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Publisher: Oxford University Press   (Total: 396 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 396 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.196, CiteScore: 5)
Aesthetic Surgery J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.434, CiteScore: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.869, CiteScore: 2)
Age and Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 1.989, CiteScore: 4)
Alcohol and Alcoholism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 3)
American Entomologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.113, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 3.438, CiteScore: 6)
American J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 2.713, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.053, CiteScore: 1)
American Literary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.391, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.038, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.423, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.721, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 5.599, CiteScore: 9)
Annals of the Entomological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.722, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Work Exposures and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.728, CiteScore: 2)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.987, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Mathematics Research eXpress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.241, CiteScore: 1)
Arbitration Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.871, CiteScore: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308, SJR: 6.14, CiteScore: 8)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 3)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.485, CiteScore: 2)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.754, CiteScore: 4)
Bioscience Horizons : The National Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 2)
BJA : British J. of Anaesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 2.115, CiteScore: 3)
BJA Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 5.858, CiteScore: 7)
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.505, CiteScore: 5)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.15, CiteScore: 3)
British J. for the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.161, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Aesthetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 587, SJR: 1.828, CiteScore: 3)
British J. of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.019, CiteScore: 2)
British Medical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.355, CiteScore: 3)
British Yearbook of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.376, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge J. of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.764, CiteScore: 2)
Cambridge J. of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.438, CiteScore: 4)
Cambridge Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Capital Markets Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 0)
Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.135, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.002, CiteScore: 5)
Cerebral Cortex     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.892, CiteScore: 6)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.392, CiteScore: 2)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Receptions J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 5.051, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Kidney J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Communication Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.424, CiteScore: 3)
Communication, Culture & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Community Development J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Computer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Conservation Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 3)
Contemporary Women's Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Values     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.164, CiteScore: 2)
Database : The J. of Biological Databases and Curation     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 3)
Digital Scholarship in the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
DNA Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.866, CiteScore: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Early Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.584, CiteScore: 3)
ELT J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.942, CiteScore: 1)
English Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
English: J. of the English Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Environmental Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
EP-Europace     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.748, CiteScore: 4)
Epidemiologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 4.505, CiteScore: 8)
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Essays in Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
European Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 9.315, CiteScore: 9)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.625, CiteScore: 3)
European Heart J. - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Heart J. - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart J. : Case Reports     Open Access  
European Heart J. Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.681, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.279, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.36, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 2)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.702, CiteScore: 1)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.728, CiteScore: 3)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.018, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 4)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 7.063, CiteScore: 13)
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 3)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 1)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.89, CiteScore: 2)
Forestry: An Intl. J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.133, CiteScore: 3)
Forum for Modern Language Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
French History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.148, CiteScore: 0)
French Studies Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Gastroenterology Report     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Biology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.578, CiteScore: 4)
Geophysical J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
German History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 5.022, CiteScore: 7)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Glycobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Health Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.854, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 2)
Health Promotion Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
History Workshop J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Human Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.146, CiteScore: 3)
Human Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.555, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 2.643, CiteScore: 5)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access  
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 5.317, CiteScore: 10)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
ICES J. of Marine Science: J. du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 3)
ICSID Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ILAR J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.732, CiteScore: 4)
IMA J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.679, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Mathematical Control and Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
IMA J. of Numerical Analysis - advance access     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.987, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 2)
Industrial Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.511, CiteScore: 4)
Information and Inference     Free  
Integrative and Comparative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.319, CiteScore: 2)
Interacting with Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 1)
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.762, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.505, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Intl. Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.851, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.167, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.348, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.601, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 238, SJR: 3.969, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Law and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Lexicography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.808, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Public Opinion Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.545, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Mathematics Research Notices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.168, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.465, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.983, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.581, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 1)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
ITNOW     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.533, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.065, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.419, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.226, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Burn Care & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Church and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.411, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.05, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Computer-Mediated Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.961, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.402, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.856, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Biology of Reproduction
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.446
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 9  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0006-3363 - ISSN (Online) 1529-7268
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • [WITHDRAWN AS DUPLICATE] A historical perspective on some “new”
           discoveries on spermatogenesis from the laboratory of Enrico Sertoli in
    • Authors: Geyer C.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy104
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • An interview with Professor Martin Matzuk
    • Authors: Kumar T.
      Pages: 473 - 475
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy064
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Placental defects are involved in most gene mutations that cause embryonic
           and fetal death
    • Authors: Shao X; Tan C, Chen D, et al.
      Pages: 476 - 478
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy080
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Complex integration of intrinsic and peripheral signaling is required for
           pituitary gland development†
    • Authors: Edwards W; Raetzman L.
      Pages: 504 - 513
      Abstract: The coordination of pituitary development is complicated and requires input from multiple cellular processes. Recent research has provided insight into key molecular determinants that govern cell fate specification in the pituitary. Moreover, increasing research aimed to identify, characterize, and functionally describe the presumptive pituitary stem cell population has allowed for a better understanding of the processes that govern endocrine cell differentiation in the developing pituitary. The culmination of this research has led to the ability of investigators to recapitulate some of embryonic pituitary development in vitro, the first steps to developing novel regenerative therapies for pituitary diseases. In this current review, we cover the major players in pituitary stem/progenitor cell function and maintenance, and the key molecular determinants of endocrine cell specification. In addition, we discuss the contribution of peripheral hormonal regulation of pituitary gland development, an understudied area of research.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy081
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Interferon-gamma inhibits seminal plasma induction of colony-stimulating
           factor 2 in mouse and human reproductive tract epithelial cells†
    • Authors: Sharkey D; Glynn D, Schjenken J, et al.
      Pages: 514 - 526
      Abstract: Seminal fluid interacts with the female reproductive tract to initiate a permissive immune response that facilitates embryo implantation and pregnancy success. The immune-regulatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFNG), which can be elevated in seminal plasma, is associated with reduced fertility. Here, we investigated how IFNG influences the female immune response to seminal fluid. In human Ect1 cervical epithelial cells, IFNG added at physiologically relevant concentrations substantially impaired seminal plasma-induced synthesis of key cytokines colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) and interleukin-6 (IL6). Seminal fluid-induced CSF2 synthesis was also suppressed in the uterus of mice in vivo, when IFNG was delivered transcervically 12 h after mating. Transforming growth factor B1 (TGFB1) is the major seminal fluid signaling factor which elicits CSF2 induction, and IFNG exhibited potent dose-dependent suppression of CSF2 synthesis induced by TGFB1 in murine uterine epithelial cells in vitro. Similarly, IFNG suppressed TGFB1-mediated CSF2 induction in Ect1 cells and human primary cervical epithelial cells; however, IL6 regulation by IFNG was independent of TGFB1. Quantitative PCR confirmed that CSF2 regulation by IFNG in Ect1 cells occurs at the gene transcription level, secondary to IFNG suppression of TGFBR2 encoding TGFB receptor 2. Conversely, TGFB1 suppressed IFNG receptor 1 and 2 genes IFNGR1 and IFNGR2. These data identify IFNG as a potent inhibitor of the TGFB-mediated seminal fluid interaction with relevant reproductive tract epithelia in mice and human. These findings raise the prospect that IFNG in the male partner's seminal fluid impairs immune adaptation for pregnancy following coitus in women.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy071
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Mouse oocytes connect with granulosa cells by fusing with cell membranes
           and form a large complex during follicle development†
    • Authors: Komatsu K; Masubuchi S.
      Pages: 527 - 535
      Abstract: Proper development and maturation of oocytes requires interaction with granulosa cells. Previous reports have indicated that mammalian oocytes connect with cumulus cells through gap junctions at the tip of transzonal projections that extend from the cells. Although the gap junctions between oocytes and transzonal projections provide a pathway through which small molecules (<1 kDa) can travel, it is unclear how molecules >1 kDa are transported between the oocytes and cumulus cells. In this study, we presented new connections between oocytes and granulosa cells. The green fluorescein protein Aequorea coerulescens green fluorescein protein (AcGFP1) localizing in oocyte cell membrane, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate and dextran conjugates (10,000 MW) injected into the oocytes, which were unable to pass through gap junctions, were diffused from the oocytes into the surrounding granulosa cells through these connections. These connect an oocyte to the surrounding cumulus and granulosa cells by fusing with the cell membranes and forming a large complex during follicle development. Furthermore, we show two characteristics of these connections during follicle development—the localization of growth and differentiation factor-9 within the connections and the dynamics of the connections at ovulation. This article presents for the first time that mammalian oocytes directly connect to granulosa cells by fusing with the cell membrane, similar to that in Drosophila.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy072
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Alteration of transporter activities in the epididymides of infertile
           initial segment-specific Pten knockout mice†
    • Authors: Xu B; Turner S, Hinton B.
      Pages: 536 - 545
      Abstract: A fully functional initial segment, the most proximal region of the epididymis, is important for male fertility. Our previous study generated a mouse model to investigate the importance of initial segment function in male fertility. In that model, phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) was conditionally removed from the initial segment epithelium, which resulted in epithelial de-differentiation. When spermatozoa progressed through the de-differentiated epithelial duct, they developed angled flagella, suggesting compromised sperm maturation, which eventually resulted in male infertility. To understand the molecular mechanisms, by which PTEN regulates epididymal sperm maturation, we compared the transcriptome profile of the initial segment between controls and initial segment-specific Pten knockouts and revealed that water, ion, and organic solute transporter activities were one of the top molecular and cellular functions altered following loss of Pten. Alteration in protein levels and localization of several transporters following loss of Pten were also observed by immunofluorescence analysis. Epithelial cells of the initial segment from knockouts were more permeable to fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran (4000 Da) compared to controls. Interestingly, conditional deletion of Pten from other organs also resulted in changes in transporter activity, suggesting a common role of PTEN in regulation of transporter activity. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that loss of Pten from the initial segment epithelium results in changes in the transporting and permeability characteristics of the epithelium, which in turn altered the luminal fluid microenvironment that is so important for sperm maturation and male fertility.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy073
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Surfactant protein A suppresses preterm delivery induced by live
           Escherichia coli in mice†
    • Authors: Agrawal V; Jaiswal M, Beaman K, et al.
      Pages: 546 - 555
      Abstract: Preterm birth accounts for the majority of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the developed world. A significant proportion of cases of spontaneous preterm labor are attributable to infections within gestational tissues. Surfactant protein A (SP-A), a collectin produced in the fetal lung and other tissues, has been shown previously in mice to suppress preterm delivery due to intrauterine (IU) instillation of sterile proinflammatory substances. Here we report a powerful antilabor effect for SP-A after IU infection with live Escherichia coli. SP-A abolished preterm birth (rate reduced from 100% to 0%) when it was administered into the uterus simultaneously with bacterial infection, reducing it by 75% when administered intravenously at the same time as IU bacterial inoculation, and by 48% when administered intravenously 4 h after IU bacterial infection. This effect on preterm delivery was accompanied by a parallel benefit on fetal survival in utero. SP-A had no effect on bacterial growth but reversed several major consequences of infection, including increased production of inflammatory mediators and a shift in macrophage polarization to the M1 phenotype. These findings suggest that exogenous SP-A has potential use to counteract infection-induced labor by reversing its proinflammatory consequences.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy074
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Elimination of primordial germ cells in sturgeon embryos by ultraviolet
    • Authors: Saito T; Güralp H, Iegorova V, et al.
      Pages: 556 - 564
      Abstract: A technique for rescuing and propagating endangered species involves implanting germ line stem cells into surrogates of a host species whose primordial germ cells (PGCs) have been destroyed. We induced sterilization in sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) embryos by means of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at the vegetal pole, the source of early-stage PGCs of sturgeon eggs. The optimal cell stage and length of UV irradiation for the effective repression of the developing PGCs were determined by exposing embryos at the one- to four-cell stage to different doses of irradiation at a wavelength of 254 nm (the optimal absorbance spectrum for germplasm destruction). The vegetal pole region of the embryos was labeled immediately upon irradiation with GFP bucky ball mRNA to monitor the amount of germ plasm and FITC-dextran (M.W. 500,000) to obtain the number of PGCs in the embryos. The size of the germ plasm and number of surrounding mitochondria in the irradiated embryos and controls were observed using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed a drastic reduction in both on the surface of the vegetal pole in the treated embryos. Furthermore, the reduction in the number of PGCs was proportional to the dose of UV irradiation. Under the conditions tested, optimum irradiation for PGCs removal was seen at 360 mJ/cm2 at the one-cell stage. Although some PGCs were observed after the UV irradiation, they significantly reduced in number as the embryos grew. We conclude that UV irradiation is a useful and efficient technique to induce sterility in surrogate sturgeons.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy076
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Knockout of the Gnrh genes in zebrafish: effects on reproduction and
           potential compensation by reproductive and feeding-related
    • Authors: Marvel M; Spicer O, Wong T, et al.
      Pages: 565 - 577
      Abstract: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) is known as a pivotal upstream regulator of reproduction in vertebrates. However, reproduction is not compromised in the hypophysiotropic Gnrh3 knockout line in zebrafish (gnrh3−/−). In order to determine if Gnrh2, the only other Gnrh isoform in zebrafish brains, is compensating for the loss of Gnrh3, we generated a double Gnrh knockout zebrafish line. Surprisingly, the loss of both Gnrh isoforms resulted in no major impact on reproduction, indicating that a compensatory response, outside of the Gnrh system, was evoked. A plethora of factors acting along the reproductive hypothalamus–pituitary axis were evaluated as possible compensators based on neuroanatomical and differential gene expression studies. In addition, we also examined the involvement of feeding factors in the brain as potential compensators for Gnrh2, which has known anorexigenic effects. We found that the double knockout fish exhibited upregulation of several genes in the brain, specifically gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (gnih), secretogranin 2 (scg2), tachykinin 3a (tac3a), and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide 1 (pacap1), and downregulation of agouti-related peptide 1 (agrp1), indicating the compensation occurs outside of Gnrh cells and therefore is a noncell autonomous response to the loss of Gnrh. While the differential expression of gnih and agrp1 in the double knockout line was confined to the periventricular nucleus and hypothalamus, respectively, the upregulation of scg2 corresponded with a broader neuronal redistribution in the lateral hypothalamus and hindbrain. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the existence of a redundant reproductive regulatory system that comes into play when Gnrh2 and Gnrh3 are lost.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy078
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Sox17 is essential for proper formation of the marginal zone of
           extraembryonic endoderm adjacent to a developing mouse placental disk†
    • Authors: Igarashi H; Uemura M, Hiramatsu R, et al.
      Pages: 578 - 589
      Abstract: In mouse conceptus, two yolk-sac membranes, the parietal endoderm (PE) and visceral endoderm (VE), are involved in protecting and nourishing early-somite-stage embryos prior to the establishment of placental circulation. Both PE and VE membranes are tightly anchored to the marginal edge of the developing placental disk, in which the extraembryonic endoderm (marginal zone endoderm: ME) shows the typical flat epithelial morphology intermediate between those of PE and VE in vivo. However, the molecular characteristics and functions of the ME in mouse placentation remain unclear. Here, we show that SOX17, not SOX7, is continuously expressed in the ME cells, whereas both SOX17 and SOX7 are coexpressed in PE cells, by at least 10.5 days postconception. The Sox17-null conceptus, but not the Sox7-null one, showed the ectopic appearance of squamous VE-like epithelial cells in the presumptive ME region, together with reduced cell density and aberrant morphology of PE cells. Such aberrant ME formation in the Sox17-null extraembryonic endoderm was not rescued by the chimeric embryo replaced with the wild-type gut endoderm by the injection of wild-type ES cells into the Sox17-null blastocyst, suggesting the cell autonomous defects in the extraembryonic endoderm of Sox17-null concepti. These findings provide direct evidence of the crucial roles of SOX17 in proper formation and maintenance of the ME region, highlighting a novel entry point to understand the in vivo VE-to-PE transition in the marginal edge of developing placenta.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy079
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Sex steroids drive the remodeling of oviductal extracellular matrix in
    • Authors: Gonella-Diaza A; Silveira Mesquita F, Lopes E, et al.
      Pages: 590 - 599
      Abstract: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a group of molecules that offer structural and biochemical support to cells and interact with them to regulate their function. Also, growth factors (GFs) stored in the ECM can be locally released during ECM remodeling. Here, we hypothesize that the balance between ECM components and remodelers is regulated according to the ovarian steroid milieu to which the oviduct is exposed during the periovulatory period. Follicular growth was manipulated to generate cows that ovulated small follicles (SF-small corpus luteum [SCL]; n = 20) or large follicles (LF-large corpus luteum [LCL]; n = 21) and possess corresponding Estradiol (E2) and Progesterone (P4) plasmatic concentrations. Ampulla and isthmus samples were collected on day 4 (day 0 = ovulation induction) and immediately frozen or fixed. The transcriptional profile (n = 3/group) was evaluated by RNA sequencing. MMP Antibody Array was used to quantify ECM remodelers’ protein abundance and immunohistochemistry to quantify type I collagen. Transcriptome analysis revealed the over-representation of ECM organization and remodeling pathways in the LF-LCL group. Transcription of ECM components (collagens), remodelers (ADAMs and MMPs), and related GFs were upregulated in LF-LCL. Protein intensities for MMP3, MMP8, MMP9, MMP13, and TIMP4 were greater for the LF-LCL group. Type I collagen content in the mucosa was greater in SF-SCL group. In conclusion, that the earlier and more intense exposure to E2 and P4 during the periovulatory period in LF-LCL animals stimulates ECM remodeling. We speculate that differential ECM regulation may contribute to oviductal receptivity to the embryo.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy083
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Bovine embryo elongation is altered due to maternal fatty acid
    • Authors: Giller K; Drews B, Berard J, et al.
      Pages: 600 - 610
      Abstract: The pre-implantation period is prone to embryonic losses in bovine. Embryo–maternal communication is crucial to support embryo development. Thereby, factors of the uterine fluid (UF) are of specific importance. The maternal diet can affect the UF composition. Since omega 3 fatty acids (omega 3 FA) are considered to be beneficial for reproduction, we investigated if dietary omega 3 FA affected factors in the UF related to embryo elongation. Angus heifers (n = 37) were supplemented with either 450 g of rumen-protected fish oil (omega 3 FA) or sunflower oil (omega 6 FA) for a period of 8 weeks. Following cycle synchronization and artificial insemination, the uteri were flushed post mortem to recover the embryos on day 15 of pregnancy. The UF and tissue samples of endometrium and corpus luteum (CL) were collected. Strikingly, the embryo elongation in the omega 3 group was enhanced compared to the omega 6 group. No differences were observed in uterine prostaglandins, even though the endometrial concentration of their precursor arachidonic acid was reduced in omega 3 compared to omega 6 heifers. The dietary FA neither led to differential expression of target genes in endometrium nor CL nor to a differential abundance of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, cortisol or amino acids in the UF. Interestingly, the omega 3 group displayed a higher plasma progesterone concentration during luteal growth than the omega 6 group, possibly promoting embryo elongation. Further research should include an ovarian perspective to understand the functional link between dietary omega 3 FA and reproductive outcome.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy084
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Effects of catecholamines on secretion of interferon tau and expression of
    • Authors: Elmetwally M; Lenis Y, Tang W, et al.
      Pages: 611 - 628
      Abstract: Ovine trophectoderm (oTr1) cells were used to investigate effects of epinephrine (EP), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) on their proliferation, migration and adhesion, secretion of interferon tau (IFNT), and expression of genes for synthesis of polyamines and apoptosis. Expression of mRNAs for agmatinase (AGMAT), arginine decarboxylase (ADC), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1), and solute carrier family 7 (SLC7A1) (cationic amino acid transporter, Y + system), member 1 increased (P < 0.05) in oTr1 cells in response to EP and DA. However, expression of SLC7A1 decreased at high doses of EP and expression of ADC mRNA by oTr1 cells decreased in response to 20 and 40 ng/ml NE, and 40 ng/ml DA. Migration of oTr1 cells increased in response to EP, DA, and NE after 48 h of treatment. However, proliferation of oTr1 cells was inhibited by 300 pg/ml EP after 96 h and DA at 20 and 100 ng/ml. EP increased adhesion of oTr1 cells. The secretion of IFNT increased in response to 300 pg/ml EP, 100 ng/ml NE and DA after 48 h and at 96 h, and both DA (40 ng/ml) and NE (100 ng/ml). Expression of mRNAs for apoptotic genes (caspase 3, cathpsin B, BCL2 associated X protein “bax,” B-cell lymphoma 2 “bcl2,” and proto-oncogene “cmyc”) decreased (P < 0.05) in response to catecholamines, but DA did not affect (P < 0.05) expression of cMYC mRNA. These results indicate that catecholamines play important roles in conceptus development during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy through effects on synthesis of polyamines, secretion of IFNT, and expression of apoptotic genes by oTr1 cells.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy085
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Effects of preovulatory estradiol on uterine environment and conceptus
           survival from fertilization to maternal recognition of pregnancy†
    • Authors: Northrop E; Rich J, Cushman R, et al.
      Pages: 629 - 638
      Abstract: Preovulatory estradiol is known to impact embryo quality and survival. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of preovulatory estradiol on the uterine environment and conceptus survival through maternal recognition of pregnancy. Beef cows/heifers were AIed following induced ovulation. Cows were grouped into high and low preovulatory estradiol. Conceptuses were collected on day 16 nonsurgically (Rep 1; n = 20), or following slaughter (Rep 2; n = 29). Blood was collected to determine plasma glucose concentrations, and uterine luminal fluid (ULF) was analyzed for protein, glucose, and interferon tau (IFNT) concentrations. Total cellular RNA was extracted from caruncular (CAR) and intercaruncular (INCAR) endometrial tissue. There was no effect of preovulatory estradiol on conceptus recovery rate (P = 0.38) or on apoptosis rate in the trophectoderm (P = 0.64). Cows in which a conceptus was recovered had greater concentrations of protein in the ULF (P = 0.04). Animals with elevated preovulatory estradiol had greater endometrial abundance of SLC2A1 (P = 0.05) and SLC5A1 (P = 0.04) in both INCAR and CAR tissue. Presence of a conceptus also tended to increase (P = 0.10) abundance of SLC5A1 in INCAR. In CAR tissue, cows with a conceptus had decreased SLC2A4 abundance (P = 0.05). In summary, conceptus recovery rates, apoptosis in the trophectoderm, IFNT, glucose, and protein concentration in ULF did not differ between cows that did or did not have an increase in preovulatory estradiol concentrations. Thus, there is no indication of increased conceptus survival to day 16 of pregnancy based on estradiol concentrations.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy086
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Organizational effects of the antiandrogen, vinclozolin, on penis
           development in the mouse†
    • Authors: Amato C; Boyd M, Yang J, et al.
      Pages: 639 - 649
      Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are pollutants found throughout the environment that disrupt normal endocrine processes. In mice, penis development is thought to be most susceptible to EDCs during a critical developmental window occurring on embryonic days (E) 15.5–17.5. However, androgen signaling begins on E13.5 when androgen receptor (AR) protein is found in the genitalia and testosterone is circulating. We hypothesize that disrupting androgen signaling prior to the established critical window sensitizes the penis to future androgen disruption. To test this hypothesis, CD1 dams were exposed to vinclozolin or a corn oil solvent control on E13.5 and E14.5 and AR levels were measured with immunohistochemistry on E14.5. Early antiandrogen exposure reduced AR within nuclei and decreased intensity of AR expression within E14.5 genitalia. To evaluate the influence of antiandrogen exposure before the known critical window of penis development, two groups of pregnant dams (n = 3) were exposed to vinclozolin starting at either E13.5 or E14.5 and continued exposure through E16.5. Histology and M.O.U.S.E. scoring were used to quantify penis abnormalities. To account for differences in total doses mice experienced due to differences in length of dosing time, we compared animals that received the same total doses. Exposure to antiandrogens on E13.5 exacerbated malformations when exposure was continued through sexually dimorphic development. Both exposure time and vinclozolin dose are important for severity of vinclozolin-induced penis abnormalities in mice. This work shows that antiandrogen exposure prior to sensitive periods can exacerbate the effects of later antiandrogen exposure on reproductive development.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy087
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Comprehensive analysis of long noncoding RNA and mRNA expression patterns
           in sheep testicular maturation†
    • Authors: Yang H; Wang F, Li F, et al.
      Pages: 650 - 661
      Abstract: Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been identified as important regulators of testis development; however, their expression patterns and roles in sheep are not yet clear. Thus, we used stranded specific RNA-seq to profile the testis transcriptome (lncRNAs and mRNAs) in premature and mature sheep. Hormone levels and the testis index were examined, and histological analyses were performed at five stages of testis development, 5-day-old (D5), 3-month-old (3M), 6-month-old (6M), 9-month-old (9M), and 2-year-old (2Y), the results of which indicate a significant difference in hormone levels and testis morphometries between the 3M and 9M stages (P < 0.05). Based on the comparison between 3M and 9M samples, we found 1,118 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs and 7,253 DE mRNAs in the testes, and qRT-PCR analysis showed that the results correlated well with the transcriptome data. Furthermore, we constructed lncRNA–protein-coding gene interaction networks. Forty-seven DE lncRNA-targeted genes enriched for male reproduction were obtained by cis- and trans-acting; 51 DE lncRNAs and 45 cis-targets, 2 DE lncRNAs and 2 trans-targets were involved in this network. Of these, 5 lncRNAs and their targets, PRKCD, NANOS3, SERPINA5, and CYP19A1, were enriched for spermatogenesis and male gonad development signaling pathways. We further examined the expression levels of 5 candidate lncRNAs and their target genes during testis development. Lastly, the interaction of lncRNA TCONS__00863147 and its target gene PRKCD was validated in vitro in sheep Leydig cells. This study provides a valuable resource for further study of lncRNA function in sheep testis development and spermatogenesis.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy088
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Ovine placental steroid synthesis and metabolism in late gestation†
    • Authors: Reynolds L; Legacki E, Corbin C, et al.
      Pages: 662 - 670
      Abstract: Steroid synthesis is required for pregnancy maintenance and for parturition, but comparatively little is known about the major metabolic routes that influence circulating concentrations. Dietary intake changes progesterone and estradiol concentrations in pregnant ewes but whether this reflects placental synthesis is unknown. Progesterone metabolism by 5alpha-reduction is a major metabolic route in other species and can influence the onset of parturition. Therefore, studies were conducted to (1) determine placental enzyme activity, progesterone, and estradiol measured by immunoassay in late gestation ewes on low-, moderate-, and high-nutritional planes, (2) to assess the significance of 5alpha-reduction of progesterone in determining progesterone concentrations in late gestation ewes (gestation day 145) given finasteride to inhibit 5alpha-reductase metabolism. In the second experiment, steroid profiles were examined comprehensively in blood and tissues by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the first time in this species. Dietary intake altered progesterone and estradiol serum concentrations but without correlated changes in placental 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase cytochrome P450 or aromatase activity. 5alpha-reduced pregnane metabolites were identified in ewes at 145 days of gestation, but concentrations were lower than those of progesterone. Finasteride inhibited 5alpha-reduced progesterone metabolism but did not impact serum progesterone concentrations in these ewes. We conclude that (1) diet-induced changes in serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations are not likely a result of altered placental synthesis of sex steroid but most likely by their metabolism, and (2) metabolism by 5α-reduction is not a major determinant of systemic progesterone concentrations in late gestation ewes.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy089
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
  • Publisher's Note: A historical perspective on some “new” discoveries
           on spermatogenesis from the laboratory of Enrico Sertoli in 1878
    • Authors: Geyer C.
      Pages: 671 - 671
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Nov 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioy146
      Issue No: Vol. 99, No. 3 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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