB monotherapy than in subjects without antihypertensive medication or subjects receiving non-CCB antihypertensive monotherapy.CONCLUSIONSCCB treatment was significantly associated with lower FMD and lower NID, which might be, at least in part, due to larger baseline brachia artery diameter, whereas there was no significant association between CCB treatment and baPWV. FMD and NID may be of no use as prognostic markers of cardiovascular events in individuals who have been receiving CCB treatment.PUBLIC TRIALS REGISTRY NUMBERTrial Number UMIN000003409
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz061
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
  • Serum Sodium and Pulse Pressure in SPRINT
    • Authors: Nowak K; Chonchol M, Jovanovich A, et al.
      Pages: 649 - 656
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDHigh dietary sodium intake may induce a small, yet physiologically relevant rise in serum sodium concentration, which associates with increased systolic blood pressure. Cellular data suggest that this association is mediated by increased endothelial cell stiffness. We hypothesized that higher serum sodium levels were associated with greater arterial stiffness in participants in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT).METHODSMultivariable linear regression was used to examine the association between baseline serum sodium level and (i) pulse pressure (PP; n = 8,813; a surrogate measure of arterial stiffness) and (ii) carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV; n = 591 in an ancillary study to SPRINT).RESULTSBaseline mean ± SD age was 68 ± 9 years and serum sodium level was 140 ± 2 mmol/L. In the PP analysis, higher serum sodium was associated with increased baseline PP in the fully adjusted model (tertile 3 [≥141 mmol] vs. tertile 2 [139–140 mmol]; β = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.43). Results were similar in those with and without chronic kidney disease. In the ancillary study, higher baseline serum sodium was not associated with increased baseline CFPWV in the fully adjusted model (β = 0.35, 95% CI = –0.14 to 0.84).CONCLUSIONSAmong adults at high risk for cardiovascular events but free from diabetes, higher serum sodium was independently associated with baseline arterial stiffness in SPRINT, as measured by PP, but not by CFPWV. These results suggest that high serum sodium may be a marker of risk for increased PP, a surrogate index of arterial stiffness.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz055
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
  • Clinical Significance of Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Patients
           With Heart Failure With Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction
    • Authors: Takae M; Yamamoto E, Tokitsu T, et al.
      Pages: 657 - 667
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAlthough pulse wave velocity (PWV) is recognized to be a risk predictor for various cardiovascular diseases, the association of brachial–ankle PWV (baPWV) with cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients remains uncertain.METHODSWe measured ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) and baPWV values at stable condition after optimal therapy for HF in 201 consecutive HFrEF patients admitted to Kumamoto University Hospital from 2007 to 2015 who were enrolled and followed until the occurrence of cardiovascular events. We defined peripheral artery disease (PAD) as ABI value ≤ 0.9.RESULTSKaplan–Meier analysis revealed that HFrEF patients with peripheral artery disease PAD had a significant higher risk of total cardiovascular and HF-related events than those without PAD (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). Next, we divided HFrEF patients without PAD into 3 groups according to baPWV values. In the Kaplan–Meier analysis, total cardiovascular and HF-related events in the highest baPWV group (1,800 cm/second ≤ baPWV) had a significantly higher frequency than those in the mid-level baPWV group (1,400 cm/second ≤ baPWV < 1,800 cm/second) (P = 0.007 and P = 0.004, respectively). The hazard ratio between HFrEF patients in the mid-level baPWV group and those with other baPWV groups was compared after adjustment for other cofounders. The probabilities of HF-related events were significantly higher in the lowest and highest baPWV group.CONCLUSIONIdentifying complications of PAD and measuring baPWV values in HFrEF patients were useful for predicting their prognosis.Trial Registration: UMIN000034358.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz048
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
  • Plasma Renin Activity Is a Predictive Biomarker of Blood Pressure Response
           in European but not in African Americans With Uncomplicated Hypertension
    • Authors: Mehanna M; Wang Z, Gong Y, et al.
      Pages: 668 - 675
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDInterindividual variability in blood pressure (BP) response to antihypertensives has been reported. Although plasma renin activity (PRA) is a potential biomarker for personalizing antihypertensive therapy in European American (EA) and African American (AA) hypertensives, clinical utility of PRA-guided prescribing is incompletely understood.METHODSUsing systematic-phased approach, PRA’s clinical utility was assessed. After categorizing by baseline PRA, clinic systolic BP (SBP) responses to metoprolol and chlorthalidone were compared in 134 EAs and 102 AAs enrolled in the Pharmacogenomics Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses-2 (PEAR-2) trial. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted in EAs. Data from PEAR-2 AAs were used to estimate an optimal PRA cut point using multivariable linear regression models. The derived cut point in AAs was tested in a meta-analysis of 2 independent AA cohorts, and its sensitivity and specificity were assessed.RESULTSEAs with PRA < 0.65 ng/ml/hour had a greater decrease in SBP to chlorthalidone than metoprolol (by –15.9 mm Hg, adjusted P < 0.0001), whereas those with PRA ≥ 0.65 ng/ml/hour had a greater decrease in SBP to metoprolol than chlorthalidone (by 3.3 mm Hg, adjusted P = 0.04). Area under ROC curve (0.69, P = 0.0001) showed that PRA can predict SBP response among EAs. However, we observed no association between PRA and SBP response in PEAR-2 AAs. Among independent AA cohorts, those with PRA ≥ 1.3 ng/ml/hour (PEAR-2-derived cut point) responded better to atenolol/candesartan than hydrochlorothiazide (meta-analysis P = 0.01). However, sensitivity of the derived cut point was 10%.CONCLUSIONSPRA at the previously established 0.60–0.65 ng/ml/hour cut point is an effective predictive biomarker of BP response in EAs. However, we were unable to identify PRA cut point that could be used to guide antihypertensive selection in AAs.TRIAL REGISTRATIONNCT01203852, NCT00246519, NCT00005520.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Feb 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz022
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
  • Aging Vs. Hypertension: An Autopsy Study of Sclerotic Renal
           Histopathological Lesions in Adults With Normal Renal Function
    • Authors: Okabayashi Y; Tsuboi N, Kanzaki G, et al.
      Pages: 676 - 683
      Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMSArterial hypertension and glomerular ischemia coexist in elderly patients with hypertension. Thus, 2 conflicting therapeutic purposes, i.e., reduction of pressure overload and maintenance of renal arterial perfusion, must be considered in elderly patients with hypertension. This study examined this issue from the perspective of renal histopathology.METHODSAdult autopsied kidneys without apparent renal disease were analyzed for histopathological features that might be related to aging or hypertension. Mean glomerular volume (GV), global glomerulosclerosis (GGS), arteriosclerotic lesions (AL), arteriolar hyalinosis (AH), and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA) were evaluated.RESULTSThis study included 59 Japanese autopsy patients, of whom 28 (47%) were hypertensive. Overall, GGS, IF/TA, and AL, but not GV or AH, tended to increase with aging. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, but not hypertension, was an independent factor associated with GGS, IF/TA, and AL. In contrast, hypertension was independently associated with GV. AH was not associated with age or hypertension in this autopsy series. Of note, in the late elderly group (≥75 years), GGS was significantly lower in hypertensives than in normotensives. No such trend was found in the non-elderly (<65 years) or early elderly groups (65–74 years).CONCLUSIONSNormal aging has a major impact on the development of renal sclerotic lesions compared to hypertension in adults with no apparent renal disease. Hypertension may play a role in maintaining downstream glomerular perfusion in the aging kidney.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz040
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
  • Association of Orthostatic Hypotension Timing With Clinical Events in
           Adults With Diabetes and Hypertension: Results From the ACCORD Trial
    • Authors: Juraschek S; Lipsitz L, Beach J, et al.
      Pages: 684 - 694
      Abstract: OBJECTIVETo determine the effects of orthostatic hypotension (OH) measurement timing on its associations with dizziness, falls, fractures, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality.METHODSWe analyzed OH measurements from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes BP trial, which evaluated two blood pressure (BP) goals (systolic BP [SBP] < 120 mm Hg vs. SBP < 140 mm Hg) and incident CVD among adults with diabetes and hypertension. Seated BP was measured after 5 minutes of rest at baseline and follow-up visits (12 months, 48 months, and exit). Standing BP was measured 3 consecutive times (M1–M3) after standing, starting at 1 minute with each measurement separated by 1 minute. Consensus OH was defined as a drop in SBP ≥ 20 mm Hg or diastolic BP (DBP) ≥ 10 mm Hg. Participants were asked about orthostatic dizziness, recent falls, and recent fractures, and underwent surveillance for CVD events and all-cause mortality.RESULTSThere were 4,268 participants with OH assessments over 8,450 visits (mean age 62.6 years [SD = 6.6]; 46.6% female; 22.3% black). Although all measures of consensus OH were significantly associated with dizziness, none were associated with falls, and only M2 (~3 minutes) was significantly associated with fractures. No measurements were associated with CVD events, but later measurements were significantly associated with mortality. BP treatment goal did not increase risk of OH regardless of timing. Associations were not consistently improved by the mean or minimum of M1–M3.CONCLUSIONIn this population of adults with hypertension and diabetes, neither single time nor set of measurements were clearly superior with regard to outcomes. These findings support the use of a flexibly timed, single measurement to assess OH in clinical practice.CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATIONTrial Number NCT00000620
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz015
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
  • Effects of the Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitor Alogliptin on Blood
           Pressure in Hypertensive Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    • Authors: Kishimoto S; Kinoshita Y, Matsumoto T, et al.
      Pages: 695 - 702
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDThe effects of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors on blood pressure in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are controversial. There is no information on the effect of DPP-4 inhibitors on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients with DM. We evaluated the effects of alogliptin on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).METHODSBlood pressure and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were measured before and after 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment with alogliptin in 22 hypertensive patients with T2DM.RESULTSAfter 3, 6, and 12 months, alogliptin treatment decreased hemoglobin A1c from 7.0 ± 0.97% to 6.4 ± 0.61%, 6.3 ± 0.58%, and 6.3 ± 0.75% (P < 0.01, respectively), glucose from 8.6 ± 4.39 mmol/l to 7.05 ± 2.16, 7.05 ± 2.28, and 6.44 ± 1.50 mmol/l (P < 0.01, respectively), systolic blood pressure from 137 ± 18 mm Hg to 127 ± 13, 125 ± 15, and 120 ± 17 mm Hg (P < 0.01, respectively), diastolic blood pressure from 79 ± 13 mm Hg to 74 ± 8, 74 ± 10, and 70 ± 8 mm Hg (P < 0.01, respectively) and baPWV from 1,947 ± 349 cm/second to 1,774 ± 259, 1,856 ± 361, and 1,756 ± 286 cm/second (P < 0.01, respectively). A baseline baPWV value of 1,643 cm/second was the optimal cut-off value for patients who had reduced blood pressure after treatment with alogliptin (sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 75.0%).CONCLUSIONSAlogliptin was associated with improvements not only in glucose metabolism but also in blood pressure and arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients with T2DM. The cut-off value of baPWV may enable identification of responders of decrease in blood pressure by alogliptin in hypertensive patients with T2DM.CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATIONRegistration Number for Clinical Trial: UMIN000007722.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 May 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz065
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
  • The Combined Effects of Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure on
           Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events
    • Authors: Chen Z; Huang J, Yuan J, et al.
      Pages: 703 - 704
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo study the combined effects of body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.MethodsWe conducted a prospective cohort study on the participants from Kailuan Group Company who received health examination in 2006–2007. There were 94,294 participates met the inclusion criteria. The included participants were divided into four groups based on blood pressure (hypertension defined as blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Hg or with a definite diagnosis of hypertension or taking antihypertensive medications; normotension defined as blood pressure ≤ 140/90 mm Hg or without a definite diagnosis of hypertension or no antihypertensive drugs were used) and BMI (overweight defined as BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2; non-overweight defined as BMI < 24 kg/m2): (i) normotension without overweight; (ii) normotension with overweight; (iii) hypertension without overweight; (iv) hypertension with overweight. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the cumulative incidence rates of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, Log-rank test to compare the differences in the cumulative incidence rates among groups and Cox proportional hazards model to analyze the groups’ impact on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.ResultsIn 94,294 subjects with 9.76 ± 1.32 years of follow-up, there were 5,312 cases of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The hypertension with overweight group had the highest cumulative incidence rates, which were 9.3%, 2.2%, and 7.3% for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, respectively (P < 0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that after adjusted for multiple confounding factors, compared with the normotension without overweight, the risks of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, myocardial infarction, and stroke in other three groups were increased. Among groups, the hypertension with overweight group had the highest risk ratio and 95% CI for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, myocardial infarction and stroke, which were 2.23 (2.04–2.44), 1.87 (1.57–2.24), and 2.35 (2.12–2.61), respectively. Moreover, the above risks in hypertension with overweight group were approximately equal to the sum of groups of normotension with overweight and the hypertension with non-overweight. The effects of hypertension and high BMI on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease risk were additive.ConclusionThe risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events is higher in hypertensive patients with overweight. The effect of hypertension and high BMI has an additive effect on the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz071
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
  • Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension Among Adults Aged 35 to
           75 Years in Southwest China
    • Authors: Zhang D; Cui J, Wu C, et al.
      Pages: 703 - 703
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo define awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in adults in Southwest China and to investigate relevant personal characteristics, as well as antihypertensive drug use among patients with hypertension.MethodsData from a population-based high-risk cardiovascular screening study named China PEACE (Patient-Centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events) Million Persons Project in Southwest China, collected from January 2016 to December 2017, were used. Basic information, physical examination, and questionnaire were collected. In this population, hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, or self-reported antihypertensive medication use in the previous 2 weeks or history of hypertension. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control were defined, respectively, among hypertensive adults as a self-reported diagnosis of hypertension, current use of antihypertensive medication, and blood pressure ≤140/90 mm Hg. The prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates of hypertension in subgroups were assessed, and the associations of hypertension management with individual characteristics were identified using mixed models. The number and pattern of medication use were also investigated.ResultsThe sample contained 315,250 participants with a mean age of (55.2 ± 10.3) years, 38.5% of whom were males. The average blood pressure was 133.4/80.9 mm Hg, and 127,231 subjects had hypertension, of whom 42.3% were aware of their diagnosis, 27.8% were under antihypertensive medications treatment, and 8.9% achieved control. Women had higher awareness and treatment rates than men (P < 0.001). Age, income, education, diabetes, or previous cardiovascular events had a positive correlation, while alcohol use had a negative correlation with awareness, treatment, and control rates (all P < 0.05). Among patients under treatment, 86.8% took one anti-hypertensive drug and only 1.3% took three or more drugs. The most common drug used was calcium channel blockers (CCB; 49.0%). Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor /angiotensin receptor blocker plus CCB (35.7%) was the most common combination therapy.ConclusionHypertension awareness, treatment, and control in community-dwelling residents are poor, and the proportion of drug combination therapy is low in Southwest China.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz072
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 7 (2019)
       
 
 
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